WorldWideScience

Sample records for engineered nano-tio2 particles

  1. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology.

  2. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology. 4 refs

  3. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  4. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  5. Particle emissions from compressed natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristovski, Z.D.; Morawska, L.; Hitchins, J.; Thomas, S.; Greenaway, C.; Gilbert, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements conducted to determine particle and gas emissions from two large compressed natural gas (CNG) spark ignition (SI) engines. Particle size distributions in the range from 0.01-30 μm, and gas composition were measured for five power settings of the engines: 35, 50, 65, 80 and 100% of full power. Particle emissions in the size range between 0.5 and 30 μm, measured by the aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), were very low at a level below two particles cm -3 . These concentrations were comparable with average ambient concentration, and were not considered in the succeeding analysis. Both engines produce significant amounts of particles in the size range between 0.015 and 0.7 μm, measured by the scanning mobility particle size (SMPS). Maximum number of concentrations of about 1 x 10 7 particles cm -3 were very similar for both engines. The CMDs were in the range between 0.020 and 0.060 μm. The observed levels of particulate emission are in terms of number of the same order as emissions from heavy duty diesel engines (Morawska et al., Environ. Sci. Tech. 32, 2033-2042). On the other hand, emissions of CO and NO x of 5.53 and 3.33 g k W h -1 , respectively, for one of the tested engines, were considerably lower than set by the standards. According to the specifications for the gas emissions, provided by the US EPA (US EPA, 1997), this engine can be considered as a 'low-emission' engine, although emissions of submicrometer particles are of the same order as heavy-duty vehicles. (Author)

  6. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  7. Single-particle stochastic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We have performed an extensive analysis of a single-particle stochastic heat engine constructed by manipulating a Brownian particle in a time-dependent harmonic potential. The cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps similar to that of a Carnot engine. The engine shows qualitative differences in inertial and overdamped regimes. All the thermodynamic quantities, including efficiency, exhibit strong fluctuations in a time periodic steady state. The fluctuations of stochastic efficiency dominate over the mean values even in the quasistatic regime. Interestingly, our system acts as an engine provided the temperature difference between the two reservoirs is greater than a finite critical value which in turn depends on the cycle time and other system parameters. This is supported by our analytical results carried out in the quasistatic regime. Our system works more reliably as an engine for large cycle times. By studying various model systems, we observe that the operational characteristics are model dependent. Our results clearly rule out any universal relation between efficiency at maximum power and temperature of the baths. We have also verified fluctuation relations for heat engines in time periodic steady state.

  8. Engineering aspects of particle beam fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy is supporting research directed toward demonstration of DT fuel ignition in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As part of the ICF effort, two major Particle Beam Fusion Accelerators (PBFA I and II) are being developed at Sandia National Laboratories with the objective of providing energetic light ion beams of sufficient power density for target implosion. Supporting light ion beam research is being performed at the Naval Research Laboratory and at Cornell University. If the answers to several key physics and engineering questions are favorable, pulsed power accelerators will be able to provide an efficient and inexpensive approach to high target gain and eventual power production applications

  9. Separation of Particles in Channels Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyatikov Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the separation of particles in channels with different relative length. It is shown that the intensity of turbulence at the inlet section of the channel varies considerably in its length. The dependence of the turbulence damping along the channel expressing by fraction of the distance is shown. The ratio of the particle separation efficiency out the gas flow in the rotor channel is defined. The values of particle separation efficiency in the channel for the angle α=π/4 in turbulent aerosol flow is shows, including without mixing the particles.

  10. Engineering and evaluating drug delivery particles in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnmalm, Mattias; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank

    2014-09-28

    The development of new and improved particle-based drug delivery is underpinned by an enhanced ability to engineer particles with high fidelity and integrity, as well as increased knowledge of their biological performance. Microfluidics can facilitate these processes through the engineering of spatiotemporally highly controlled environments using designed microstructures in combination with physical phenomena present at the microscale. In this review, we discuss microfluidics in the context of addressing key challenges in particle-based drug delivery. We provide an overview of how microfluidic devices can: (i) be employed to engineer particles, by providing highly controlled interfaces, and (ii) be used to establish dynamic in vitro models that mimic in vivo environments for studying the biological behavior of engineered particles. Finally, we discuss how the flexible and modular nature of microfluidic devices provides opportunities to create increasingly realistic models of the in vivo milieu (including multi-cell, multi-tissue and even multi-organ devices), and how ongoing developments toward commercialization of microfluidic tools are opening up new opportunities for the engineering and evaluation of drug delivery particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Systems and methods for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D.

    2018-03-06

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  12. Nanoscale hydroxyapatite particles for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongjian; Lee, Jaebeom

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic HAp has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. However, the low mechanical strength of normal HAp ceramics generally restricts its use to low load-bearing applications. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have reignited investigation of nanoscale HAp formation in order to clearly define the small-scale properties of HAp. It has been suggested that nano-HAp may be an ideal biomaterial due to its good biocompatibility and bone integration ability. HAp biomedical material development has benefited significantly from advancements in nanotechnology. This feature article looks afresh at nano-HAp particles, highlighting the importance of size, crystal morphology control, and composites with other inorganic particles for biomedical material development. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  14. Superconductor Particles As The Working Media Of A Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Peter D.

    2011-12-01

    A heat engine is presented in which the working media comprises a multiplicity of mutually isolated particles of Type I superconductor which are selectively processed through H-T phase space so as to convert a heat influx from a high temperature heat reservoir into a useful work output, wherein no heat is rejected to a low temperature heat reservoir.

  15. Engines of discovery a century of particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sessler, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Particle accelerators exploit the cutting edge of every aspect of today's technology and have themselves contributed to many of these technologies. The largest accelerators have been constructed as research tools for nuclear and high energy physics and there is no doubt that it is this field that has sustained their development culminating in the Large Hadron Collider. An earlier book by the same authors, Engines of Discovery: A Century of Particle Accelerators chronicled the development of these large accelerators and colliders, emphasizing the critical discoveries in applied physics and engineering that drove the field. Particular attention was given to the key individuals who contributed, the methods they used to arrive at their particular discoveries and inventions, often recalling how their human strengths and attitudes may have contributed to their achievements. Much of this historical picture is also to be found, little changed, in Part A of this sequel. Since the first book was written it has become ...

  16. Integral Engine Inlet Particle Separator. Volume 2. Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    herein will be used in the design of integral inlet particle separators for future Army aircraft gas turbine engines. Apprupriate technical personnel...into the comprensor at some future date. 5. A typical scavenge vane design Js; shown in Figures 85 and 86. The important features of the scavenge...service passageweys, for cooling of oil, and for directing sand and air into the scroll. Orientetion of the vanes is set by collection efficiency

  17. Multilevel quantum Otto heat engines with identical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. L.; Guo, D. Y.; Wu, S. L.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-02-01

    A quantum Otto heat engine is studied with multilevel identical particles trapped in one-dimensional box potential as working substance. The symmetrical wave function for Bosons and the anti-symmetrical wave function for Fermions are considered. In two-particle case, we focus on the ratios of W^i (i=B,F) to W_s, where W^B and W^F are the work done by two Bosons and Fermions, respectively, and W_s is the work output of a single particle under the same conditions. Due to the symmetrical of the wave functions, the ratios are not equal to 2. Three different regimes, low-temperature regime, high-temperature regime, and intermediate-temperature regime, are analyzed, and the effects of energy level number and the differences between the two baths are calculated. In the multiparticle case, we calculate the ratios of W^i_M/M to W_s, where W^i_M/M can be seen as the average work done by a single particle in multiparticle heat engine. For other working substances whose energy spectrum has the form of E_n˜ n^2, the results are similar. For the case E_n˜ n, two different conclusions are obtained.

  18. Multivariable optimization of liquid rocket engines using particle swarm algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel Ray

    Liquid rocket engines are highly reliable, controllable, and efficient compared to other conventional forms of rocket propulsion. As such, they have seen wide use in the space industry and have become the standard propulsion system for launch vehicles, orbit insertion, and orbital maneuvering. Though these systems are well understood, historical optimization techniques are often inadequate due to the highly non-linear nature of the engine performance problem. In this thesis, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) variant was applied to maximize the specific impulse of a finite-area combustion chamber (FAC) equilibrium flow rocket performance model by controlling the engine's oxidizer-to-fuel ratio and de Laval nozzle expansion and contraction ratios. In addition to the PSO-controlled parameters, engine performance was calculated based on propellant chemistry, combustion chamber pressure, and ambient pressure, which are provided as inputs to the program. The performance code was validated by comparison with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) and the commercially available Rocket Propulsion Analysis (RPA) tool. Similarly, the PSO algorithm was validated by comparison with brute-force optimization, which calculates all possible solutions and subsequently determines which is the optimum. Particle Swarm Optimization was shown to be an effective optimizer capable of quick and reliable convergence for complex functions of multiple non-linear variables.

  19. Engineered nano particles: Nature, behavior, and effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash; Das, Pallabi; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kumar, Sandeep; Adelodun, Adedeji A

    2017-07-01

    Increased application of engineered nano particles (ENPs) in production of various appliances and consumer items is increasing their presence in the natural environment. Although a wide variety of nano particles (NPs) are ubiquitously dispersed in ecosystems, risk assessment guidelines to describe their ageing, direct exposure, and long-term accumulation characteristics are poorly developed. In this review, we describe what is known about the life cycle of ENPs and their impact on natural systems and examine if there is a cohesive relationship between their transformation processes and bio-accessibility in various food chains. Different environmental stressors influence the fate of these particles in the environment. Composition of solid media, pore size, solution chemistry, mineral composition, presence of natural organic matter, and fluid velocity are some environmental stressors that influence the transformation, transport, and mobility of nano particles. Transformed nano particles can reduce cell viability, growth and morphology, enhance oxidative stress, and damage DNA in living organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions from aircraft is a complex issue because of the limited possibility of measurements in flight conditions. Most of the studies on this subject were performed on the basis of stationary test. Engine certification data is used to calculate total emissions generated by air transport. However, it doesnt provide any information about the local effects of air traffic. The main threat to local communities is particulate matter emissions, which adversely affects human health. Emissions from air transport affect air quality, particularly in the vicinity of the airports; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. The article presents the measurement results of the concentration and size distribution of particles emitted during aircraft landing operation. Measurements were carried out during the landings of aircraft at a civilian airport. It was found that a single landing operation causes particle number concentration value increase of several ten-fold in a short period of time. Using aircraft engine certification data, the methodology for determination of the total number of particles emitted during a single landing operation was introduced.

  1. Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry and its Application in Engine Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupland, J M; Garner, C P; Alcock, R D; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV) as a means to make three-component velocity measurements throughout a three-dimensional flow-field of interest. A simplified treatment of three-dimensional scalar wave propagation is outlined and subsequently used to illustrate the principles of complex correlation analysis. It is shown that this type of analysis provides the three-dimensional correlation of the propagating, monochromatic fields recorded by the hologram. A similar approach is used to analyse the Object Conjugate Reconstruction (OCR) technique to resolve directional ambiguity by introducing an artificial image shift to the reconstructed particle images. An example of how these methods are used together to measure the instantaneous flow fields within a motored Diesel engine is then described

  2. Engineering aspects of particle-beam fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy is supporting research directed toward demonstration of DT fuel ignition in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As part of the ICF effort, two major Particle Beam Fusion Accelerators (PBFA I and II) are being developed at Sandia National Laboratories with the objective of providing energetic light ion beams of sufficient power density for target implosion. Supporting light ion beam research is being performed at the Naval Research Laboratory and at Cornell University. If the answers to several key physics and engineering questions are favorable, pulsed power accelerators will be able to provide an efficient and inexpensive approach to high target gain and eventual power production applications

  3. Predictable Particle Engineering: Programming the Energy Level, Carrier Generation, and Conductivity of Core-Shell Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Wu, Tong; Mao, Jie; Chen, Ting; Li, Yuntong; Li, Min; Xu, Yiting; Zeng, Birong; Luo, Weiang; Yu, Lingke; Zheng, Gaofeng; Dai, Lizong

    2018-06-20

    Core-shell structures are of particular interest in the development of advanced composite materials as they can efficiently bring different components together at nanoscale. The advantage of this structure greatly relies on the crucial design of both core and shell, thus achieving an intercomponent synergistic effect. In this report, we show that decorating semiconductor nanocrystals with a boronate polymer shell can easily achieve programmable core-shell interactions. Taking ZnO and anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals as inner core examples, the effective core-shell interactions can narrow the band gap of semiconductor nanocrystals, change the HOMO and LUMO levels of boronate polymer shell, and significantly improve the carrier density of core-shell particles. The hole mobility of core-shell particles can be improved by almost 9 orders of magnitude in comparison with net boronate polymer, while the conductivity of core-shell particles is at most 30-fold of nanocrystals. The particle engineering strategy is based on two driving forces: catechol-surface binding and B-N dative bonding and having a high ability to control and predict the shell thickness. Also, this approach is applicable to various inorganic nanoparticles with different components, sizes, and shapes.

  4. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  5. Inhalable Ipratropium Bromide Particle Engineering with Multicriteria Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjamuri, Bhavani Prasad; Haware, Rahul V; Stagner, William C

    2017-08-01

    Spray-dried ipratropium bromide (IPB) microspheres for oral inhalation were engineered using Quality by Design. The interrogation of material properties, process parameters, and critical product quality attributes interplay enabled rational product design. A 2 7-3 screening design exhibited the Maillard reaction between L-leucine (LL) and lactose at studied outlet temperatures (OT) >130°C. A response surface custom design was used in conjunction with multicriteria optimization to determine the operating design space to achieve inhalable microparticles. Statistically significant predictive models were developed for volume median diameter (p = 0.0001, adjusted R 2   = 0.9938), span (p = 0.0278, adjusted R 2   = 0.7912), yield (p = 0.0020, adjusted R 2   = 0.9320), and OT (p = 0.0082, adjusted R 2   = 0.8768). An independent verification batch confirmed the model's predictive capability. The prediction and actual values were in good agreement. Particle size and span were 3.32 ± 0.09 μm and 1.71 ± 0.18, which were 4.7 and 5.3% higher than the predicted values. The process yield was 50.3%, compared to the predicted value of 65.3%. The OT was 100°C versus the predicted value of 105°C. The label strength of IPB microparticles was 99.0 to 105.9% w/w suggesting that enrichment occurred during the spray-drying process. The present study can be utilized to initiate the design of the first commercial IPB dry powder inhaler.

  6. Interim development report: engineering-scale HTGR fuel particle crusher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, J.W.; Strand, J.B.

    1978-09-01

    During the reprocessing of HTGR fuel, a double-roll crusher is used to fracture the silicon carbide coatings on the fuel particles. This report describes the development of the roll crusher used for crushing Fort-St.Vrain type fissile and fertile fuel particles, and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fissile fuel particles. Recommendations are made for design improvements and further testing

  7. Effect of indirect non-thermal plasma on particle size distribution and composition of diesel engine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linbo, GU; Yixi, CAI; Yunxi, SHI; Jing, WANG; Xiaoyu, PU; Jing, TIAN; Runlin, FAN

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of the gas source flow rate on the actual diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM), a test bench for diesel engine exhaust purification was constructed, using indirect non-thermal plasma technology. The effects of different gas source flow rates on the quantity concentration, composition, and apparent activation energy of PM were investigated, using an engine exhaust particle sizer and a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results show that when the gas source flow rate was large, not only the maximum peak quantity concentrations of particles had a large drop, but also the peak quantity concentrations shifted to smaller particle sizes from 100 nm to 80 nm. When the gas source flow rate was 10 L min-1, the total quantity concentration greatly decreased where the removal rate of particles was 79.2%, and the variation of the different mode particle proportion was obvious. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) improved the oxidation ability of volatile matter as well as that of solid carbon. However, the NTP gas source rate had little effects on oxidation activity of volatile matter, while it strongly influenced the oxidation activity of solid carbon. Considering the quantity concentration and oxidation activity of particles, a gas source flow rate of 10 L min-1 was more appropriate for the purification of particles.

  8. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Fisher, Karl A.; Wajda, Douglas A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D.

    2016-04-26

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  9. Engineering Particle Surface Chemistry and Electrochemistry with Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David Hyman Kentaro

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase thin film coating technique that relies on sequential pulsing of precursors that undergo self-limited surface reactions. The self- limiting reactions and gas phase diffusion of the precursors together enable the conformal coating of microstructured particles with a high degree of thickness and compositional control. ALD may be used to deposit thin films that introduce new functionalities to a particle surface. Examples of new functionalities include: chemical reactivity, a mechanically strong protective coating, and an electrically resistive layer. The coatings properties are often dependent on the bulk properties and microstructure of the particle substrate, though they usually do not affect its bulk properties or microstructure. Particle ALD finds utility in the ability to synthesize well controlled, model systems, though it is expensive due to the need for costly metal precursors that are dangerous and require special handling. Enhanced properties due to ALD coating of particles in various applications are frequently described empirically, while the details of their enhancement mechanisms often remain the focus of ongoing research in the field. This study covers the various types of particle ALD and attempts to describe them from the unifying perspective of surface science.

  10. Performance of a multilevel quantum heat engine of an ideal N-particle Fermi system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2012-08-01

    We generalize the quantum heat engine (QHE) model which was first proposed by Bender et al. [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)] to the case in which an ideal Fermi gas with an arbitrary number N of particles in a box trap is used as the working substance. Besides two quantum adiabatic processes, the engine model contains two isoenergetic processes, during which the particles are coupled to energy baths at a high constant energy E(h) and a low constant energy E(c), respectively. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, we find that the power output is enhanced by increasing particle number N (or decreasing minimum trap size L(A)) for given L(A) (or N), without reduction in the efficiency. By use of global optimization, the efficiency at possible maximum power output (EPMP) is found to be universal and independent of any parameter contained in the engine model. For an engine model with any particle-number N, the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) can be determined under the condition that it should be closest to the EPMP. Moreover, we extend the heat engine to a more general multilevel engine model with an arbitrary 1D power-law potential. Comparison between our engine model and the Carnot cycle shows that, under the same conditions, the efficiency η = 1 - E(c)/E(h) of the engine cycle is bounded from above the Carnot value η(c) =1 - T(c)/T(h).

  11. Analysis of startup strategies for a particle bed reactor nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D. E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper develops and analyzes engine system startup strategies for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear rocket engine. The strategies are designed to maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel element while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The analyses are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. Elements of the startup strategy considered include: the coordinated control of reactor power and coolant flow; turbine inlet temperature and flow control; and use of an external starter system. The simulation results indicate that the use of an external starter system enables the engine to reach design conditions very quickly while maintaining the flow well away from the unstable regime. If a bootstrap start is used instead, the transient does not progress as fast and approaches closer to the unstable flow regime, but allows for greater engine reusability. These results can provide important information for engine designers and mission planners.

  12. An improved particle filtering algorithm for aircraft engine gas-path fault diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihang Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved particle filter with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm is proposed for aircraft engine gas-path component abrupt fault diagnosis. In order to avoid the particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment of normal particle filter, the electromagnetism-like mechanism optimization algorithm is introduced into resampling procedure, which adjusts the position of the particles through simulating attraction–repulsion mechanism between charged particles of the electromagnetism theory. The improved particle filter can solve the particle degradation problem and ensure the diversity of the particle set. Meanwhile, it enhances the ability of tracking abrupt fault due to considering the latest measurement information. Comparison of the proposed method with three different filter algorithms is carried out on a univariate nonstationary growth model. Simulations on a turbofan engine model indicate that compared to the normal particle filter, the improved particle filter can ensure the completion of the fault diagnosis within less sampling period and the root mean square error of parameters estimation is reduced.

  13. A source-independent empirical correction procedure for the fast mobility and engine exhaust particle sizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wang, Jonathan M.; Ramos, Manuel; Wallace, James S.; Evans, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    The TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) provide size distributions for 6-560 nm particles with a time resolution suitable for characterizing transient particle sources; however, the accuracy of these instruments can be source dependent, due to influences of particle morphology. The aim of this study was to develop a source-independent correction protocol for the FMPS and EEPS. The correction protocol consists of: (1) broadening the >80 nm size range of the distribution to account for under-sizing by the FMPS and EEPS; (2) applying an existing correction protocol in the 8-93 nm size range; and (3) dividing each size bin by the ratio of total concentration measured by the FMPS or EEPS and a water-based Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) as a surrogate scaling factor to account for particle morphology. Efficacy of the correction protocol was assessed for three sources: urban ambient air, diluted gasoline direct injection engine exhaust, and diluted diesel engine exhaust. Linear regression against a reference instrument, the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), before and after applying the correction protocol demonstrated that the correction ensured agreement within 20%.

  14. Internalisation of engineered nanoparticles into mammalian cells in vitro: influence of cell type and particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Wibke; Bastian, Susanne; Trahorsch, Ulrike; Iwe, Maria; Kühnel, Dana; Meißner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Gelinsky, Michael; Richter, Volkmar; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Potthoff, Annegret; Lehmann, Irina; Schirmer, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Cellular internalisation of industrial engineered nanoparticles is undesired and a reason for concern. Here we investigated and compared the ability of seven different mammalian cell cultures in vitro to incorporate six kinds of engineered nanoparticles, focussing on the role of cell type and particle properties in particle uptake. Uptake was examined using light and electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for particle element identification. Flow cytometry was applied for semi-quantitative analyses of particle uptake and for exploring the influence on uptake by the phagocytosis inhibitor Cytochalasin D (CytoD). All particles studied were found to enter each kind of cultured cells. Yet, particles were never found within cell nuclei. The presence of the respective particles within the cells was confirmed by EDX. Live-cell imaging revealed the time-dependent process of internalisation of technical nanoparticles, which was exemplified by tungsten carbide particle uptake into the human skin cells, HaCaT. Particles were found to co-localise with lysosomal structures within the cells. The incorporated nanoparticles changed the cellular granularity, as measured by flow cytometry, already after 3 h of exposure in a particle specific manner. By correlating particle properties with flow cytometry data, only the primary particle size was found to be a weakly influential property for particle uptake. CytoD, an inhibitor of actin filaments and therewith of phagocytosis, significantly inhibited the internalisation of particle uptake in only two of the seven investigated cell cultures. Our study, therefore, supports the notion that nanoparticles can enter mammalian cells quickly and easily, irrespective of the phagocytic ability of the cells.

  15. Morphology and Optical Properties of Black-Carbon Particles Relevant to Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Dansson, M. A.; Schrader, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Black-carbon particles are believed to have a large influence on climate through direct radiative forcing, reduction of surface albedo of snow and ice in the cryosphere, and interaction with clouds. The optical properties and morphology of atmospheric particles containing black carbon are uncertain, and characterization of black carbon resulting from engines emissions is needed. Refractory black-carbon particles found in the atmosphere are often coated with unburned fuel, sulfuric acid, water, ash, and other combustion by-products and atmospheric constituents. Coatings can alter the optical and physical properties of the particles and therefore change their optical properties and cloud interactions. Details of particle morphology and coating state can also have important effects on the interpretation of optical diagnostics. A more complete understanding of how coatings affect extinction, absorption, and incandescence measurements is needed before these techniques can be applied reliably to a wide range of particles. We have investigated the effects of coatings on the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated black-carbon particles using a range of standard particle diagnostics, extinction, and time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements. Particles were generated in a co-flow diffusion flame, extracted, cooled, and coated with oleic acid. The diffusion flame produces highly dendritic soot aggregates with similar properties to those produced in diesel engines, diffusion flames, and most natural combustion processes. A thermodenuder was used to remove the coating. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to monitor aggregate sizes; a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) was used to measure coating mass fractions, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize particle morphologies. The results demonstrate important differences in optical measurements between coated and uncoated particles.

  16. Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhrs, Claudia C [UNM; Richard, Monique [TEMA

    2009-01-01

    For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

  17. Particle engineering using sonocrystallization: salbutamol sulphate for pulmonary delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R; York, Peter

    2009-02-23

    The aim of present work was to produce fine elongated crystals of salbutamol sulphate (SS) by sonocrystallization for pulmonary delivery and compare with micronized and spray dried SS (SDSS) for in vitro aerosolization behavior. Application of ultrasound during anti-solvent crystallization resulted in fine elongated crystals (sonocrystallized SS; SCSS) compared to aggregates of large irregular crystals obtained without sonication. Higher sonication amplitude, time, concentration and lower processing temperatures favored formation of smaller crystals with narrow particle size distribution (PSD). SCSS was separated from dispersion by spray drying in the form of loose aggregates (SD-SCSS). The fine particle fraction (FPF) of formulations with coarse lactose carrier in cascade impactor increased from 16.66% for micronized SS to 31.12% for SDSS (obtained by spray drying aqueous SS solution) and 44.21% for SD-SCSS, due to reduced cohesive/adhesive forces and aerodynamic size by virtue of elongated shape of crystals. SD-SCSS was stable without any change in crystallinity and aerodynamic behavior for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH, but amorphous SDSS showed recrystallization with poor aerosolization performance on storage. Sonocrystallization, a rapid and simple technique is reported for production of SS crystals suitable for inhalation delivery.

  18. Multifunctional guest-host particles engineered by reversal nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Uh-Myong; Kaban, Burhan; Tomita, Andreea; Krekić, Kristijan; Klintuch, Dieter; Pietschnig, Rudolf; Ehresmann, Arno; Holzinger, Dennis; Hillmer, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Particulate polymeric microfibers with incorporated europium(III)oxide (Eu2O3) nanoparticles were introduced as a magneto-photoluminescent multifunctional material fabricated via reversal nanoimprint lithography. To specifically address the volume properties of these guest-host particles, the guest, Eu2O3, was milled down to an average particle size of 350 nm in diameter and mixed with the host-polymer, AMONIL®, before in situ hardening in the imprint stamp. The variation of the fabrication process parameters, i.e. delay time, spin coating speed, as well as the concentration of Eu2O3 nanoparticles was proven to have a significant impact on both the structure quality and the stamp release of the microfibers with respect to the formation of a thinner residual layer. Structural characterization performed by SEM revealed optimum fabrication process parameters for a homogeneous spatial distribution of Eu2O3 nanoparticles within the microfibers while simultaneously avoiding the formation of undesired agglomerates. The magneto-photoluminescent properties of Eu2O3 nanoparticles, i.e. a red emission at 613 nm and a paramagnetic response, were found to be superimposed to the optic and the diamagnetic behaviors of AMONIL®. The results imply that guest-host interdependence of these properties can be excluded and that the suggested technique enables for specific tailoring of particulate multifunctional materials with focus on their volume properties.

  19. Introduction to the study of particle accelerators. Atomic, nuclear and high energy physics for engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    This book is destined for engineers taking part in the design building and running of nuclear physics and high-energy physics particle accelerators. It starts with some notions on the theory of relativity, analytical and statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. An outline of the properties of atomic nuclei, the collision theory and the elements of gaseous plasma physics is followed by a discussion on elementary particles: characteristic parameters, properties, interactions, classification [fr

  20. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P., E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Belfaqih, Idrus H., E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, State University of Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

  1. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P.; Belfaqih, Idrus H.; Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system

  2. Particle swarm as optimization tool in complex nuclear engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos Canedo

    2005-06-01

    Due to its low computational cost, gradient-based search techniques associated to linear programming techniques are being used as optimization tools. These techniques, however, when applied to multimodal search spaces, can lead to local optima. When finding solutions for complex multimodal domains, random search techniques are being used with great efficacy. In this work we exploit the swarm optimization algorithm search power capacity as an optimization tool for the solution of complex high dimension and multimodal search spaces of nuclear problems. Due to its easy and natural representation of high dimension domains, the particle swarm optimization was applied with success for the solution of complex nuclear problems showing its efficacy in the search of solutions in high dimension and complex multimodal spaces. In one of these applications it enabled a natural and trivial solution in a way not obtained with other methods confirming the validity of its application. (author)

  3. Development and analysis of startup strategies for particle bed nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David E.

    1993-06-01

    The particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine concept is the focus of the Air Force's Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program. While much progress has been made in developing the concept, several technical issues remain. Perhaps foremost among these concerns is the issue of flow stability through the porous, heated bed of fuel particles. There are two complementary technical issues associated with this concern: the identification of the flow stability boundary and the design of the engine controller to maintain stable operation. This thesis examines a portion of the latter issue which has yet to be addressed in detail. Specifically, it develops and analyzes general engine system startup strategies which maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel elements while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The PBR engine studies are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. The computer program utilized is an augmented version of SAFSIM, an existing nuclear thermal propulsion modeling code; the augmentation, dubbed SAFSIM+, was developed by the author and provides a more complete engine system modeling tool.

  4. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  5. Formulation Strategies and Particle Engineering Technologies for Pulmonary Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cun, Dongmei; Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-01-01

    . In this review we discussed the formulation strategies and particle engineering technologies to improve the efficiency of pulmonary delivery of biopharmaceutical, with a focus on systemic therapy of pharmaceutical proteins/peptides and local delivery of siRNA via the lung administration....

  6. Gaseous and particle emissions from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surawski, Nicholas C.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.; Situ, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ethanol fumigation system fitted on a direct injection compression ignition engine. ► Ethanol substitutions up to 40% (by energy) were achieved. ► Gaseous and particle emissions were measured at intermediate speed. ► PM and NO emissions significantly reduced, whilst CO and HC increased. ► The number of particles emitted generally higher with ethanol fumigation. - Abstract: A 4-cylinder Ford 2701C test engine was used in this study to explore the impact of ethanol fumigation on gaseous and particle emission concentrations. The fumigation technique delivered vaporised ethanol into the intake manifold of the engine, using an injector, a pump and pressure regulator, a heat exchanger for vaporising ethanol and a separate fuel tank and lines. Gaseous (Nitric oxide (NO), Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC)) and particulate emissions (particle mass (PM 2.5 ) and particle number) testing was conducted at intermediate speed (1700 rpm) using 4 load settings with ethanol substitution percentages ranging from 10% to 40% (by energy). With ethanol fumigation, NO and PM 2.5 emissions were reduced, whereas CO and HC emissions increased considerably and particle number emissions increased at most test settings. It was found that ethanol fumigation reduced the excess air factor for the engine and this led to increased emissions of CO and HC, but decreased emissions of NO. PM 2.5 emissions were reduced with ethanol fumigation, as ethanol has a very low “sooting” tendency. This is due to the higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of this fuel, and also because ethanol does not contain aromatics, both of which are known soot precursors. The use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (as an after-treatment device) is recommended to achieve a reduction in the four pollutants that are currently regulated for compression ignition engines. The increase in particle number emissions with ethanol fumigation was due to the formation of volatile (organic) particles

  7. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Rivera, Birmania; Gerardo Rodriguez, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt), metallic (mainly Fe), and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris). The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city. PMID:27706087

  8. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birmania Heredia Rivera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt, metallic (mainly Fe, and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris. The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city.

  9. Thermodynamic design of Stirling engine using multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Chen; Wang, Xinggang; Shu, Shuiming; Jing, Changwei; Chang, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved thermodynamic model taking into account irreversibility parameter was developed. • A multi-objective optimization method for designing Stirling engine was investigated. • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm was adopted in the area of Stirling engine for the first time. - Abstract: In the recent years, the interest in Stirling engine has remarkably increased due to its ability to use any heat source from outside including solar energy, fossil fuels and biomass. A large number of studies have been done on Stirling cycle analysis. In the present study, a mathematical model based on thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engine considering regenerative losses and internal irreversibilities has been developed. Power output, thermal efficiency and the cycle irreversibility parameter of Stirling engine are optimized simultaneously using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, which is more effective than traditional genetic algorithms. In this optimization problem, some important parameters of Stirling engine are considered as decision variables, such as temperatures of the working fluid both in the high temperature isothermal process and in the low temperature isothermal process, dead volume ratios of each heat exchanger, volumes of each working spaces, effectiveness of the regenerator, and the system charge pressure. The Pareto optimal frontier is obtained and the final design solution has been selected by Linear Programming Technique for Multidimensional Analysis of Preference (LINMAP). Results show that the proposed multi-objective optimization approach can significantly outperform traditional single objective approaches

  10. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Dong, Yuanji; Williams, D. Craig; Logan, Russell

    2010-06-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine for PM mass and number concentration, particle size distribution, and total volatile matter using both time-integrated and continuous sampling techniques. The experimental results showed a PM mass emission index (EI) ranging from 10 to 550 mg kg -1 fuel depending on engine type and test parameters as well as a characteristic U-shaped curve of the mass EI with increasing fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. Also, the Teflon filter sampling indicated that ˜40-80% of the total PM mass on a test-average basis was comprised of volatile matter (sulfur and organics) for most engines sampled. The number EIs, on the other hand, varied from ˜10 15 to 10 17 particles kg -1 fuel with the turbofan engines exhibiting a logarithmic decay with increasing fuel flow. Finally, the particle size distributions of the emissions exhibited a single primary mode that were lognormally distributed with a minor accumulation mode also observed at higher powers for all engines tested. The geometric (number) mean particle diameter ranged from 9.4 to 37 nm and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 depending on engine type, fuel flow, and test conditions.

  11. A unique nuclear thermal rocket engine using a particle bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Donald W.; Dahl, Wayne B.; McIlwain, Melvin C.

    1992-01-01

    Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) studied 75-klb thrust Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines (NTRE) with particle bed reactors (PBR) for application to NASA's manned Mars mission and prepared a conceptual design description of a unique engine that best satisfied mission-defined propulsion requirements and customer criteria. This paper describes the selection of a sprint-type Mars transfer mission and its impact on propulsion system design and operation. It shows how our NTRE concept was developed from this information. The resulting, unusual engine design is short, lightweight, and capable of high specific impulse operation, all factors that decrease Earth to orbit launch costs. Many unusual features of the NTRE are discussed, including nozzle area ratio variation and nozzle closure for closed loop after cooling. Mission performance calculations reveal that other well known engine options do not support this mission.

  12. Particles and emissions from a diesel engine equipped with a humid air motor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, Kent; Zurita, Grover; Tingvall, Bror; Haupt, Dan [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Environmental Technology

    2002-02-01

    A system for reduction of NO{sub x}, humid air motor system (HAM), has been connected to an eleven liters diesel engine. Earlier studies have demonstrated the system's capacity to lower NO{sub x}-emissions from diesel engines. The present study is directed to investigate their influence of the system on the emissions of particles, aldehydes and noise while at the same time monitoring essential engine parameters, water consumption and verifying the NO{sub x} reducing ability. The system has been tested under the various conditions stated in 13-mode cycle ECE R-49. Additional tests have been necessary for sampling and measurements of particles and noise. The results show that HAM caused a large reduction of the NO{sub x} emissions while the engine performance was almost unaffected. Average reduction of NO{sub x} during the different modes of ECE R-49 was 51,1%. The reduction was directly related to the humidity of the inlet air and a further reduction can be anticipated with higher humidity. Samples have also been taken for acetaldehydes and formaldehyde. The results suggest a large reduction of aldehydes, in the range of 78 to 100%, when using HAM. Unfortunately it cannot be excluded that the results obtained are a result of a combination of high air humidity and the sampling technique used. The influence of the system on the emission of hydrocarbons was negligible while a moderate increase in the emission of carbon monoxide was noticed. No confident relationship between air humidity and the observed effects could be detected. Particle number concentrations and size distribution have also been measured. The measurements showed that the particle number concentrations was usually increased when HAM was coupled to the engine. The increase in particle number concentration, observed in five out of six running modes, varied between 46 and 148%. There was no trend indicating a shift in mean particle diameter when using HAM. Noise level and cylinder pressure have also

  13. Effects of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR) on the particulate matter emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Longfei; Stone, Richard

    2011-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles have been shown to have a large impact on the atmospheric environment and human health. Researchers have shown that gasoline engines, especially direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, tend to emit large amounts of small size particles compared to diesel engines fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As a result, the particle number emissions of DISI engines will be restricted by the forthcoming EU6 legislation. The particulate emission level of DISI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the EU6 requirement. This paper is an experimental study on the size-resolved particle number emissions from a spray guided DISI engine and the performance of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR), as the EU legislation seeks to exclude volatile particles. The performance of the catalytic VPR was evaluated by varying its temperature and the exhaust residence time. The effect of the catalytic VPR acting as an oxidation catalyst on particle emissions was also tested. The results show that the catalytic VPR led to a marked reduction in the number of particles, especially the smaller size (nucleation mode) particles. The catalytic VPR is essentially an oxidation catalyst, and when post three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust was introduced to the catalytic VPR, the performance of the catalytic VPR was not affected much by the use of additional air, i.e., no significant oxidation of the PM was observed.

  14. Modeling and Detection of Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The accretion of ice particles in the core of commercial aircraft engines has been an ongoing aviation safety challenge. While no accidents have resulted from this phenomenon to date, numerous engine power loss events ranging from uneventful recoveries to forced landings have been recorded. As a first step to enabling mitigation strategies during ice accretion, a detection scheme must be developed that is capable of being implemented on board modern engines. In this paper, a simple detection scheme is developed and tested using a realistic engine simulation with approximate ice accretion models based on data from a compressor design tool. These accretion models are implemented as modified Low Pressure Compressor maps and have the capability to shift engine performance based on a specified level of ice blockage. Based on results from this model, it is possible to detect the accretion of ice in the engine core by observing shifts in the typical sensed engine outputs. Results are presented in which, for a 0.1 percent false positive rate, a true positive detection rate of 98 percent is achieved.

  15. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-01-01

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well

  16. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin, E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra, E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur, 13220 (Indonesia); Sulaksono, Anto, E-mail: anto.sulaksono@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat, 164242 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  17. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  18. Particles from a Diesel ship engine: Mixing state on the nano scale and cloud condensation abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieke, K. I.; Rosenørn, T.; Fuglsang, K.; Frederiksen, T.; Butcher, A. C.; King, S. M.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Transport by ship plays an important role in global logistics. Current international policy initiatives by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are taken to reduce emissions from ship propulsion systems (NO and SO, primarily). However, particulate emissions (e.g. soot) from ships are yet not regulated by legislations. To date, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the global and local effects of the particulate matter emitted from ships at sea. Particles may influence the climate through their direct effects (scattering and absorption of long and shortwave radiation) and indirectly through formation of clouds. Many studies have been carried out estimating the mass and particle number from ship emissions (e.g. Petzold et al. 2008), many of them in test rig studies (e.g. Kasper et al. 2007). It is shown that particulate emissions vary with engine load and chemical composition of fuels. Only a few studies have been carried out to characterize the chemical composition and cloud-nucleating ability of the particulate matter (e.g. Corbett et al. 1997). In most cases, the cloud-nucleating ability of emission particles is estimated from number size distribution. We applied measurements to characterize particulate emissions from a MAN B&W Low Speed engine on test bed. A unique data set was obtained through the use of a scanning mobility particle sizing system (SMPS), combined with a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) counter and a thermodenuder - all behind a dilution system. In addition, impactor samples were taken on nickel grids with carbon foil for use in an electron microscope (EM) to characterize the mineral phase and mixing state of the particles. The engine was operated at a series of different load conditions and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system was applied. Measurements were carried out before and after the EGR system respectively. Our observations show significant changes in number size distribution and CCN activity with varying conditions

  19. openSE: a Systems Engineering Framework Particularly Suited to Particle Accelerator Studies and Development Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnal, P. [CERN; Féral, B. [CERN; Kershaw, K. [CERN; Nicquevert, B. [CERN; Baudin, M. [Ecole Normale Superieure; Lari, L. [ESS, Lund; Le Cardinal, J. [Chatenay-Malabry, Ecole Centrale

    2016-07-15

    Particle accelerator projects share many characteristics with industrial projects. However, experience has shown that best practice of industrial project management is not always well suited to particle accelerator projects. Major differences include the number and complexity of technologies involved, the importance of collaborative work, development phases that can last more than a decade, and the importance of telerobotics and remote handling to address future preventive and corrective maintenance requirements due to induced radioactivity, to cite just a few. The openSE framework it is a systems engineering and project management framework specifically designed for scientific facilities’ systems and equipment studies and development projects. Best practices in project management, in systems and requirements engineering, in telerobotics and remote handling and in radiation safety management were used as sources of inspiration, together with analysis of current practices surveyed at CERN, GSI and ESS.

  20. Engineering tubular bone using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Wenxin [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Northwest University, No.229 North Taibai Road, Xi’an 710069 (China); Ma, Dongyang [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lanzhou General Hospital, Lanzhou Command of PLA, BinHe 333 South Road, Lanzhou 730052 (China); Yan, Xingrong; Liu, Liangqi; Cui, Jihong; Xie, Xin; Li, Hongmin [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Northwest University, No.229 North Taibai Road, Xi’an 710069 (China); Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Northwest University, No.229 North Taibai Road, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: • We developed a novel engineering strategy to solve the limitations of bone grafts. • We fabricated tubular constructs using cell sheets and coral particles. • The composite constructs showed high radiological density and compressive strength. • These characteristics were similar to those of native bone. -- Abstract: The development of bone tissue engineering has provided new solutions for bone defects. However, the cell-scaffold-based approaches currently in use have several limitations, including low cell seeding rates and poor bone formation capacity. In the present study, we developed a novel strategy to engineer bone grafts using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles. Rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were continuously cultured to form a cell sheet with osteogenic potential and coral particles were integrated into the sheet. The composite sheet was then wrapped around a cylindrical mandrel to fabricate a tubular construct. The resultant tubular construct was cultured in a spinner-flask bioreactor and subsequently implanted into a subcutaneous pocket in a nude mouse for assessment of its histological characteristics, radiological density and mechanical property. A similar construct assembled from a cell sheet alone acted as a control. In vitro observations demonstrated that the composite construct maintained its tubular shape, and exhibited higher radiological density, compressive strength and greater extracellular matrix deposition than did the control construct. In vivo experiments further revealed that new bone formed ectopically on the composite constructs, so that the 8-week explants of the composite sheets displayed radiological density similar to that of native bone. These results indicate that the strategy of using a combination of a cell sheet and coral particles has great potential for bone tissue engineering and repairing bone defects.

  1. Engineering tubular bone using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Wenxin; Ma, Dongyang; Yan, Xingrong; Liu, Liangqi; Cui, Jihong; Xie, Xin; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Fulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a novel engineering strategy to solve the limitations of bone grafts. • We fabricated tubular constructs using cell sheets and coral particles. • The composite constructs showed high radiological density and compressive strength. • These characteristics were similar to those of native bone. -- Abstract: The development of bone tissue engineering has provided new solutions for bone defects. However, the cell-scaffold-based approaches currently in use have several limitations, including low cell seeding rates and poor bone formation capacity. In the present study, we developed a novel strategy to engineer bone grafts using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles. Rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were continuously cultured to form a cell sheet with osteogenic potential and coral particles were integrated into the sheet. The composite sheet was then wrapped around a cylindrical mandrel to fabricate a tubular construct. The resultant tubular construct was cultured in a spinner-flask bioreactor and subsequently implanted into a subcutaneous pocket in a nude mouse for assessment of its histological characteristics, radiological density and mechanical property. A similar construct assembled from a cell sheet alone acted as a control. In vitro observations demonstrated that the composite construct maintained its tubular shape, and exhibited higher radiological density, compressive strength and greater extracellular matrix deposition than did the control construct. In vivo experiments further revealed that new bone formed ectopically on the composite constructs, so that the 8-week explants of the composite sheets displayed radiological density similar to that of native bone. These results indicate that the strategy of using a combination of a cell sheet and coral particles has great potential for bone tissue engineering and repairing bone defects

  2. TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, M W; Rocca, A La; Shayler, P J

    2014-01-01

    Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution

  3. Science and engineering of nanodiamond particle surfaces for biological applications (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenderova, Olga A; McGuire, Gary E

    2015-09-05

    Diamond has outstanding bulk properties such as super hardness, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, luminescence, to name just a few. In the nanoworld, in order to exploit these outstanding bulk properties, the surfaces of nanodiamond (ND) particles must be accordingly engineered for specific applications. Modification of functional groups on the ND's surface and the corresponding electrostatic properties determine their colloidal stability in solvents, formation of photonic crystals, controlled adsorption and release of cargo molecules, conjugation with biomolecules and polymers, and cellular uptake. The optical activity of the luminescent color centers in NDs depends on their proximity to the ND's surface and surface termination. In order to engineer the ND surface, a fundamental understanding of the specific structural features and sp(3)-sp(2) phase transformations on the surface of ND particles is required. In the case of ND particles produced by detonation of carbon containing explosives (detonation ND), it should also be taken into account that its structure depends on the synthesis parameters and subsequent processing. Thus, for development of a strategy of surface modification of detonation ND, it is imperative to know details of its production. In this review, the authors discuss ND particles structure, strategies for surface modification, electrokinetic properties of NDs in suspensions, and conclude with a brief overview of the relevant bioapplications.

  4. Carbon Nanostructure of Diesel Soot Particles Emitted from 2 and 4 Stroke Marine Engines Burning Different Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ju; Park, Seul-Hyun; Jang, Se-Hyun; Kim, Hwajin; Choi, Sung Kuk; Cho, Kwon-Hae; Cho, Ik-Soon; Lee, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Hyuk

    2018-03-01

    Diesel soot particles were sampled from 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines that burned two different fuels (Bunker A and C, respectively), and the effects of the engine and fuel types on the structural characteristics of the soot particle were analyzed. The carbon nanostructures of the sampled particles were characterized using various techniques. The results showed that the soot sample collected from the 4-stroke engine, which burned Bunker C, has a higher degree of order of the carbon nanostructure than the sample collected from the 2-stroke engine, which burned Bunker A. Furthermore, the difference in the exhaust gas temperatures originating from the different engine and fuel types can affect the nanostructure of the soot emitted from marine diesel engines.

  5. DEM GPU studies of industrial scale particle simulations for granular flow civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizette, Patrick; Govender, Nicolin; Wilke, Daniel N.; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2017-06-01

    The use of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for industrial civil engineering industrial applications is currently limited due to the computational demands when large numbers of particles are considered. The graphics processing unit (GPU) with its highly parallelized hardware architecture shows potential to enable solution of civil engineering problems using discrete granular approaches. We demonstrate in this study the pratical utility of a validated GPU-enabled DEM modeling environment to simulate industrial scale granular problems. As illustration, the flow discharge of storage silos using 8 and 17 million particles is considered. DEM simulations have been performed to investigate the influence of particle size (equivalent size for the 20/40-mesh gravel) and induced shear stress for two hopper shapes. The preliminary results indicate that the shape of the hopper significantly influences the discharge rates for the same material. Specifically, this work shows that GPU-enabled DEM modeling environments can model industrial scale problems on a single portable computer within a day for 30 seconds of process time.

  6. Selenium fuel: Surface engineering of U(Mo) particles to optimise fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berghe, S.; Leenaers, A.; Detavernier, C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments on the stabilisation of U(Mo) in-pile behaviour in plate-type fuel have focussed almost exclusively on the addition of Si to the Al matrix of the fuel. This has now culminated in a qualification effort in the form of the European LEONIDAS initiative for which irradiations will start in 2010. In this framework, many discussions have been held on the Si content of the matrix needed for stabilisation of the interaction phase and the requirement for the formation of Si-rich layers around the particles during the fabrication steps. However, it is clear that the Si needs to be incorporated in the interaction phase for it to be effective, for which the currently proposed methods depend on a diffusion mechanism, which is difficult to control. This has lead to the concept of a Si coated particle as a more efficient way of incorporating the Si in the fuel by putting it immediately where it will be required : at the fuel-matrix interface. As part of the SELENIUM (Surface Engineered Low ENrIched Uranium-Molybdenum fuel) project, SCK CEN has built a sputter coater for PVD magnetron sputter coating of particles in collaboration with the University of Ghent. The coater is equipped with three 3 inch magnetron sputter heads, allowing deposition of 3 different elements or a single element at high deposition speed. The particles are slowly rotated in a drum to produce homogeneous layer thicknesses. (author)

  7. “Wave - Particle Duality” and Soil Liquefaction in Geotechnical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Demin

    2017-10-01

    In the disaster situation of multi-earthquake, with the phenomenon of vibrating phenomenon and the occurrence of cracks in the surface soil, the collapse of the buildings on the ground are caused. The author tries to explain the phenomenon of earthquake disaster in this geotechnical engineering by using the wave-particle duality theory of sunlight. And proposed the sun in the physics of the already high frequency of the weak light superimposed into the low frequency of the low light wave volatility, once again superimposed, superimposed as a lower frequency of linear light, the energy from low to high. Sunlight from weak light into a strong sunlight, that is, the sun near the observation may be weak light or black sunspots is composed of black holes. By long distance, the convergence of light becomes into a dazzling luminous body. Light from the numerous light quantum and an energy line form a half-space infinite volatility curve, and the role of light plays under the linear form of particles. When the night is manifested of l black approaching unconnected light quantum. The author plays the earth as the sun, compared to the deep pressure of low-viscosity clay soil pore, water performance is complex. Similar to the surface of the sun’s spectrum, saturated silty sand is showed volatility, Ground surface high-energy clay showed particle properties. Particle performance is shear strength.

  8. Mechanical engineering and design of silicon-based particle tracking devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Thompson, T.C.; Gamble, M.T.; Reid, R.S.; Woloshun, K.A.; Dransfield, G.D.; Ziock, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been investigating silicon-based particle tracking device technology as part of the Superconducting Super Collider-sponsored silicon subsystem collaboration. Structural, thermal, and materials issues have been addressed. This paper discussed detector structural integrity and stability, including detailed finite element models of the silicon chip support and predictive methods used in designing with advanced composite materials. Electronic thermal loading and efficient dissipation of such energy using heat pipe technology has been investigated. The use of materials whose coefficients of thermal expansion are engineered to match silicon or to be near zero, as appropriate, have been explored. Material analysis and test results from radiation, chemical, and static loading are compared with analytical predictions and discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Particle-scale Analysis of Key Technologies on Cut-and-over Tunnel in Slope Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When the shallow tunnel is constructed on the slope terrain in the mountains, there are the potential risks such as landslide induced by cutting the slope and the non-compacted backfill material during the construction of the cut-andcover tunnel. In order to solve these problems, based on a practical engineering, the optimized construction plans of the cut-and-cover tunnel were analyzed by particle flow code (PFC, the key parts of the open-cut construction were identified, and the anti-slide piles countermeasures were proposed. Furthermore, the grouting reinforcement process for the non-compacted backfill material around the shallow tunnel was simulated by PFC, and the variation characteristics of the porosity and grouting pressure were revealed as well. The results are of great value to the similar engineering.

  10. Multi-Objective Climb Path Optimization for Aircraft/Engine Integration Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristeidis Antonakis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new multi-objective approach to the aircraft climb path optimization problem, based on the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, is introduced to be used for aircraft–engine integration studies. This considers a combination of a simulation with a traditional Energy approach, which incorporates, among others, the use of a proposed path-tracking scheme for guidance in the Altitude–Mach plane. The adoption of population-based solver serves to simplify case setup, allowing for direct interfaces between the optimizer and aircraft/engine performance codes. A two-level optimization scheme is employed and is shown to improve search performance compared to the basic PSO algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in a hypothetic engine upgrade scenario for the F-4 aircraft considering the replacement of the aircraft’s J79 engine with the EJ200; a clear advantage of the EJ200-equipped configuration is unveiled, resulting, on average, in 15% faster climbs with 20% less fuel.

  11. Application of particle swarm optimization in gas turbine engine fuel controller gain tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Jafari, S.; Ilkhani, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for gain tuning of the gas turbine engine (GTE) fuel controller. For this purpose, the structure of a fuel controller is firstly designed based on the GTE control requirements and constraints. The controller gains are then tuned by PSO where the tuning process is formulated as an engineering optimization problem. In this study, the response time during engine acceleration and deceleration as well as the engine fuel consumption are considered as the objective functions. A computer simulation is also developed to evaluate the objective values for a single spool GTE. The GTE model employed for the simulation is a Wiener model, the parameters of which are extracted from experimental tests. In addition, the effect of neighbour acceleration on PSO results is studied. The results show that the neighbour acceleration factor has a considerable effect on the convergence rate of the PSO process. The PSO results are also compared with the results obtained through a genetic algorithm (GA) to show the relative merits of PSO. Moreover, the PSO results are compared with the results obtained from the dynamic programming (DP) method in order to illustrate the ability of proposed method in finding the global optimal solution. Furthermore, the objective function is also defined in multi-objective manner and the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is applied to find the Pareto-front for the problem. Finally, the results obtained from the simulation of the optimized controller confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach to design an optimal fuel controller resulting in an improved GTE performance as well as protection against the physical limitations.

  12. Exergetic optimization of a thermoacoustic engine using the particle swarm optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitou, Hussein; Nika, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimization of a thermoacoustic engine using the particle swarm optimization method. ► Exergetic efficiency, acoustic power and their product are the optimized functions. ► PSO method is used successfully for the first time in the TA research. ► The powerful PSO tool is advised to be more involved in the TA research and design. ► EE times AP optimized function is highly recommended to design any new TA devices. - Abstract: Thermoacoustic engines convert heat energy into acoustic energy. Then, the acoustic energy can be used to pump heat or to generate electricity. It is well-known that the acoustic energy and therefore the exergetic efficiency depend on parameters such as the stack’s hydraulic radius, the stack’s position in the resonator and the traveling–standing-wave ratio. In this paper, these three parameters are investigated in order to study and analyze the best value of the produced acoustic energy, the exergetic efficiency and the product of the acoustic energy by the exergetic efficiency of a thermoacoustic engine with a parallel-plate stack. The dimensionless expressions of the thermoacoustic equations are derived and calculated. Then, the Particle Swarm Optimization method (PSO) is introduced and used for the first time in the thermoacoustic research. The use of the PSO method and the optimization of the acoustic energy multiplied by the exergetic efficiency are novel contributions to this domain of research. This paper discusses some significant conclusions which are useful for the design of new thermoacoustic engines.

  13. Expedited Development of Diphenhydramine Orally Disintegrating Tablet through Integrated Crystal and Particle Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenguang; Hu, Shenye; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-10-02

    A palatable direct compression (DC) orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) product of a bitter drug, diphenhydramine (DPH), was developed using an integrated crystal and particle engineering approach. A DPH salt with a sweetener, acesulfame (Acs), DPH-Acs, was synthesized and its solid state properties were comprehensively characterized. Tablet formulation composition and compaction parameters were optimized by employing material sparing techniques. In vivo disintegration time, bitterness, and grittiness of the final ODT product, were evaluated by a taste panel. Physical stability of the ODT tablets was assessed to identify appropriate storage conditions. Phase-pure DPH-Acs exhibited significantly better tabletability and palatability than DPH-HCl. A DC formulation was designed and optimized to obtain a new ODT product with good manufacturability and excellent product characteristics, including fast in vivo disintegration, and acceptable bitterness and grittiness. A new ODT product of DPH with excellent pharmaceutical properties was successfully developed using 15 g of DPH and in two months. This example shows that integrated crystal and particle engineering is an effective approach for developing high quality ODT products using the DC process.

  14. Particle and NO{sub x} Emissions from a HVO-Fueled Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happonen, M.

    2012-10-15

    Concerns about oil price, the strengthening climate change and traffic related health effects are all reasons which have promoted the research of renewable fuels. One renewable fuel candidate is diesel consisting of hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO). The fuel is essentially paraffinic, has high cetane number (>80) and contains practically no oxygen, aromatics or sulphur. Furthermore, HVO fuel can be produced from various feedstocks including palm, soybean and rapeseed oils as well as animal fats. HVO has also been observed to reduce all regulated engine exhaust emissions compared to conventional diesel fuel. In this thesis, the effect of HVO fuel on engine exhaust emissions has been studied further. The thesis is roughly divided into two parts. The first part explores the emission reductions associated with the fuel and studies techniques which could be applied to achieve further emission reductions. One of the studied techniques was adjusting engine settings to better suit HVO fuel. The settings chosen for adjustments were injection pressure, injection timing, the amount of EGR and the timing of inlet valve closing (with constant inlet air mass flow, i.e. Miller timing). The engine adjustments were also successfully targeted to reduce either NO{sub x} or particulate emissions or both. The other applied emission reduction technique was the addition of oxygenate to HVO fuel. The chosen oxygenate was di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE), and tested fuel blend included 20 wt-% DNPE and 80 wt-% HVO. Thus, the oxygen content of the resulting blend was 2 wt-%. Reductions of over 25 % were observed in particulate emissions with the blend compared to pure HVO while NOx emissions altered under 5 %. On the second part of this thesis, the effect of the studied fuels on chosen surface properties of exhaust particles were studied using tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The studied surface properties were oxidizability and

  15. Inflammation-Related Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles: Studies on Lung Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, P. E.; Totlandsdal, A. I.; Låg, M.; Refsnes, M.; Holme, J. A.; Øvrevik, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust and its particles (DEP) have been under scrutiny for health effects in humans. In the development of these effects inflammation is regarded as a key process. Overall, in vitro studies report similar DEP-induced changes in markers of inflammation, including cytokines and chemokines, as studies in vivo. In vitro studies suggest that soluble extracts of DEP have the greatest impact on the expression and release of proinflammatory markers. Main DEP mediators of effects have still not been identified and are difficult to find, as fuel and engine technology developments lead to continuously altered characteristics of emissions. Involved mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. DEP extracts appear to comprise components that are able to activate various membrane and cytosolic receptors. Through interactions with receptors, ion channels, and phosphorylation enzymes, molecules in the particle extract will trigger various cell signaling pathways that may lead to the release of inflammatory markers directly or indirectly by causing cell death. In vitro studies represent a fast and convenient system which may have implications for technology development. Furthermore, knowledge regarding how particles elicit their effects may contribute to understanding of DEP-induced health effects in vivo, with possible implications for identifying susceptible groups of people and effect biomarkers. PMID:23509760

  16. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  18. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  19. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  20. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodabandeh, M; Koohi, M K; Shahroziyan, E; Badri, B; Pourfallah, A; Shams, Gh; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G; Roshani, A; Hobbenaghi, R

    2011-01-01

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10 -3 - 24x10 -3 ml/cm 2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10 -3 , 23x10 -3 , 24x10 -3 and 16x10 -3 ml/cm 2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently

  1. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabandeh, M; Koohi, M K; Shahroziyan, E; Badri, B; Pourfallah, A; Shams, Gh; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, A [Industrial and Environmental Protection Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RRIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hobbenaghi, R, E-mail: gsadeghi@ut.ac.ir [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10{sup -3} - 24x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10{sup -3}, 23x10{sup -3}, 24x10{sup -3} and 16x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most

  2. Comprehensive Characterization Of Ultrafine Particulate Emission From 2007 Diesel Engines: PM Size Distribution, Loading And Indidividual Particle Size And Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Imre, D.; Shimpi, S.; Warey, A.

    2006-12-01

    The strong absorption of solar radiation by black carbon (BC) impacts the atmospheric radiative balance in a complex and significant manner. One of the most important sources of BC is vehicular emissions, of which diesel represents a significant fraction. To address this issue the EPA has issues new stringent regulations that will be in effect in 2007, limiting the amount of particulate mass that can be emitted by diesel engines. The new engines are equipped with aftertreatments that reduce PM emissions to the point, where filter measurements are subject to significant artifacts and characterization by other techniques presents new challenges. We will present the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted at the Cummins Technical Center in which a suite of instruments was deployed to yield comprehensive, temporally resolved information on the diesel exhaust particle loadings and properties in real-time: Particle size distributions were measured by Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Total particle diameter concentration was obtained using Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD). Laser Induced Incandescence and photoacoustic techniques were used to monitor the PM soot content. Single Particle Laser Ablation Time-of- flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT) provided the aerodynamic diameter and chemical composition of individual diesel exhaust particles. Measurements were conducted on a number of heavy duty diesel engines operated under variety of operating conditions, including FTP transient cycles, ramped-modal cycles and steady states runs. We have also characterized PM emissions during diesel particulate filter regeneration cycles. We will present a comparison of PM characteristics observed during identical cycles, but with and without the use of aftertreatment. A total of approximately 100,000 individual particles were sized and their composition characterized by SPLAT. The aerodynamic size distributions of the characterized

  3. CERN Library | Ted Wilson presents "Engines of discovery: a century of particle accelerators" (revised and expanded edition) | 22 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Particle accelerators exploit the cutting edge of every aspect of today's technology and have themselves contributed to many of these technologies. The largest accelerators have been constructed as research tools for nuclear and high energy physics and there is no doubt that it is this field that has sustained their development culminating in the Large Hadron Collider.   Engines of discovery: a century of particle accelerators (revised and expanded edition), by Andrew Sessler and Ted Wilson, World Scientific, 2014, ISBN 9789814417198. An earlier book by the same authors, Engines of Discovery: A Century of Particle Accelerators, chronicled the development of these large accelerators and colliders, emphasising the critical discoveries in applied physics and engineering that drove the field. Particular attention was given to the key individuals who contributed, the methods they used to arrive at their particular discoveries and inventions, often recalling how their human strengths and attit...

  4. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Liou, Yi-Jyun [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Man-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erh-Jen Road, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, Chiayi 60036, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jim-Shoung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores <16 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of biodiesel blend and load. - Abstract: Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC + DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N{sub TOT}) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N{sub TOT} and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N{sub TOT} at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N{sub TOT} post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of

  5. Ultrafine particles from diesel engines induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffery; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ai, Lisong; Takabe, Wakako; Beebe, Tyler; Majumdar, Rohit; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2009-03-15

    Exposure to particulate air pollution is linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient ultrafine particles (UFP) from diesel vehicle engines have been shown to be proatherogenic in ApoE knockout mice and may constitute a major cardiovascular risk in humans. We posited that circulating nano-sized particles from traffic pollution sources induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation in endothelial cells. Diesel UFP were collected from a 1998 Kenworth truck. Intracellular superoxide assay revealed that these UFP dose-dependently induced superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Flow cytometry showed that UFP increased MitoSOX red intensity specific for mitochondrial superoxide. Protein carbonyl content was increased by UFP as an indication of vascular oxidative stress. UFP also up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tissue factor (TF) mRNA expression, and pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine significantly decreased their expression. Furthermore, UFP transiently activated JNK in HAEC. Treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and silencing of both JNK1 and JNK2 with siRNA inhibited UFP-stimulated O(2)(-) production and mRNA expression of HO-1 and TF. Our findings suggest that JNK activation plays an important role in UFP-induced oxidative stress and stress response gene expression.

  6. Biogeography-based particle swarm optimization with fuzzy elitism and its applications to constrained engineering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weian; Li, Wuzhao; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi; Ren, Hongliang

    2014-11-01

    In evolutionary algorithms, elites are crucial to maintain good features in solutions. However, too many elites can make the evolutionary process stagnate and cannot enhance the performance. This article employs particle swarm optimization (PSO) and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) to propose a hybrid algorithm termed biogeography-based particle swarm optimization (BPSO) which could make a large number of elites effective in searching optima. In this algorithm, the whole population is split into several subgroups; BBO is employed to search within each subgroup and PSO for the global search. Since not all the population is used in PSO, this structure overcomes the premature convergence in the original PSO. Time complexity analysis shows that the novel algorithm does not increase the time consumption. Fourteen numerical benchmarks and four engineering problems with constraints are used to test the BPSO. To better deal with constraints, a fuzzy strategy for the number of elites is investigated. The simulation results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Nanostructured natural-based polyelectrolyte multilayers to agglomerate chitosan particles into scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Emanuel Sá; Silva, Tiago H; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2011-11-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a self-assembly process that allows the coating of material's surface with nanostructured layers of polyelectrolytes, allowing to control several surface properties. This technique presents some advantages when compared with other thin film assembly techniques, like having the possibility to coat surfaces with complex geometries in mild conditions or to incorporate active compounds. Tissue engineering (TE) involves typically the use of porous biodegradable scaffolds for the temporary support of cells. Such structures can be produced by agglomeration of microspheres that needs to be fixed into a three-dimensional (3D) structure. In this work we suggest the use of LbL to promote such mechanical fixation in free-formed microspheres assemblies and simultaneously to control the properties of its surface. For the proof of concept the biological performance of chitosan/alginate multilayers is first investigated in two-dimensional (2D) models in which the attachment and proliferation of L929 and ATDC5 cells are studied in function of the number of layers and the nature of the final layer. Scaffolds prepared by agglomeration of chitosan particles using the same multilayered system were processed and characterized; it was found that they could support the attachment and proliferation of ATDC5 cells. This study suggests that LbL can be used as a versatile methodology to prepare scaffolds by particle agglomeration that could be suitable for TE applications.

  8. Hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm and its application in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Yan, C.Q.; Wang, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO). • Modified Nelder–Mead simplex search method is applied in HPSO. • The algorithm has a high search precision and rapidly calculation speed. • HPSO can be used in the nuclear engineering optimization design problems. - Abstract: A hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm with a feasibility-based rule for solving constrained optimization problems has been developed in this research. Firstly, the global optimal solution zone can be obtained through particle swarm optimization process, and then the refined search of the global optimal solution will be achieved through the modified Nelder–Mead simplex algorithm. Simulations based on two well-studied benchmark problems demonstrate the proposed algorithm will be an efficient alternative to solving constrained optimization problems. The vertical electrical heating pressurizer is one of the key components in reactor coolant system. The mathematical model of pressurizer has been established in steady state. The optimization design of pressurizer weight has been carried out through HPSO algorithm. The results show the pressurizer weight can be reduced by 16.92%. The thermal efficiencies of conventional PWR nuclear power plants are about 31–35% so far, which are much lower than fossil fueled plants based in a steam cycle as PWR. The thermal equilibrium mathematic model for nuclear power plant secondary loop has been established. An optimization case study has been conducted to improve the efficiency of the nuclear power plant with the proposed algorithm. The results show the thermal efficiency is improved by 0.5%

  9. New Principles for Interfacial Engineering and Superstabilization of Biphase Systems by Using Particles with Engineered Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-27

    found in nature and accounts for ~ 1.5 x 1012 tons of annual biomass production. 10 As a result of its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and...would also be available to sterically stabilize the disperse (air) phase. As in most particle stabilized systems, HP-55 particles will form a shell ...particle-aggregates forming a shell around the bubbles in a secondary adsorption step. As the concentration of HP-55 is increased in the test

  10. NanoTIO2 (UV-Titan) does not induce ESTR mutations in the germline of prenatally exposed female mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Shipley, Thomas; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    2012-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Animal studies have shown that inhalation of air particulates induces mutations in the male germline. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in mice are sensitive markers of mutagenic effects o...

  11. NanoTIO2 (UV-Titan does not induce ESTR mutations in the germline of prenatally exposed female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boisen Anne Mette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Animal studies have shown that inhalation of air particulates induces mutations in the male germline. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR loci in mice are sensitive markers of mutagenic effects on male germ cells resulting from environmental exposures; however, female germ cells have received little attention. Oocytes may be vulnerable during stages of active cell division (e.g., during fetal development. Accordingly, an increase in germline ESTR mutations in female mice prenatally exposed to radiation has previously been reported. Here we investigate the effects of nanoparticles on the female germline. Since pulmonary exposure to nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 produces a long-lasting inflammatory response in mice, it was chosen for the present study. Findings Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation to the nanoTiO2 UV-Titan L181 (~42.4 mg UV-Titan/m3 or filtered clean air on gestation days (GD 8–18. Female C57BL/6 F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with unexposed CBA males. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates in this generation were estimated from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring of F1 female mice (192 UV-Titan-exposed F2 offspring and 164 F2 controls. ESTR mutation rates of 0.029 (maternal allele and 0.047 (paternal allele in UV-Titan-exposed F2 offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 controls: 0.037 (maternal allele and 0.061 (paternal allele. Conclusions We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in F1 females exposed in utero to UV-Titan nanoparticles from GD8-18 relative to control females.

  12. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. ► Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. ► Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. ► The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores TOT ) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N TOT and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N TOT at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N TOT post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ∼10 4 cm −3 . This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the aftertreatment is highly favored.

  13. Evaluation of a Lagrangian Soot Tracking Method for the prediction of primary soot particle size under engine-like conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai Ong, Jiun; Pang, Kar Mun; Walther, Jens Honore

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the implementation and evaluation of a Lagrangian soot tracking (LST) method for the modeling of soot in diesel engines. The LST model employed here has the tracking capability of a Lagrangian method and the ability to predict primary soot particle sizing. The Moss-Brookes soot...... in predicting temporal soot cloud development, mean soot diameter and primary soot size distribution is evaluated using measurements of n-heptane and n-dodecane spray combustion obtained under diesel engine-like conditions. In addition, sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the influence of soot....... A higher rate of soot oxidation due to OH causes the soot particles to be fully oxidized downstream of the flame. In general, the LST model performs better than the Eulerian method in terms of predicting soot sizing and accessing information of individual soot particles, both of which are shortcomings...

  14. On the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process with added energetic solid particles for pulse detonation engines (PDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V. B.; Li, J.; Chang, P.-H.; Phan, Q. T.; Teo, C. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to study the dynamics of the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in pulse detonation engines (PDE) using energetic aluminum particles. The DDT process and detonation wave propagation toward the unburnt hydrogen/air mixture containing solid aluminum particles is numerically studied using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A hybrid numerical methodology combined with appropriate sub-models is used to capture the gas dynamic characteristics, particle behavior, combustion characteristics, and two-way solid-particle-gas flow interactions. In our approach, the gas mixture is expressed in the Eulerian frame of reference, while the solid aluminum particles are tracked in the Lagrangian frame of reference. The implemented computer code is validated using published benchmark problems. The obtained results show that the aluminum particles not only shorten the DDT length but also reduce the DDT time. The improvement of DDT is primarily attributed to the heat released from surface chemical reactions on the aluminum particles. The temperatures associated with the DDT process are greater than the case of non-reacting particles added, with an accompanying rise in the pressure. For an appropriate range of particle volume fraction, particularly in this study, the higher volume fraction of the micro-aluminum particles added in the detonation chamber can lead to more heat energy released and more local instabilities in the combustion process (caused by the local high temperature), thereby resulting in a faster DDT process. In essence, the aluminum particles contribute to the DDT process of successfully transitioning to detonation waves for (failure) cases in which the fuel gas mixture can be either too lean or too rich. With a better understanding of the influence of added aluminum particles on the dynamics of the DDT and detonation process, we can apply it to modify the geometry of the detonation chamber (e.g., the length of

  15. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H; Shook, Michael A; Ziemba, Luke D; DiGangi, Joshua P; Winstead, Edward L; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L; Crosbie, Ewan C; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2017-12-19

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO 2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 10 16 -10 17 kg -1 and 10 14 -10 16 kg -1 , respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg -1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg -1 ). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  16. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H.; Shook, Michael A.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Digangi, Joshua P.; Winstead, Edward L.; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Crosbie, Ewan C.; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-12-01

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 1016-1017 kg-1 and 1014-1016 kg-1, respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg-1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg-1). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  17. Particle Engineering of Excipients for Direct Compression: Understanding the Role of Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Morton, David; Larson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Tablets represent the preferred and most commonly dispensed pharmaceutical dosage form for administering active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Minimizing the cost of goods and improving manufacturing output efficiency has motivated companies to use direct compression as a preferred method of tablet manufacturing. Excipients dictate the success of direct compression, notably by optimizing powder formulation compactability and flow, thus there has been a surge in creating excipients specifically designed to meet these needs for direct compression. Greater scientific understanding of tablet manufacturing coupled with effective application of the principles of material science and particle engineering has resulted in a number of improved direct compression excipients. Despite this, significant practical disadvantages of direct compression remain relative to granulation, and this is partly due to the limitations of direct compression excipients. For instance, in formulating high-dose APIs, a much higher level of excipient is required relative to wet or dry granulation and so tablets are much bigger. Creating excipients to enable direct compression of high-dose APIs requires the knowledge of the relationship between fundamental material properties and excipient functionalities. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the relationship between fundamental material properties and excipient functionality for direct compression.

  18. Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Gillet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis, we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain—dsRNA binding domain combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect. The RNP slows down nuclease activity, probably by masking the dsRNA. Furthermore, PTD-mediated internalization in insect gut cells is achieved within minutes after plasma membrane contact, limiting the exposure time of the RNPs to gut nucleases. Therefore, the RNP provides an approximately 2-fold increase in the efficiency of insect gene silencing upon oral delivery when compared to naked dsRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

  19. Tuning the Dynamics of Particles and Drops at Engineered Nanostructured Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosqui, Carlos; Checco, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Harnessing the full potential of current nanofabrication capabilities requires significant progress in understanding non-equilibrium phenomena produced by nanoscale interfacial structure and thermal motion. In diverse colloidal systems relevant to complex fluids and soft materials, the nanoscale interfacial structure can induce transitions from fast dynamics dominated by (deterministic) hydrodynamic and surface forces to arrested dynamics dominated by (random) thermally-activated processes. Recent work provides guidelines for engineering geometries and surface structures to tune the dynamic behavior of nano/microscale particles and droplets. For example, small reductions of the radius of a microparticle can lead to dramatic increases in the time for adsorption at liquid interfaces or membranes. Similarly, reducing the radius of a millimeter-sized droplet can lead to arrested spreading dynamics with logarithmic-in-time relaxation. Furthermore, nanostructured surfaces with directional asymmetry can convert thermal motion into directed transport processes at controllable rates. This talk will discuss theoretical and computational predictions that have been confirmed in recent experimental work by our and other groups and new predictions that can guide future experimental studies.

  20. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  1. Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, François-Xavier; Garcia, Rayssa A; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2017-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis ), we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain-dsRNA binding domain) combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect. The RNP slows down nuclease activity, probably by masking the dsRNA. Furthermore, PTD-mediated internalization in insect gut cells is achieved within minutes after plasma membrane contact, limiting the exposure time of the RNPs to gut nucleases. Therefore, the RNP provides an approximately 2-fold increase in the efficiency of insect gene silencing upon oral delivery when compared to naked dsRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

  2. Virus-Like Particle Engineering: From Rational Design to Versatile Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuanwei; Liu, Dong; Booth, George; Gao, Wei; Lu, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    As mimicking natural virus structures, virus-like particles (VLPs) have evolved to become a widely accepted technology used for humans which are safe, highly efficacious, and profitable. Several remarkable advantages have been achieved to revolutionize the molecule delivery for diverse applications in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and medicine. Here, the rational structure design, manufacturing process, functionalization strategy, and emerging applications of VLPs is reviewed. The situation and challenges in the VLP engineering, the key development orientation, and future applications have been discussed. To develop a good VLP design concept, the virus/VLP-host interactions need to be examined and the screening methods of the VLP stabilization factors need to be established. The functionalization toolbox can be expanded to fabricate smart, robust, and multifunctional VLPs. Novel robust VLP manufacturing platforms are required to deliver vaccines in resource-poor regions with a significant reduction in the production time and cost. The future applications of VLPs are always driven by the development of emerging technologies and new requirements of modern life. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fabrication of engineered particle-doped light diffuser with a soft transparent mold of UV-curable polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jicheng; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-11-01

    Engineered particle-doped light diffuser is realized by a simple, low-cost soft lithographic method. A flexible photopolymerizable mold is employed as an intermediate transferring template directly from the developed photoresist texture to fabricate engineered particle-doped light diffuser. The well-designed surface microstructure can directionally scatter the incident light, while the doped ultra-violet curable resin with low concentration of the 2 μm-diameter organosilicone particles can homogenize the scattering light without decreasing transmittance. Experimental results show that the measured transmittance can be as high as 96.9% with little backscattering effect over the whole visible regime. Meanwhile, the haze raises from 30% to 75% with increased dopant concentration from 1 wt% to 7 wt% and thickness of the residual layer from 10 μm to 40 μm remained in the imprinting process. The proposed engineered particle-doped light diffuser can manage scattering angle, luminance uniformity and haze, thus it has the capability of homogenizing light and eliminating striations to create more visually pleasing structured lighting in commercial and residential environments. We anticipate that the approach appears to be a strong candidate for future development because of its scalable nature, environmentally-friendly process and relatively low cost.

  4. Nervous System Injury in Response to Contact With Environmental, Engineered and Planetary Micro- and Nano-Sized Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nerve cells take a special place among other cells in organisms because of their unique function mechanism. The plasma membrane of nerve cells from the one hand performs a classical barrier function, thereby being foremost targeted during contact with micro- and nano-sized particles, and from the other hand it is very intensively involved in nerve signal transmission, i.e., depolarization-induced calcium-dependent compound exocytosis realized via vesicle fusion following by their retrieval and calcium-independent permanent neurotransmitter turnover via plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters that utilize Na+/K+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force. Worldwide traveling air pollution particulate matter is now considered as a possible trigger factor for the development of a variety of neuropathologies. Micro- and nano-sized particles can reach the central nervous system during inhalation avoiding the blood–brain barrier, thereby making synaptic neurotransmission extremely sensitive to their influence. Neurosafety of environmental, engineered and planetary particles is difficult to predict because they possess other features as compared to bulk materials from which the particles are composed of. The capability of the particles to absorb heavy metals and organic neurotoxic molecules from the environment, and moreover, spontaneously interact with proteins and lipids in organisms and form biomolecular corona can considerably change the particles‘ features. The absorption capability occasionally makes them worldwide traveling particulate carriers for delivery of environmental neurotoxic compounds to the brain. Discrepancy of the experimental data on neurotoxicity assessment of micro- and nano-sized particles can be associated with a variability of systems, in which neurotoxicity was analyzed and where protein components of the incubation media forming particle biocorona can significantly distort and even eliminate factual particle

  5. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Stolcpartova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov, commuter road vicinity (Libeznice, and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice. Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines.

  6. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-10-30

    Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende District, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, West District, Chiayi 60051, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  8. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study

  9. Engineering and characterization of mesoporous silica-coated magnetic particles for mercury removal from industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jie; Xu Zhenghe; Wang Feng

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silica coatings were synthesized on dense liquid silica-coated magnetite particles using cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CTAC) as molecular templates, followed by sol-gel process. A specific surface area of the synthesized particles as high as 150 m 2 /g was obtained. After functionalization with mercapto-propyl-trimethoxy-silane (MPTS) through silanation reaction, the particles exhibited high affinity of mercury in aqueous solutions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential measurement, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used to characterize the synthesis processes, surface functionalization, and mercury adsorption on the synthesized magnetite particles. The loading capacity of the particles for mercury was determined to be as high as 14 mg/g at pH 2. A unique feature of strong magnetism of the synthesized nanocomposite particles makes the subsequent separation of the magnetic sorbents from complex multiphase suspensions convenient and effective

  10. Engineering and characterization of mesoporous silica-coated magnetic particles for mercury removal from industrial effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Xu, Zhenghe; Wang, Feng

    2008-03-01

    Mesoporous silica coatings were synthesized on dense liquid silica-coated magnetite particles using cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CTAC) as molecular templates, followed by sol-gel process. A specific surface area of the synthesized particles as high as 150 m 2/g was obtained. After functionalization with mercapto-propyl-trimethoxy-silane (MPTS) through silanation reaction, the particles exhibited high affinity of mercury in aqueous solutions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential measurement, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used to characterize the synthesis processes, surface functionalization, and mercury adsorption on the synthesized magnetite particles. The loading capacity of the particles for mercury was determined to be as high as 14 mg/g at pH 2. A unique feature of strong magnetism of the synthesized nanocomposite particles makes the subsequent separation of the magnetic sorbents from complex multiphase suspensions convenient and effective.

  11. Structural and fractal properties of particles emitted from spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick; Garro, Mark A; Walker, John

    2006-11-01

    Size, morphology, and microstructure of particles emitted from one light-duty passenger vehicle (Buick Century; model year 1990; PM (particulate matter) mass emission rate 3.1 mg/km) and two light-duty trucks (Chevrolet C2; model year 1973; PM mass emission rate 282 mg/km, and Chevrolet El Camino; model year 1976; PM mass emission rate 31 mg/km), running California's unified driving cycles (UDC) on a chassis dynamometer, were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images yielded particle properties including three-dimensional density fractal dimensions, monomer and agglomerate number size distributions, and three different shape descriptors, namely aspect ratio, root form factor, and roundness. The density fractal dimension of the particles was between 1.7 and 1.78, while the number size distribution of the particles placed the majority of the particles in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.3 microm). The shape descriptors were found to decrease with increasing particle size. Partial melting of particles, a rare and previously unreported phenomenon, was observed upon exposure of particles emitted during phase 2 of the UDC to the low accelerating voltage electron beam of the SEM. The rate of melting was quantified for individual particles, establishing a near linear relationship between the melting rate and the organic carbon 1 to elemental carbon ratio.

  12. Biodegradable porous sheet-like scaffolds for soft-tissue engineering using a combined particulate leaching of salt particles and magnetic sugar particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengzhi; Tercero, Carlos; Ikeda, Seiichi; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tajima, Hirotaka; Shen, Yajing; Fukuda, Toshio; Arai, Fumihito

    2013-07-01

    Scaffolds serving as artificial extracellular matrixes (ECMs) play a pivotal role in the process of tissue regeneration by providing optimal cellular environments for penetration, ingrowth, and vascularization. Stacks of sheet-like scaffold can be engineered to become artificial ECMs, suggesting a great potential for achieving complex 3-D tissue regeneration to support cell survival and growth. In this study, we proposed and investigated a combined particulate leaching of magnetic sugar particles (MSPs) and salt particles for the development of a sheet-like scaffold. MSPs were fabricated by encapsulating NdFeB particles inside sugar spheres and were controlled using magnetic fields as a porogen to control pore size, pore structure and pore density while fabricating the scaffold. We studied the influence of the strength of the magnetic fields in controlling the coating thickness of the unmagnetized MSPs during the fabrication of the sheet-like scaffolds. The experimental relationship between magnetic flux density and the thickness of the MSP layer was illustrated. Furthermore, we investigated the infiltration capacity of different concentrations of poly(L-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL) as a scaffold material on MSP clusters. Following polymer casting and removal of the sugar template, spherical pores were generated inside the scaffolds. Cultivation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts on the fabricated scaffold proves that the proposed method can be applied in the cell sheet fabrication. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Mineral Filler Type and Particle Size on the Engineering Properties of Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Muniandy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines four types of industrial and by-product waste fillers, namely limestone dust (LSD, which was the reference filler; ceramic waste dust (CWD; coal fly ash (CFA, and steel slag mixture (SSD. The filler consisted of an aggregate (10% of total weight with three proportions: 100% passing 75μm, 50% passing 75μm/20μm, and 100% passing 20μm. Comprehensive laboratory tests were performed to determine the impact of different types and particle sizes of fillers on the engineering and mechanical properties of fine mastics and stone mastic asphalt mixture. The results indicate that the application of industrial by-products used as fillers improves the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt mixtures. The increased stiffness due to the addition of the filler is represented by an increase in the softening point, viscosity, stability, and resilient modulus, as well as a decrease in penetration. The optimum asphalt content increased with the decrease in filler particle size for LSD and SSD, and decreased for CWD and CFA. It was also determined that the filler type and particle size has a significant effect on the mixture properties. Among these three proportions, the samples prepared with the filler size proportion of 50/50 gave the best value in terms of stability, Marshall quotient, and resilient modulus than the other filler size proportions.

  14. Phosphate recovery from wastewater using engineered superparamagnetic particles modified with layered double hydroxide ion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkova-Tuhtan, Asya; Mandel, Karl; Paulus, Anja; Meyer, Carsten; Hutter, Frank; Gellermann, Carsten; Sextl, Gerhard; Franzreb, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2013-10-01

    An innovative nanocomposite material is proposed for phosphate recovery from wastewater using magnetic assistance. Superparamagnetic microparticles modified with layered double hydroxide (LDH) ion exchangers of various compositions act as phosphate adsorbers. Magnetic separation and chemical regeneration of the particles allows their reuse, leading to the successful recovery of phosphate. Based upon the preliminary screening of different LDH ion exchanger modifications for phosphate selectivity and uptake capacity, MgFe-Zr LDH coated magnetic particles were chosen for further characterization and application. The adsorption kinetics of phosphate from municipal wastewater was studied in dependence with particle concentration, contact time and pH. Adsorption isotherms were then determined for the selected particle system. Recovery of phosphate and regeneration of the particles was examined via testing a variety of desorption solutions. Reusability of the particles was demonstrated for 15 adsorption/desorption cycles. Adsorption in the range of 75-97% was achieved in each cycle after 1 h contact time. Phosphate recovery and enrichment was possible through repetitive application of the desorption solution. Finally, a pilot scale experiment was carried out by treating 125 L of wastewater with the particles in five subsequent 25 L batches. Solid-liquid separation on this scale was carried out with a high-gradient magnetic filter (HGMF). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ice Particle Transport Analysis With Phase Change for the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Colin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ice Particle trajectory calculations with phase change were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The particle trajectory computations were performed using the new Glenn Ice Particle Phase Change Model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of 0.3 g/cu m. The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting and the amount of melting was relatively small with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.836. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22 percent).

  16. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  17. Investigation of particle-functionalized tissue engineering scaffolds using X-ray tomographic microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, J V; Andersen, M Ø; Howard, K A

    2008-01-01

    A low-density, porous chitosan/poly-(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle composite scaffold was produced by thermally induced phase separation followed by lyophilization, to provide a bicontinuous microstructure potentially suitable for tissue engineering and locally controlled drug...

  18. Rock Magnetic Characterization of fine Particles from car Engines, Break pads and Tobacco: An Environmental Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Lopez, V. A.; Gerstnecker, K.; Swilley, B.

    2017-12-01

    Today, it is very well known that small magnetic particles are very harmful to the health of humans. For the first time we have conducted an environmental pilot study of fine magnetic particles on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, of particulate matter (pm) 60, pm=10, and pm= 2.5. In order to do a rock magnetic characterization we have preformed low field susceptibility versus temperature (k-T) experiments to determine the Curie points of small particles collected from exhaust pipes, as well as from brake pads of 4 different types of car engines using octane ratings of 85, 87 and 92. The Curie point determinations are very well defined and range from 292 °C through 393 °C to 660 °C. In addition, we have conducted magnetic granulometry experiments on raw tobacco, burnt ashes as well as on car engines and brake pads in question. The results of the experiments show ferro- and ferrimagnetic hysteresis loops with magnetic grain sizes ranging from superparamagnetic-multidomain (SP_MD), multi-domain (MD) and pseudo-single domain (PSD) shown on the modified Day et al. diagram of Dunlop (2002). Thus far, the results we have obtained from this pilot study are in agreement with other studies conducted from cigarette ashes from Bulgaria (Jordanova et al., 2005). Our results could be correlated to the traffic-related PM in Rome, Italy where the SP fraction mainly occurs as coating of MD particles that originated by localized stress in the oxidized outer shell surrounding the unoxidized core of magnetite like grains as published by Sagnotti and Winkler (2012).

  19. Design methodology for nano-engineered surfaces to control adhesion: Application to the anti-adhesion of particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taekyung [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Cheongwan [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myungki; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shinill, E-mail: snlkang@yonsei.ac.kr [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A design method using the Derjaguin approximation with FEA for low-adhesion surface. • Fabrication of nanostructures with small adhesion forces by presented design method. • Characterization of adhesion force via AFM FD-curve with modified atypical tips. • Verification of low-adhesion of designed surfaces using centrifugal detachment tests. • Investigation of interdependence of hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion force. - Abstract: With increasing demand for means of controlling surface adhesion in various applications, including the semiconductor industry, optics, micro/nanoelectromechanical systems, and the medical industry, nano-engineered surfaces have attracted much attention. This study suggests a design methodology for nanostructures using the Derjaguin approximation in conjunction with finite element analysis for the control of adhesion forces. The suggested design methodology was applied for designing a nano-engineered surface with low-adhesion properties. To verify this, rectangular and sinusoidal nanostructures were fabricated and analyzed using force-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy and centrifugal detachment testing. For force-distance curve measurements, modified cantilevers with tips formed with atypical particles were used. Subsequently, centrifugal detachment tests were also conducted. The surface wettability of rectangular and sinusoidal nanostructures was measured and compared with the measured adhesion force and the number of particles remaining after centrifugal detachment tests.

  20. On the validation of the particle finite element method (PFEM) for complex engineering fluid flow problems

    OpenAIRE

    Larese De Tetto, Antonia; Rossi, Riccardo; Idelsohn Barg, Sergio Rodolfo; Oñate Ibáñez de Navarra, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Several comparisons between experiments and computational models are presented in the following pages. The objective is to verify the ability of Particle Finite Elements Methods (PFEM) [1] [2] to reproduce hydraulic phenomena involving large deformation of the fluid domain [4]. Peer Reviewed

  1. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  2. Methods for assessing basic particle properties and cytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalantzi, O.I.; Biskos, G.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration of materials and products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to the market is posing many concerns regarding their environmental impacts. To assess these impacts, there is an urgent need of techniques for determining the health-related properties of ENPs and

  3. Physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoparticles under physiological conditions: effect of culture media components and particle surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatisson, Julien; Quevedo, Ivan R; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products has increased substantially over the last few years. Some research has been conducted in order to determine whether or not such materials are cytotoxic, but questions remain regarding the role that physiological media and sera constituents play in ENP aggregation or stabilization. In this study, several characterization methods were used to evaluate the particle size and surface potential of 6 ENPs suspended in a number of culture media and in the presence of different culture media constituents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed for size determinations. Results were interpreted on the basis of ENP surface potentials evaluated from particle electrophoretic mobilities (EPM). Measurements made after 24h of incubation at 37°C showed that the cell culture medium constituents had only moderate impact on the physicochemical properties of the ENP, although incubation in bovine serum albumin destabilized the colloidal system. In contrast, most of the serum proteins increased colloidal stabilization. Moreover, the type of ENP surface modification played a significant role in ENP behavior whereby the complexity of interactions between the ENPs and the medium components generally decreased with increasing complexity of the particle surface. This investigation emphasizes the importance of ENP characterization under conditions that are representative of cell culture media or physiological conditions for improved assessments of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystal and Particle Engineering Strategies for Improving Powder Compression and Flow Properties to Enable Continuous Tablet Manufacturing by Direct Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-04-01

    Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine based on particle bed reactor using light water steam as a propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James R.; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of configuring a water cooled Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket, based on a Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is investigated. This rocket will be used to operate on water obtained from near earth objects. The conclusions reached in this paper indicate that it is possible to configure a PBR based NTP rocket to operate on water and meet the mission requirements envisioned for it. No insurmountable technology issues have been identified.

  6. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine based on particle bed reactor using light water steam as a propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Maise, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of configuring a water cooled Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket, based on a Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is investigated. This rocket will be used to operate on water obtained from near earth objects. The conclusions reached in this paper indicate that it is possible to configure a PBR based NTP rocket to operate on water and meet the mission requirements envisioned for it. No insurmountable technology issues have been identified

  7. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  8. Dynamics of very small soot particles during soot burnout in diesel engines; Dynamik kleinster Russteilchen waehrend der Russausbrandphase im Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockhorn, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik; Peters, N. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Institut fuer Technische Mechanik (ITM); Pittermann, R. [WTZ fuer Motoren- und Maschinenforschung Rosslau gGmbH (Germany); Hentschel, J.; Weber, J.

    2003-07-01

    The investigations used advanced laser-optical methods for measuring soot particle size distributions, temporally and spectrally resolved measurements of engine combustion, measurements of composition and size distribution of particles in exhaust, and further development and validation of reaction-kinetic models. In all, it can be stated that mixing will affect not only soot particle formation but also soot particle emissions. Mixing can be influenced by using a fuel-water emulsion and by CR injection. Experiments and models both showed the advantageous effects of water added to the diesel fuels and of CR injection. The higher OH radical concentrations in the later combustion stages also serve to ensure faster oxidation of soot. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war es, Informationen ueber die Bildung und Oxidation von Russ sowie die Teilchendynamik der Russteilchen waehrend der Ausbrandphase zu erhalten. Dies wurde erreicht durch die Weiterentwicklung laseroptischer Methoden zur Bestimmung der Groessenverteilung von Russpartikeln, durch zeit- und spektral aufgeloeste Erfassung der motorischen Verbrennung, durch die Bestimmung von Zusammensetzung und Groessenverteilung von Partikeln im Abgas sowie durch die Weiterentwicklung und Validierung von reaktionskinetischen Modellen. Zusammenfassend laesst sich sagen, dass sich die Gemischbildung im Dieselmotor nicht nur auf die Bildung der Russpartikel sondern auch auf die Russpartikelemission auswirkt. Die Verwendung einer Kraftstoff-Wasser-Emulsion und die Common-Rail-Einspritzung stellen zwei Verfahren zur Beeinflussung der Gemischbildung dar. Sowohl die experimentellen Untersuchungen als auch die Modellierung zeigen den die Gemischbildung foerdernden Einfluss des Zusatzes von Wasser zum Dieselbrennstoff. Ein erhoehter Anteil an vorgemischter Verbrennung, wie er auch durch die Verwendung hoher Einspritzdruecke bei der Common-Rail-Einspritzung erreicht werden kann, verringert die waehrend der Verbrennung entstehende

  9. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  10. Structure, Immunogenicity, and Protective Mechanism of an Engineered Enterovirus 71-Like Particle Vaccine Mimicking 80S Empty Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhuan; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Zhenglin; Jin, Xia; Cong, Yao; Huang, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, which affects millions of young children in the Asia-Pacific region annually. In this study, we engineered a novel EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) that lacks VP4 (therefore designated VLP ΔVP4 ) and investigated its structure, antigenicity, and vaccine potential. The cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of VLP ΔVP4 was reconstructed to 3.71-Å resolution. Results from structural and biochemical analyses revealed that VLP ΔVP4 resembles the end product of the viral uncoating process, the 80S empty capsid. VLP ΔVP4 is able to elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies and to fully protect mice against lethal viral challenge. Mechanistic studies showed that, at the cellular level, the anti-VLP ΔVP4 sera exert neutralization effects at both pre- and postattachment stages by inhibiting both virus attachment and internalization, and at the molecular level, the antisera can block multiple interactions between EV71 and its key receptors. Our study gives a better understanding of EV71 capsid assembly and provides important information for the design and development of new-generation vaccines for EV71, and perhaps for other enteroviruses, as well. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, with significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge regarding EV71 particle assembly remains limited. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel EV71 virus-like particle that lacks the VP4 capsid subunit protein. This particle, termed VLP ΔVP4 , structurally mimics the 80S empty capsid, which is the end stage of EV71 uncoating. We further show that VLP ΔVP4 exhibits desirable immunogenicity and protective efficacy in proof-of-concept studies. In addition, the inhibitory mechanisms of the VLP ΔVP4 -induced antibodies are unraveled at both the cellular and molecular levels. Our work provides the first evidence of

  11. Particle Trajectory and Icing Analysis of the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2011-01-01

    Particle trajectory and ice shape calculations were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The particle trajectory and icing computations were performed using the new "block-to-block" collection efficiency method which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for three drop sizes and two drop distributions typically used in aircraft design and certification. Particle trajectory computations were made for water drop sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns. Particle trajectory and ice shape predictions were made for a 20 micron Langmuir-D distribution and for a 92 mm Super-cooled Large Droplet (SLD) distribution with and without splashing effects for a Liquid Water Content (LWC) of 0.3 g/cu m and an icing time of 30 min. The E3 fan and spinner combination proved to be an effective ice removal mechanism as they removed greater than 36 percent of the mass entering the inlet for the icing cases. The maximum free stream catch fraction for the fan and spinner combination was 0.60 while that on the elements downstream of the fan was 0.03. The non-splashing trajectory and collection efficiency results showed that as drop size increased impingement rates increased on the spinner and fan leaving less mass to impinge on downstream components. The SLD splashing case yielded more mass downstream of the fan than the SLD non-splashing case due to mass being splashed from the upstream inlet lip, spinner and fan components. The ice shapes generated downstream of the fan were either small or nonexistent due to the small available mass

  12. Combined Particle Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst for Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jeanette

    Abstract Silicon carbide has many outstanding properties. It is an extremely hard and tough material with a high thermal and chemical stability, in addition to being an important semiconductor material. Silicon carbide macro-, micro- and nanostructures can be tailored to fit specific needs, making...... and better solutions for exhaust purification systems, and porous silicon carbide has superior characteristics for this purpose. The continuously increasing requirements for low emission levels of both toxic and polluting nitric oxides (NOxes) and health damaging sod particles, requires novel methods...

  13. The United States Particle Accelerator School: Educating the Next Generation of Accelerator Scientists and Engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Only a handful of universities in the US offer any formal training in accelerator science. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator/beam science and technology than any university in the world. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  14. The United States Particle Accelerator School: Educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Only a handful of universities in the US offer any formal training in accelerator science. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, crossdisciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics

  15. Comparative study of engineering properties of two-lime waste tire particle soil and soil with lime/loess ratio of 3:7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecheng, Yan; Xingyuan, Zhang; Hongping, Yang

    2018-03-01

    This study describes an analytical comparison of the engineering characteristics of two-lime waste tire particle soil and soil with lime/loess ratio of 3:7 using density measurements, results of indoor consolidation tests, and direct shear tests to examine the strength and deformation characteristics. It investigates the engineering performance of collapsible loess treated with waste tire particles and lime. The results indicate that (1) the shear strength of the two-lime waste tire particle soils increases continuously with soil age; and (2) the two-lime waste tire particle soils are light-weight, strong, and low-deformation soils, and can be applied primarily to improve the foundation soil conditions in areas with collapsible loess soils. This could address the problem of used tire disposal, while providing a new method to consider and manage collapsible loess soils.

  16. Microdroplet engineering for microbioassay and synthesis of functional structured porous particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vinayak

    We present methods where sessile or suspended microdroplets are used to develop applications in the areas of bio-detection, photonics, drug delivery and catalysis. The first technique we report is for droplet-on-a-chip microbioassays. The assays are performed in droplet micro-containers suspended on the surface of high density fluorinated oil and are based on the process of agglutination of antibody-coated particles. Droplet microbioassays for the detection of Ricin were designed and their performance was compared to the standard handheld field assays. These droplet microbioassays were found to be 10 times more sensitive in terms of analyte concentration while requiring 100 times smaller volumes. We developed a model for the agglutination kinetics and mass transfer processes inside the droplets, which correlates well with the experimental data. The second technique that we developed uses droplet templates dispensed on superhydrophobic substrates for the fabrication of a new class of three dimensional hierarchical microsphere assemblies. The technique is termed Dry Self Assembly (DSA) since the fabricated supraparticles are easily detached from the substrate and collected unlike methods where assembled structures are suspended in liquid environment. The sessile droplet templates cast the final supraparticles into light diffracting near-spherical assemblies. When illuminated with a collimated beam of light, the structures exhibit unique ring shaped color diffraction patterns on their surface. The experimental observations for the angular position and wavelength corresponding to a spot on the rings are interpreted using a surface diffraction grating model. We also tailored the DSA method to produce both shape-anisotropic and composition-anisotropic supraparticles. The shape anisotropy was demonstrated by fabricating "doughnut" assemblies using droplets of both pure silica suspensions and silica mixed with gold nanoparticles. The composition anisotropy was realized by

  17. Engineering a novel material: Nanometric titanium carbide particles in a matrix of carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    BADIE, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    New physics studies at ISOLDE are motivated by new beams available, especially beams of exotic nuclei located at the frontier of the nuclear chart. Such beams are often short lived (in the order of milliseconds) and decay before they can be extracted from the target material, where typical diffusion times are in the order of seconds or more. Novel nanostructured and nanocomposite target materials have been developed to increase the release efficiency by reducing the diffusion paths and so the diffusion times, allowing ISOLDE to deliver new and more intense beams of exotic nuclei. 35Ca (25 ms half-life) was attempted by developing a titanium carbide and carbon black nanocomposite, but such isotope could not be extracted. A different production method with different precursors - titanium oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes - is here proposed and expected to yield a target material which will increase the release rates of such isotope. A novel material, very porous, consisting of titanium carbide particles disp...

  18. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  19. A particle filter for ammonia coverage ratio and input simultaneous estimations in Diesel-engine SCR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kangfeng; Ji, Fenzhu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Kai; Yang, Shichun

    2018-01-01

    As NOx emissions legislation for Diesel-engines is becoming more stringent than ever before, an aftertreatment system has been widely used in many countries. Specifically, to reduce the NOx emissions, a selective catalytic reduction(SCR) system has become one of the most promising techniques for Diesel-engine vehicle applications. In the SCR system, input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio are regarded as essential states in the control-oriental model. Currently, an ammonia sensor placed before the SCR Can is a good strategy for the input ammonia concentration value. However, physical sensor would increase the SCR system cost and the ammonia coverage ratio information cannot be directly measured by physical sensor. Aiming to tackle this problem, an observer based on particle filter(PF) is investigated to estimate the input ammonia concentration and ammonia coverage ratio. Simulation results through the experimentally-validated full vehicle simulator cX-Emission show that the performance of observer based on PF is outstanding, and the estimation error is very small.

  20. Are engineered nano iron oxide particles safe? an environmental risk assessment by probabilistic exposure, effects and risk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Deng, Lei; Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    Nano iron oxide particles are beneficial to our daily lives through their use in paints, construction materials, biomedical imaging and other industrial fields. However, little is known about the possible risks associated with the current exposure level of engineered nano iron oxides (nano-FeOX) to organisms in the environment. The goal of this study was to predict the release of nano-FeOX to the environment and assess their risks for surface waters in the EU and Switzerland. The material flows of nano-FeOX to technical compartments (waste incineration and waste water treatment plants) and to the environment were calculated with a probabilistic modeling approach. The mean value of the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of nano-FeOX in surface waters in the EU for a worst-case scenario (no particle sedimentation) was estimated to be 28 ng/l. Using a probabilistic species sensitivity distribution, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was determined from ecotoxicological data. The risk characterization ratio, calculated by dividing the PEC by PNEC values, was used to characterize the risks. The mean risk characterization ratio was predicted to be several orders of magnitude smaller than 1 (1.4 × 10 - 4 ). Therefore, this modeling effort indicates that only a very limited risk is posed by the current release level of nano-FeOX to organisms in surface waters. However, a better understanding of the hazards of nano-FeOX to the organisms in other ecosystems (such as sediment) needs to be assessed to determine the overall risk of these particles to the environment.

  1. Electrospun polyurethane/hydroxyapatite bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: the role of solvent and hydroxyapatite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, G; Khan, A S; Delaine-Smith, R M; Reilly, G C; Rehman, I U

    2014-11-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a promising polymer to support bone-matrix producing cells due to its durability and mechanical resistance. In this study two types of medical grade poly-ether urethanes Z3A1 and Z9A1 and PU-Hydroxyapatite (PU-HA) composites were investigated for their ability to act as a scaffold for tissue engineered bone. PU dissolved in varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvents were electrospun to attain scaffolds with randomly orientated non-woven fibres. Bioactive polymeric composite scaffolds were created using 15 wt% Z3A1 in a 70/30 DMF/THF PU solution and incorporating micro- or nano-sized HA particles in a ratio of 3:1 respectively, whilst a 25 wt% Z9A1 PU solution was doped in ratio of 5:1. Chemical properties of the resulting composites were evaluated by FTIR and physical properties by SEM. Tensile mechanical testing was carried out on all electrospun scaffolds. MLO-A5 osteoblastic mouse cells and human embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cells, hES-MPs were seeded on the scaffolds to test their biocompatibility and ability to support mineralised matrix production over a 28 day culture period. Cell viability was assayed by MTT and calcium and collagen deposition by Sirius red and alizarin red respectively. SEM images of both electrospun PU scaffolds and PU-HA composite scaffolds showed differences in fibre morphology with changes in solvent combinations and size of HA particles. Inclusion of THF eliminated the presence of beads in fibres that were present in scaffolds fabricated with 100% DMF solvent, and resulted in fibres with a more uniform morphology and thicker diameters. Mechanical testing demonstrated that the Young׳s Modulus and yield strength was lower at higher THF concentrations. Inclusion of both sizes of HA particles in PU-HA solutions reinforced the scaffolds leading to higher mechanical properties, whilst FTIR characterisation confirmed the presence of HA in all composite scaffolds. Although

  2. Methods for Assessing Basic Particle Properties and Cytotoxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of materials and products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs to the market is posing many concerns regarding their environmental impacts. To assess these impacts, there is an urgent need of techniques for determining the health-related properties of ENPs and standards for assessing their toxicity. Although a wide number of systems for characterizing nanoparticles in different media (i.e., gases and liquids is already commercially available, the development of protocols for determining the cytotoxicity of ENPs is still at an infant stage, drawing upon existing knowledge from general toxicology. In this regard, differences in the preparation of ENP-containing solutions for cytotoxicity testing, as well as in the steps involved in the tests can result in significant deviations and inconsistencies between studies. In an attempt to highlight the urgent need for assessing the environmental impacts of nanotechnology, this article provides a brief overview of the existing methods for determining health-related properties of ENPs and their cytotoxicity.

  3. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines -- International Activities Survey (EngToxIn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other combustion -- and industrial processes contain different gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not regarded by the respective legislations; some new substances may appear, due to the progressing technical developments and new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The toxical effects of exhaust gases as whole aerosols (i.e. all gaseous components together with particle matter and nanoparticles) can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. On several places researchers showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used up to date. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It bears potentials of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives short information about the activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about research of information sources. It can be stated that there are worldwide a lot of activities concerning health effects. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and rarely the results can be directly compared to each other. Nevertheless there also are some common lines and with appropriate efforts there are possible ways to establish the harmonised biological test procedures.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Performance and emission characteristics of Various Nano Particles with Bio-Diesel blend on Di Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, N.; Goldwin Xavier, X.; Rajasekar, R.; Ganesh Bairavan, P.; Dhanseelan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Present study provides the effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles additives on the Performance and emission uniqueness of Jatropha. Jatropha blended fuel is prepared by the emulsification technique with assist of mechanical agitator. Nano particles (Zinc Oxide (ZnO)) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2)) mixed with Jatropha blended fuel in mass fraction (100 ppm) with assist of an ultrasonicator. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Performance results revealed that Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) is 3% and 11% higher than Jatropha blended zinc oxide (B20ZO) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) and 4% lower than diesel fuel (D100) at full load conditions. Emission result shows that HC and CO emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) are (6%, 22%, 11% and 6%, 15%, 12%) less compared with Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide (B20ZO), diesel (D100) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) at full load conditions. NOx emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide is 1 % higher than diesel fuel (D100) and 2% and 5% lower than Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide, and jatropha blended fuel.

  5. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  6. Effects of combustion particles - Comparison of health relevance of wood fires and diesel engines; Wirkung von Verbrennungspartikeln. Vergleich der Gesundheitsrelevanz von Holzfeuerungen und Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, N.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the relevance of fine-dust particles (PM10, particulate matter smaller than 10 microns) emitted from wood-fired boilers in comparison with soot from diesel engines. Medicinal basics with reference to the particles concerned are explained, including the physiology of the human respiratory system, its defence mechanisms against fine dust as well as detrimental health effects to the nose, lungs and cardio-vascular system. Also, allergic reactions and effects at cell level are discussed. The mechanisms involved in the emission of the particles in ovens and diesel engines are examined and compared. The methods used to take samples of the particles are explained and the results of cell-tests are presented and discussed. Estimates of the particle concentrations in the lung are presented and comparisons are made of loading during smog-periods. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive list of literature on the subject.

  7. Universal Expression of Efficiency at Maximum Power: A Quantum-Mechanical Brayton Engine Working with a Single Particle Confined in a Power-Law Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuo-Lin; Li Wei-Sheng; Lai Yi-Ming; He Ji-Zhou; Wang Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model that works between two superposed states, employing a single particle confined in an arbitrary power-law trap as the working substance. Applying the superposition principle, we obtain the explicit expressions of the power and efficiency, and find that the efficiency at maximum power is bounded from above by the function: η_+ = θ/(θ + 1), with θ being a potential-dependent exponent. (paper)

  8. Simulation of the long term alteration of clay minerals in engineered bentonite barriers: nucleation and growth of secondary clay particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, B.; Clement, A.; Zwingmann, H.; Noguera, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The long term stability of clay rich rocks used as barriers to the migration of radionuclides in the environment of nuclear wastes has been intensively studied, looking at the geochemical interactions between clay minerals and aqueous solutions. These studies combine experimental approaches for the short term and numerical modellings for the long term extrapolations, in the frame of the research supported by ANDRA in the French design for High Level Waste (HLW) repository. The main objective of the geochemical numerical tools devoted to clay-solutions interaction processes was to predict the feed-back effects of mineralogical and chemical transformations of clay mineral, in repository conditions as defined by Andra, on their physical and transport properties (porosity, molecular diffusion, permeability). The 1D transport-reaction coupled simulation was done using the code KIRMAT, at 100 deg. C for 100000 years. The fluid considered is that of the Callovo-Oxfordian geological formation (COX) and assumed to diffuse into the clay barrier from one side. On the other side, ferrous iron, is provided by the steel overpack corrosion. Under these conditions, montmorillonite of the clay barrier is only partially transformed into illite, chlorite, and saponite. The simulation shows that only outer parts of the clay barrier is significantly modified, mainly at the interface with the geological environment. These modifications correspond to a closure of the porosity, followed by a decrease of mass transport by molecular diffusion. Near the COX, the swelling pressure of the clays from the barrier is predicted to decrease, but in its major part, the engineered barrier seems to keep its initial physical properties (porosity, molecular diffusion, permeability, swelling pressure). In this modelling approach, the very important role of secondary clay minerals has to be taken into account with relevant kinetic rate laws; particularly

  9. A novel particle engineering technology to enhance dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs: spray-freezing into liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, True L; Nelsen, Andrew C; Hu, Jiahui; Brown, Judith N; Sarkari, Marazban; Young, Timothy J; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2002-11-01

    A novel cryogenic spray-freezing into liquid (SFL) process was developed to produce microparticulate powders consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) molecularly embedded within a pharmaceutical excipient matrix. In the SFL process, a feed solution containing the API was atomized beneath the surface of a cryogenic liquid such that the liquid-liquid impingement between the feed and cryogenic liquids resulted in intense atomization into microdroplets, which were frozen instantaneously into microparticles. The SFL micronized powder was obtained following lyophilization of the frozen microparticles. The objective of this study was to develop a particle engineering technology to produce micronized powders of the hydrophobic drug, danazol, complexed with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and to compare these SFL micronized powders to inclusion complex powders produced from other techniques, such as co-grinding of dry powder mixtures and lyophilization of bulk solutions. Danazol and HPbetaCD were dissolved in a water/tetrahydrofuran cosolvent mixture prior to SFL processing or slow freezing. Identical quantities of the API and HPbetaCD used in the solutions were co-ground in a mortar and pestle and blended to produce a co-ground physical mixture for comparison. The powder samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, surface area analysis, and dissolution testing. The results provided by DSC, XRD, and FTIR suggested the formation of inclusion complexes by both slow-freezing and SFL. However, the specific surface area was significantly higher for the latter. Dissolution results suggested that equilibration of the danazol/HPbetaCD solution prior to SFL processing was required to produce the most soluble conformation of the resulting inclusion complex following SFL. SFL micronized powders exhibited better dissolution

  10. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  11. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  12. Experimental investigation of particle emissions under different EGR ratios on a diesel engine fueled by blends of diesel/gasoline/n-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Wang, Qingxin; Zhou, Chengzhong; Mo, Chunlan; Wang, Xueqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of EGR and blend fuels on particulate emission were studied in CI engine. • EGR ⩽ 20%, gasoline or n-butanol increases total particulate number concentration. • EGR ⩾ 30%, gasoline or n-butanol reduces total particulate number concentration. • As EGR ratio increased, the particulate mass concentrations of four fuels increased. • Gasoline or n-butanol increases the ratio of sub-25 nm particles number concentration. - Abstract: The particle emission characteristics of a high-pressure common-rail engine under different EGR conditions were investigated, using pure diesel (D100), diesel/gasoline (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70G30), diesel/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70B30) and diesel/gasoline/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:15:15, D70G15B15) for combustion. Our results show that, with increasing EGR ratios, the in-cylinder pressure peak decreases and the heat release is delayed for the combustion of each fuel. At an EGR ratio of 30%, the combustion pressure peaks of D70G30, D70B30, D70G15B15 and D100 have similar values; with an EGR ratio of 40%, the combustion pressure peaks and release rate peaks of D70G30 and D70G15B15 are both lower with respect to D100. For small and medium EGR ratios (⩽20%), after the addition of gasoline and/or n-butanol to the fuel, the total particle number concentration (TPNC) increases, while both the soot emissions and the average geometric size of particles decrease. At large EGR ratios (30% and 40%), the TPNC of D70B30, D70G15B15 and D70G20 compared to D100 are reduced by a maximum amount of 74.7%, 66.7% and 28.6%, respectively. As the EGR ratio increases, the total particle mass concentration increases gradually for all four fuels. Blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel induces an increase in the number concentration of sub-25 nm particles (PN25) which may be harmful in terms of health. However, the PN25 decreases with increasing the EGR ratio for all the tested fuels

  13. Preparation of Porous Stainless Steel Hollow-Fibers through Multi-Modal Particle Size Sintering towards Pore Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Marie Allioux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of metal powders is an efficient and versatile technique to fabricate porous metal elements such as filters, diffusers, and membranes. Neck formation between particles is, however, critical to tune the porosity and optimize mass transfer in order to minimize the densification process. In this work, macro-porous stainless steel (SS hollow-fibers (HFs were fabricated by the extrusion and sintering of a dope comprised, for the first time, of a bimodal mixture of SS powders. The SS particles of different sizes and shapes were mixed to increase the neck formation between the particles and control the densification process of the structure during sintering. The sintered HFs from particles of two different sizes were shown to be more mechanically stable at lower sintering temperature due to the increased neck area of the small particles sintered to the large ones. In addition, the sintered HFs made from particles of 10 and 44 μm showed a smaller average pore size (<1 μm as compared to the micron-size pores of sintered HFs made from particles of 10 μm only and those of 10 and 20 μm. The novel HFs could be used in a range of applications, from filtration modules to electrochemical membrane reactors.

  14. Coal emissions adverse human health effects associated with ultrafine/nano-particles role and resultant engineering controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Navarro, Orlando G; Crissien, Tito J; Tutikian, Bernardo F; da Boit, Kátia; Teixeira, Elba C; Cabello, Juan J; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-10-01

    There are multiple elements which enable coal geochemistry: (1) boiler and pollution control system design parameters, (2) temperature of flue gas at collection point, (3) feed coal and also other fuels like petroleum coke, tires and biomass geochemistry and (4) fuel feed particle size distribution homogeneity distribution, maintenance of pulverisers, etc. Even though there is a large number of hazardous element pollutants in the coal-processing industry, investigations on micrometer and nanometer-sized particles including their aqueous colloids formation reactions and their behaviour entering the environment are relatively few in numbers. X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/ (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/ (selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS and granulometric distribution analysis were used as an integrated characterization techniques tool box to determine both geochemistry and nanomineralogy for coal fly ashes (CFAs) from Brazil´s largest coal power plant. Ultrafine/nano-particles size distribution from coal combustion emissions was estimated during the tests. In addition the iron and silicon content was determined as 54.6% of the total 390 different particles observed by electron bean, results aimed that these two particles represent major minerals in the environment particles normally. These data may help in future investigations to asses human health actions related with nano-particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of Algal Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles Measured as Algal Cell Population, Chlorophyll a, and Lipid Peroxidation: Effect of Particle Size and Type

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Metzler; A. Erdem; Y. H. Tseng; C. P. Huang

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated toxicity of three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), namely, Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 to the unicellular green algae, exemplified by Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with an emphasis on particle size. The changes in pH, cell counts, chlorophyll a, and lipid peroxidation were used to measure the responses of the algal species to ENP. The most toxic particle size was TiO2 at 42 nm with an EC20 of 5.2 mg/L and Al2O3 at 14–18 nm with an EC20 of 5.1 mg/L. SiO2 was the least toxic...

  16. Particle size modeling and morphology study of chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite nanocomposite microspheres for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Khoulenjani, Shadab; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Etrati-Khosroshahi, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    In this study, nanocomposite microspheres based on chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite were fabricated, and effects of the nanohydroxyapatite/biopolymer (chitosan/gelatin) weight ratio (nHA/P), stirring rate, chitosan concentration and biopolymer concentration on the particle size, and morphology of nanocomposite microspheres were investigated. Particle size of microspheres was modeled by design of experiments using the surface response method. Particle size, morphology of microspheres, and distribution of nanoparticles within the composite microspheres were evaluated using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to study the physical and chemical characteristics of microspheres. Results showed that by modulating the nHA/P ratio, chitosan concentration, polymer concentration, and stirring rate, it is possible to fabricate microspheres in wide rages of particle size (5-150 μm). Analysis of variance confirmed that the modified quadratic model can be used to predict the particle size of nanocomposite microspheres within the design space. SEM studies showed that microspheres with different compositions had totally different morphologies from dense morphologies to porous ones. TEM images demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed uniformly within the polymeric matrix. MTT assay and cell culture studies showed that microspheres with different compositions possessed good biocompatibility. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Kuldeep, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention...... in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique...... to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random...

  18. Mass size distribution of particles emitted by diesel engines and determination of the contribution of diesel particles to the atmospheric aerosol in Vienna by using a tracer suitable for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norek, C.

    1985-01-01

    In Vienna a large fraction of light absorbing aerosols has been found. The traffic could be a source for the high absorption coefficients, since the time dependent absorption coefficients varise similar to the traffic densities. Diesel vehicles have high soot emissions, so they may contribute considerably to light absorption during the summer. The emission factors of the vehicles were estimated by measurements at different motor and driving conditions by the Constant-Volume-Sampling-Method. To determine the size distributions a 10-stage-low pressure impactor with a lower cut size of 0.015 μm aerodynamic particle diameter was used. In order to estimate the contribution of diesel vehicles to the total mass concentrations all diesel fuel sold in Vienna and its vincinity was marked with an organic Dysprosium compound. This rare earth tracer was emitted by vehicles together with the soot particles and collected at eleven stations in Vienna. The filter samples were extracted with diluted HNO 3 and the extraction was analysed for Dy by neutron activation analysis. The mass size distributions of the particles and the soot emitted from diesel engines are only slightly influenced by motor and driving parameters. The total mass emissions showed considerable variations, but the mean emission factor obtained from the tests was 2.43 g per litre fuel; knowing also the concentration of the tracer in the fuel, the contribution of diesel particles to the mass of the suspended particulates could be estimated. During the measuring period the contribution was c. 25% to the total mass and c. 40% to the absorbing matter in the atmosphere. (Author)

  19. Analysis of irradiation-induced stresses in coating layers of coated fuel particles for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kimio; Kikuchi, Teruo; Fukuda, Kousaku; Sato, Sadao; Toyota, Junji; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kashimura, Satoru.

    1991-07-01

    Irradiation-induced stresses in coating layers of coated fuel particles were analyzed by the MICROS-2 code for the fuels of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) under its operating conditions. The analyses were made on the standard core fuel (A-type) and the test fuels comprising the advanced SiC-coated particle fuel (B-1 type) and the ZrC-coated particle fuel (B-2 type). For the B-1 type fuel, the stresses were relieved due to the thicker buffer and SiC layers than for the A type fuel. The slightly decreased thickness of the fourth layer for the B-1 type than for the A type fuel had no significant effect on the stresses. As for the B-2 type fuel, almost the same results as for the B-1 type were obtained under an assumption that the ZrC layer as well as the SiC layer undergoes negligible dimension change within the analysis conditions. The obtained results indicated that the B-1 and B-2 type fuels are better than the A type fuel in terms of integrity against the irradiation-induced stresses. Finally, research subjects for development of the analysis code on the fuel behavior are discussed. (author)

  20. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štolcpartová, Jitka; Pechout, M.; Dittrich, L.; Mazač, M.; Fenkl, M.; Vrbová, Kristýna; Ondráček, Jakub; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2015), s. 1714-1735 ISSN 2073-4433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01438S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : ultrafine particles * nanoparticles * UFP Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 1.221, year: 2015

  1. Engineering survey planning for the alignment of a particle accelerator: part II. Design of a reference network and measurement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Raffaelo Baldo, Crhistian; Collucci da Costa Reis, Maria Luisa; Alves Trabanco, Jorge Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The building blocks of particle accelerators are magnets responsible for keeping beams of charged particles at a desired trajectory. Magnets are commonly grouped in support structures named girders, which are mounted on vertical and horizontal stages. The performance of this type of machine is highly dependent on the relative alignment between its main components. The length of particle accelerators ranges from small machines to large-scale national or international facilities, with typical lengths of hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. This relatively large volume together with micrometric positioning tolerances make the alignment activity a classical large-scale dimensional metrology problem. The alignment concept relies on networks of fixed monuments installed on the building structure to which all accelerator components are referred. In this work, the Sirius accelerator is taken as a case study, and an alignment network is optimized via computational methods in terms of geometry, densification, and surveying procedure. Laser trackers are employed to guide the installation and measure the girders’ positions, using the optimized network as a reference and applying the metric developed in part I of this paper. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of aligning the 220 girders of the Sirius synchrotron to better than 0.080 mm, at a coverage probability of 95%.

  2. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Sanger, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto; Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter; Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing parameters. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane and biodegradable poly(ϵ-caprolactone) were used for fabrication. However, we show that this technique is also suitable for other biocompatible/biodegradable polymers. Various physical and mechanical properties of the dual-pore scaffolds were compared with control scaffolds with either only structured or only random pores, fabricated using previously reported methods. The fabricated dual-pore scaffolds supported high cell density, due to the random pores, in combination with uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold, and higher cell proliferation and viability due to efficient nutrient/oxygen transport through the structured pores. In conclusion, the described fabrication technique is rapid, inexpensive, scalable, and compatible

  3. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Sanger, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter [Danish Polymer Centre, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Søltofts Plads, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-04-01

    Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing parameters. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane and biodegradable poly(ϵ-caprolactone) were used for fabrication. However, we show that this technique is also suitable for other biocompatible/biodegradable polymers. Various physical and mechanical properties of the dual-pore scaffolds were compared with control scaffolds with either only structured or only random pores, fabricated using previously reported methods. The fabricated dual-pore scaffolds supported high cell density, due to the random pores, in combination with uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold, and higher cell proliferation and viability due to efficient nutrient/oxygen transport through the structured pores. In conclusion, the described fabrication technique is rapid, inexpensive, scalable, and compatible

  4. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Sanger, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto; Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter; Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing parameters. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane and biodegradable poly(ϵ-caprolactone) were used for fabrication. However, we show that this technique is also suitable for other biocompatible/biodegradable polymers. Various physical and mechanical properties of the dual-pore scaffolds were compared with control scaffolds with either only structured or only random pores, fabricated using previously reported methods. The fabricated dual-pore scaffolds supported high cell density, due to the random pores, in combination with uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold, and higher cell proliferation and viability due to efficient nutrient/oxygen transport through the structured pores. In conclusion, the described fabrication technique is rapid, inexpensive, scalable, and compatible

  5. Measurement of particle emission in automobil exhaust - application of continuous radiometric aerosol measurement to the emission of diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasenbrink, A.; Georgi, B.

    1989-01-01

    The well-known method of measuring continuously dust by β-absorption is transferred to the problem of particle emission in automobile exhaust. With two similar dust-monitors FH62 having different sampling air flow rates and two low-pressure impactors the reliability of radiometric mass determination was verified. First static experiments with diesel soot showed the necessity of a dilution system, a new mass calibration with regard to the changed β-absorptivity and a quicker calculation of concentration for realtime measurements. (orig.) [de

  6. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  7. Advax™, a novel microcrystalline polysaccharide particle engineered from delta inulin, provides robust adjuvant potency together with tolerability and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2015-11-04

    There is an ongoing need for new adjuvants to facilitate development of vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and cancer, amongst many others. Unfortunately, the most potent adjuvants are often associated with toxicity and safety issues. Inulin, a plant-derived polysaccharide, has no immunological activity in its native soluble form but when crystallized into a stable microcrystalline particulate from (delta inulin) acquires potent adjuvant activity. Delta inulin has been shown to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses against a broad range of co-administered viral, bacterial, parasitic and toxin antigens. Inulin normally crystallizes as large heterogeneous particles with a broad size distribution and variable solubility temperatures. To ensure reproducible delta inulin particles with a consistent size distribution and temperature of solubility, a current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) process was designed to produce Advax™ adjuvant. In its cCMP form, Advax™ adjuvant has proved successful in human trials of vaccines against seasonal and pandemic influenza, hepatitis B and insect sting anaphylaxis, enhancing antibody and T-cell responses while being safe and well tolerated. Advax™ adjuvant represents a novel human adjuvant that enhances both humoral and cellular immunity. This review describes the discovery and development of Advax™ adjuvant and research into its unique mechanism of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering survey planning for the alignment of a particle accelerator: part I. Proposition of an assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Raffaelo Baldo, Crhistian; Collucci da Costa Reis, Maria Luisa; Alves Trabanco, Jorge Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The performance of particle accelerators depends highly on the relative alignment between their components. The position and orientation of the magnetic lenses that form the trajectory of the charged beam is kept to micrometric tolerances in a range of hundreds of meters of the length of the machines. Therefore, the alignment problem is fundamentally of a dimensional metrology nature. There is no common way of expressing these tolerances in terms of terminology and alignment concept. The alignment needs for a certain machine is normally given in terms of deviations between the position of any magnet in the accelerator and the fitted line that relates the actual position of the magnets’ assembly. Root mean square errors and standard deviations are normally used interchangeably and measurement uncertainty is often neglected. Although some solutions have been employed successfully in several accelerators, there is no off-the-shelf solution to perform the alignment. Also, each alignment campaign makes use of different measuring instruments to achieve the desired results, which makes the alignment process a complex measurement chain. This paper explores these issues by reviewing the tolerances specified for the alignment of particle accelerators, and proposes a metric to assess the quality of the alignment. The metric has the advantage of fully integrating the measurement uncertainty in the process.

  9. Study on soot particle formation and oxidation in DI diesel engine; Chokufunshiki diesel kikan ni okeru susu ryushi no seicho sanka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, K; Senda, J; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Asai, G [Yanmar Diesel Engine Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To clarify soot formation and oxidation process in diesel combustion, the natural emission of OH radical and the flame temperature were obtained in the combustion chamber of D.I. diesel engine. Further, soot were detected by LII (Laser Induced Incandescence) and LIS (Laser Induced Scattering) technique to assess the relative soot diameter and its number density. OH emission and flame temperature were compared with data of soot diameter and number- density. The results show that : (1) OH emission has relation to flame temperature. (2) OH emission arises latter than soot emission, because early soot at early combustion consume OH to oxidate. (3) As soon as it is ignited, soot particles are formed in the region of low temperature. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A Simple Engineering Analysis of Solar Particle Event High Energy Tails and Their Impact on Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical models for Solar Particle Event (SPE) high energy tails are constructed with several di erent algorithms. Since limited measured data exist above energies around 400 MeV, this paper arbitrarily de nes the high energy tail as any proton with an energy above 400 MeV. In order to better understand the importance of accurately modeling the high energy tail for SPE spectra, the contribution to astronaut whole body e ective dose equivalent of the high energy portions of three di erent SPE models has been evaluated. To ensure completeness of this analysis, simple and complex geometries were used. This analysis showed that the high energy tail of certain SPEs can be relevant to astronaut exposure and hence safety. Therefore, models of high energy tails for SPEs should be well analyzed and based on data if possible.

  11. Molecular Characterization of the Gas-Particle Interface of Soot Sampled from a Diesel Engine Using a Titration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, A; Salgado, M S; Martín, María Pilar; Lapuerta, M; Rodríguez-Fernández, J; Rossi, M J; Cabañas, B

    2016-03-15

    Surface functional groups of two different types of combustion aerosols, a conventional diesel (EN 590) and a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) soot, have been investigated using heterogeneous chemistry (i.e., gas-particle surface reactions). A commercial sample of amorphous carbon (Printex XE2-B) was analyzed as a reference substrate. A Knudsen flow reactor was used to carry out the experiments under molecular flow conditions. The selected gases for the titration experiments were: N(CH3)3 for the identification of acidic sites, NH2OH for the presence of carbonyl groups, CF3COOH and HCl for basic sites of different strength, and O3 and NO2 for reducing groups. Reactivity with N(CH3)3 indicates a lower density of acidic functionalities for Printex XE2-B in relation to diesel and HVO soot. Results for NH2OH experiments indicates that commercial amorphous carbon exhibits a lower abundance of available carbonyl groups at the interface compared to the results from diesel and HVO soot, the latter being the one with the largest abundance of carbonyl functions. Reactions with acids indicate the presence of weak basic oxides on the particle surface that preferentially interact with the strong acid CF3COOH. Finally, reactions with O3 and NO2 reveal that diesel and especially HVO have a significantly higher reactivity with both oxidizers compared to that of Printex XE2-B because they have more reducing sites by roughly a factor of 10 and 30, respectively. The kinetics of titration reactions have also been investigated.

  12. Responses of Algal Cells to Engineered Nanoparticles Measured as Algal Cell Population, Chlorophyll a, and Lipid Peroxidation: Effect of Particle Size and Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Metzler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated toxicity of three engineered nanoparticles (ENP, namely, Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 to the unicellular green algae, exemplified by Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with an emphasis on particle size. The changes in pH, cell counts, chlorophyll a, and lipid peroxidation were used to measure the responses of the algal species to ENP. The most toxic particle size was TiO2 at 42 nm with an EC20 of 5.2 mg/L and Al2O3 at 14–18 nm with an EC20 of 5.1 mg/L. SiO2 was the least toxic with an EC20 of 318 mg/L. Toxicity was positively related to the surface charge of both ENP and algae. The chlorophyll content of the algal cells was influenced by the presence of ENP, which resulted in limited light and availability of nutrients due to increase in turbidity and nutrient adsorption onto the ENP surface, separately. Lipid peroxidation was attributed to reactive oxygen species (ROS. Fast reaction between algal cells and ROS due to direct contact between TiO2 and algal cells is an important factor for lipid peroxidation.

  13. Surface engineering of zirconium particles by molecular layer deposition: Significantly enhanced electrostatic safety at minimum loss of the energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijun; Yan, Ning; Hao, Haixia; An, Ting; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Because of its high volumetric heat of oxidation, Zr powder is a promising high energy fuel/additive for rocket propellants. However, the application of Zr powder is restricted by its ultra-high electrostatic discharge sensitivity, which poses great hazards for handling, transportation and utilization of this material. By performing molecular layer deposition of polyimide using 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic anhydride and ethylenediamine as the precursors, Zr particles can be uniformly encapsulated by thin layers of the polymer. The thicknesses of the encapsulation layers can be precisely controlled by adjusting the number of deposition cycle. High temperature annealing converts the polymer layer into a carbon coating. Results of thermal analyses reveal that the polymer or carbon coatings have little negative effect on the energy release process of the Zr powder. By varying the thickness of the polyimide or carbon coating, electrostatic discharge sensitivity of the Zr powder can be tuned in a wide range and its uncontrolled ignition hazard can be virtually eliminated. This research demonstrates the great potential of molecular layer deposition in effectively modifying the surface properties of highly reactive metal based energetic materials with minimum sacrifices of their energy densities.

  14. Numerical investigation on soot particles emission in compression ignition diesel engine by using particulate mimic soot model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research via computational method, specifically by detailed-kinetic soot model offers much more advantages than the simple model as more detailed formation/oxidation process is taken into consideration, thus providing better soot mass concentration, soot size, soot number density as well as information regarding other related species. In the present computational study, investigation of in-cylinder soot concentration as well as other emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine has been conducted, using a commercial multidimensional CFD software, CONVERGE CFD. The simulation was carried out for a close-cycle combustion environment from inlet valve closing (IVC to exhaust valve opening (EVO. In this case, detailed-kinetic Particulate Mimic (PM soot model was implemented as to take benefit of the method of moment, instead of commonly implemented simple soot model. Analyses of the results are successfully plotted to demonstrate that the soot size and soot mass concentration are strongly dependent on the detailed soot formation and oxidation process rates. The calculated of soot mass concentration and average soot size at EVO provide the end value of 29.2 mg/m3 and 2.04 × 10−8 m, respectively. Besides, post-processing using EnSight shows the qualitative results of soot concentration along simulation period in the combustion chamber.

  15. Engineered Modular Recombinant Transporters: Application of New Platform for Targeted Radiotherapeutic Agents to α-Particle Emitting 211At

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting 211 At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials: The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[ 211 At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its 125 I analogue SGMIB, or with 131 I using Iodogen. Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results: The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10-20 times more cytotoxic than [ 211 At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted α-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this 211 At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor

  16. Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Burton, Jonathan; Sindler, Petr; Christensen, Earl; Fouts, Lisa; Chupka, Gina M.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results show a range of knock resistances that correlate well with RON. Molecules with relatively low boiling point and high vapor pressure had little effect on PM emissions. In contrast, the aromatic oxygenates caused significant increases in PM emissions (factors of 2 to 5) relative to the base gasoline. Thus, any effect of their oxygen atom on increasing local air-fuel ratio was outweighed by their low vapor pressure and high double-bond equivalent values. For most fuels and oxygenate blend components, PMI was a good predictor of PM emissions. However, the high boiling point, low vapor pressure oxygenates 2-phenylethanol and 2,4-xylenol produced lower PM emissions than predicted by PMI. This was likely because they did not fully evaporate and combust, and instead were swept into the lube oil.

  17. Elementary particles. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this part the subject is covered under the following headings, methods for producing high-energy particles; interaction of high-energy particles with matter; methods for the detection of high-energy particles; symmetry properties and conservation laws; quantum number and selection rules; theorem of scattering behaviour at asymptotically high energies; statistical methods in elementary particle physics; interaction of high-energy particles with nuclei; relations of high-energy physics to other branches of science and its response to engineering. Intended as information on high-energy physics for graduate students and research workers familiar with the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics

  18. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  19. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  20. The Auburn Engineering Technical Assistance Program investigation of polyvinyl alcohol film developments pertaining to radioactive particle decontamination and industrial waste minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Tracey Lawrence

    In this work, an effective and systematic model is devised to synthesize the optimal formulation for an explicit engineering application in the nuclear industry, i.e. radioactive decontamination and waste reduction. Identification of an optimal formulation that is suitable for the desired system requires integration of all the interlacing behaviors of the product constituents. This work is unique not only in product design, but also in these design techniques. The common practice of new product development is to design the optimized product for a particular industrial niche and then subsequent research for the production process is conducted, developed and optimized separately from the product formulation. In this proposed optimization design technique, the development process, disposal technique and product formulation is optimized simultaneously to improve production profit, product behavior and disposal emissions. This "cradle to grave" optimization approach allowed a complex product formulation development process to be drastically simplified. The utilization of these modeling techniques took an industrial idea to full scale testing and production in under 18 months by reducing the number of subsequent laboratory trials required to optimize the formula, production and waste treatment aspects of the product simultaneously. This particular development material involves the use of a polymer matrix that is applied to surfaces as part of a decontamination system. The polymer coating serves to initially "fix" the contaminants in place for detection and ultimate elimination. Upon mechanical entrapment and removal, the polymer coating containing the radioactive isotopes can be dissolved in a solvent processor, where separation of the radioactive metallic particles can take place. Ultimately, only the collection of divided solids should be disposed of as nuclear waste. This creates an attractive alternative to direct land filling or incineration. This philosophy also

  1. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  2. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  3. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1994-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  4. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  5. Nanoscale science and engineering forum (706c) design of solid lipid particles with iron oxide quantum dots for the delivery of therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...

  6. Engineering new bone via a minimally invasive route using human bone marrow derived stromal cell aggregates, micro ceramic particles and human platelet rich plasma gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, Anindita; Yuan, Huipin; Fennema, E.M.; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Renard, A.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There is a rise in the popularity of arthroscopic procedures in orthopedics. However, the majority of cell based bone tissue engineered constructs rely on solid pre-formed scaffolding materials, which require large incisions and extensive dissections for placement at the defect site. Thus, they are

  7. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (advantages over thicker randomly ordered composites, including enhanced cell stability and increased reactivity through minimized diffusion resistance to nutrients and reduced light scattering. This method can be used to precisely deposit live bacteria, cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing 90 hours) photohydrogen production under anoxygenic conditions. Nutrient reduction slows cell division, minimizing coating outgrowth, and promotes photohydrogen generation, improving coating reactivity. Scanning electron microscopy of microstructure revealed how coating reactivity can be controlled by the size and distribution of the nanopores in the biocomposite layers. Variations in colloid microsphere size and suspension composition do not affect coating reactivity, but both parameters alter coating microstructure. Porous paper coated with thin coatings of colloidal particles and cells to enable coatings to be used in a gas-phase without dehydration may offer higher volumetric productivity for hydrogen production. Future work should focus on optimization of cell density, light intensity, media cycling, and acetate concentration.

  8. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B; Silva, Thiago O B; Ingberman, Aline B G; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A; de Marchi, Mary Rosa R; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP(ESR)) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP(ESR) results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100cm(-1) and 1600cm(-1) indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Particle physics experiments 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.

    1993-03-01

    The research programs described here were carried out in 1992 at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and funded by the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The area covered in these experiments is particle physics. Unedited contributions from over forty experimental programs are included. Experiments are listed according to their current status, the accelerator used and its years of operation. (UK)

  10. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M.; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G.; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP"E"S"R) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP"E"S"R results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm"−"1 and 1600 cm"−"1 indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of PM emission

  11. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Brown, Andrew [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo [LAVIE - Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Penteado Neto, Renato A. [Vehicle Emissions Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Pauliquevis, Theotonio [Department of Natural and Earth Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil); Godoi, Ana Flavia L. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP{sup ESR}) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP{sup ESR} results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm{sup −1} and 1600 cm{sup −1} indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of

  12. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P; Montavon, G; Lima, R S; Marple, B R

    2011-01-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  13. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Montavon, G.; Lima, R. S.; Marple, B. R.

    2011-03-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  14. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  15. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...... increase the overall particle burden in air and introduce particles with novel characteristics and surface reactivity. To evaluate safety for pregnant women, we have studied developmental toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), following exposure of pregnant mice by inhalation (ENPs of titanium...

  16. Precipitation Behaviour of Carbonitrides in Ti-Nb-C-N Microalloyed Steels and an Engineering Application with Homogenously Precipitated Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin WANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model enabling calculation of equilibrium carbonitride composition and relative amounts as a function of steel composition and temperature has been developed previously based on the chemical equilibrium method. In the present work, actual carbonitride precipitation behaviour has been verified in the Ti-Nb-C-N microalloyed steels. The Ti microalloyed steel after refining with 0.012 % Nb exhibited highly improved tensile strength without sacrificing ductility. According to further detailed SEM and TEM analysis, the improved mechanical properties of Ti/Nb microalloyed steel could be attributed to the larger solubility of Nb and Ti, inducing fine dispersion of the carbonitrides with particle size of 2 – 10 nm in the ferrite matrix.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9622

  17. Influence analysis of electronically and vibrationally excited particles on the ignition of methane and hydrogen under the conditions of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminskii, M. A.; Konina, K. M.; Potapkin, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    The vibronic and electronic energy relaxation phenomena in the specific conditions of a gas turbine engine were investigated in this paper. The plasma-chemical mechanism has been augmented with the results of recent investigations of the processes that involve electronically and vibrationally excited species. The updated mechanism was employed for the computer simulation of plasma-assisted combustion of hydrogen-air and methane-air mixtures under high pressure and in the range of initial temperatures T  =  500-900 K. The updated mechanism was verified using the experimental data. The influence of electronically excited nitrogen on the ignition delay time was analyzed. The rate coefficient of the vibration-vibration exchange between N2 and HO2 was calculated as well as the rate coefficient of HO2 decomposition.

  18. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines – International Activities Survey (EngToxIn). 2nd Information Report for IEA Implementing Agreement AMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other technical combustion processes contain gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not yet limited by the respective legislations; but may need to be based on ongoing health research findings and some new substances did appear recently, due to the progressing technical developments providing new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. A new approach described here is that the toxic effects of exhaust gases as an aerosol containing gaseous components as well as particulate matter and nanoparticles can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. At several research sites it has been showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used until now. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It also bears the potential of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives information about activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about the available information sources. The general situation and the basic information have not changed much so the chapters 1 and 2 are repeated from the last year report, [1] with only a few modifications. We observe fast increasing research activities concerning health effects worldwide. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and sometimes the results can be directly compared to each other. There are mostly common lines and with appropriate efforts there might be possible ways to

  19. Particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    2000-01-01

    In this article G.Charpak presents the principles on which particle detection is based. Particle accelerators are becoming more and more powerful and require new detectors able to track the right particle in a huge flux of particles. The gigantic size of detectors in high energy physics is often due to the necessity of getting a long enough trajectory in a magnetic field in order to deduce from the curvature an accurate account of impulses in the reaction. (A.C.)

  20. Strange particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinowsky, W.

    1989-01-01

    Work done in the mid 1950s at Brookhaven National Laboratory on strange particles is described. Experiments were done on the Cosmotron. The author describes his own and others' work on neutral kaons, lambda and theta particles and points out the theoretical gap between predictions and experimental findings. By the end of the decade, the theory of strange particles was better understood. (UK)

  1. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...

  2. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  3. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  4. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  5. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  6. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  7. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  8. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  9. Magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  10. Particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    Charged particles are entrained in a predetermined direction, independent of their polarity, in a circular orbit by a magnetic field rotating at high speed about an axis in a closed cylindrical or toroidal vessel. The field may be generated by a cylindrical laser structure, whose beam is polygonally reflected from the walls of an excited cavity centered on the axis, or by high-frequency energization of a set of electromagnets perpendicular to the axis. In the latter case, a separate magnetostatic axial field limits the orbital radius of the particles. These rotating and stationary magnetic fields may be generated centrally or by individual magnets peripherally spaced along its circular orbit. Chemical or nuclear reactions can be induced by collisions between the orbiting particles and an injected reactant, or by diverting high-speed particles from one doughnut into the path of counterrotating particles in an adjoining doughnut

  11. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  12. Metaheuristic optimization in power engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Radosavljević, Jordan

    2018-01-01

    This book describes the principles of solving various problems in power engineering via the application of selected metaheuristic optimization methods including genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization, and the gravitational search algorithm.

  13. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and nuclear physics. For the physicists it is a good introduction to all experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Nuclear engineers will appreciate the nuclear measurement techniques, while biomedical engineers can learn about measuring ionising radiation, the use of accelerators for radiotherapy. What's more, worked examples, end-of-chapter exercises, and appendices with key constants, properties and relationships supplement the textual material. (orig.)

  14. Interaction of Multiple Particles with a Solidification Front: From Compacted Particle Layer to Particle Trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Michel, Brice; Georgelin, Marc; Deville, Sylvain; Pocheau, Alain

    2017-06-13

    The interaction of solidification fronts with objects such as particles, droplets, cells, or bubbles is a phenomenon with many natural and technological occurrences. For an object facing the front, it may yield various fates, from trapping to rejection, with large implications regarding the solidification pattern. However, whereas most situations involve multiple particles interacting with each other and the front, attention has focused almost exclusively on the interaction of a single, isolated object with the front. Here we address experimentally the interaction of multiple particles with a solidification front by performing solidification experiments of a monodisperse particle suspension in a Hele-Shaw cell with precise control of growth conditions and real-time visualization. We evidence the growth of a particle layer ahead of the front at a close-packing volume fraction, and we document its steady-state value at various solidification velocities. We then extend single-particle models to the situation of multiple particles by taking into account the additional force induced on an entering particle by viscous friction in the compacted particle layer. By a force balance model this provides an indirect measure of the repelling mean thermomolecular pressure over a particle entering the front. The presence of multiple particles is found to increase it following a reduction of the thickness of the thin liquid film that separates particles and front. We anticipate the findings reported here to provide a relevant basis to understand many complex solidification situations in geophysics, engineering, biology, or food engineering, where multiple objects interact with the front and control the resulting solidification patterns.

  15. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen

    1992-01-01

    We shall discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection (including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a few ideas on future developments.

  16. Fractals control in particle's velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongping; Liu Shutang; Shen Shulan

    2009-01-01

    Julia set, a fractal set of the literature of nonlinear physics, has significance for the engineering applications. For example, the fractal structure characteristics of the generalized M-J set could visually reflect the change rule of particle's velocity. According to the real world requirement, the system need show various particle's velocity in some cases. Thus, the control of the nonlinear behavior, i.e., Julia set, has attracted broad attention. In this work, an auxiliary feedback control is introduced to effectively control the Julia set that visually reflects the change rule of particle's velocity. It satisfies the performance requirement of the real world problems.

  17. Biomedical applications of magnetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Mefford, Thompson

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic particles are increasingly being used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Written by a team of internationally respected experts, this book provides an up-to-date authoritative reference for scientists and engineers. The first section presents the fundamentals of the field by explaining the theory of magnetism, describing techniques to synthesize magnetic particles, and detailing methods to characterize magnetic particles. The second section describes biomedical applications, including chemical sensors and cellular actuators, and diagnostic applications such as drug delivery, hyperthermia cancer treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging contrast.

  18. Auroral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries

  19. Elementary particles and particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de

  20. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  1. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  2. Irreversible Brownian Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Mesfin Asfaw

    2017-10-01

    We model a Brownian heat engine as a Brownian particle that hops in a periodic ratchet potential where the ratchet potential is coupled with a linearly decreasing background temperature. We show that the efficiency of such Brownian heat engine approaches the efficiency of endoreversible engine η =1-√{{Tc/Th}} [23]. On the other hand, the maximum power efficiency of the engine approaches η ^{MAX}=1-({Tc/Th})^{1\\over 4}. It is shown that the optimized efficiency always lies between the efficiency at quasistatic limit and the efficiency at maximum power while the efficiency at maximum power is always less than the optimized efficiency since the fast motion of the particle comes at the expense of the energy cost. If the heat exchange at the boundary of the heat baths is included, we show that such a Brownian heat engine has a higher performance when acting as a refrigerator than when operating as a device subjected to a piecewise constant temperature. The role of time on the performance of the motor is also explored via numerical simulations. Our numerical results depict that the time t and the external load dictate the direction of the particle velocity. Moreover, the performance of the heat engine improves with time. At large t (steady state), the velocity, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator attain their maximum value. Furthermore, we study the effect of temperature by considering a viscous friction that decreases exponentially as the background temperature increases. Our result depicts that the Brownian particle exhibits a fast unidirectional motion when the viscous friction is temperature dependent than that of constant viscous friction. Moreover, the efficiency of this motor is considerably enhanced when the viscous friction is temperature dependent. On the hand, the motor exhibits a higher performance of the refrigerator when the viscous friction is taken to be constant.

  3. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  4. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  5. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  6. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    , they can migrate far away from their source and they can even spread into the blood circulation and the brain. Transition metals on the surface of particles together with carcinogenic compounds found in the PM have been shown to cause cancer. Diesel ultra-fine particles are mainly elemental carbon, organic carbon and sulphuric acid. Sulphur still exists in diesel fuel in certain regions and if the amount of sulphur in the fuel is reduced, particles are reduced as well. Metallic compounds originate mainly from the lubrication oil, but also from the fuel and engine wear. In urban areas the amounts of particles are usually higher than in rural areas. Regulations for air quality in urban areas have been set to protect people living in the cities. Regulations are also becoming stricter in the field of internal combustion engines and particle numbers along with their mass are regulated in the EURO 6 standard. Diesel PM can be reduced by several means. Reformulating the fuel and lubrication oil directly influences PM emissions while different aftertreatment systems can be used to remove PM from the engine exhaust gases. With a well-optimized injection system, burning is more complete and PM emissions are also reduced. Exposure to particles can be decreased by avoiding busy roads where the level of particles is usually high, having a hobby that involves less exertion and decreasing exercise time. Outdoor activities should be reduced when PM concentration in the air is high. (orig.)

  7. Elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)

  8. Pinpointing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics

  9. Particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1986-02-01

    After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)

  10. Pinpointing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-10-15

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics.

  11. Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)

  12. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  13. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  14. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  15. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  16. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  17. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  18. New particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, A.

    1980-07-01

    Current state of art in the discovery of new elementary particles is reviewed. At present, quarks and mesons are accepted as the basic constituents of matter. The charmonium model (canti-c system), and the 'open charm' are discussed. Explanations are offered for the recent discovery of the heavy lepton tau. Quark states such as the beauty and taste are also dealt with at length. The properties of the tanti-t bound system are speculated. It is concluded that the understanding of canti-c and banti-b families is facilitated by the assumption of the quarkonium model. Implications at the astrophysical level are indicated.

  19. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  20. Non-destructive Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hyeon; Ryu, Taek In; Ko, Jun Bin; Hwang, Yong Hwa

    2006-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of non-destructive engineering on outline of non-destructive test, weld defects, radiographic inspection radiography, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, eddy current inspection method, strain measurement, acoustic emission inspection method, other non-destructive testing like leakage inspection method, and non-destructive mechanics for fault analysis such as Griffiths creaking theory, and stress analysis of creaking.

  1. Particle methods: An introduction with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral Piere Del

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interacting particle methods are increasingly used to sample from complex high-dimensional distributions. They have found a wide range of applications in applied probability, Bayesian statistics and information engineering. Understanding rigorously these new Monte Carlo simulation tools leads to fascinating mathematics related to Feynman-Kac path integral theory and their interacting particle interpretations. In these lecture notes, we provide a pedagogical introduction to the stochastic modeling and the theoretical analysis of these particle algorithms. We also illustrate these methods through several applications including random walk confinements, particle absorption models, nonlinear filtering, stochastic optimization, combinatorial counting and directed polymer models.

  2. Ultrafast Vibrational Spectrometer for Engineered Nanometric Energetic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dlott, Dana

    2002-01-01

    The proposer requested funding for laser equipment that would be used to study engineered nanometric energetic materials consisting of nanometer metal particles, passivation layers and oxidizing binders...

  3. Patchy particles made by colloidal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhe; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Patches on the surfaces of colloidal particles provide directional information that enables the self-assembly of the particles into higher-order structures. Although computational tools can make quantitative predictions and can generate design rules that link the patch motif of a particle to its internal microstructure and to the emergent properties of the self-assembled materials, the experimental realization of model systems of particles with surface patches (or `patchy' particles) remains a challenge. Synthetic patchy colloidal particles are often poor geometric approximations of the digital building blocks used in simulations and can only rarely be manufactured in sufficiently high yields to be routinely used as experimental model systems. Here we introduce a method, which we refer to as colloidal fusion, for fabricating functional patchy particles in a tunable and scalable manner. Using coordination dynamics and wetting forces, we engineer hybrid liquid-solid clusters that evolve into particles with a range of patchy surface morphologies on addition of a plasticizer. We are able to predict and control the evolutionary pathway by considering surface-energy minimization, leading to two main branches of product: first, spherical particles with liquid surface patches, capable of forming curable bonds with neighbouring particles to assemble robust supracolloidal structures; and second, particles with a faceted liquid compartment, which can be cured and purified to yield colloidal polyhedra. These findings outline a scalable strategy for the synthesis of patchy particles, first by designing their surface patterns by computer simulation, and then by recreating them in the laboratory with high fidelity.

  4. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  5. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  6. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  7. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  8. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  9. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  10. Fermilab | Particle Physics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversity Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Science Science Particle Physics Neutrinos Scientific Computing Research & Development Key Discoveries Benefits of Particle Physics Particle Superconducting Test Accelerator LHC and Future Accelerators Accelerators for Science and Society Particle Physics

  11. Particle Systems and PDEs II

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on mathematical problems concerning different applications in physics, engineering, chemistry and biology. It covers topics ranging from interacting particle systems to partial differential equations (PDEs), statistical mechanics and dynamical systems. The purpose of the second meeting on Particle Systems and PDEs was to bring together renowned researchers working actively in the respective fields, to discuss their topics of expertise and to present recent scientific results in both areas. Further, the meeting was intended to present the subject of interacting particle systems, its roots in and impacts on the field of physics, and its relation with PDEs to a vast and varied public, including young researchers. The book also includes the notes from two mini-courses presented at the conference, allowing readers who are less familiar with these areas of mathematics to more easily approach them. The contributions will be of interest to mathematicians, theoretical physicists and other researchers...

  12. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  13. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  14. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  15. Physical characterization of diesel exhaust nucleation mode particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahde, T.

    2013-11-01

    An increasing concern of the adverse health effects of aerosol particles is forcing the combustion engine industry to develop engines with lower particle emissions. The industry has put most of their efforts into soot control and has achieved a significant reduction in diesel exhaust particle mass. Nevertheless, it is not clear that the large particles, dominating the mass, cause the harmfulness of the exhaust particles in the biological interaction. Nowadays, the harmful potential of diesel exhaust particles often connects with the particle surface area, and the view has turned to particle number below 100 nm size range. Unfortunately, the achieved low exhaust particle mass does not necessarily imply a low particle number. This text focuses on the physical characteristics of diesel exhaust nucleation model particles. The volatility characteristics and the electrical charge state of the particles are studied first. Second, the relation between the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions and the soot, the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions and the engine parameters are covered. The nucleation mode particles had distinctively different physical characteristics with different after-treatment systems. The nucleation mode was volatile and electrically neutral with a diesel particle filter after-treatment system. Without an after-treatment system or with an after-treatment system with low particle removal efficiency, the nucleation mode was partly nonvolatile and included an electrical charge. The difference suggests different formation routes for the nucleation particles with different after-treatment systems. The existence of the nonvolatile nucleation mode particles also affected the soot mode charge state. The soot charge state was positively biased when the nonvolatile nucleation mode was detected but slightly negatively biased when the nonvolatile nucleation mode was absent. The nonvolatile nucleation mode was always negatively biased. This electrical charge

  16. Power and particle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ability to exhaust the plasma power loss from a large tokamak onto material walls surrounding the plasma has been perceived to be a large obstacle to the successful production of a fusion power reactor in the past. There have been tremendous strides in understanding the physics relevant to this power exhaust over the past five years. This improvement in understanding has arisen because of both improved diagnostics of the plasma outside the last closed flux surface, and because of improved two dimensional computer models of this plasma. This understanding has led to innovative plasma solutions that reduce the power load to the divertor region of ITER to levels that are acceptable for a successful engineering design of the divertors. These plasma solutions have been realized in the devices that are active today. Analysis using the improved plasma models also indicates that particle control, both of fuel and impurity particles, is adequate for successful operation of ITER. This paper presents the current status of both the experimental and theoretical understanding of the plasma, neutral and atomic physics relevant to the plasma at the edge of fusion devices. Since understanding of the subject of this paper is progressing rapidly, we should emphasize that this paper was written in the spring of 1998 and, as such, presents the status of the subject at that time. (author)

  17. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  18. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation at various loads on diesel engine performance and exhaust particle size distribution using four blends with a research octane number of 70 and diesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Zhu, X.; Somers, L.M.T.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2017-01-01

    Partially premixed combustion using gasoline-like fuels on compression ignition engines shows great potentials to break the soot-nitrogen oxides trade off and reduce both emissions simultaneously. By simply adjusting the dilution strategies and injection events, the control of partially premixed

  19. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  20. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  1. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  2. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  3. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  4. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  5. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  6. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  7. An adjustable Brownian heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfaw, Mesfin; Bekele, Mulugeta

    2002-09-01

    A microscopic heat engine is modeled as a Brownian particle in a sawtooth potential (with load) moving through a highly viscous medium driven by the thermal kick it gets from alternately placed hot and cold heat reservoirs. We found a closed form expression for the current as a function of the parameters characterizing the model. Depending on the values these model parameters take, the engine is also found to function as a refrigerator. Expressions for the efficiency as well as for the refrigerator performance are also reported. Study of how these quantities depend on the model parameters enabled us in identifying the points in the parameter space where the engine performs either with maximum power or with optimized efficiency. The corresponding efficiencies of the engine are then compared with those of the endoreversible and Carnot engines. (author)

  8. Mechanical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  9. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  10. Materials Science & Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  11. Electrical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  12. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  13. Magnetic particles in medical research - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic (or magnetizable) particles have assumed increasing importance in medical and biological research since 1966 when the effect of a magnetic field on the movement of suspended particles was initially studied. In fields like haematology, cell biology, microbiology, biochemistry and immunoassays, they currently provide the basis for separation techniques, which previously relied on gravitational forces. The body cells (e.g., blood cells) can be made magnetic by incubating them in a medium containing several Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ particles, which are adsorbed to the membrane surfaces. Some bacteria (also called magnetostatic bacteria) respond to externally applied magnetic lines of force due to their intracellular magnetic particles. These properties are useful in the isolation of these cells/bacteria. In biochemistry magnetic particles are used to immobilize enzymes without any loss of enzyme activity. The immobilized enzymes can facilitate the separation of end products without extensive instrumentation. In immunoassays the antibodies are covalently linked to polymer coated iron oxide particles. An electromagnet is used to sediment these particles after reaction. This excludes the use of centrifuge to separate antigen-antibody complexes. In pharmacy and pharmacology the magnetic particles are important in drug transport. In techniques like ferrography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), spectroscopic studies and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the magnetic particles serve as contrast agents and give clinically important spatial resolution. Magnetic particles also find extensive applications in cancer therapy, genetic engineering, pneumology, nuclear medicine, radiology and many other fields. This article reviews these applications. (author)

  14. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photos and videos Latest news For the media Particle Physics Neutrinos Fermilab and the LHC Dark matter initiatives Research and development Key discoveries Benefits of particle physics Particle Accelerators society Particle Physics 101 Science of matter, energy, space and time How particle physics discovery

  15. Soot particulate size characterisation in a heavy-duty diesel engine for different engine loads by laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, B.; Ganippa, L.C.; Vliet, van A.P.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence was used to estimate primary particle size distributions inside the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine as a function of the crank angle, for two different engine loads at two different probe locations. Assuming a log-normal particle size

  16. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  17. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  18. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  19. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  20. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  1. Particle theory and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Shafi, Q.; Barr, S.M.; Seckel, D.; Rusjan, E.; Fletcher, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research of professor at Bartol research institute in the following general areas: particle phenomenology and non-accelerator physics; particle physics and cosmology; theories with higher symmetry; and particle astrophysics and cosmology

  2. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  3. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  4. Particle number emissions of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles; Partikelanzahl-Emission bei Hybridfahrzeugen mit Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Scott [Horiba Instruments Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are commonly reputed to be environmentally friendly. Different studies show that this assumption raises some questions in terms of particle number emissions. Against the background that upcoming emission standards will not only limit particle matter emissions but also particle number emissions for gasoline engines, the exhaust behaviour of downsized gasoline engines used in HEV should be investigated more extensively. A Horiba study compares the particle number emissions of a gasoline vehicle to those of a gasoline powered HEV. (orig.)

  5. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Brown, N.A.; Babcock, R.C.; Martono, H.; Carey, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Brown, Nathan A.; Babcock, R. Chris; Martono, Hendy; Carey, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab

  7. Airborne Nanostructured Particles and Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Kuempel, Eileen D.

    2005-12-01

    Nanotechnology is leading to the development in many field, of new materials and devices in many fields that demonstrate nanostructure-dependent properties. However, concern has been expressed that these same properties may present unique challenges to addressing potential health impact. Airborne particles associated with engineered nanomaterials are of particular concern, as they can readily enter the body through inhalation. Research into the potential occupational health risks associated with inhaling engineered nanostructured particles is just beginning. However, there is a large body of data on occupational and environmental aerosols, which is applicable to developing an initial assessment of potential risk and risk reduction strategies. Epidemiological and pathological studies of occupational and environmental exposures to airborne particles and fibers provide information on the aerosol-related lung diseases and conditions that have been observed in humans. Toxicological studies provide information on the specific disease mechanisms, dose-response relationships, and the particle characteristics that influence toxicity, including the size, surface area, chemistry or reactivity, solubility, and shape. Potential health risk will depend on the magnitude and nature of exposures to airborne nanostructured particles, and on the release, dispersion, transformation and control of materials in the workplace. Aerosol control methods have not been well-characterized for nanometer diameter particles, although theory and limited experimental data indicate that conventional ventilation, engineering control and filtration approaches should be applicable in many situations. Current information supports the development of preliminary guiding principles on working with engineered nanomaterials. However critical research questions remain to be answered before the potential health risk of airborne nanostructured particles in the workplace can be fully addressed.

  8. Particulate morphology mathematics applied to particle assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Gotoh, Keishi

    2012-01-01

    Encompassing over fifty years of research, Professor Gotoh addresses the correlation function of spatial structures and the statistical geometry of random particle assemblies. In this book morphological study is formed into random particle assemblies to which various mathematics are applied such as correlation function, radial distribution function and statistical geometry. This leads to the general comparison between the thermodynamic state such as gases and liquids and the random particle assemblies. Although structures of molecular configurations change at every moment due to thermal vibration, liquids can be regarded as random packing of particles. Similarly, gaseous states correspond to particle dispersion. If physical and chemical properties are taken away from the subject, the remainder is the structure itself. Hence, the structural study is ubiquitous and of fundamental importance. This book will prove useful to chemical engineers working on powder technology as well as mathematicians interested in le...

  9. Engines for the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.; Reisz, Al; Wyckoff, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Galactic forces spiral across the cosmos fueled by nuclear fission and fusion and atoms in plasmatic states with throes of constraints of gravitational forces and magnetic fields, In their wanderings these galaxies spew light, radiation, atomic and subatomic particles throughout the universe. Throughout the ages of man visions of journeying through the stars have been wondered. If humans and human devices from Earth are to go beyond the Moon and journey into deep space, it must be accomplished with like forces of the cosmos such as electrical fields, magnetic fields, ions, electrons and energies generated from the manipulation of subatomic and atomic particles. Forms of electromagnetic waves such as light, radio waves and lasers must control deep space engines. We won't get far on our Earth accustomed hydrocarbon fuels.

  10. Workshop: Keeping track of particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-01-15

    How to monitor the beam in a particle accelerator - to measure beam position, intensity, profile, transverse and longitudinal emittance, and losses - was the topic of the first US National Workshop on Accelerator Instrumentation, at Brookhaven in October. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the meeting drew more than a hundred physicists and engineers from other national labs and from industry.

  11. Workshop: Keeping track of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    How to monitor the beam in a particle accelerator - to measure beam position, intensity, profile, transverse and longitudinal emittance, and losses - was the topic of the first US National Workshop on Accelerator Instrumentation, at Brookhaven in October. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the meeting drew more than a hundred physicists and engineers from other national labs and from industry

  12. Data acquisition in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, B.

    1993-01-01

    An introduction to the methodics of the measurement data acquisition in nuclear and particle physics for students of physics as well as experimental physicists and engineers in research and industry. The contents are: Obtaining of measurement data, digitizing and triggers, memories and microprocessors, bus systems, communication and networks, and examples for data acquisition systems

  13. Glycosylation Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  14. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  15. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dilão, Rui

    1996-01-01

    This book is an introductory course to accelerator physics at the level of graduate students. It has been written for a large audience which includes users of accelerator facilities, accelerator physicists and engineers, and undergraduates aiming to learn the basic principles of construction, operation and applications of accelerators.The new concepts of dynamical systems developed in the last twenty years give the theoretical setting to analyse the stability of particle beams in accelerator. In this book a common language to both accelerator physics and dynamical systems is integrated and dev

  17. Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiri, Ugonna; Shields, C Wyatt; Han, Koohee; Tyler, Talmage; Velev, Orlin D; Jokerst, Nan

    2018-05-03

    Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assembly, disassembly, and reconfiguration. Here we introduce a class of semiconductor microparticles that can be comprehensively designed (in size, shape, electric polarizability, and patterned coatings) using standard microfabrication tools. These custom silicon particles draw energy from external electric fields to actively propel, while interacting hydrodynamically, and sequentially assemble and disassemble on demand. We show that a number of electrokinetic effects, such as dielectrophoresis, induced charge electrophoresis, and diode propulsion, can selectively power the microparticle motions and interactions. The ability to achieve on-demand locomotion, tractable fluid flows, synchronized motility, and reversible assembly using engineered silicon microparticles may enable advanced applications that include remotely powered microsensors, artificial muscles, reconfigurable neural networks and computational systems.

  18. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  19. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  20. Engineering personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.

    The expansion of nuclear power is taxing human, material, and capital resources in developed and developing countries. This paper explores the human resources as represented by employment, graduation statistics, and educational curricula for nuclear engineers. (E.C.B.)

  1. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  2. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  3. Geoenvironmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Cheol; Park, Jeong Jun

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.

  4. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  5. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  6. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  7. The relations of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents papers on elementary particle physics, relations between various particles, and the connections between particle physics with other branches of physics. The papers include: Contemporary status and prospects of high-energy physics; Particle physics prospects; and High energy physics

  8. TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) measures the size distribution of aerosols ranging from 10 nm up to 1000 nm. The SMPS uses a bipolar aerosol charger to keep particles within a known charge distribution. Charged particles are classified according to their electrical mobility, using a long-column differential mobility analyzer (DMA). Particle concentration is measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC). The SMPS is well-suited for applications including: nanoparticle research, atmospheric aerosol studies, pollution studies, smog chamber evaluations, engine exhaust and combustion studies, materials synthesis, filter efficiency testing, nucleation/condensation studies, and rapidly changing aerosol systems.

  9. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  10. Review of particle properties. Particle Data Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  11. The Wondrous New World of Modern Particle Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Aksel; Hallman, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the frontiers of particle physics, physicists and engineers are building detectors and making measurements in unusual settings from outer space to far-flung regions of the Earth. In the past several decades, laboratories have been set up deep underground in working mines or mountain tunnels to look at subatomic particles from our…

  12. Hire a Milwaukee Engineer | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  13. Modeling of Engine Parameters for Condition-Based Maintenance of the MTU Series 2000 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    particles in the analysis of engine oil samples (Jiang and Yan 2008). Lee monitors the exhaust gas temperature of the diesel engine for a roll-on...roll-off-passenger commercial vessel (Lee 2013). Jardine, Lin and Banjevic note other monitoring parameters, such as acoustic, moisture , humidity...expressed in terms of a constant y- intercept , , a disturbance, , an independent variable, , their past, −

  14. Effect of compression ratio, nozzle opening pressure, engine load, and butanol addition on nanoparticle emissions from a non-road diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Saxena, Mohit Raj; Rai, Piyush; Bhardwaj, Aashish

    2018-05-01

    Currently, diesel engines are more preferred over gasoline engines due to their higher torque output and fuel economy. However, diesel engines confront major challenge of meeting the future stringent emission norms (especially soot particle emissions) while maintaining the same fuel economy. In this study, nanosize range soot particle emission characteristics of a stationary (non-road) diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Experiments are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm for three compression ratios and nozzle opening pressures at different engine loads. In-cylinder pressure history for 2000 consecutive engine cycles is recorded and averaged data is used for analysis of combustion characteristics. An electrical mobility-based fast particle sizer is used for analyzing particle size and mass distributions of engine exhaust particles at different test conditions. Soot particle distribution from 5 to 1000 nm was recorded. Results show that total particle concentration decreases with an increase in engine operating loads. Moreover, the addition of butanol in the diesel fuel leads to the reduction in soot particle concentration. Regression analysis was also conducted to derive a correlation between combustion parameters and particle number emissions for different compression ratios. Regression analysis shows a strong correlation between cylinder pressure-based combustion parameters and particle number emission.

  15. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  16. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  17. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  18. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  19. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  20. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  1. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  2. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  3. Engineering Obsolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Editor's Note: In this contribution to the series on Hackers, Makers, and Engineers, she tells us about her research on relationships to technological change in a long-lived NASA-ESA software infrastructure project. Her research considers how people live alongside technological change, inhabit...

  4. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  5. Hydrodynamic Capture and Release of Passively Driven Particles by Active Particles Under Hele-Shaw Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, Grant; Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Pak, On Shun

    2018-03-01

    The transport of active and passive particles plays central roles in diverse biological phenomena and engineering applications. In this paper, we present a theoretical investigation of a system consisting of an active particle and a passive particle in a confined micro-fluidic flow. The introduction of an external flow is found to induce the capture of the passive particle by the active particle via long-range hydrodynamic interactions among the particles. This hydrodynamic capture mechanism relies on an attracting stable equilibrium configuration formed by the particles, which occurs when the external flow intensity exceeds a certain threshold. We evaluate this threshold by studying the stability of the equilibrium configurations analytically and numerically. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of typical capture and non-capture events and characterize the basins of attraction of the equilibrium configurations. Our findings reveal a critical dependence of the hydrodynamic capture mechanism on the external flow intensity. Through adjusting the external flow intensity across the stability threshold, we demonstrate that the active particle can capture and release the passive particle in a controllable manner. Such a capture-and-release mechanism is desirable for biomedical applications such as the capture and release of therapeutic payloads by synthetic micro-swimmers in targeted drug delivery.

  6. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  7. Elementary particles and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Paty, M.

    2000-01-01

    The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)

  8. Particle Physics Education Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to home page Particle Physics Education Sites quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites - Physics Alliance - Accelerators at National Laboratories icon Particle Physics Education and Information sites: top

  9. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  10. Review of particle properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, G P; Barnett, R M; Hinchliffe, I; Lynch, G R; Rittenberg, A; Ross, R R; Suzuki, M; Trippe, T G; Wohl, C G; Armstrong, B

    1988-04-14

    This review of the properties of gauge bosons, leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of the Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group (Phys. Lett. 170B (1986)). Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. We continue the more orderly set of particle names implemented in the 1986 edition. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available.

  11. Beyond the God particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lederman, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.

  12. Current achievements and future perspectives on particle simulation technologies for fluid dynamics and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is one of the particle methods in which continuum mechanics is analyzed using the concept of particles. Since meshes are not used, large deformation of free surfaces and material interfaces can be simulated without the problems of mesh distortion. Thus, the MPS method has been applied to multiphase flow analysis in nuclear engineering. The advantages of the particle methods are also useful for applications in other engineering fields: ship engineering, civil engineering, microflow, biomechanics, visualization, etc. In this review, calculation examples are described and classified. Commercial codes have been released and applied in industries. The particle methods are also used in TV programs, movies, and computer games. Combinations of numerical techniques for multiphysics problems, fast calculations, and high-quality visualizations are expected to lead to real-time particle simulations for various new applications in the near future. (author)

  13. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    work is described in these areas: cosmological baryon production; cosmological production of free quarks and other exotic particle species; the quark-hadron transition in the early universe; astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties; massive neutrinos; phase transitions in the early universe; and astrophysical implications of an axion-like particle

  14. Particle-nuclear intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    With the traditional distinctions between particle and nuclear physics becoming increasing blurred, the Fifth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics, held from May 31 to June 6 in St. Petersburg, Florida, brought together particle and nuclear physicists to discuss common research efforts and to define and plan a united approach

  15. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, T.G.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Kelly, R.L.; Rittenberg, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Yost, G.P.; Barash-Schmidt, N.; Bricman, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Losty, M.J.; Roos, M.; Chaloupka, V.; Armstrong, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Phys. Letters 50B, No.1 (1974), and Supplement, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47 (1975) 535]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  16. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  17. Inertial particles in a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Casciola, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Many fields of engineering and physics are characterized by reacting flows seeded with particles of different inertia and dimensions, e.g. solid-propellant rockets, reciprocating engines where carbon particles form due to combustion, vulcano eruptions. Particles are also used as velocity transducers in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of turbulent flames. The effects of combustion on inertial particle dynamics is still poorly understood, despite its relevance for its effects on particle collisions and coalescence, phenomena which have a large influence in soot formation and growth. As a matter of fact, the flame front induces abrupt accelerations of the fluid in a very thin region which particles follow with different lags depending on their inertia. This phenomenon has a large impact on the particle spatial arrangement. The issuing clustering is here analyzed by a DNS of Bunsen turbulent flame coupled with particle Lagrangian tracking with the aim of evaluating the effect of inertia on particle spatial localization in combustion applications. The Eulerian algorith is based on Low-Mach number expansion of Navier-Stokes equations that allow arbitrary density variations neglecting acoustics waves. (orig.)

  18. Inertial particles in a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Casciola, C.M. [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica; Troiani, G. [ENEA C.R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Many fields of engineering and physics are characterized by reacting flows seeded with particles of different inertia and dimensions, e.g. solid-propellant rockets, reciprocating engines where carbon particles form due to combustion, vulcano eruptions. Particles are also used as velocity transducers in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of turbulent flames. The effects of combustion on inertial particle dynamics is still poorly understood, despite its relevance for its effects on particle collisions and coalescence, phenomena which have a large influence in soot formation and growth. As a matter of fact, the flame front induces abrupt accelerations of the fluid in a very thin region which particles follow with different lags depending on their inertia. This phenomenon has a large impact on the particle spatial arrangement. The issuing clustering is here analyzed by a DNS of Bunsen turbulent flame coupled with particle Lagrangian tracking with the aim of evaluating the effect of inertia on particle spatial localization in combustion applications. The Eulerian algorith is based on Low-Mach number expansion of Navier-Stokes equations that allow arbitrary density variations neglecting acoustics waves. (orig.)

  19. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  20. Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . These theoretical studies concentrate mainly on simplified PSO systems. This paper overviews current theoretical studies, and extend these studies to investigate particle trajectories for general swarms to include the influence of the inertia term. The paper also...

  1. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  2. HTGR fuel particle crusher design evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, N.W.

    1978-10-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing engineering-scale fuel particle crushing system for the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Company (GA). The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Reference Facility (HRRF) particle crushing system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for an upgraded design incorporating improvements in bearing and seal arrangement, housing construction, and control of roll gap thermal expansion. 23 figures, 6 tables

  3. CHP from Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Werling, J.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification with a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small combined heat and power plants based on biomass. By combining the two technologies a synergism can potentially be achieved. Technical problems, e.g. gas cleaning and fouling of the Stirling...... engine heat exchanger, can be eliminated and the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a Stirling engine fueled by gasification gas has been developed. In this engine the combustion system and the geometry of the hot heat exchanger...... of the Stirling engine has been adapted to the use of a gas with a low specific energy content and a high content of tar and particles. In the spring of 2001 a demonstration plant has been built in the western part of Denmark where this Stirling engine is combined with an updraft gasifier. A mathematical...

  4. Slowing of charged particles by particle methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-03-01

    We review some facts about particle methods for solving linear hyperbolic equations. We show how one gets an evaluation of integral quantities like: ∫ u(x,t) zeta(x,t) dxdt where u denotes the solution and zeta an arbitrary weight function. Then, we apply the method to the equation describing charged particle transport in a plasma with emphasis on the evaluation of energy deposition on ions and electrons [fr

  5. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  6. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K. Technical Associate; Barnett, R.M.; Groom, D.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. Technical Associate; Wagman, G.S. Technical Associate; Murayama, H.; Stone, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Porter, F.C.; Morrison, R.J.; Manohar, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Lantero, P. Technical Associate; Crawford, R.L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Hayes, K.G.; Hoehler, G.

    1994-01-01

    This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2300 new measurements from 700 papers, we list evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review

  7. Fluidization of spherocylindrical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vinay V.; Nijssen, Tim M. J.; Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Hofman, Jeroen; Kuipers, Hans; Padding, Johan T.

    2017-06-01

    Multiphase (gas-solid) flows are encountered in numerous industrial applications such as pharmaceutical, food, agricultural processing and energy generation. A coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) approach is a popular way to study such flows at a particle scale. However, most of these studies deal with spherical particles while in reality, the particles are rarely spherical. The particle shape can have significant effect on hydrodynamics in a fluidized bed. Moreover, most studies in literature use inaccurate drag laws because accurate laws are not readily available. The drag force acting on a non-spherical particle can vary considerably with particle shape, orientation with the flow, Reynolds number and packing fraction. In this work, the CFD-DEM approach is extended to model a laboratory scale fluidized bed of spherocylinder (rod-like) particles. These rod-like particles can be classified as Geldart D particles and have an aspect ratio of 4. Experiments are performed to study the particle flow behavior in a quasi-2D fluidized bed. Numerically obtained results for pressure drop and bed height are compared with experiments. The capability of CFD-DEM approach to efficiently describe the global bed dynamics for fluidized bed of rod-like particles is demonstrated.

  8. Characterization of ultrafine and fine particles from CHP Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    particles in the emitted PM{sub 0.1} fraction from plant BM3. The measurements at the gas fired CHP plants showed that the overall number of particles emitted from the gas fired engines consisted of ultrafine particles (PM{sub 0.1}). The relatively high emissions of particles from gas fired engines as used in GF1 (natural gas fired) and GF2 (landfill gas fired) are likely to be caused by the addition of lubrication oil to the engines. The EDX analysis showed that all particle size fractions from GF1 and GF2 were primarily dominated by carbon and oxygen, indicating that most of the particles were soot particles consisting of EC (Elemental Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The SEM analysis showed that the particles from GF1 and GF2 were primarily spherical soot particles. The measurements of particle concentrations from the gas oil fired plant GO showed that by number, most of the particles consisted of ultrafine particles (PM{sub 0.1}). However, in contrast to the gas fired plants, a higher share of the particles were in the range between 0.1 mum and 1 mum. As found for the gas fired plants, the EDX analysis showed that all the particle size fractions were dominated by carbon and oxygen. Trace amounts of Si, Ca and Fe were found in some particle fractions. The SEM images of selected particles indicated that the majority of the particles in the PM{sub 0.1} fraction were agglomerations of primary particles with a diameter in the range 30-50 nm. (LN)

  9. Monosodium titanate particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    A characterization study was performed on monosodium titanate (MST) particles to determine the effect of high shear forces expected from the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process pumps on the particle size distribution. The particles were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant changes in particle size distributions were observed between as-received MST and after 2--4 hours of shearing. Both as-received and sheared MST particles contained a large percentage of porosity with pore sizes on the order of 500 to 2,000 Angstroms. Because of the large percentage of porosity, the overall surface area of the MST is dominated by the internal surfaces. The uranium and plutonium species present in the waste solution will have access to both interior and exterior surfaces. Therefore, uranium and plutonium loading should not be a strong function of MST particle size

  10. Visual study of capabilities of managing IC engine filling degree vs engine ecological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Szymon; Ligus, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    The operation of an internal combustion engine in a transient state is related to constant changes in cylinder filling degree. Managing a steady course of engine torque demands constant corrections in the volume of air delivered to the engine. In this work, different engine throttle management strategies were analyzed. The effect of throttle velocity on emissions was depicted. The research has shown that the greatest value of work density is reached by the IC engine for relatively low values of throttle angle. For shown values, disturbances in air flow in engine intake which may adversely affect emissions due to uneven cylinder filling were researched with the use of Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The conducted research has shown significant unevennes in air supply to individual cylinders in the engine. This effect may cause discrepancies in air excess ratio for each cylinder, and result in heightened harmful substance emission.

  11. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  12. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  13. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  14. WCPT4. World Congress on Particle Technology 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Particle Technology continues to provide challenges on a daily basis whether they are of academic or industrial interest. It is one of the most exciting interdisciplinary areas in science and engineering and has an enormous variety of applications spanning many industries, some of which include mining, pharmaceuticals, waste treatment, agriculture, food and chemicals. This conference covers various aspects of Particle Technology with presentations (oral and posters) divided in into four main themes: Particle and Bulk Solids Characterisation; Particle Design and New Technologies; Powder Handling and Multiphase Flow and Solid-Fluid Separation processes. Items relevant to INIS have been separately indexed

  15. Investigating the settling dynamics of cohesive silt particles with particle-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    The settling of cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and the study of the settling process is important for both engineering and environmental reasons. In the settling process, the silt particles show behaviors that are different from non-cohesive particles due to the influence of inter-particle cohesive force. For instance, the flocs formed in the settling process of cohesive silt can loosen the packing, and thus the structural densities of cohesive silt beds are much smaller than that of non-cohesive sand beds. While there is a consensus that cohesive behaviors depend on the characteristics of sediment particles (e.g., Bond number, particle size distribution), little is known about the exact influence of these characteristics on the cohesive behaviors. In addition, since the cohesive behaviors of the silt are caused by the inter-particle cohesive forces, the motions of and the contacts among silt particles should be resolved to study these cohesive behaviors in the settling process. However, studies of the cohesive behaviors of silt particles in the settling process based on particle-resolving approach are still lacking. In the present work, three-dimensional settling process is investigated numerically by using CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method). The inter-particle collision force, the van der Waals force, and the fluid-particle interaction forces are considered. The numerical model is used to simulate the hindered settling process of silt based on the experimental setup in the literature. The results obtained in the simulations, including the structural densities of the beds, the characteristic lines, and the particle terminal velocity, are in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the influences of non-dimensional Bond number and particle polydispersity on the structural densities of silt beds have been investigated separately

  16. Optimizing parameter of particle damping based on Leidenfrost effect of particle flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaofei; Wu, Chengjun; Chen, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Particle damping (PD) has strongly nonlinearity. With sufficiently vigorous vibration conditions, it always plays excellent damping performance and the particles which are filled into cavity are on Leidenfrost state considered in particle flow theory. For investigating the interesting phenomenon, the damping effect of PD on this state is discussed by the developed numerical model which is established based on principle of gas and solid. Furtherly, the numerical model is reformed and applied to study the relationship of Leidenfrost velocity with characteristic parameters of PD such as particle density, diameter, mass packing ratio and diameter-length ratio. The results indicate that particle density and mass packing ratio can drastically improve the damping performance as opposed as particle diameter and diameter-length ratio, mass packing ratio and diameter-length ratio can low the excited intensity for Leidenfrost state. For discussing the application of the phenomenon in engineering, bound optimization by quadratic approximation (BOBYQA) method is employed to optimize mass packing ratio of PD for minimize maximum amplitude (MMA) and minimize total vibration level (MTVL). It is noted that the particle damping can drastically reduce the vibrating amplitude for MMA as Leidenfrost velocity equal to the vibrating velocity relative to maximum vibration amplitude. For MTVL, larger mass packing ratio is best option because particles at relatively wide frequency range is adjacent to Leidenfrost state.

  17. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  18. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyanov, G P; Kobylyatskiy, A V

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept. (paper)

  19. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  20. Lecture II. Charmed particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The discussion of charmed particle spectroscopy covers the particle properties and interrelations from a charmed quark composition point of view including SU(4)-symmetry generalities, mesons, baryons, charmed particle masses, and decays of charmed particles. 6 references

  1. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  2. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  3. LHCb unveils new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration announces the observation of four “exotic” particles from its analysis of the LHC data.   The LHCb experimental cavern. On 28 June, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the LHC. These particles each appear to be formed by four quarks (the fundamental constituents of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe): two quarks and two antiquarks (that is, a tetraquark). Due to their non-standard quark content, the newly observed particles have been included in the broad category of so-called exotic particles, although their exact theoretical interpretation is still under study.            The quark model, proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964, is considered to be the most valid scheme for the classification of hadrons (all the composite particles) that has been fou...

  4. Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  5. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  6. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  7. Music of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, J.

    1983-01-01

    This Note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter [fr

  8. Low energy particle composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1975-01-01

    More than 50 papers presented at this Conference dealt with the composition of low energy particles. The topics can be divided roughly into two broad categories. The first is the study of the energy spectra and composition of the steady or 'quiet-time' particle flux, whose origin is at this time unknown. The second category includes the study of particles and photons which are associated with solar flares or active regions on the sun. (orig.) [de

  9. Music of elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternheimer, J.

    1983-12-12

    This note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter.

  10. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricman, C.; Dionisi, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Mazzucato, M.; Montanet, L.; Barash-Schmidt, N.; Crawford, R.C.; Roos, M.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Horne, C.P.; Kelly, R.L.; Losty, M.J.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Armstrong, B.

    1978-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available. (Auth.)

  11. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  12. Particle correlations at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.; Martin, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Pluta, J.; Sinyukov, Yu.; Stavinsky, A.; Werner, K

    1998-12-31

    The ability of the ALICE detector for determination of the space-time characteristics of particle production in heavy-ion collisions at LHC from measurements of the correlation functions of identical and non-identical particles at small relative velocities is discussed. The possibility to use the correlations of non-identical particles for a direct determination of the delays in emission of various particle species at time scales as small as 10{sup -23} s is demonstrated. The influence of the multi-boson effects on pion multiplicities, single-pion spectra and two-pion correlation functions is discussed. (author) 63 refs.

  13. Particle Correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kress, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Particle correlations are extensively studied to obtain information about the dynamics of hadron production. From 1989 to 2000 the four LEP collaborations recorded more than 16 million hadronic Z0 decays and several thousand W+W- events. In Z0 decays, two-particle correlations were analysed in detail to study Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations for various particle species. In fully-hadronic W+W- decays, particle correlations were used to study whether the two W bosons decay independently. A review of selected results is presented.

  14. Particle Image Velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Vasilevskis, Sandijs; Kozlowski, Bartosz

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive, whole filed optical method providing instantaneous velocity information in fluids. The flow is seeded with tracer particles. The particles are illuminated in the target area with a light sheet at least twice within a short time interval....... The camera images the target area and captures each light pulse in separate image frames. The displacement of the particle between the light pulses can be used to determine the velocity vectors. This guideline introduces the principle of the PIV system and the system configuration. The measurement procedure...

  15. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikasa, K.; Hagiwara, K.; Kawabata, S.; Barnett, R.M.; Groom, D.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Wohl, C.G.; Yost, G.P.; Armstrong, B. Technical Associate; Wagman, G.S. Technical Associate; Stone, J.; Porter, F.C.; Morrison, R.J.; Cutkosky, R.E.; Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K. Technical Associate; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Crawford, R.L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Hayes, K.G.; Hoehler, G.; Manley, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this Review, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, the top quark, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some other sections of this full Review

  16. Elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1984-12-01

    The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

  17. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  18. Particle Physics & Astrophysics (PPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Scientists at SLAC's Particle Physics and Astrophysics develop and utilize unique instruments from underground to outer space to explore the ultimate laws of nature...

  19. Engineering Encounters: Teaching Educators about Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina M.; Raman, D. Raj; Lamm, Monica H.; Sundararajan, Sriram; Estapa, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance science teaching. This month's issue describes preservice elementary teachers learning engineering principles from engineers. Few elementary teachers have experience with implementing engineering into the classroom. While engineering professional development opportunities for inservice teachers…

  20. Transport phenomena in environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav

    2018-01-01

    A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.

  1. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricocchi, Antonio; Bartz, Andi; Wortman, David

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micron (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  2. Particle Swarm Optimisation with Spatial Particle Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Vesterstrøm, Jakob Svaneborg; Riget, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce spatial extension to particles in the PSO model in order to overcome premature convergence in iterative optimisation. The standard PSO and the new model (SEPSO) are compared w.r.t. performance on well-studied benchmark problems. We show that the SEPSO indeed managed...

  3. Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...

  4. Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.

  5. An engineering context for software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riehle, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    New engineering disciplines are emerging in the late Twentieth and early Twenty-first Century. One such emerging discipline is software engineering. The engineering community at large has long harbored a sense of skepticism about the validity of the term software engineering. During most of the fifty-plus years of software practice, that skepticism was probably justified. Professional education of software developers often fell short of the standard expected for conventional engineers; so...

  6. Engineers, scientists to benefit from CERN agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi will later this week sign a memorandum of understanding with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva (CERN), the largest laboratory of its kind in the world, which will create new opportunities for Maltese engineers and scientists.

  7. Particle size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  8. Elementary particle theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovich, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces notation, terminology, and basic ideas of relativistic quantum theories. The discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum logics to the construction of Poincaré invariant few-particle models of interaction and scattering. It is the first of three volumes formulating a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting charged particles.

  9. History of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  10. Light particles in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagendra Prakash, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in

  11. Particle physics instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, W.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of three lectures aimed at giving an overview of basic particle detection principles, the interaction of particles with matter, the application of these principles in modern detector systems, as well techniques to read out detector signals in high-rate experiments. (author)

  12. Particles, contacts, bulk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Tomas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Granular matter consists of discrete “particles”. These can be separate sand-grains, agglomerates (made of many primary particles), or solid materials like rock, composites, or metal-alloys—all with particulate inhomogeneous, possibly anisotropic micro-structure. Particles can be as small as

  13. Particle Astrophysics of Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amol Dighe

    Energy spectra of neutrino sources. ASPERA. Page 4. Some unique features of neutrinos. The second most abundant particles in the universe. Cosmic microwave background photons: 400 / cm3. Cosmic background neutrinos: 330 / cm3. The lightest massive particles. A million times lighter than the electron. No direct mass ...

  14. Astro-particle-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1985-09-01

    Opening remarks at the Fourth Marcel Grossman Meeting, 17-21 June 1985, in Rome, Italy, are reported. The meeting was concerned with the symbiosis of cosmology and particle physics. Numerous connections between work in particle physics and cosmology, in both experimental and theoretical areas, are pointed out

  15. When is a particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of elementary constituents or ultimate building blocks of nature in recent years is reviewed. The quark hypothesis, neutrinos, color, hard collisions, psi and other recent resonances, flavor, quantum chromodynamics, the tau particle, and particle structure are among the ideas considered. 22 references

  16. Concepts of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Weisskopf, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    This volume elucidates basic and well-established concepts of particle physics for the autodidact who is curious about recent developments in fundamental physics. Elementary quantum mechanics is a background must. Contents, abridged: The evolution of the particle concept before the advent of quantum mechanics. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and atomic physics. Relativistic quantum theory. Nuclear phenomena. Subnuclear phenomena. Index

  17. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  18. Optics of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Suitable for both the specialist and non-specialist, this book develops all statements from first principles. Key chapters of the book focus upon how to design particle-optical systems, the systematics of image abberations, the effects of fringing fields, systematics of beams, and solutions for particle-optical systems. An undergraduate background in physics and mathematics is required for this work

  19. Introduction to particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitoun, R.

    2000-01-01

    This book proposes an introduction to particle physics that requires only a high-school level mathematical knowledge. Elementary particles (leptons, quarks, bosons) are presented according to a modern view taking into account of their symmetries and interactions. The author shows how physicists have elaborated the standard model and what are its implications in cosmology. (J.S.)

  20. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  1. Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.

  2. Teaching particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, P

    2000-01-01

    Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students. (0 refs).

  3. Particles, imaging and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    1986-01-01

    The book on particles, imaging and nuclei is one of the Background Readers for the Revised Nuffield Advanced Physics course. The contents contain five educational articles, which extend concepts covered in the course and examine recent developments in physics. Four of the articles on:- particles and the forces of nature, radioisotopes, lasers probe the atomic nucleus, and nuclear history, are indexed separately. (UK)

  4. Mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Division provides the other NAC divisions with design and construction services. Items of special mechanical significance are discussed here. The projects which received major design attention during the past year were: a coupling capacitor for SPC2; a bending magnet and solenoid for ECR ion source; a scanner for outer orbits of the SSC; a scattering chamber for an experimental beamline; a beam swinger; a rotary target magazine for isotope production; a robot arm for isotope production; an isotope transport system and a target cooling system for isotope production. The major projects that were under construction are: a magnetic spectrometer; a second injector cyclotron (SPC2) and extensions to the high-energy beamlines. 4 figs

  5. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  6. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  7. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  8. Evolution Engines and Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, Andreas; Becks, Karl-Heinz

    In the last years artificial intelligence has achieved great successes, mainly in the field of expert systems and neural networks. Nevertheless the road to truly intelligent systems is still obscured. Artificial intelligence systems with a broad range of cognitive abilities are not within sight. The limited competence of such systems (brittleness) is identified as a consequence of the top-down design process. The evolution principle of nature on the other hand shows an alternative and elegant way to build intelligent systems. We propose to take an evolution engine as the driving force for the bottom-up development of knowledge bases and for the optimization of the problem-solving process. A novel data analysis system for the high energy physics experiment DELPHI at CERN shows the practical relevance of this idea. The system is able to reconstruct the physical processes after the collision of particles by making use of the underlying standard model of elementary particle physics. The evolution engine acts as a global controller of a population of inference engines working on the reconstruction task. By implementing the system on the Connection Machine (Model CM-2) we use the full advantage of the inherent parallelization potential of the evolutionary approach.

  9. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  10. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  11. Particle-assisted wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Yan Feng; Tierno, Pietro; Marczewski, Dawid; Goedel, Werner A

    2005-01-01

    Wetting of a solid surface by a liquid is dramatically impeded if either the solid or the liquid is decorated by particles. Here it is shown that in the case of contact between two liquids the opposite effect may occur; mixtures of a hydrophobic liquid and suitable particles form wetting layers on a water surface though the liquid alone is non-wetting. In these wetting layers, the particles adsorb to, and partially penetrate through, the liquid/air and/or the liquid/water interface. This formation of wetting layers can be explained by the reduction in total interfacial energy due to the replacement of part of the fluid/fluid interfaces by the particles. It is most prominent if the contact angles at the fluid/fluid/particle contact lines are close to 90 0

  12. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  13. Towards localization of engineered silver nanoparticles in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch

    Silver nanoparticles have increased cytotoxic properties compared to larger particles. Reflecting these properties, engineered silver nanoparticles are now added to an increasing number of consumer products often labelled as anti-bacterial. These particles are presently considered the fastest...... growing nanotechnology application. Accordingly, silver nanoparticles are now postulated to be released into the sewerage systems and wider environment in increasing quantities. Here they could potentially interfere with aquatic life and this ongoing project aims to localize possible particles taken up...

  14. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photos and videos Latest news For the media Particle Physics Neutrinos Fermilab and the LHC Dark matter initiatives Research and development Key discoveries Benefits of particle physics Particle Accelerators society Particle Physics 101 Science of matter, energy, space and time How particle physics discovery

  15. Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Lähde, Tero; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle technology development and upcoming particle emission limits have increased the need for detailed analyses of particle emissions of vehicles using gasoline direct injection (GDI) techniques. In this paper the particle emission characteristics of modern GDI passenger cars were studied in a laboratory and on the road, with the focus on exhaust particle number emissions, size distributions, volatility and morphology. Both during acceleration and steady conditions the number size distribution of nonvolatile exhaust particles consisted of two modes, one with mean particle size below 30 nm and the other with mean particle size approximately 70 nm. Results indicate that both of these particles modes consisted of soot but with different morphologies. Both in laboratory and on the road, significant emissions of exhaust particles were observed also during decelerations conducted by engine braking. These particles are most likely originating from lubricant oil ash components. The semivolatile nucleation particles were observed in the laboratory experiments at high engine load conditions. Thus, in general, the study indicates that a modern gasoline vehicle can emit four distinctive types of exhaust particles. The differences in particle characteristics and formation should be taken into account in the development of emission control strategies and technologies and, on the other hand, in the assessment of the impact of particle emissions on environment and human health.

  16. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  17. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R. [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  18. Emplacement engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Ernest E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Emplacement Engineering can be defined as that portion of a nuclear explosive project that is concerned with the emplacement of the explosive. This definition would then include virtually everything except the design and fabrication of the explosive and the post-shot-effects program. For future commercial application, the post-shot-effects program will essentially disappear. This emplacement portion of a nuclear explosive project constitutes a large fraction of the total project cost, but it has largely been overshadowed by the explosive and explosive-effects portions. As we move into commercial applications. Emplacement Engineering must receive more attention from both industry and government. To place emplacement costs in their proper relationship with total projects costs, we have performed a study of commercial underground nuclear explosive applications such as gas stimulation. Although there are many intangibles in such a study, we have been able to at least obtain some feel for the relative fractional costs of the non-explosive costs compared with the explosive costs. This study involved estimating the cost elements for applications using a single explosive at 5,000 ft, 10,000 ft, and 15,000 ft. For each depth, the cost estimates were made for a range of emplacement hole and explosive diameters. Results of these estimates for explosive-related costs, hole-related costs, and total costs are shown for the three depths. Note that the explosive package outside diameter is assumed as 2 inches less than the hole (or casing) inside diameter for all cases. For the 5,000-ft application the explosive-related costs dominate, and of particular importance is the indicated diameter for minimum total cost which occurs at approximately a 17.5-in. hole (15.5-in. explosive). The hole-related costs are in 'the same range as the explosive-related costs for the 10,000-ft application. For this case, the minimum total cost occurs at approximately a 14-in. hole (12-in. explosive

  19. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern.......What is an engineer? Or maybe better: how are engineers, and how are they “gebilded” in order to be able to be called engineers? In order to shed some light on this question we could ask: How is the relation between engineering and the making of an engineer, or the relation between engineering...

  20. Linear particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target

  1. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  2. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz, Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  3. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  4. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot......This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...

  5. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  6. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A brief overview is given of recent work that integrates cosmology and particle physics. The observational data regarding the abundance of matter and radiation in the Universe is described. The manner in which the cosmological survival density of stable massive particles can be calculated is discussed along with the process of cosmological nucleosynthesis. Several applications of these general arguments are given with reference to the survival density of nucleons, neutrinos and unconfined fractionally charge particles. The use of nucleosynthesis to limit the number of lepton generations is described together with the implications of a small neutrino mass for the origin of galaxies and clusters. (Auth.)

  7. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  8. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  9. Cosmology and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigman, G [California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bartol Research Foundation, Newark, Delaware (USA))

    1982-01-29

    The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses.

  10. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srednicki, M.

    1990-01-01

    At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focusses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. State of Aircraft Turboshaft Engines by Means of Tribotechnical Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalčová, Janka

    2018-03-01

    The contribution describes concrete example of application of tribotechnical methods for the determination of the bearing wear state in aircraft turboshaft engines. Tribotechnical methods, which will be mentioned, deal with qualitative and quantitative characterization of particles occurred in oil. Here belong method optical emission spectrometry method with rotating disc electrode for determination of chemical elements concentration in oil. Method of optical particles counting for detection of particles distribution according to their scale, determination of their number and ferrographic analysis. Exploitation of these methods make it possible to determine quickly and correctly the friction regime and wearing of friction pair that is washed by oil in observed engines.

  12. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  13. Engineering allostery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or as orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most crucial for allostery to be identified. This approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G protein-coupled receptors, and protein kinases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound in environmental engineering. Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehm, A; Neis, U [eds.

    1999-07-01

    This book presents recent research and state-of-the-art information on the scientific basis, modes of use, and engineering developments of ultrasound application in the field of environmental protection. The information is loosely grouped into the following themes: ultrasound and sonochemistry, design of sonoreactors, applications in water, waste water and sludge treatment: aggregation of suspended particles, degradation of hazardous pollutants, disinfection, disintegration of biosolids. Ultrasound is generated and applied at frequencies from 20 kHz to several MHz. Reactor design, applied intensity, duration of sonication, and physico-chemical parameters of the sonicated media influence ultrasound effects. Thus, ultrasound, at a first glance, is a complex and probably confusing matter. This book has been compiled from presentations held at the first workshop 'Ultrasound in Environmental Engineering' on March 22nd and 23rd, 1999, at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg in cooperation with the German Association for the Water Environment (ATV) and the DECHEMA e.V. (orig.)

  15. Quantifying the motion of magnetic particles in excised tissue: Effect of particle properties and applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Sandip, E-mail: sandip.d.kulkarni@gmail.com [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ramaswamy, Bharath; Horton, Emily; Gangapuram, Sruthi [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Nacev, Alek [Weinberg Medical Physics, LLC (United States); Depireux, Didier [The Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States); Shimoji, Mika [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States); Shapiro, Benjamin [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); The Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a method to investigate how magnetic particle characteristics affect their motion inside tissues under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Particles are placed on top of freshly excised tissue samples, a calibrated magnetic field is applied by a magnet underneath each tissue sample, and we image and quantify particle penetration depth by quantitative metrics to assess how particle sizes, their surface coatings, and tissue resistance affect particle motion. Using this method, we tested available fluorescent particles from Chemicell of four sizes (100 nm, 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm diameter) with four different coatings (starch, chitosan, lipid, and PEG/P) and quantified their motion through freshly excised rat liver, kidney, and brain tissues. In broad terms, we found that the applied magnetic field moved chitosan particles most effectively through all three tissue types (as compared to starch, lipid, and PEG/P coated particles). However, the relationship between particle properties and their resulting motion was found to be complex. Hence, it will likely require substantial further study to elucidate the nuances of transport mechanisms and to select and engineer optimal particle properties to enable the most effective transport through various tissue types under applied magnetic fields.

  16. The mathematics of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematics of nuclear engineering is considered with especial reference to the problems of; the representation of the transformation of matter at the nuclear level by radioactive decay and neutron transmutation, the problem of the distribution of neutrons and other particles as a transport theory problem including some of the approximation methods used in this problem, particularly diffusion theory with particular emphasis on steady-state problems, time-dependent reactor kinetic and control, and the longer term changes involved with the nuclear fuel cycle both within and without the reactor itself. (U.K.)

  17. Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Dennis M

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of this book is quantum mechanics, as the title indicates.  It specifically targets those topics within quantum mechanics that are needed to understand modern semiconductor theory.   It begins with the motivation for quantum mechanics and why classical physics fails when dealing with very small particles and small dimensions.  Two key features make this book different from others on quantum mechanics, even those usually intended for engineers:   First, after a brief introduction, much of the development is through Fourier theory, a topic that is at

  18. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1992-10-01

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out

  19. Particle physics experiments 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1989 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  20. The Acquisition of Particles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process of language acquisition on the basis of linguistic evidence the child is exposed to. ..... particle verbs are recognized in language processing differs from the way morphologically ..... In Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11.

  1. Particle physics experiments 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1987 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel (United Kingdom). The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  2. Particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory describes the work carried out in 1985 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  3. Particle physics experiments 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory report describes work carried out in 1984 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics selection panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  4. Modern particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079874

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book

  5. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Solovev, V

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  6. Blog: the God particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Dateline video journalist Aaron Lewis this week reprots on the search to find the elusive "God particle", which, if found, could explain to scientists how everything in the world got its mass."(1/2 page)

  7. Research in particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

    1991-10-01

    In the test particle approximation, the scattering amplitude for two-particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and supergravity was computed and compared to the corresponding metric solutions. The formalism was then extended to the exact gauge theoretic treatment of the two-particle scattering problem and compared to 't Hooft's results from the metric approach. We have studied dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We have analyzed strong Extended Technicolor (ETC) models where the ETC coupling is close to a critical value. There are effective scalar fields in each of the theories. We have worked our how such scalar particles can be produced and how they decay. The φ 4 field theory was investigated in the Schrodinger representation. The critical behavior was extracted in an arbitrary number of dimensions in second order of a systematic truncation approximation. The correlation exponent agrees with known values within a few percent

  8. Particle Engulfment and Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As a liquefied metal solidifies, particles dispersed in the liquid are either pushed ahead of or engulfed by the moving solidification front. Similar effects can be seen when the ground freezes and pushes large particles out of the soil. The Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP) experiment, conducted aboard the fourth U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) mission in 1997, used a glass and plastic beads suspended in a transparent liquid. The liquid was then frozen, trapping or pushing the particles as the solidifying front moved. This simulated the formation of advanced alloys and composite materials. Such studies help scientists to understand how to improve the processes for making advanced materials on Earth. The principal investigator is Dr. Doru Stefanescu of the University of Alabama. This image is from a video downlink.

  9. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    CERN Multimedia

    Franck Close

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  10. Meta Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  11. NDE in biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Aditya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering (BME) is an interdisciplinary field, marking the conjunction of Medical and Engineering disciplines. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy

  12. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-01-01

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine

  13. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  14. PARTICLE BEAMS: Frontier course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Driven by the quest for higher energies and optimal physics conditions, the behaviour of particle beams in accelerators and storage rings is the subject of increasing attention. Thus the second course organized jointly by the US and CERN Accelerator Schools looked towards the frontiers of particle beam knowledge. The programme held at South Padre Island, Texas, from 23-29 October attracted 125 participants including some 35 from Europe

  15. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Schramm, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year, the research of the members of our group has spanned virtually all the topics at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: inflationary Universe scenarios, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties, ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics, quantum field theory in curved space-time, cosmology with extra dimensions, superstring cosmology, neutrino astronomy with large, underground detectors, and the formation of structure in the Universe

  16. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  17. PARTICLE BEAMS: Frontier course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-15

    Driven by the quest for higher energies and optimal physics conditions, the behaviour of particle beams in accelerators and storage rings is the subject of increasing attention. Thus the second course organized jointly by the US and CERN Accelerator Schools looked towards the frontiers of particle beam knowledge. The programme held at South Padre Island, Texas, from 23-29 October attracted 125 participants including some 35 from Europe.

  18. The Least Particle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsock, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The Least Particle Theory states that the universe was cast as a great sea of energy. MaX Planck declared a quantum of energy to be the least value in the universe. We declare the quantum of energy to be the least particle in the universe. Stephen Hawking declared quantum mechanics to be of no value in todays gross mechanics. That's like saying the number 1 has no place in mathematics.

  19. Single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, P.J.; Jensen, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the opening of the 3-quasiparticle continuum at 3Δ sets the energy scale for the enhancement of the effective mass near the Fermi surface of nuclei. The authors argue that the spreading width of single-particle states due to coupling with low-lying collective modes is qualitatively different from the two-body collision mechanism, and contributes little to the single-particle lifetime in the sense of the optical model. (orig.)

  20. Particle physics experiments 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)

  1. Gravity, particles and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The author deals with the relationship between gravitation and elementary particle physics, and the implications of these subjects for astrophysics. The text is split up into two parts. The first part represents a relatively non-technical overview of the subject, while the second part represents a technical examination of the most important aspects of non-Einsteinian gravitational theory and its relation to astrophysics. Relevant references from the fields of gravitation, elementary particle theory and astrophysics are included. (Auth.)

  2. Particle electric dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Pendlebury, J M

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of particle electric dipole moments (EDMs) continue to put powerful constraints on theories of T-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, which form currently one of the most prominent fields in particle physics. EDM measurements have been concentrated on neutral systems such as the neutron and atoms and molecules. These measurements allow one to deduce, in turn, the electric dipole moments of the fundamental fermions, that is, the lighter leptons and quarks and also those of some heavy nuclei.

  3. Light scattering by nonspherical particles theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Travis, Larry D

    1999-01-01

    There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid part

  4. Search for new charged massive stable particles at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    We report on a general search at CDF for new particles which are electrically charged and sufficiently long-lived to allow detection (γ c τ >= 1m). Examples of such particles include free quarks, 4th generation leptons which are lighter than their neutrino, and sextet quarks. Their signature would be particles with high momentum but relatively low velocity, β Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

  5. Meta-material for nuclear particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Vannozzi, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting strips coated with boron were engineered with a view to subnuclear particle detection. Combining the characteristics of boron as a generator of α-particles (as a consequence of neutron absorption) and the ability of superconducting strips to act as resistive switches, it is shown that fabricated Nb-boron and NbN-boron strips represent a promising basis for implementing neutron detection devices. In particular, the superconducting transition of boron-coated NbN strips generates voltage outputs of the order of a few volts thanks to the relatively higher normal state resitivity of NbN with respect to Nb. This result, combined with the relatively high transition temperature of NbN (of the order of 16 K for the bulk material), is an appealing prospect for future developments. The coated strips are meta-devices since their constituting material does not exist in nature and it is engineered to accomplish a specific task, i.e. generate an output voltage signal upon α-particle irradiation.

  6. Dispersal of sticky particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramana; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we show through simulations that when sticky particles are broken continually, particles are dispersed into fine dust only if they are present in a narrow range of volume fractions. The upper limit of this range is 0.20 in the 2D and 0.10 in the 3D space. An increase in the dimensionality of space reduces the upper limit nearly by a factor of two. This scaling holds for dispersal of particles in hyperdimensional space of dimensions up to ten, the maximum dimension studied in this work. The maximum values of volume fractions obtained are significantly lower than those required for close packing and random packing of discs in 2D and spheres in 3D space. These values are also smaller than those required for critical phenomena of cluster percolation. The results obtained are attributed to merger cascades of sticky particles, triggered by breakup events. A simple theory that incorporates this cascade is developed to quantitatively explain the observed scaling of the upper limit with the dimensionality of space. The theory also captures the dynamics of the dispersal process in the corresponding range of particle volume fractions. The theory suggests that cascades of order one and two predominantly decide the upper limit for complete dispersal of particles.

  7. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  8. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as…

  9. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  10. spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)

  11. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  12. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  13. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  14. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  15. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  16. ESF collection effectiveness, a study in fine particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winegardner, W.K.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1985-04-01

    The characterization and dynamic behavior of fine particles are the main subjects of an ongoing investigation of the particle collection effectiveness of the engineered safety feature (ESF) systems in nuclear power plants. This investigation is part of a larger study of the release of radionuclides to the environment from such plants during postulated accidents that are severe but extremely unlikely. The ESF systems are installed to prevent the occurrence of severe accidents or mitigate their consequences. Several of these engineered systems can serve as particle collection devices. This report focuses on the analytical models that were developed to predict particle behavior in two systems that were not specifically designed for particle retention: the ice compartments of ice condenser containment systems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and the suppression pools of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). The following section summarizes the topics considered in the development of models and computer codes for estimating the particle retention effectiveness of these two ESF systems. After the summary this paper describes the two ESF systems in more detail and discusses the behavior of particles in both situations

  17. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  18. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  19. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  20. Particle formation with supercritical fluids challenges and limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Türk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on ...

  1. pyParticleEst: A Python Framework for Particle-Based Estimation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerker Nordh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Particle methods such as the particle filter and particle smoothers have proven very useful for solving challenging nonlinear estimation problems in a wide variety of fields during the last decade. However, there are still very few existing tools available to support and assist researchers and engineers in applying the vast number of methods in this field to their own problems. This paper identifies the common operations between the methods and describes a software framework utilizing this information to provide a flexible and extensible foundation which can be used to solve a large variety of problems in this domain, thereby allowing code reuse to reduce the implementation burden and lowering the barrier of entry for applying this exciting field of methods. The software implementation presented in this paper is freely available and permissively licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, and runs on a large number of hardware and software platforms, making it usable for a large variety of scenarios.

  2. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  3. Role of engine age and lubricant chemistry on the characteristics of EGR soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Olusanmi Adeniji

    Exhaust products of Diesel Engines serves as an environmental hazard, and to curtail this problem a Tier 3 emission standard was introduced which involves change in engine designs and introduction of EGR systems in Diesel engines. EGR systems, however has the challenge of generating soot which are abrasive and are major causes of wear in Diesel engines. This work has studied the characteristics of EGR soot formed in different range of engine age and in different lubricant chemistries of Mineral and Synthetic based diesel Oils. It is found that lubricant degradation is encouraged by less efficient combustion as engine age increases, and these are precursors to formation of crystalline and amorphous particles that are causes of wear in Diesel Engines. It is found that soot from new engine is dominated by calcium based crystals which are from calcium sulfonate detergent, which reduces formation of second phase particles that can be abrasive. Diversity and peak intensity is seen to increase in soot samples as engine age increases. This understanding of second phase particles formed in engines across age ranges can help in the durability development of engine, improvement of Oil formulation for EGR engines, and in development of chemistries for after-treatment Oil solutions that can combat formation of abrasive particles in Oils.

  4. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  5. Self-sensing piezoresistive cement composite loaded with carbon black particles

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.; Cachim, Paulo B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Strain sensors can be embedded in civil engineering infrastructures to perform real-time service life monitoring. Here, the sensing capability of piezoresistive cement-based composites loaded with carbon black (CB) particles is investigated. Several

  6. Proceedings of 20. Symposium of Malaysian Chemical Engineers (SOMChE 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the symposium is to provide a platform for participants and relevant chemical engineering community to meet and encourage expertise and knowledge sharing and to allow recent chemical engineering research and innovation works to be properly documented, displayed and made known to interested parties. The subjects discussed are advanced material modeling and simulation bioprocess, catalysis, chemical engineering education (outcome-based education), computational fluid dynamics, drying technology, energy, environment, fine chemicals, food engineering, oil and gas, oleochemical, particle technology, petrochemical, pharmaceutical engineering, polymer technology, process control, process system, engineering, reaction engineering, renewable energy, separation

  7. Proton: the particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Proton: The Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  9. Nature-inspired computation in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This timely review book summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in engineering. Algorithms and topics include the overview and history of nature-inspired algorithms, discrete firefly algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, plant propagation algorithm, parameter-free bat algorithm, gravitational search, biogeography-based algorithm, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and others. Applications include vehicle routing, swarming robots, discrete and combinatorial optimization, clustering of wireless sensor networks, cell formation, economic load dispatch, metamodeling, surrogated-assisted cooperative co-evolution, data fitting and reverse engineering as well as other case studies in engineering. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers, lecturers, graduates and engineers who are interested in nature-inspired computation, artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. It can also serve as a reference for relevant...

  10. Entanglement between particle partitions in itinerant many-particle states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, M.; Zozulya, O.S.; Schoutens, K.

    2009-01-01

    We review 'particle-partitioning entanglement' for itinerant many-particle systems. This is defined as the entanglement between two subsets of particles making up the system. We identify generic features and mechanisms of particle entanglement that are valid over whole classes of itinerant quantum

  11. Fractal-like dimension of nanometer Diesel soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillas, G.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Measurements with a low-pressure impactor and a differential mobility analyser were conducted for Diesel soot at various engine loads. By means of these measurements a fractal-like dimension of Diesel soot particles, with diameters ranging from 55 up to 260 nm, was established. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  12. Particle detectors based on InP Schottky diodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2012), C100051-C100055 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10021; GA MŠk LD12014 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Particle detector * High purity InP layer * Schottky diode Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  13. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Neutron particle injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma particles are used as target particles for converting ions to neutral particles by a charge exchange reaction in a neutralization cell, and a neutralization cell is disposed in adjacent with drawing electrodes. In addition, a magnetic field generation means is disposed additionally for generating magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions. The intensity of electric fields between the drawing electrode at the downmost stream and the nearest electrode, among electrodes present at the upstream, is made smaller than the intensity of electric fields between other electrodes. Since magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions are generated, the ions are prevented from being accelerated in the direction reverse to the progressing direction thereby further enhancing the neutralization efficiency of the neutralizing cell. Then, there can be provided effects that the constitution of the electrode of NBI (Neutral particle Beam Injector) can be simplified and the power source for preventing acceleration of neutral particles can be saved. (N.H.)

  15. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.

    1986-01-01

    If the hot Big Bang model is correct, the very early universe provides us with a good laboratory to test our ideas on particle physics. The temperature and the density at that time are so high that each known particle must exist in chemical and in thermal equilibrium with the others. When the universe cools, the particles freeze out, leaving us today with a cosmic background. Such a kind of relic is of great interest because we can probe the Big Bang Model by studying the fossilized gas of a known particle. Conversely we can use that model to derive information about a hypothetical particle. Basically the freezing of a gas occurs a temperature T o and may be thermal or chemical. Studying the decoupling of a stable neutrino brings information on its mass: if the mass M ν lies in the forbidden range, the neutrino has to be unstable and its lifetime is constrained by cosmology. As for the G.U.T. Monopole, cosmology tells us that its present mass density is either to big or to small (1 monopole/observable universe) owing to a predicted flux far from the Parker Limit. Finally, the super red-giant star life time constrains the axion or the Higgs to be more massive than .2 MeV [fr

  16. New particle searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Standard Model is a remarkable result of decades of work in particle physics, but it is clearly an incomplete representation of the world. Exploring possibilities beyond the Standard Model is a major preoccupation of both theorists and experimentalists. Despite the many suggestions that are extant about the missing links within the Standard Model as well as extensions beyond it, no hard experimental evidence exists. In particular, in more than five years of experimentation both at PETRA and PEP no new particles have been found that would indicate new physics. Several reasons are possible for these negative results: the particles may be too heavy; the experiments may not be looking in the proper way; the cross sections may be too small or finally the particles may not exist. A continuing PEP program, at high luminosity will ensure that the second and third reason continue to be addressed. The higher energy e + e - storage rings such as TRISTAN and LEP will extend the mass limits. High mass particles can also be produced at the CERN collider and soon with the Tevatron collider. A concise summary of the mass limits from the PETRA experiments has been given in a recent Mark J publication. The results shown provide a convenient yardstick against which to measure future search experiments

  17. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossev, D.P.; Warren, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  18. Review of progress in magnetic particle inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David J.; Enyart, Darrel; Lo, Chester; Brasche, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) has been widely utilized for decades, and sees considerable use in the aerospace industry with a majority of the steel parts being inspected with MPI at some point in the lifecycle. Typical aircraft locations inspected are landing gear, engine components, attachment hardware, and doors. In spite of its numerous applications the method remains poorly understood, and there are many aspects of that method which would benefit from in-depth study. This shortcoming is due to the fact that MPI combines the complicated nature of electromagnetics, metallurgical material effects, fluid-particle motion dynamics, and physiological human factors into a single inspection. To promote understanding of the intricate method issues that affect sensitivity, or to assist with the revision of industry specifications and standards, research studies will be prioritized through the guidance of a panel of industry experts, using an approach which has worked successfully in the past to guide fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) research efforts.

  19. Applications of laser-driven particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, Katia; Schreiber, Jorg

    2018-01-01

    The first book of its kind to highlight the unique capabilities of laser-driven acceleration and its diverse potential, Applications of Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration presents the basic understanding of acceleration concepts and envisioned prospects for selected applications. As the main focus, this new book explores exciting and diverse application possibilities, with emphasis on those uniquely enabled by the laser driver that can also be meaningful and realistic for potential users. A key aim of the book is to inform multiple, interdisciplinary research communities of the new possibilities available and to inspire them to engage with laser-driven acceleration, further motivating and advancing this developing field. Material is presented in a thorough yet accessible manner, making it a valuable reference text for general scientific and engineering researchers who are not necessarily subject matter experts. Applications of Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration is edited by Professors Paul R. Bolton, Katia ...

  20. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    CERN Multimedia

    Franck Close

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.