WorldWideScience

Sample records for engineered clay-shredded tyre

  1. Engineered clay-shredded tyre mixtures as barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tabbaa, A.; Aravinthan, T.

    1997-01-01

    An engineered clay consisting of kaolin and bentonite was mixed with shredded tyre in various weight percentages and examined for use as a constituent in a landfill liner. The clay-tyre mixtures properties in terms of compaction, unconfined compressive strength, permeability to water and paraffin, leachability, stress-strain behaviour, free swell behaviour and swelling pressure were investigated. The results show that the dry density and strength reduced with the addition of tyre and also with increased tyre content but that good interaction was developed between the clay and tyre. The strain at failure increased showing reinforcing effect of the tyre. The permeability to paraffin was considerably reduced compared to that to water due to the presence of the tyre which caused high swelling pressures to develop. The leachability results indicate initial high concentrations leaching out of the soil-tyre mixtures which will be subjected to dilution in the environment. This work adds evidence to the potential advantages of using soil-tyre mixtures as a landfill liner material

  2. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  3. Engineering tools for interior tyre tread pattern noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The regular tyre tread pattern design process is often based upon experience and experimental evaluations and may take about 2 years. The use of engineering tooling could improve and speed up this process. The research objective is therefore to develop experimental and simulation tooling by which

  4. Diesel engine performance and emissions with fuels derived from waste tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Puneet; Zare, Ali; Jafari, Mohammad; Bodisco, Timothy A; Rainey, Thomas; Ristovski, Zoran D; Brown, Richard J

    2018-02-06

    The disposal of waste rubber and scrap tyres is a significant issue globally; disposal into stockpiles and landfill poses a serious threat to the environment, in addition to creating ecological problems. Fuel production from tyre waste could form part of the solution to this global issue. Therefore, this paper studies the potential of fuels derived from waste tyres as alternatives to diesel. Production methods and the influence of reactor operating parameters (such as reactor temperature and catalyst type) on oil yield are outlined. These have a major effect on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines when using tyre derived fuels. In general, tyre derived fuels increase the brake specific fuel consumption and decrease the brake thermal efficiency. The majority of studies indicate that NOx emissions increase with waste tyre derived fuels; however, a few studies have reported the opposite trend. A similar increasing trend has been observed for CO and CO 2 emissions. Although most studies reported an increase in HC emission owing to lower cetane number and higher density, some studies have reported reduced HC emissions. It has been found that the higher aromatic content in such fuels can lead to increased particulate matter emissions.

  5. The use of modified tyre derived fuel for compression ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, T J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated physical and chemical modification of tyre-derived fuel oil (TDFO) obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres and rubber products for application as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines (CIE's). TDFO collected from a local waste tyre treatment facility was refined via a novel "oxidative gas-phase fractional distillation over 13× molecular sieves" to recover the light to medium fractions of the TDFO while oxidising and capturing some sulphur compounds in a gas phase. This was followed by desulphurization and chemical modification to improve cetane number, kinematic viscosity and fuel stability. The resulting fuel was tested in an ADE407T truck engine to compare its performance with petroleum diesel fuel. It was discovered that gas phase oxidative fractional distillation reduces the low boiling point sulphur compounds in TDFO such as mercaptans. Using petroleum diesel fuel as a reference, it was observed that the produced fuel has a lower cetane number, flash point and viscosity. On storage the fuel tends to form fibrous microstructures as a result of auto-oxidation of asphaltenes present in the fuel. Mixtures of alkyl nitrate, vinyl acetate, methacrylic anhydride, methyl-tert butyl ether, n-hexane and n-heptane were used to chemically modify the fuel in accordance with the minimum fuel specifications as per SANS 342. The engine performance tests results did not show any sign of engine ceasing or knocking effect. The power-torque trend was very consistent and compared well with petroleum diesel fuelled engine. The levels of total sulphur are still considerably high compared to other cleaner fuel alternatives derived from zero sulphur sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Influence of distillation on performance, emission, and combustion of a DI diesel engine, using tyre pyrolysis oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Sivalingam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of waste to energy is one of the recent trends in minimizing not only the waste disposal but also could be used as an alternate fuel for internal combustion engines. Fuels like wood pyrolysis oil, rubber pyrolysis oil are also derived through waste to energy conversion method. Early investigations report that tyre pyrolysis oil derived from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to possess properties similar to diesel fuel. In the present work, the crude tyre pyrolisis oil was desulphurised and distilled to improve the properties and studied the use of it. Experimental studies were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke air cooled engine fuelled with two different blends, 30% tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (TPO 30 and 30% distilled tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (DTPO 30. The results of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine indicated that NOx is reduced by about 8% compared to tire pyrolysis oil and by about 10% compared to diesel fuel. Hydrocarbon emission is reduced by about 2% compared to TPO 30 operation. Smoke increased for DTPO 30 compared to TPO 30 and diesel fuel.

  7. Potential for using a tyre pyrolysis oil-biodiesel blend in a diesel engine at different compression ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Murugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of operating a compression ignition engine with a non petroleum diesel fuel. • A possible solution to replace certain amount of biodiesel by tyre pyrolysis oil in a biodiesel fueled diesel engine. • The optimum compression ratio for engine fueled with biodiesel-tyre pyrolysis oil blend. - Abstract: This study is aimed at investigating effects of varying the compression ratio at optimum injection timing and nozzle opening pressure on the behaviour of a diesel engine, using a non-petroleum fuel, i.e. a blend of 80% biodiesel, and 20% oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres. The engine was subjected to one lower (16.5) and one higher (18.5) compression ratio in addition to the standard compression ratio of 17.5. At the higher compression ratio of 18.5 and full load, shorter ignition delay, maximum cylinder pressure and higher heat release rate were found for the blend, compared to those of the original compression ratio. The increase in the compression ratio from 17.5 to 18.5 for the blend improved the brake thermal efficiency by about 8% compared to that of the original compression ratio at full load. The experimental results indicated that for the blend at a higher compression ratio of 18.5, the brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbon emission (BSHC) and smoke opacity were reduced by about 10.5%, 32%, and 17.4% respectively, than those of the original compression ratio at full load

  8. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  9. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H(2), C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, CO(2), CO and H(2)S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of the tyre tester

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuduntwane, P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of the tyre tester P KUDUNTWANE1, DU PLESSIS2 AND PROF. S ELS3 1CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Central University of Technology, Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein...

  11. Dedicated tyre characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Vis, M.A.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    A pneumatic tyre is an extremely complex system designed to form a suitable compromise for many design requirements. The variety of phenomena to be studied makes it necessary to characterise tyres in various ways. This paper focuses on empirical and physical tyre models for passenger car

  12. All tyred out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With the mining equipment tyre shortage looking to be an issue until at least the end of the decade, the paper takes an in-depth look at the situation. Michelin, Bridgestone and Goodyear, the 'big three' suppliers are followed by Yokohama, Toyo, General, Belshina, Eurotire, Kumho and many Chinese brands. Michelin and Bridgestone have plans for expansion but many believe the shortage for large OEM tyres will continue to become more severe into 2008. The supply situation for smaller tyres should ease in early 2008 when Michelin's plant in Campo Grande, Brazil is completed. 3 photos.

  13. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery.......Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery....

  14. Tyre-road friction coefficient estimation based on tyre sensors and lateral tyre deflection: modelling, simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Erdogan, Gurkan; Hedrick, Karl; Borrelli, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    The estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient is fundamental for vehicle control systems. Tyre sensors enable the friction coefficient estimation based on signals extracted directly from tyres. This paper presents a tyre-road friction coefficient estimation algorithm based on tyre lateral deflection obtained from lateral acceleration. The lateral acceleration is measured by wireless three-dimensional accelerometers embedded inside the tyres. The proposed algorithm first determines the contact patch using a radial acceleration profile. Then, the portion of the lateral acceleration profile, only inside the tyre-road contact patch, is used to estimate the friction coefficient through a tyre brush model and a simple tyre model. The proposed strategy accounts for orientation-variation of accelerometer body frame during tyre rotation. The effectiveness and performance of the algorithm are demonstrated through finite element model simulations and experimental tests with small tyre slip angles on different road surface conditions.

  15. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  16. Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahgozar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate major civil engineering projects in or in the vicinity of peatlands, it is essential to stabilise peat deposits. On the other hand, the accumulation of waste tyres in recent decades has caused environmental problems around the world. An effective remedy for both issues is to use scrap tyre material to stabilise problematic peat soils. This article reports an experimental investigation of the effects of adding shredded tyre chips on the stability and bearing capacity of peat soil. Peat soil samples from the Chaghakhor Wetland (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were mixed with sand at a constant dosage of 400 kg m-3 and different percentages (0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % by weight of shredded tyre chips. The unconfined compressive strength, effective cohesion, angle of internal friction and coefficient of permeability were measured for all of these mixtures. The results showed that adding shredded tyre chips significantly improved the geotechnical properties of the peat soil. The mixture with 10 % shredded tyre chips showed the highest unconfined compressive strength; the one with 15 % tyre chips exhibited the highest ductility; and adding 20 % shredded tyre chips provided the highest values for angle of internal friction, effective cohesion and coefficient of permeability. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed that the pore spaces in the stabilised peat were mostly filled with sand.

  17. Measurement by a cylinder test stand and tyre rolling resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dávid

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it is necessary to test how repair affects the properties of the car. These tests are carried out using a cylinder test stand. During the test the tyre is rolling between two cylinders of a small diameter. The question arises whether the rolling resistance of the tyre is the same as the rolling resistance when the wheel is rolling on the plane. If it is not the same what is the reliation between tyre resistances in these two cases? It is an important answer because the change of rolling resistance can affect consumption, the highest speed, engine power and other results of measurement. The paper gives the answer to these questions and describes the method of getting this information.

  18. Alexander the Great's tombolos at Tyre and Alexandria, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, N.; Goiran, J. P.; Morhange, C.

    2008-08-01

    Tyre and Alexandria's coastlines are today characterised by wave-dominated tombolos, peculiar sand isthmuses that link former islands to the adjacent continent. Paradoxically, despite a long history of inquiry into spit and barrier formation, understanding of the dynamics and sedimentary history of tombolos over the Holocene timescale is poor. At Tyre and Alexandria we demonstrate that these rare coastal features are the heritage of a long history of natural morphodynamic forcing and human impacts. In 332 BC, following a protracted seven-month siege of the city, Alexander the Great's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow sublittoral sand bank to seize the island fortress; Tyre's causeway served as a prototype for Alexandria's Heptastadium built a few months later. We report stratigraphic and geomorphological data from the two sand spits, proposing a chronostratigraphic model of tombolo evolution.

  19. 485 assessment of the problems of manual automobile tyre bead

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. ... engine will not be transformed into the motion of the vehicle. It provides the only point of contact between ..... Popular Mechanic 162 (6): 62. http://books.google.

  20. Truck tyre wear assessment and prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Montanaro, F.; Donadio, D.; Gelosa, E.; Vis, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Tyre wear is a complex phenomenon. It depends non-linearly on numerous parameters, like tyre compound and design, vehicle type and usage, road conditions and road surface characteristics, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) and many others. Yet, tyre wear has many economic and ecological

  1. Magic Formula Tyre Model with Transient Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacejka, H.B.; Besselink, I.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The tyre force and moment generating properties connected with the vehicle's horizontal motions are considered. Knowledge of tyre properties is necessary to properly design vehicle components and advanced control systems. For this purpose, mathematical models of the tyre are being used in vehicle

  2. Recycling of scrap tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, G.K.; Das, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    De-vulcanization of rubber waste posses a challenging economical, environmental and social problem. In the present study, we propose a new de vulcanization process to reuse the rubber waste called mechan-chemical process (MCP), where the waste were de-vulcanized through the application of mechanical shearing, heat (110 degree C) and de-vulcanizing agent (Di-benzyl disulfide). A new look into the de-vulcanization mechanism and the influence of de-vulcanizing agent on mechanical properties of re-vulcanized rubber was presented. One of the most interesting observations is that the retention of tensile strength of re-vulcanized rubber with respect to original tyre is 35.1% and 75.6%, when de-vulcanized in absence and in presence of disulfide respectively. The formation of extra cross-link bond in re-vulcanized rubber containing disulfide was confirmed from cross-link density data and TGA result. DMA analysis revealed that the storage modulus increased for re vulcanized rubber containing disulfide. The SEM was considered in order to study the failure mechanism and homogeneity as affected by the de vulcanization process

  3. Initial research on recycled tyre bales for road infrastructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Aleksander; Sobala, Dariusz

    2017-12-01

    The paper reviews selected surveys carried out within the R&D project, co-financed with the European Regional Development Fund, called "ReUse - Innovative Recycling Materials, Enhancing the Sustainability of Bridge Facilities" (Innotech No. K3 / IN3 / 38/228116 / NCBiR / 15). The aim of the project and conducted research is to develop and implement innovative, cheap and environmentally-friendly recycled construction material in the form of tyre bales made from compressed used car tyres. This material is likely to be applied in civil engineering, especially in transport infrastructure, geotechnical and hydraulic engineering. New material is cheap and has unique properties such as low weight, high water permeability, high vibration and noise-damping capacity, low pressure coefficient values and other parameters that technically and economically allow it to replace natural aggregates. The extensive practical application of new material will facilitate the replacement of waste management methods with the environmentally friendly ones.

  4. Effects of moving dynamic tyre loads on tyre-pavement contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to indicate the effect that moving dynamic tyre loads has on the tyre-pavement contact stresses used in pavement analysis. Traditionally tyre loads (in pavement analysis) are modelled as constant loads applied through...

  5. Modeling road-tyre noise

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Mário M. Abreu; Santos, Luís Picado; Freitas, Elisabete F.

    2008-01-01

    The growing awareness by the broader public of the consequences to health and wellbeing due to road noise has led to a growing number of legal requirements being produced to deal with this matter, both in the design of new or assessment of existing infrastructure. In this article the purpose is to make an up-to-date review of existing studies being carried out to deliver models for predicting noise produced from tyre-road contact, taking account of different methodological appr...

  6. Experimental Validation of Various Temperature Modells for Semi-Physical Tyre Model Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Andreas; Scherndl, Christoph; Hirschberg, Wolfgang; Lex, Cornelia

    2017-10-01

    With increasing level of complexity and automation in the area of automotive engineering, the simulation of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) leads to increasing accuracy demands in the description of tyre contact forces. In recent years, with improvement in tyre simulation, the needs for coping with tyre temperatures and the resulting changes in tyre characteristics are rising significantly. Therefore, experimental validation of three different temperature model approaches is carried out, discussed and compared in the scope of this article. To investigate or rather evaluate the range of application of the presented approaches in combination with respect of further implementation in semi-physical tyre models, the main focus lies on the a physical parameterisation. Aside from good modelling accuracy, focus is held on computational time and complexity of the parameterisation process. To evaluate this process and discuss the results, measurements from a Hoosier racing tyre 6.0 / 18.0 10 LCO C2000 from an industrial flat test bench are used. Finally the simulation results are compared with the measurement data.

  7. Valorization of used tyres as fuel substitute in cement industry; Valorisation des pneus usages comme combustible de substitution en cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    According to the French syndicate of cement industry, more than 350000 t of worn tyres are produced each year in France, among which only 143000 t are reused in retreading, exported as used tyres or valorized in cement industry. The rest is generally tipped or burnt in the open-air. In cement kilns, the organic matters of tyres are completely burnt while the metal belts supply the necessary amount of iron to the cement composition. The combustion of tyres produces no black smoke, no smell and no ash and has no significant influence on the effluents of cement factories: gases are directly filtered in the kiln by the important mass of raw materials which acts as quicklime. In 1997, 31500 t of used tyres were burnt in the seven French cement factories over 34 that use this kind of fuel and represents 1.5% of the total energy needs. This substitution ratio could easily reach 10 to 15% without leading to any additional environmental or technical problem. A project of collection and valorization of used tyres has been developed by the French ministry of environment and aims at completely eliminating tyres tipping since July 1, 2002. In order to illustrate the French policy of tyres valorization, two examples of actions are presented in this paper: the first one is carried out by the Michelin manufacturer in order to facilitate the recycling of civil engineering tyres, and the second is carried out by Ciments d`Origny company at the Rochefort factory where tyres are used as fuel substitutes. (J.S.)

  8. Pneumatic tyres interacting with deformable terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekakos, C. A.; Papazafeiropoulos, G.; O'Boy, D. J.; Prins, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a deformable tyre interacting with a deformable road has been developed with the use of the finite element code ABAQUS (v. 6.13). Two tyre models with different widths, not necessarily identical to any real industry tyres, have been created purely for research use. The behaviour of these tyres under various vertical loads and different inflation pressures is studied, initially in contact with a rigid surface and then with a deformable terrain. After ensuring that the tyre model gives realistic results in terms of the interaction with a rigid surface, the rolling process of the tyre on a deformable road was studied. The effects of friction coefficient, inflation pressure, rebar orientation and vertical load on the overall performance are reported. Regarding the modelling procedure, a sequence of models were analysed, using the coupling implicit - explicit method. The numerical results reveal that not only there is significant dependence of the final tyre response on the various initial driving parameters, but also special conditions emerge, where the desired response of the tyre results from specific optimum combination of these parameters.

  9. a Study of Radial Vibrations of a Rolling Tyre for TYRE-ROAD Noise Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périsse, J.

    2002-11-01

    Because tyre-road noise represents the main noise source for light vehicles with driving speed above 60 km/h, comprehension of generation mechanism of tyre-road noise has become a subject of major importance. In this paper, tyre-road interaction and radial tyre vibrations are investigated for tyre-road noise characterisation. Experimental measurements are performed on a rolling smooth tyre with test laboratory facilities. Both tread band and sidewall responses of the tyre are measured and compared to each other. High concentration of vibrations is observed in the vicinity of the contact area. Stationary radial deformation and non-stationary vibrations due to road rugosity are studied. Frequency analyses have been performed on the acceleration time signals showing the influence of the rotating speed on the vibrations level and frequency content. Finally, by integrating acceleration signal of the tyre tread over one revolution, stationary radial displacement can be calculated and the true contact length can be estimated. This study provides us with new measurement data for comparison with mathematical modelling. It also gives a physical insight on generation mechanism of tyre radial vibrations.

  10. Phenomenological analysis of hydroplaning through intelligent tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Vincenzo; Melzi, Stefano; Sbrosi, Marco; Brusarosco, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Hydroplaning, as well known, greatly affects safety since it leads to the loss of contact between the tyre and the road, preventing the vehicle from responding to control inputs such as steering, braking and acceleration. Sensorised tyres developed in recent years have proved to be able to detect hydroplaning risks in terms of proximity to the so-called hydroplaning speed. The availability of such devices can push towards the development of control systems that are able to preserve vehicle stability and directionality also close to hydroplaning onset. This paper presents results relevant to the identification of hydroplaning proximity through smart tyres and describes an experimental campaign focused on the identification of the lateral response of tyres while approaching the hydroplaning speed.

  11. Tyre Recycling with Thermal Solvolysis Method Using Microwave Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Korjakins, Aleksandrs; Holimenkovs, Aleksandrs

    2017-01-01

    Used tyres are one of the most widespread types of waste and one of the polymer materials which are most difficult to recycle. There are many different applications for used tyres today. Part of the tyres can be retreated and re-used, but most of the used tyres are recycled. By dissolving the tyres, it is possible to filter out various chemical substances. These substances coming from the used tyres can be used for creating a new material or improving an existing one. One of the technologies ...

  12. Pavement damaging effects from dual tyre configurations of heavy vehicles with tyre inflation pressure differentials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, M

    2015-08-16

    Full Text Available inflation pressure data in addition to tyre loading resulted in a rough empirical estimate of tyre inflation pressure directly from SIM contact stress measurements. In an ideal world, an instrument such as the SIM could be invaluable in not only capturing...

  13. Pavement damaging effects from dual tyre configurations of heavy vehicles with tyre inflation pressure differentials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available inflation pressure data in addition to tyre loading resulted in a rough empirical estimate of tyre inflation pressure directly from SIM contact stress measurements. In an ideal world, an instrument such as the SIM could be invaluable in not only capturing...

  14. Modelling vertical uniform contact stress of heavy vehicle tyres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Anton J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available over the selected operating range of 25 kN to 45 kN which is the typical load range for heavy vehicle tyres due to legal axle load limits. The polynomial formulas require only the tyre inflation pressure and vertical tyre load as inputs, in order...

  15. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  16. A comparison of linear tyre models for analysing shimmy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.; Maas, J.W.L.H.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison is made between three linear, dynamic tyre models using low speed step responses and yaw oscillation tests. The match with the measurements improves with increasing complexity of the tyre model. Application of the different tyre models to a two degree of freedom trailing arm suspension

  17. Survey on Road-Tyre Contact Patch Pattern and Wear Related Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo Adinife Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Motor vehicle end-users approaches to tyre safety issues in automobiles translate to a number of tyre failure risk factors. This study basically assessed tread wear pattern of tyres in passenger cars used on Nigeria roads. The result obtained showed that 75.4% of the assessed tyres showed uneven wear pattern resulting from incorrect tyre-road contact effects. This observed high proportion of uneven tyre tread wear pattern implies high rate of inconsequential regard for tyre safety.

  18. Survey on Road-Tyre Contact Patch Pattern and Wear Related Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azodo Adinife Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle end-users approaches to tyre safety issues in automobiles translate to a number of tyre failure risk factors. This study basically assessed tread wear pattern of tyres in passenger cars used on Nigeria roads. The result obtained showed that 75.4% of the assessed tyres showed uneven wear pattern resulting from incorrect tyre-road contact effects. This observed high proportion of uneven tyre tread wear pattern implies high rate of inconsequential regard for tyre safety.

  19. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10 R 20 tyre size and attached trailer with constant axle load. Measurements were made for actual tyre-pavement contact area. KENPAVE linear elastic program was then used to analyse the effects of the measured actual tyre-pavement contact area and the results was compared using conventional circular tyre contact area. A comparative analysis was then made between the actual contact area and the conventional circular tyre contact area. It was found that high tyre inflation pressure produce smaller contact area, giving more detrimental effect on the flexible pavement. It was also found that the temperature of tyres when the heavy vehicles are operational give less significant impact on tyre inflation pressure for the Malaysian climate.

  20. Identification of the mechanical properties of bicycle tyres for modelling of bicycle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Alberto; Tognazzo, Mauro; Cusimano, Gianmaria; Bulsink, Vera; Cooke, Adrian; Koopman, Bart

    2013-03-01

    Advanced simulation of the stability and handling properties of bicycles requires detailed road-tyre contact models. In order to develop these models, in this study, four bicycle tyres are tested by means of a rotating disc machine with the aim of measuring the components of tyre forces and torques that influence the safety and handling of bicycles. The effect of inflation pressure and tyre load is analysed. The measured properties of bicycle tyres are compared with those of motorcycle tyres.

  1. Linear stochastic evaluation of tyre vibration due to tyre/road excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustighi, E.; Elliott, S. J.; Finnveden, S.; Gulyás, K.; Mócsai, T.; Danti, M.

    2008-03-01

    Tyre/road interaction is recognised as the main source of interior and exterior noise for velocities over the 40 km/h. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) elemental approach has been adopted to predict the stochastic tyre vibration and hence the interior and exterior noise due to this kind of excitation. The road excitation has been modelled from the spectral density of a common road profile, supposing the road to be an isotropic surface. A linear Winkler bedding connects the 3D model of the tyre with the ground. The exterior noise has been evaluated by an elemental calculation of the radiation matrix of the tyre deformed by the static load on a concrete road. The noise inside the vehicle has also been calculated, using the transfer functions from the force transmitted to the hub and the noise inside the vehicle, which have been computed by a FEM model of a common car body. The simple formulation allows much quicker calculation than traditional nonlinear approaches, and appears to give results consistent with available measurements, although the effects of tyre rotation and of the nonlinearities in the contact model are yet to be quantified, and the method requires further experimental validation before practical application.

  2. Test benches for studying the properties of car tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. Yu.; Fedotov, A. I.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The article describes the design of the measuring systems of test benches used to study the properties of elastic tyres. The bench has two autonomous systems - for testing the braking properties of elastic tyres rolling in a plane parallel way and for testing tyre slip properties. The system for testing braking properties determines experimental characteristics of elastic tyres as the following dependencies: longitudinal response vs time, braking torque vs slip, angular velocity vs slip, and longitudinal response vs slip. The system for studying tyre slip properties determines both steady (dependence of the lateral response in a contact area on the slipping angle) and non-steady characteristics (time variation of the slipping angle as a result of turning from -40 to +40 degrees) of tyre slip. The article presents the diagrams of bench tests of elastic tyres. The experimental results show metrological parameters and functional capabilities of the bench for studying tyre properties in driving and braking modes. The metrological indices of the recorded parameters of the measuring system for studying tyre properties are presented in the table.

  3. Advantages of Concrete Mixing with Tyre Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli *

    2017-01-01

    Strong waste administration is one of the major natural concerns everywhere throughout the world. Tire-rubber particles made out of tire chips, piece elastic, and a mix of tire chips and scrap elastic, where utilized to supplant mineral totals in cement. These particles were utilized to supplant 10% , 15% , 20%, and 25% of the aggregate mineral totals volume in cement.Using rubber aggregates in such applications can help to prevent pollution and overcome the problem of storing used tyres. Adv...

  4. 3D Tyre/Road pavement contact stress measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR’s proprietary Stress-in-Motion (SIM) measurements provide rational descriptions of 1D, 2D and 3D tyre/road pavement stresses for: Road pavement design testing and evaluation, as well as tyre design, testing and evaluation....

  5. Tyre tread-block friction: modelling, simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallaschek, Jörg; Wies, Burkard

    2013-07-01

    Pneumatic tyres are used in vehicles since the beginning of the last century. They generate braking and steering forces for bicycles, motor cycles, cars, busses, trucks, agricultural vehicles and aircraft. These forces are generated in the usually very small contact area between tyre and road and their performance characteristics are of eminent importance for safety and comfort. Much research has been addressed to optimise tyre design with respect to footprint pressure and friction. In this context, the development of virtual tyre prototypes, that is, simulation models for the tyre, has grown to a science in its own. While the modelling of the structural dynamics of the tyre has reached a very advanced level, which allows to take into account effects like the rate-independent inelasticity of filled elastomers or the transient 3D deformations of the ply-reinforced tread, shoulder and sidewalls, little is known about the friction between tread-block elements and road. This is particularly obvious in the case when snow, ice, water or a third-body layer are present in the tyre-road contact. In the present paper, we give a survey on the present state of knowledge in the modelling, simulation and experimental validation of tyre tread-block friction processes. We concentrate on experimental techniques.

  6. Study on some safety-related aspects of tyre use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Maas, S.; Rodarius, C.; Akkermans, L.

    2014-01-01

    The tyre is a key component that affects road safety. The European commission has posted a tender aimed to study what measures on a European level can be taken in relation to the use of tyres to improve road safety. The results of this study, supported by a cost benefit analyses and carried out by

  7. Towards Understanding Tyre-Pavement Contact in APT Research on Flexible Pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An important element of Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) is the selection of appropriate test tyre(s) to be used for APT testing. By far the majority of full scale (or scaled) APT devices uses pneumatic rubber tyres. Tyres differ not only in size...

  8. Tyre-pavement contact stress patterns from the test tyres of the Gautrans heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) MK IV+

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available premises. A test matrix of five load levels and six inflation pressures was used on both HVS test tyres at creep speed conditions (<6km/hr). The results indicated that at constant inflation pressure the vertical tyre contactpattern (“fingerprint”) is highly...

  9. Observers for vehicle tyre/road forces estimation: experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumiati, M.; Victorino, A.; Lechner, D.; Baffet, G.; Charara, A.

    2010-11-01

    The motion of a vehicle is governed by the forces generated between the tyres and the road. Knowledge of these vehicle dynamic variables is important for vehicle control systems that aim to enhance vehicle stability and passenger safety. This study introduces a new estimation process for tyre/road forces. It presents many benefits over the existing state-of-art works, within the dynamic estimation framework. One of these major contributions consists of discussing in detail the vertical and lateral tyre forces at each tyre. The proposed method is based on the dynamic response of a vehicle instrumented with potentially integrated sensors. The estimation process is separated into two principal blocks. The role of the first block is to estimate vertical tyre forces, whereas in the second block two observers are proposed and compared for the estimation of lateral tyre/road forces. The different observers are based on a prediction/estimation Kalman filter. The performance of this concept is tested and compared with real experimental data using a laboratory car. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is a promising technique to provide accurate estimation. Thus, it can be considered as a practical low-cost solution for calculating vertical and lateral tyre/road forces.

  10. Contact stiffness considerations when simulating tyre/road noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winroth, Julia; Kropp, Wolfgang; Hoever, Carsten; Höstmad, Patrik

    2017-11-01

    Tyre/road simulation tools that can capture tyre vibrations, rolling resistance and noise generation are useful for understanding the complex processes that are involved and thereby promoting further development and optimisation. The most detailed tyre/road contact models use a spatial discretisation of the contact and assume an interfacial stiffness to account for the small-scale roughness within the elements. This interfacial stiffness has been found to have a significant impact on the simulated noise emissions but no thorough investigations of this sensitivity have been conducted. Three mechanisms are thought to be involved: The horn effect, the modal composition of the vibrational field of the tyre and the contact forces exciting the tyre vibrations. This study used a numerical tyre/road noise simulation tool based on physical relations to investigate these aspects. The model includes a detailed time-domain contact model with linear or non-linear contact springs that accounts for the effect of local tread deformation on smaller length scales. Results confirm that an increase in contact spring stiffness causes a significant increase of the simulated tyre/road noise. This is primarily caused by a corresponding increase in the contact forces, resulting in larger vibrational amplitudes. The horn effect and the modal composition are relatively unaffected and have minor effects on the radiated noise. A more detailed non-linear contact spring formulation with lower stiffness at small indentations results in a reduced high-frequency content in the contact forces and the simulated noise.

  11. Optimization of process parameters in flash pyrolysis of waste tyres to liquid and gaseous fuel in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin Raj, R.; Robert Kennedy, Z.; Pillai, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-recyclable, hazards, under-utilized waste tyre was converted to useful fuel. ► Design of experiment was used to optimize the process parameters. ► Fuel compatibility for IC engines was tested by standard fuel testing procedures. ► Optimized process parameters were tested and the empirical model validated. - Abstract: Pyrolysis process offers solution to utilize huge quantity of worn out automobile tyres to produce fuel for energy needs. Shredded tyre wastes were subjected to pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure under inert gas atmosphere in a fluidized bed combustion setup. The shredded tyre particle size, the feed rate of the feed stock, and the pyrolysis temperature were varied systematically as per the designed experiment to study their influence on product yield. Maximizing the oil yield and subduing the gas and char yield is the objective to optimize the process parameters. A low pyrolysis temperature of 440 °C with low feed rate increases the residence time in the combustion reactor yielding maximum oil. The physical properties of raw pyrolysis oil, distilled oil and the evolved gases were done to find its suitability to utilize them as alternatives to the conventional fuels

  12. Tyres and the environment; Reifen und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetscher, Friedrich [Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Wien (Austria). Verkehr und Laerm

    2009-07-01

    A large part of the population is exposed to nuisances to which traffic contributes significantly, e.g. noise, fine dust and climate-relevant gaseous emissions. In this context, the environmental characteristics of tyres are of great importance, i.e. rolling noise, wear, and rolling friction. To reduce environmental effects, more rigid legislation will be required. This is indicated, e.g., by a study carried out on behalf of the European Commission. To date, no significant correlations have been established between important tyre characteristics like noise, (wet) grip, and rolling friction, which indicates that there is definitely a potential for reduction here. There is already a draft regulation on rolling noise which will contain more rigid boundary values. In the field of fine dust, intensive efforts were made during the past few years to reduce environmental pollution, e.g. by incentive programmes for promoting retrofitting of diesel particulate filters. The available potential for emission reduction in this area is nearly exhausted; on the other hand, particulate emissions from wear and road dust resuspension are getting more attention and may soon be taken into consideration in air quality monitoring. (orig.)

  13. Tyre induced vibrations of the car-trailer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, S.; Takács, D.; Stépán, G.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral and yaw dynamics of the car-trailer combination are analysed by means of a single track model. The equations of motion are derived rigorously by means of the Appell-Gibbs equations for constant longitudinal velocity of the vehicle. The tyres are described with the help of the so-called delayed tyre model, which is based on a brush model with pure rolling contact. The lateral forces and aligning torques of the tyre/road interaction are calculated via the instantaneous lateral deformations in the contact patches. The linear stability analysis of the rectilinear motion is performed via the analytically determined characteristic function of the system. Stability charts are constructed with respect to the vehicle longitudinal velocity and the payload position on the trailer. Self-excited lateral vibrations are detected with different vibration modes at low and at high longitudinal speeds of the vehicle. The effects of the tyre parameters are also investigated.

  14. Interaction processes governing friction between tyre and road; Wechselwirkungen im Prozess der Reibung zwischen Reifen und Fahrbahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, T.

    1998-12-31

    Friction between tyre and road is influenced by tyre and road parameters as well as, in some instances, by water or snow/ice. The dissertation investigates the interdependences between these influencing parameters. Experimental investigations on friction-slip curves of modern car tyres on real roads provide deeper knowledge on power transfer mechanisms. Apart from the contact conditions, also the viscoelastic properties of tyre materials with silica gel as filler material were investigated, with particular emphasis on the velocity dependence of the friction coefficient. The findings are presented in the form of velocity/slip characteristic fields of the friction coefficient measured on different surface types and are interpreted on the basis of the rubber friction theory. The interdisciplinary character of the investigations makes the dissertation interesting for experts in car engineering, roadway construction and tyre research and development. [Deutsch] Der Kraftschluss zwischen Reifen und Fahrbahn wird durch Einflussgroessen bestimmt, die sich dem Reifen und der Fahrbahn, eventuell vorhandenem Wasser oder Schnee/Eis zuordnen lassen. Zwischen diesen sich ueberlagernden Einflussgroessen gibt es eine Vielzahl von Wechselwirkungen, die in dieser Dissertation analysiert werden. Die experimentelle Untersuchung der Reibwert-Schlupf-Kurven moderner Pkw-Reifen auf realen Fahrbahnen erweitert das Verstaendnis fuer die Kraftuebertragungsmechanismen. Neben einer Betrachtung der Kontaktverhaeltnisse werden visko-elastische Eigenschaften von Reifenmischungen auch mit dem Fuellstoff Kieselsaeure untersucht. Vor allem die Geschwindigkeitsabhaengigkeit des Reibwertes wird behandelt. Als Ergebnis werden die Wechselwirkungen in Form von auf verschiedenen Oberflaechen gemessenen Geschwindigkeits-Schlupf-Kennfeldern des Reibwerts beschrieben und mit der Gummireibungstheorie interpretiert. Die Arbeit wendet sich wegen des interdisziplinaeren Charakters des Themas an Angehoerige der

  15. The local effects of friction between the tyre and the road; Lokale Effekte der Reibung zwischen Pkw-Reifen und Fahrbahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fach, M. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany). Center Aktive Sicherheit/Fahrdynamik

    2000-08-01

    The article examines the local effects of friction between passenger car tyres and the road, the deformation of the tread elements and the local slip between the tyre rubber and the road surface. These two movements determine to a great extent the frictional process which allows force to be transmitted from the tyre to the road surface in both a longitudinal and a transverse direction. The report summarises the results of a dissertation based on research carried out at the Department of Automotive Enginering at Darmstadt University of Technology. (orig.) [German] Der Beitrag beschaeftigt sich mit den lokalen Effekten der Reibung zwischen Pkw-Reifen und Fahrbahn, den Profilelementverformungen des Laufstreifens und den Gleitbewegungen zwischen dem Reifengummi und der Fahrbahnoberflaeche. Diese beiden Bewegungen bestimmen massgeblich den Reibprozess, der die Kraftuebertragung vom Reifen auf die Strasse sowohl in Laengs- als auch in Querrichtung moeglich macht. Der Bericht fasst die Ergebnisse einer Dissertation zusammen, die am Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik der TU Darmstadt durchgefuehrt wurde. (orig.)

  16. Study of carbon black obtained by pyrolysis of waste scrap tyres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulová, Z.; Šeděnková, Ivana; Matějová, Lenka; Večeř, M.; Dombek, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2013), s. 1475-1481 ISSN 1388-6150. [Central and Eastern European Conference on Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry /1./ - CEEC-TAC1. Craiova, 07.09.2011-10.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : scrap tyres * carbon black * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.206, year: 2013

  17. Tyre-pavement interface contact stresses on flexible pavements - quo vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available on tyre inflation pressure on this route is also given. The paper also discusses an improved definition of the actual tyre/pavement interaction of modern heavy vehicles and their loads on the current flexible road infrastructure....

  18. Treatment and disposal of tyres: Two EU approaches. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Trulli, Ettore; Istrate, Irina Aura; Cioca, Lucian Ionel

    2015-11-01

    The treatment and disposal of tyres from vehicles has long been of considerable environmental importance. The main problem lies in the mixed composition of the tyres. Studies have been undertaken to modify the structure of the tyres, especially with reference to the percentage of granulated rubber incorporated, in order to improve their performance, and also to reduce their environmental impact during normal functioning (noise, particulates, etc.) and facilitate recycling and final disposal. The aim of the present study is to review and compare how used tyres are treated and disposed of in two different EU countries. The first is Italy, which has been part of the European Union since its inception, and has important industrial traditions. The second is Romania, an emerging country which recently became part of the EU, and whose economic and industrial development has had a major boost in recent years, with a strong growth in waste production, together with consumption in urban areas. The occasion was useful to consider the situation concerning the evolution of the different aspects related to the management of the end-of-life tyres. In particular, the paper considers the properties of tyre waste and their potential reuse, the enhancement of end-of-life tires and the various types of recovery, such as the reconstruction of tyres and the material recovery. The aspects related to the energy recovery and the use of the life cycle analysis, as a tool to support the choices of the best management system, were also taken into consideration, not forgetting that an adequate end-of-life planning is important when developing a sustainable product, since it can affect considerably its overall life cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A method and device for checking the adherence of canvas to rubber in tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.-L.; Courtois, Guy; Tanguy, J.-C.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for determining whether a pneumatic tyre comprises separation areas between rubber and canvas or highly-porous zones. A gamma-ray-emitting radioactive gas is injected under pressure into the tyre, and at least one radiation detector is moved along the tyre surface. This can be applied to aeronautics [fr

  20. Full vehicle ABS braking using the SWIFT rigid ring tyre model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.; Gootjes, L.; Schröder, C.; Köhne, K.-U.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, at the Delft University of Technology and TNO-Automotive and in conjunction with an industrial consortium, a pragmatic tyre model has been developed going by the name SWIFT, which is geared to the analysis of tyre oscillations and its effects on vehicle behaviour. The SWIFT tyre

  1. Time, tire measurements forces and moments: a new standard for steady state cornering tyre testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, J.J.M. van; Savi, C.; Augustin, M.; Bouhet, O.; Sommer, J.; Colinot, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop vehicles which have maximum active safety, car manufacturers need information about the so-called force and moment properties of tyres. Vehicle manufacturers, tyre suppliers and automotive research organisations have advanced test equipment to measure the forces between a tyre

  2. Reconsideration of tyre-pavement input parameters for the structural design of flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available of modern truck tyres. Tyre-pavement contact stress measurements were carried out on a busy national road (N3) in South Africa from the port of Durban to the inland province of Gauteng. The three-dimensional tyre-pavement contact stress regimes of 45 227...

  3. Computational Analysis of a South African Mobile Trailer-Type Medium Sized Tyre Test Rig

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma, Shikar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To support the South African National Defence Force with their vehicle mobility needs, the CSIR has begun characterising tyres by using a medium, trailer-type, tyre test rig. Two different Pacejka tyre models were generated using two independent...

  4. Stabilization of Clay Soil Using Tyre Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Dheyab Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The planning, designing, construction of excavations and foundations in soft to very soft clay soils are always difficult. They are problematic soil that caused trouble for the structures built on them because of the low shear strength, high water content, and high compressibility. This work investigates the geotechnical behavior of soft clay by using tyre ash material burnt in air. The investigation contains the following tests: physical tests, chemical tests, consolidation test, Compaction tests, shear test, California Bearing Ratio test CBR, and model tests. These tests were done on soil samples prepared from soft clay soil; tyre ash was used in four percentages (2, 4, 6, and 8%. The results of the tests were; The soil samples which gave the value of plasticity test were 2% (25, 4% (25.18, 6% (25.3, and 8% (26.7.The soil samples which gave the value of specific gravity were 2% (2.65, 4% (2.61, 6% (2.5, and 8% (2.36.The value of maximum dry density in a compaction test observed with 2% percentage gave the value 15.8 kN/m3, the 4% gave the value 15.4 kN/m 3 34 , 6% gave 15.3 kN/m 3 and 8%with 15.2 kN/m3 .Samples that gave the values of undrained shear strength test were 2% (55 kN/m 2 , 4% (76 kN/m2 , 6% (109 kN/m 2, and 8% (122 kN/m 2. The best of them is 8%. The sample that gave the best value for swelling test was 8%.The best value for compression index Cc was in 8%.The results of CBR test, were improved in all soil samples. The soil samples which gave the value for CBR were 2% (3.507%, 4% (4.308%, 6% (5.586%, and 8% (9.569%. The best value was obtained from 8%.

  5. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  6. The measurement of dynamic radii for passenger car tyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, G.; Moisescu, R.

    2017-10-01

    The tyre dynamic rolling radius is an extremely important parameter for vehicle dynamics, for operation of safety systems as ESP, ABS, TCS, etc., for road vehicle research and development, as well as for validation or as an input parameter of automotive simulations and models. The paper investigates the dynamic rolling radii of passenger car tyre and the influence of rolling speed and inflation pressure on their magnitude. The measurement of dynamic rolling radii has been performed on a chassis dynamometer test rig. The dynamic rolling radii have been measured indirectly, using longitudinal rolling speed and angular velocity of wheel. Due to the subtle effects that the parameters have on rolling radius magnitude, very accurate equipment has to be used. Two different methods have been chosen for measuring the wheel angular velocity: the stroboscopic lamp and the incremental rotary encoder. The paper shows that the stroboscopic lamp has an insufficient resolution, therefore it was no longer used for experimental investigation. The tyre dynamic rolling radii increase with rolling speed and with tyre inflation pressure, but the effect of pressure is more significant. The paper also makes considerations on the viability of simplified formulae from literature for calculating the tyre dynamic rolling radius.

  7. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-05-01

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an ≈1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated ≈8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1-2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system.

  8. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-05-29

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an approximately 1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated approximately 8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1-2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system.

  9. Modelling effects of tyre inflation pressure on the stress distribution near the soil-tyre interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Tøgersen, Frede A

    2008-01-01

    stress in the contact area for two radial-ply agricultural trailer tyres (650/65R30.5 and 800/50R34) loaded with 60 kN. The study took place on a sandy soil at a water content slightly less than field capacity. We tested the effect of three different inflation pressures (50, 100 and 240 k......Pa) in a randomised block design with three replicates. The vertical stress was measured with load cells located in 0.1 m soil depth. The vertical stress data were used also for identifying the soil area in contact with the tyre, i.e. the tyre footprint. A model (named FRIDA) is proposed that describes the tyre...... footprint by a super ellipse and the stress distribution by a combined exponential (perpendicular to the driving direction) and power-law (along the driving direction) function. The contact area doubled when the inflation pressure was reduced from 240 to 50 kPa. For both tyres, the measured peak stress...

  10. Tyres and road surfaces : experimental multifactor investigation of the factors affecting the brake and side way forces between car tyres and wet road surfaces : summary, conclusions and recommendations from the study by Sub-Committee I of the Working Group on "Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    The study concerning the contact between a tyre and the road surface was conducted in three phases. In the first phase the first and second-order factors were separated. The factors: type of road surface, tyre type, tread depth, water depth, tyre pressure and tyre load were included in an

  11. Determination of rolling resistance coefficient based on normal tyre stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Tarasuyk, V. N.; Koval, V. S.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Fedotov, A. I.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to develop analytical dependence of wheel rolling resistance coefficient based on the mathematical description of normal tyre stiffness. The article uses the methods of non-holonomic mechanics and plane section methods. The article shows that the abscissa of gravity center of tyre stiffness expansion by the length of the contact area is the shift of normal road response. It can be used for determining rolling resistance coefficient. When determining rolling resistance coefficient using ellipsis and power function equations, one can reduce labor costs for testing and increase assessment accuracy.

  12. Noise source localization on tyres using an inverse boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Saemann, E-U; Hald, J

    1998-01-01

    A dominating part of tyre noise is radiated from a region close to the tyre/road contact patch, where it is very difficult to measure both the tyre vibration and the acoustic near field. The approach taken in the present paper is to model the tyre and road surfaces with a Boundary Element Model...... (BEM), with unknown node vibration data on the tyre surface. The BEM model is used to calculate a set of transfer functions from the node vibrations to the sound pressure at a set of microphone positions around the tyre. By approximate inversion of the matrix of transfer functions, the surface...... from tyre noise measurements will be presented at the conference....

  13. Radiation pre-vulcanization effect on properties of the truck tyre's transition layer and the truck tyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Zhu Jun; Li Kunhao; Guo Dongquan; Zhang Hongna; Zhang Benshang; Li Zhaopeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the natural rubber is chosen as the main constituents for the transition layer of all-steel load radial tyre, which is pre-vulcanized by 500-keV E-beam irradiation of up to 60 kGy. The results show that the green strength of transitional layer increases with the dose, reaching four times as much as the control (without irradiation) at 60 kGy. The final mechanical properties do not differ significantly from those of the control except that the aging and fatigue performance increased. However, thickness of the natural rubber transitional layer for an average single tyre can be reduced by 1 mm (or 1.5 kg) without obvious adverse effect on tyre performance. (authors)

  14. Experimental investigation of tread wear and particle emission from tyres with different treadwear marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoratos, Theodoros; Gustafsson, Mats; Eriksson, Olle; Martini, Giorgio

    2018-06-01

    The Treadwear Rating (TWR) provided on the sidewall of the tyre is a marking intended to inform the customer about the expected durability of the tyre. The current study explores whether there is a correlation between the TWR and tyres' tread mass loss. Furthermore, it explores the possible correlation between the TWR and tyre wear dust emitted in the form of PM10 and PM2.5. For that reason, two tyres of the same brand (B) but with different TWR and three tyres of different brands (C and D with the same TWR as one of the B tyres and A with a lower TWR) were tested at a constant speed of 70 km/h by means of the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) road simulator. Tyres of the same TWR but of different brands showed different behaviour in terms of material loss, PM, and PN emissions under the selected testing conditions. This means that it is not feasible to categorize tyres of different brands in terms of their emissions based on their TWR. The test performed on the two tyres of the same brand but with different TWR showed instead a substantial (not statistically significant) difference in both total wear and PM10 emissions. The tyre with the higher TWR (B2) showed less wear and PM10 emissions compared to the B1 tyre having a lower TWR. Since only two tyres of the same brand and with different TWR were tested, this result cannot be generalized and more tests are necessary to confirm the relation within the same brand. In general, the tyre tread mass loss showed no obvious statistical relation to PM10, PM2.5 or PN concentration. In all cases approximately 50% (by mass) of emitted PM10 fall within the size range of fine particles, while PN size distribution is dominated by nanoparticles most often peaking at 20-30 nm.

  15. Sustainable construction: Composite use of tyres and ash in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snelson, D.G.; Kinuthia, J.M.; Davies, P.A.; Chang, S.R. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Faculty of Advanced Technology

    2009-01-15

    An investigation was carried out to establish the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of a non-standard (unprocessed) pulverised fuel ash (PFA) and waste tyres from a former landfill site at the Power Station Hill near Church Village, South Wales, United Kingdom. Investigations are on-going to establish the suitability of the fly ash and/or tyres in road construction (embankment and pavement) and also in concrete to be used in the construction of the proposed highway. This paper reports on concrete-based construction where concrete blends (using various levels of PFA as partial replacement for Portland cement (PC), and shredded waste tyres (chips 15-20 mm) as aggregate replacement) were subjected to unconfined compressive strength tests to establish performance, hence, optimising mix designs. Strength development up to 180 days for the concrete made with PC-PFA blends as binders (PC-PFA concrete), with and without aggregate replacement with tyre chips, is reported. The binary PC-PFA concrete does not have good early strength but tends to improve at longer curing periods. The low early strength observed means that PC-PFA concrete cannot be used for structures, hence, only as low to medium strength applications such as blinding, low-strength foundations, crash barriers, noise reduction barriers, cycle paths, footpaths and material for pipe bedding.

  16. Possibility of obtaining hydrogen from coal/waste-tyre mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Brožová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 11 (2008), s. 1069-1075 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen * coal * waste tyres Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.066, year: 2008 www.elsevier.com/locate/fuproc/

  17. Effect of road surfacing condition on tyre life

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available simple patching of potholes and sealing of cracks to a reseal of the road or even recycling and rehabilitation of the failed sections of the road. These maintenance actions affect the surfacing of the road and therefore the experience of the tyre...

  18. Monitoring operational conditions of vehicle tyre pressure levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compliance with vehicle tyre inflation pressure and tread depth standard specifications and legal requirements were monitored by survey study in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. The survey covered 400 vehicles, comprising cars (28 %), medium buses (25 %), large capacity buses (15 %) and trucks (32 %). There were wide ...

  19. A Comprehensive Study on Technologies of Tyre Monitoring Systems and Possible Energy Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Kubba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview on the state of the art of Tyre Pressure Monitoring System related technologies. This includes examining the latest pressure sensing methods and comparing different types of pressure transducers, particularly their power consumption and measuring range. Having the aim of this research to investigate possible means to obtain a tyre condition monitoring system (TCMS powered by energy harvesting, various approaches of energy harvesting techniques were evaluated to determine which approach is the most applicable for generating energy within the pneumatic tyre domain and under rolling tyre dynamic conditions. This article starts with an historical review of pneumatic tyre development and demonstrates the reasons and explains the need for using a tyre condition monitoring system. Following this, different tyre pressure measurement approaches are compared in order to determine what type of pressure sensor is best to consider in the research proposal plan. Then possible energy harvesting means inside land vehicle pneumatic tyres are reviewed. Following this, state of the art battery-less tyre pressure monitoring systems developed by individual researchers or by world leading tyre manufacturers are presented. Finally conclusions are drawn based on the reviewed documents cited in this article and a research proposal plan is presented.

  20. Stochastic road excitation and control feasibility in a 2D linear tyre model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustighi, E.; Elliott, S. J.

    2007-03-01

    For vehicle under normal driving conditions and speeds above 30-40 km/h the dominating internal and external noise source is the sound generated by the interaction between the tyre and the road. This paper presents a simple model to predict tyre behaviour in the frequency range up to 400 Hz, where the dominant vibration is two dimensional. The tyre is modelled as an elemental system, which permits the analysis of the low-frequency tyre response when excited by distributed stochastic displacements in the contact patch. A linear model has been used to calculate the contact forces from the road roughness and thus calculate the average spectral properties of the resulting radial velocity of the tyre in one step from the spectral properties of the road roughness. Such a model has also been used to provide an estimate of the potential effect of various active control strategies for reducing the tyre vibrations.

  1. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aniza Abdul Aziz; Sreenivasaiah Purushothama Rao; Elias Salleh

    2013-01-01

    The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyr...

  2. Tyre-road Interaction: a holistic approach to noise and rolling resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Tiago

    2018-01-01

    Energy dissipation, fuel consumption, real-estate property prices and health issues are some of the aspects related to the tyre/pavement interaction and its functional properties of rolling resistance and noise. The first two aspects are affected by the tyre/road interaction as energy is dissipated mostly by hysteretic losses as the tyre is subjected to dynamic deformations when contacting the pavement surface. The other effect of this contact system that is analysed in this thesis is noise. ...

  3. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products

  4. A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.

  5. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wear estimation of the wheel tyre in different service conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk BĄKOWSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article presented the results of fatigue strength test aluminium alloys using in car industry. Demonstrated distributions and values of stresses the wheel tyre made of aluminium alloys by means of FEM. In fatigue test used special machine, which can allow to determine Wohler diagram. In this way to determine the allowable stresses values in which do not occurring the damages.

  7. Characterization of the liquid products obtained in tyre pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laresgoiti, M.F.; Caballero, B.M.; De Marco, I.; Torres, A.; Cabrero, M.A.; Chomon, M.J. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros de Bilbao, Alda. Urquijo s/n, Bilbao 48013 (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    Cross-section samples (2-3cm wide), representative of a whole car tyre, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm{sup 3} autoclave at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700C. Over 500C there is no effect of temperature on gases and liquids yields ({approx}17 and 38%, respectively). Tyre pyrolysis liquids have been characterized, including elemental analysis, gross calorific value (GCV), gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and distillation. Tyre derived liquids are a complex mixture of C{sub 6}-C{sub 24} organic compounds, with a lot of aromatics (53.4-74.8%), some nitrogenated (2.47-3.5%) and some oxygenated compounds (2.29-4.85%). They have GCV (42MJkg{sup -1}) even higher than those specified for commercial heating oils, but sulphur contents (1-1.4%) near or slightly over the law limit value. Significant quantities of valuable light hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene, limonene, etc. were obtained. The concentration of these compounds increase with temperature up to 500C and then decrease. There are an important proportion of polycyclic aromatics such as naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, fluorenes, diphenlys, etc.; their concentration as well as that of total aromatics increases significantly with temperature. Distillation data of the 500C oils showed that {approx}20% have the boiling range of light naphtha (<160C), {approx}10% of heavy naphtha (160-204C) and {approx}35% of middle distillate (204-350C). As far as distillation data are concerned, the tyre oil fractions with the same boiling range as commercial automotive diesel oils and heating diesel oils fulfil the present specifications of such commercial products.

  8. Properties of Pervious Concrete Containing Scrap Tyre Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Koh Heng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge quantity of waste tyre tubes generated every year due to the increasing of motorcycle user. Therefore, recycling of the waste tyre tubes is become mandatory. The aim of this research was to study the properties of pervious concrete containing scrap tyre tube (STT rubber particles with percentages of 3%, 5% and 7% of the cement content. The properties studied are void content, compressive strength measured at 7, 14 and 28 days, flexural strength and flow rate which were determined at 28 day. The experimental results showed that, there were increased in void content and flow rate of pervious concrete containing STT. Both compressive strength and flexural strength of pervious concrete containing STT showed a lower value compared to the control mix without STT. The reductions of the mechanical strengths are likely due to the increase of void content. Overall, pervious concrete which contains 7% STT has shown an increment of mechanical strengths and flow rate compared to other STT pervious concrete. Nonetheless, the results indicate that there are potentials for use of STT in pervious concrete, especially for use in pervious concrete applications such as pavements, driveways and parking lots.

  9. a High-Frequency Three-Dimensional Tyre Model Based on Two Coupled Elastic Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LARSSON, K.; KROPP, W.

    2002-06-01

    Road traffic noise is today a serious environmental problem in urban areas. The dominating noise source at speeds greater than 50 km/h is car tyres. In order to achieve a reduction of traffic noise tyres have to become quieter. To reduce tyre/road noise a deep understanding of the noise generation mechanisms is of major importance. An existing tyre/road noise simulation model consists of a smooth tyre rolling at a constant speed on a rough road surface. It is composed of three separate modules: a tyre model, a contact model and a radiation model. The major drawback with the contact model is that it only takes the radial component of the contact forces into account. To improve this model, a description of the tangential motion at high frequencies is necessary. Most of the models for the structure-borne sound behaviour of tyres are designed for the low-frequency range (i.e., below 400 Hz). Above this frequency range, the curvature of the tyre is unimportant, while the internal structure (multi-layers of steel and rubber) increases in importance. For the high-frequency range, a double-layer tyre model is proposed, which is based on the general field equations, to take into account the tangential motion and the local deformation of the tread. Both propagating waves and mode shapes have been investigated by the use of this model. Calculations of the response of the tyre to an external excitation show relatively good agreement with measurements on a smooth tyre.

  10. Improved performance evaluation of road pavements by using measured tyre loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evaluation of road pavement response under the loading of typical dual and single truck tyre configurations. Locally developed Stress-In-Motion (SIM) technology was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) shapes of the tyre road...

  11. Green's functions for a rotating tyre: a semi-analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Arteaga, I.; Kersjes, S.H.M.; Roozen, N.B.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is becoming an increasingly big problem in densely populated areas. One of the main contributions comes from the tyre/road interaction. For the interior noise, to which the occupants of the vehicle are exposed, tyre/road noise is also an important source, especially at lower

  12. Numerical computation of tyre radiaion noise: a comparative study of different techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karthik, B.; Makwana, B.K.; Patel, C.; Bekke, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly stringent noise regulations concerning automotive vehicles particularly in Europe are forcing Tyre manufacturers as well as the automotive manufacturers to reduce radiated noise. With the future moving towards electric/hybrid vehicles, the ever present tyre noise will become more

  13. The Scanning of Power Deformation of Tyre Surface by Tactile Piesoresistive sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hurta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work describes a static non-destructive method of measuring the contact pressures of tyres. The distribution of contact pressures during the contact of the tyre with a solid base represents one of the indicators we use. In this process, it is convenient to use matrix tactile sensors based on piezoresistive method of data collection.

  14. Recommendations regarding higher axlemass limits for axles fitted with wide base tyres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into possible higher axle mass limits for axles and axle units fitted with wide base tyres, i.e. tyres with nominal section widths of 385 mm, 425 mm and 445 mm, by comparing the road wear caused...

  15. Sliding mode-based lateral vehicle dynamics control using tyre force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, Anil; Corno, Matteo; Holweg, Edward

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a lateral vehicle dynamics control based on tyre force measurements is proposed. Most of the lateral vehicle dynamics control schemes are based on yaw rate whereas tyre forces are the most important variables in vehicle dynamics as tyres are the only contact points between the vehicle and road. In the proposed method, active front steering is employed to uniformly distribute the required lateral force among the front left and right tyres. The force distribution is quantified through the tyre utilisation coefficients. In order to address the nonlinearities and uncertainties of the vehicle model, a gain scheduling sliding-mode control technique is used. In addition to stabilising the lateral dynamics, the proposed controller is able to maintain maximum lateral acceleration. The proposed method is tested and validated on a multi-body vehicle simulator.

  16. Influence of tyre-road contact model on vehicle vibration response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múčka, Peter; Gagnon, Louis

    2015-09-01

    The influence of the tyre-road contact model on the simulated vertical vibration response was analysed. Three contact models were compared: tyre-road point contact model, moving averaged profile and tyre-enveloping model. In total, 1600 real asphalt concrete and Portland cement concrete longitudinal road profiles were processed. The linear planar model of automobile with 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) was used. Five vibration responses as the measures of ride comfort, ride safety and dynamic load of cargo were investigated. The results were calculated as a function of vibration response, vehicle velocity, road quality and road surface type. The marked differences in the dynamic tyre forces and the negligible differences in the ride comfort quantities were observed among the tyre-road contact models. The seat acceleration response for three contact models and 331 DOF multibody model of the truck semi-trailer was compared with the measured response for a known profile of test section.

  17. Three 3-axis accelerometers fixed inside the tyre for studying contact patch deformations in wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Arto J.; Tuononen, Ari J.

    2014-05-01

    The tyre-road contact area was studied visually by means of a high-speed camera and three accelerometers fixed to the inner liner of the tyre carcass. Both methods show a distorted contact area in wet conditions, but interesting differences appeared. First, the contact area in full aquaplaning seems strongly distorted on a glass plate when subjected to visual inspection, while the accelerometers indicate a more even hydrodynamic aquaplaning contact length (CL) across the tyre width. Secondly, the acceleration sensors predict the clear shortening of the CL of the tyre before the critical aquaplaning speed. It can be concluded that the visual contact area and shape are heavily dependent on the transparency of the liquid and smoothness of the glass. Meanwhile, the tyre sensors can provide a CL estimate on any road surface imaginable.

  18. Scrap Tyre Management Pathways and Their Use as a Fuel—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rowhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of different methods for managing waste tyres. Around 1.5 billion scrap tyres make their way into the environmental cycle each year, so there is an extreme demand to manage and mitigate the environmental impact which occurs from landfilling and burning. Numerous approaches are targeted to recycle and reuse the tyre rubber in various applications. Among them, one of the most important methods for sustainable environmental stewardship is converting tyre rubber components into bio-oil. In this study, scrap tyre management techniques including landfill, retreading, recycling, combustion, and conversion to liquid fuels was reviewed (including gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction, and pyrolysis. The effects of parameters such as reactor types, pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst on the oil, gas and solid products in pyrolysis process were investigated.

  19. Detection of the local sliding in the tyre-road contact by measuring vibrations on the inner liner of the tyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Arto J.; Tuononen, Ari J.

    2017-04-01

    Intelligent tyres can provide vital information from the tyre-road contact, especially for autonomous cars and intelligent infrastructure. In this paper, the acceleration measured on the inner liner of a tyre is used to detect the local sliding in the tyre-road contact. The Hilbert-Huang transform is utilized to extract the relevant vibration components and localize them in the wheel rotation angle domain. The energy of the vibration in the trailing part of the contact is shown to increase in low-friction conditions which can be related to the sliding of the tread part as a result of the shear stresses exceeding the local friction limit. To separate the effect of the surface roughness and the friction, different road surfaces were used in the measurements. In addition, the effects of different driving manoeuvres on the measured accelerations and the propagation of the sliding zone in the contact patch during braking are illustrated.

  20. Detection of the local sliding in the tyre-road contact by measuring vibrations on the inner liner of the tyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niskanen, Arto J; Tuononen, Ari J

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent tyres can provide vital information from the tyre-road contact, especially for autonomous cars and intelligent infrastructure. In this paper, the acceleration measured on the inner liner of a tyre is used to detect the local sliding in the tyre-road contact. The Hilbert–Huang transform is utilized to extract the relevant vibration components and localize them in the wheel rotation angle domain. The energy of the vibration in the trailing part of the contact is shown to increase in low-friction conditions which can be related to the sliding of the tread part as a result of the shear stresses exceeding the local friction limit. To separate the effect of the surface roughness and the friction, different road surfaces were used in the measurements. In addition, the effects of different driving manoeuvres on the measured accelerations and the propagation of the sliding zone in the contact patch during braking are illustrated. (paper)

  1. Measuring Tyre Rolling Noise at the Contact Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, P.; Matuszkova, R.; Radimsky, M.; Kudrna, J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with noise generated by road traffic. A focus is concentrated solely on one of its sources related to tyre/road interaction referred as rolling noise. The paper states brief overview of various approaches and methods used to measure this particular source of road traffic noise. On the basis of literature reviews, a unique device has been designed. Development of the measuring device and possibilities of its usage are described in detail in this paper. Obtained results of noise measurements can then be used to design measures that increase safety and a lead to better comfort on the road.

  2. Incorporating moving dynamic tyre loads in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available at the University of Pretoria. 4 REAL LIFE TYRE LOADS Characterisation Pavement loading has been shown by various authors to be a dynamic (time-dependent) phenomenon (Divine, 1997; Cebon, 1999). A pavement experiences a vehicle as a moving, time-varying set... frequencies. Body bounce generally dominates the dynamic loading, and is mainly caused by the response of the sprung mass of the vehicle to the pavement roughness. Axle hop becomes more significant at higher vehicle speeds and higher pavement roughnesses...

  3. The influence of tyre characteristics on measures of rolling performance during cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul William; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sets out to assess the effect of five different models of mountain bike tyre on rolling performance over hard-pack mud. Independent characteristics included total weight, volume, tread surface area and tread depth. One male cyclist performed multiple (30) trials of a deceleration field test to assess reliability. Further tests performed on a separate occasion included multiple (15) trials of the deceleration test and six fixed power output hill climb tests for each tyre. The deceleration test proved to be reliable as a means of assessing rolling performance via differences in initial and final speed (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.52%). Overall differences between tyre performance for both deceleration test (P = 0.014) and hill climb (P = 0.032) were found, enabling significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.049) models to be generated, allowing tyre performance prediction based on tyre characteristics. The ideal tyre for rolling and climbing performance on hard-pack surfaces would be to decrease tyre weight by way of reductions in tread surface area and tread depth while keeping volume high.

  4. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyre. In Malaysia, The Smart and Cool Home Developer attempted to develop an eco-house by utilising waste tyre as the foundation for the driveway and claimed that the buried tyres act as a heat sink for the concrete and reduce the surface temperature of the driveway. Hence investigations were conducted on two sample houses to investigate this phenomenon. Findings from this pilot study show that waste tyres do act as a heat sink to the concrete driveways which affect the ambient temperature and relative humidity of the immediate surroundings.

  5. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The application of thermal processes to valorise waste tyre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, R.; Aylon, E.; Navarro, M.V.; Callen, M.S.; Aranda, A.; Mastral, A.M. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, M Luesma Castan 4, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    Scrap tyres are a growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In this investigation, the thermochemical recycling of rubber from old tyres by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: heating rate, flow rate, particle size and temperature. These thermobalance results were extended by performing experiments in a fixed bed reactor, studying the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. The oils have been characterized using a combination of analytical techniques (TLC-FID, GC-MS and simulated distillation). No relationship between functional group composition of the oils determined by TLC-FID and process variables was found. The carbonaceous material obtained was characterized by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption. The possible uses of this char have been analyzed taking into account and calculating the emissions that would be produced if the char were burnt. (author)

  7. The application of thermal processes to valorise waste tyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, R.; Aylon, E.; Navarro, M.V.; Callen, M.S.; Aranda, A.; Mastral, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Scrap tyres are a growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In this investigation, the thermochemical recycling of rubber from old tyres by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: heating rate, flow rate, particle size and temperature. These thermobalance results were extended by performing experiments in a fixed bed reactor, studying the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. The oils have been characterized using a combination of analytical techniques (TLC-FID, GC-MS and simulated distillation). No relationship between functional group composition of the oils determined by TLC-FID and process variables was found. The carbonaceous material obtained was characterized by N 2 and CO 2 adsorption. The possible uses of this char have been analyzed taking into account and calculating the emissions that would be produced if the char were burnt. (author)

  8. Numerical Analysis of Partial Abrasion of the Straddle-type Monorail Vehicle running Tyre

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Zixue; Wen, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Dayi; Xu, Zhouzhou; Chen, Liang

    2017-01-01

    The finite element model of the running tyre and the pre-stressed concrete (PC) track beam are created in the study. The wheel-rail contact status under the conditions such as acceleration or braking, lateral deviation, and roll is analysed. The wear law of the running tyre under the operating condition of driving on winding roads is discussed. The results show that the running tyre will unevenly wear when driving on the winding road; the smaller curve radius and the faster speed result in he...

  9. Sorption Potentials of Waste Tyre for Some Heavy Metals (Pb Cd in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Kanayo ASIAGWU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the adsorption potential of activated and inactivated waste tyre powders for some heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+ in their aqueous solution has been studied. The result indicated that inactivated waste tyre is a good non-conventional adsorbent for the removal of Cd from aqueous solution. A total of 93.3% of Cadmium contents was removed. The inactivated waste type proved a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ 5g of 500mm activated tyre removed over 86.66% of Pb2+ from solution.

  10. The new tyre book. New trends - technical aspects - driving characteristics - buyer's guide; Das neue Reifenbuch. Umruestung - Reifentechnik - Fahrpraxis - Kaufberatung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backfisch, K.P.; Heinz, D.S.

    2000-07-01

    Contents: Test methods of the tyre industry and acceptance tests; Differences between winter tyres, summer tyres and four-season tyres; Quality characteristics; Conversion to broad tyres; Tyre wall lettering; light metal wheels and tyre maintenance. There is a chapter on car driving viewed as applied physics, and the book contains hints on tyre handling as well as information on current and future trends on the tyre market. [German] Berichtet wird ueber Testverfahren der Reifenindustrie und die Verfahren zur Erstausruestungsfreigabe bei den Automobilherstellern. Das Buch informiert ueber die Unterschiede zwischen Sommer-, Winter- und Ganzjahresreifen, ueber Qualitaetsmerkmale, Umruestung auf Breitreifen oder die Seitenwandbeschriftung eines Reifens, zudem ueber Leichtmetallraeder und Reifenpflege. Autofahren ist angewandte Physik, diesem Aspekt widmet sich ein ganzes Kapitel. Der Leser erhaelt wichtige Tips zum Umgang mit Reifen sowie Informationen ueber aktuelle und kuenftige Entwicklungen auf dem Reifenmarkt. (orig.)

  11. Tyre contact length on dry and wet road surfaces measured by three-axial accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Mika; Tuononen, Ari

    2015-02-01

    We determined the tyre contact length on dry and wet roads by measuring the accelerations of the inner liner with a three-axial accelerometer. The influence of the tyre pressure, driving velocity, and tread depth on the contact length was studied in both types of road surface conditions. On dry asphalt the contact length was almost constant, regardless of the driving velocity. On wet asphalt the presence of water could be detected even at low driving velocities (e.g. 20 km/h for a worn tyre) as the contact length began to decrease from that found in the dry asphalt situation. In addition to improving the performance of active safety systems and driver warning systems, the contact length information could be beneficial for classifying and studying the aquaplaning behaviour of tyres.

  12. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (0035 and 0025) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002...... to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means...... of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function...

  13. Characterisation and catalytic upgrading of tars from coal-tyre hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.S.; Garcia, T. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Tars from coal-tyre hydropyrolysis obtained in a swept fixed bed reactor were upgraded with catalysts. Upgraded oils were characterized, and naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, heavy gas oil and vacuum residue percentages were quantified. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. A study of the tyre/road interface under wet conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of tyre tread pattern design for optimum wet grip performance. A mathematical model of tyre behaviour on wet roads has been developed. This utilizes the finite element method in the representation of tread pattern geometry. The performance of a particular tread pattern is found in terms of the fluid pressures and film thicknesses existing within the contact patch, under wet conditions. Many modern tread patterns are based on 'blocks', an...

  15. Geo-environmental applications for permeable sand-shredded tyre mixtures; Applications geoenvironnementales de melanges sable-pneu permeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabbaa, A.A. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering; Cogswell, C.A. [Formely Cambridge University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Al-Tabbaa, A.M.B. [Kings College London (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents details and results of recent work conducted on the geo-environmental applications of permeable sand-tyre mixtures. This work is part of an extensive research programme initiated by the first author on the use of waste tyre in various geotechnical and geo-environmental applications. The paper considers sand-tyre in mixed and layered sample configurations as part of active containment or landfill leachate collection system. The paper first investigates the level of leached copper and zinc from the tyre and its capacity to absorb paraffin. It then looks at the in-situ mixing of tyre with soil using a laboratory-scale auger. The work produced encouraging results and showed that tyre is a suitable waste material for use in the above applications. (authors)

  16. A 3D model for rubber tyres contact, based on Kalker's methods through the STRIPES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    A project on the pavement-rutting evolution under the effect of a tram on tyre, led the author to make a link between road and railway approaches to the problem of rolling contact. A simplified model is proposed with a fine description of the contact patch between a tyre and the road, and a more realistic pressure and shear stresses distribution than that available from basic models previously available. Experimental measurements are used to identify some characteristics of the force description, while the geometric shape of the tyre-road section are used, like in the traditional rail-wheel contact models, to build the 3D model. The last part validates a plausible contact pressure shape from self-aligning torque measurements and from Kalker's contact stresses gradient applied to the real tyre used in the project. The final result is a brush model extended from the wheel-rail STRIPES one, applicable to dynamics or contact studies of real tyres, with a physical coupling between longitudinal, lateral and spin effects, and a relatively fine description of the contact stresses along each strip of each tyre of the vehicle on an uneven road.

  17. Tyre-road contact using a particle-envelope surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnington, Roger J.

    2013-12-01

    Determination of the contact forces is the central problem in all aspects of road-tyre interaction: i.e. noise, energy loss and friction. A procedure to find the contact forces under a rolling tyre is presented in four stages. First, the contact stiffness of a uniform peak array from indentations in the rubber tread, and also tyre carcass deflection, is described by some new simplified expressions. Second, a routine divides a single surface profile into equal search intervals, in which the highest peaks are identified. These are used to obtain the parameters for the interval, i.e. the mean envelope and the mean interval. The process is repeated at geometrically decreasing search intervals until the level of the data resolution, thereby describing the profile by a set of envelopes. The ‘strip profile’ ultimately used to describe the surface, is obtained by selecting the highest points across the profiles of one stone's width. The third stage is to combine the strip profile envelopes with the contact stiffness expressions, yielding the nonlinear stiffness-displacement, and force-displacement relationships for the chosen road-tyre combination. Finally the contact pressure distribution from a steady-state rolling tyre model is applied to the strip profile, via the force-displacement relationship, giving the local tyre displacements on the road texture. This displacement pattern is shown to be proportional to the time and space varying contact pressure, which then is incorporated into a wave equation for rolling contact.

  18. Vehicle non-exhaust emissions from the tyre-road interface - effect of stud properties, traction sanding and resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.; Pirjola, Liisa

    2011-08-01

    In Northern cities respirable street dust emission levels (PM 10) are especially high during spring. The spring time dust has been observed to cause health effects as well as discomfort among citizens. Major sources of the dust are the abrasion products from the pavement and traction sand aggregates that are formed due to the motion of the tyre. We studied the formation of respirable abrasion particles in the tyre-road interface due to tyre studs and traction sanding by a mobile laboratory vehicle Sniffer. The measurements were preformed on a test track, where the influence of varying stud weight and stud number per tyre on PM 10 emissions was studied. Studded tyres resulted in higher emission levels than studless tyres especially with speeds 50 km h -1 and higher; however, by using light weight studs, which approximately halves the weight of studs, or by reducing the number of studs per tyre to half, the emission levels decreased by approximately half. Additionally measurements were done with and without traction sand coverage on the pavement of a public road. After traction sanding the emission levels were not affected by tyre type but by formation and suspension of traction sand related dust from the road surface. The emissions after traction sanding decreased as a function of time as passing vehicles' motion shifted the sand grains away from the areas with most tyre-road contact.

  19. Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Jan Kole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100% are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%, artificial turf (12–50%, brake wear (8% and road markings (5%. Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tyre wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5–10%. In air, 3–7% of the particulate matter (PM2.5 is estimated to consist of tyre wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization (WHO at 3 million deaths in 2012. The wear and tear also enters our food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks. It is concluded here that tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases, knowledge gaps on quantities and effects are being closed, and creative technical solutions are being sought. This requires a global effort from all stakeholders; consumers, regulators, industry and researchers alike.

  20. Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Pieter Jan; Löhr, Ansje J.; Van Belleghem, Frank G. A. J.; Ragas, Ad M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12–50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%). Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tyre wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5–10%. In air, 3–7% of the particulate matter (PM2.5) is estimated to consist of tyre wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization (WHO) at 3 million deaths in 2012. The wear and tear also enters our food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks. It is concluded here that tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases, knowledge gaps on quantities and effects are being closed, and creative technical solutions are being sought. This requires a global effort from all stakeholders; consumers, regulators, industry and researchers alike. PMID:29053641

  1. Shear forces in the contact patch of a braked-racing tyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Patrick; Sharp, Robin S.

    2012-12-01

    This article identifies tyre modelling features that are fundamental to the accurate simulation of the shear forces in the contact patch of a steady-rolling, slipping and cambered racing tyre. The features investigated include contact patch shape, contact pressure distribution, carcass flexibility, rolling radius (RR) variations and friction coefficient. Using a previously described physical tyre model of modular nature, validated for static conditions, the influence of each feature on the shear forces generated is examined under different running conditions, including normal loads of 1500, 3000 and 4500 N, camber angles of 0° and-3°, and longitudinal slip ratios from 0 to-20%. Special attention is paid to heavy braking, in which context the aligning moment is of great interest in terms of its connection with the limit-handling feel. The results of the simulations reveal that true representations of the contact patch shape, carcass flexibility and lateral RR variation are essential for an accurate prediction of the distribution and the magnitude of the shear forces generated at the tread-road interface of the cambered tyre. Independent of the camber angle, the contact pressure distribution primarily influences the shear force distribution and the slip characteristics around the peak longitudinal force. At low brake-slip ratios, the friction coefficient affects the shear forces in terms of their distribution, while, at medium to high-slip ratios, the force magnitude is significantly affected. On the one hand, these findings help in the creation of efficient yet accurate tyre models. On the other hand, the research results allow improved understanding of how individual tyre components affect the generation of shear forces in the contact patch of a rolling and slipping tyre.

  2. On the Horn Effect of a Tyre/road Interface, Part i: Experiment and Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, R. A. G.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Dowling, A. P.; Graham, W. R.

    2002-09-01

    Near the tyre/road contact area, the road surface and the tyre belt form a horn-like geometry, which provides a significant amplification mechanism for sound sources. Measurements have been carried out on a stationary tyre placed on a plane surface in an otherwise anechoic chamber. Following the reciprocal theorem a microphone was placed in the road surface near the contact patch and a white noise source was used in the far field. The amplification by the horn effect can then be determined as a function of frequency for an array of microphone positions relative to the contact patch and the centre of the tyre. These experimental measurements show that the horn effect is responsible for about 10-20dB increase in noise level. The amplification function shows a distinct interference pattern for higher frequencies and is independent of the longitudinal source position for low frequencies and source positions close to the contact patch. Numerical calculations using the indirect boundary element method have been carried out. These show excellent agreement with the measurements in the frequency regime of the BEM, i.e., up to 2500 Hz. The dependence of the horn effect on primary geometrical parameters such as the effect of the radius of curvature of the shoulders, the load and the width of the tyre has been investigated experimentally and numerically. The broad features of the horn effect are given by the cylindrical geometry of the tyre. The rounded edges of the tyre tend to increase the levels of the minima and shift them to higher frequencies, while slightly decreasing the levels of the maxima. Shape variations due to load can be accounted for by correcting the source distance to the edge of the formed contact patch. The amplification at low frequencies increases with width, the results collapsing onto a single curve as a function of the dimensionless width ω / λ.

  3. Studies and determination of heavy metals in waste tyres and their impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakya, P.R.; Shrestha, P.; Tamrakar, C.S.; Bhattarai, P.

    2006-01-01

    Uncontrolled burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in developing countries like Nepal. Such activities were banned in many countries considering the environment and public health hazards but the official ban was ignored in many countries like Nepal. An experiment was conducted in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential discharge of trace metals content in Kathmandu Valley due to scrap tyre fires. For this purpose, four tyre types viz., CYCN, CSKR, BTIN and BBJP were collected representing the first two categories from passenger car and the last two from motorbike. An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for determination of metal concentration. Among the five heavy metals determined, Zn was detected in significantly high levels in all the tested tyre samples whereas Cd and Cr were found significantly less in many of them. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn ranged from 0.020 - 27.1 micro g/g, 0.14 - 1.18 micro g/g, 17.8 - 381 micro g/g, 0.96 - 458 micro g/g and 3.95 - 8.21 micro g/g respectively. It was found that the metal concentration also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential discharge of the metals per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the metal pollutants due to the uncontrolled burning of the scrap tyres could significantly contribute to deteriorate the environmental condition of the Valley. (author)

  4. Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Pieter Jan; Löhr, Ansje J; Van Belleghem, Frank G A J; Ragas, Ad M J

    2017-10-20

    Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12-50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%). Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tyre wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5-10%. In air, 3-7% of the particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is estimated to consist of tyre wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization (WHO) at 3 million deaths in 2012. The wear and tear also enters our food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks. It is concluded here that tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases, knowledge gaps on quantities and effects are being closed, and creative technical solutions are being sought. This requires a global effort from all stakeholders; consumers, regulators, industry and researchers alike.

  5. Comparison of contact stresses of the test tyres used by the one third scale model mobile load simulator (MMLS3) and the full-scale test tyres of the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) - a summary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the results of a study in which the maximum vertical contact stressess of the one third scale test tyres of the Model Mobile Load Simulator (MMLS3) were compared with those measured for three types of full-scale test tyres...

  6. Combining ESPI with laser scanning for 3D characterization of racing tyres sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, Vito; Farroni, Flavio; Ferraro, Pietro; Lanzotti, Antonio; Martorelli, Massimo; Memmolo, Pasquale; Speranza, Domenico; Timpone, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    In this work is exploited the possibility to use two optical techniques and combining their measurements for the 3D characterization of different tyres with particular attention to the tyre's section. Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Laser Scanner (LS) based on principle of triangulation have been employed for investigating and studying the tyre's section and 3D shape respectively. As case studies two different racing tyres, Michelin S9H and Pirelli Diablo respectively, have been considered. The investigation has been focused at the aim to evaluate and measure the section's components in order to add to the 3D model obtained by Laser Scanning accurate information about the different layers along through the tyres sections. It is important to note that the assessment about the different layers along the section is a very difficult task to obtain by visual inspection or classical microscopy and even with the LS. Here we demonstrate that the different layers can be easily highlighted and identified by mean of the ESPI.

  7. Production of activated carbons from waste tyres for low temperature NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Waste tyres were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor and the product chars were chemically activated with alkali chemical agents, KOH, K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 to produce waste tyre derived activated carbons. The activated carbon products were then examined in terms of their ability to adsorb NOx (NO) at low temperature (25°C) from a simulated industrial process flue gas. This study investigates the influence of surface area and porosity of the carbons produced with the different alkali chemical activating agents on NO capture from the simulated flue gas. The influence of varying the chemical activation conditions on the porous texture and corresponding NO removal from the flue gas was studied. The activated carbon sorbents were characterized in relation to BET surface area, micropore and mesopore volumes and chemical composition. The highest NO removal efficiency for the waste tyre derived activated carbons was ∼75% which was obtained with the adsorbent treated with KOH which correlated with both the highest BET surface area and largest micropore volume. In contrast, the waste tyre derived activated carbons prepared using K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 alkali activating agents appeared to have little influence on NO removal from the flue gases. The results suggest problematic waste tyres, have the potential to be converted to activated carbons with NOx removal efficiency comparable with conventionally produced carbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Improved Optimal Slip Ratio Prediction considering Tyre Inflation Pressure Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle control systems. Many studies have verified there is a definitive impact of tyre pressure change on the optimal slip ratio. However, the existing method of optimal slip ratio prediction has not taken into account the influence of tyre pressure changes. By introducing a second-order factor, an improved optimal slip ratio prediction considering tyre inflation pressure is proposed in this paper. In order to verify and evaluate the performance of the improved prediction, a cosimulation platform is developed by using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim software packages, achieving a comprehensive simulation study of vehicle braking performance cooperated with an ABS controller. The simulation results show that the braking distances and braking time under different tyre pressures and initial braking speeds are effectively shortened with the improved prediction of optimal slip ratio. When the tyre pressure is slightly lower than the nominal pressure, the difference of braking performances between original optimal slip ratio and improved optimal slip ratio is the most obvious.

  9. Experimental study of tyre/road contact forces in rolling conditions for noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesbron, Julien; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Duhamel, Denis; Ping Yin, Hai; Le Houédec, Donatien

    2009-02-01

    This paper deals with the experimental study of dynamical tyre/road contact for noise prediction. In situ measurements of contact forces and close proximity noise levels were carried out for a slick tyre rolling on six different road surfaces between 30 and 50 km/h. Additional texture profiles of the tested surfaces were taken on the wheel track. Normal contact stresses were measured at a sampling frequency of 10752 Hz using a line of pressure sensitive cells placed both along and perpendicular to the rolling direction. The contact areas obtained during rolling were smaller than in static conditions. This is mainly explained by the dynamical properties of tyre compounds, like the viscoelastic behaviour of the rubber. Additionally the root-mean-square of the resultant contact forces at various speeds was in the same order for a given road surface, while their spectra were quite different. This is certainly due to a spectral influence of bending waves propagating in the tyre during rolling, especially when the wavelength is small in comparison with the size of the contact patch. Finally, the levels of contact forces and close proximity noise measured at 30 km/h were correlated. Additional correlations with texture levels were performed. The results show that the macro-texture generates contact forces linearly around 800 Hz and consequently noise levels between 500 and 1000 Hz via the vibrations transmitted to the tyre.

  10. The tyre - source of information for driver assistance; Der Reifen - Informationsquelle zur Fahrerassistenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtschulze, J.; Goertz, H. [Inst. fuer Kraftfahrwesen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Wunderlich, H.; Maeckle, G. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Varpula, T. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Mancosu, F. [Pirelli S.p.A., Mailand (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    apollo is a research project funded by the European Commission under the 5th Framework Programme ''information society technologies'' (IST). The objective is to develop a prototype of an intelligent tyre. The overall goals are to increase traffic safety and enable improvements for vehicle dynamics control, advanced driver assistance systems and services for external users by providing data on the tyre and the local tyre-road contact. The basics of the tyre deformation behaviour in operation situations show possibilities which signals can be measured and how to derive a set of data for the applications. Free rolling, cornering and braking/driving have to be distinguished. Optimal sensor locations are studied and determined in order to measure deformation characteristics by different quantities such as accelerations. Acquired signals are processed using models of tyre and vehicle behaviour before they are provided to application systems. To transmit the sensor data to the vehicle controller a wireless communication and power supply system is used. (orig.)

  11. Shrinkage Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Tyre Polymer Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of fibres are often used in concrete to prevent microcracking due to shrinkage, and polypropylene fibres are among the most often used ones. If not prevented, microcracks can lead to the development of larger cracks as drying shrinkage occurs, enabling penetration of aggressive substances from the environment and reducing durability of concrete structures. The hypothesis of the present research is that polypropylene fibres, used in concrete for controlling formation of microcracks due to shrinkage, can be replaced with recycled polymer fibres obtained from end-of-life tyres. To test the hypothesis, concrete mixtures containing polypropylene fibres and recycled tyre polymer fibres were prepared and tested. Experimental programme focused on autogenous, free, and restrained shrinkage. It was shown that PP fibres can be substituted with higher amount of recycled tyre polymer fibres obtaining concrete with similar shrinkage behaviour. The results indicate promising possibilities of using recycled tyre polymer fibres in concrete products. At the same time, such applications would contribute to solving the problem of waste tyre disposal.

  12. A management system for end-of-life tyres: a Portuguese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Paulo; Ribeiro, Paulo; Silva, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    The European Union introduced several policy instruments based in the extended producer responsibility (EPR) in order to improve the environmental performance of products and services through their life cycles. In this context, the Portuguese government decided to apply the EPR concept to tyres, and producers were obliged to constitute an end-of-life management system to promote the collection, recycling and reuse of end-of-life (EOL) tyres. This required producers, distributors, recyclers and retreaders to be identified and characterized, and local processing infrastructures to be analyzed. The information was used to design an economically optimised EOL tyre management system while promoting the activity of all EOL operators in order for the imposed collecting and recovery targets to be fulfilled. This paper discusses the interaction between the different governmental, private and academic institutions for the creation of the integrated management system for EOL tyres, the approach taken, the technical, political and legal aspects underneath them, as well as the environmental consequences induced by the creation of the management system. The results obtained during the first years of operation are reported and show an increase in the collection and recycling of EOL tyres and the consolidation of the collection and processing infrastructures.

  13. Stress-In-Motion (SIM) system for capturing tri-axial tyre-road interaction in the contact patch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available elements has a 9.7 mm diameter circular contact surface area ( 73.9 mm2) and is dimensionally optimised, allowing measurements in various tyre rolling conditions on a textured measuring surface. The textured surface induces some pre-conditioning of tyre...

  14. Identification of the characteristics of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of large variations in inflation pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, V.; Doria, A.; Giolo, E.; Taraborrelli, L.; Massaro, M.

    2014-10-01

    Stability and safety of road vehicles are largely affected by tyre properties. Single-track vehicles are characterised by weakly damped modes of vibration (weave and wobble) and therefore this phenomenon is even more important. This article focuses on the study of both steady-state and transient properties of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of very low and very high inflation pressures. The steady-state properties are defined as lateral forces (side-slip and camber forces) and yaw torques (self-aligning and twisting). The transient properties are described in terms of relaxation length, which represents the distance needed to reach a certain percentage of the steady-state value of the tyre force. Experimental tests are carried out on a specific rotating disk machine. Three sets of tyres are analysed. Steady-state properties are measured by increasing step by step the values of camber and side-slip angles. Transient properties are studied carrying out tests with harmonic side-slip excitation and measuring the phase lag between the excitation (input) and the tyre force (output). Experimental results show important variations in tyre properties with inflation pressure with general trends of all the tested tyres and particular features related to the tyre's geometry. After the analysis and discussion of experimental results, the measured data are fitted by means of a specific version of the Magic Formula. The dependence of the Magic Formula's coefficients on inflation pressure is analysed and interpolation curves are given.

  15. A model for investigating the influence of road surface texture and tyre tread pattern on rolling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoever, Carsten; Kropp, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    The reduction of rolling resistance is essential for a more environmentally friendly road transportation sector. Both tyre and road design can be utilised to reduce rolling resistance. In both cases a reliable simulation tool is needed which is able to quantify the influence of design parameters on the rolling resistance of a tyre rolling on a specific road surface. In this work a previously developed tyre/road interaction model is extended to account for different tread patterns and for losses due to small-scale tread deformation. Calculated contact forces and tyre vibrations for tyre/road interaction under steady-state rolling are used to predict rolling losses in the tyre. Rolling resistance is calculated for a series of different tyre/road combinations. Results are compared with rolling resistance measurements. The agreement between simulations and measurements is generally very good. It is found that both the tyre structure and small-scale tread deformations contribute to the rolling losses. The small-scale contribution depends mainly on the road roughness profile. The mean profile depth of the road surface is identified to correlate very well with the rolling resistance. Additional calculations are performed for non-traditional rubberised road surfaces, however, with mixed results. This possibly indicates the existence of additional loss mechanisms for these surfaces.

  16. Investigation of the influence of vertical force on the contact between truck tyre and road using finite element analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisescu, Alexandra-Raluca; Anghelache, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    In the modern context of automobile integration with the emerging technologies of the interconnected society, the interaction between tyre and road is an element of major importance for automobile safety systems such as the intelligent tyres, as well as for passenger comfort, fuel economy, environmental protection, infrastructure and vehicle durability. The tyre-road contact generates the distribution of forces exerted on each unit area in the contact patch, therefore the distribution of contact stresses on three orthogonal directions. The numerical investigation of stresses distribution in the contact patch requires the development of finite element models capable of accurately describing the interaction between tyre and rolling surface. The complex finite element model developed for the 11R22.5 truck tyre has been used for investigating the influence of vertical force on the distributions of contact stresses. In addition to these contributions, the paper presents aspects related to the simulation of truck tyre radial stiffness. The influence of tyre rolling has not been taken into consideration, as the purpose of the current research is the investigation of tyre-road contact in stationary conditions.

  17. The influence of tyre transient side force properties on vehicle lateral acceleration for a time-varying vertical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshimichi

    2018-05-01

    The tyre model which formerly developed by the author et al. and describes the tyre transient responses of side force and aligning moment under the time-varying vertical force was implemented to the vehicle dynamics simulation software and the influence of tyre side force transient property on the vehicle behaviour was investigated. The vehicle responses with/without tyre transient property on sinusoidally undulated road surfaces were simulated and compared. It was found that the average lateral acceleration of the vehicle at the sinusoidal steering wheel angle input decreases on the undulated road of long wavelength (3 m) for both cases, but when the wavelength becomes shorter (1 m), the average lateral acceleration increases only in the case that the transient property is considered. The cause of those changes is explained by using the tyre-related variables. Also the steady-state turning behaviour of the vehicle on undulated roads are shown and discussed.

  18. Transmission of vertical soil stress under agricultural tyres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Berli, M.; Ruiz, S.

    2014-01-01

    and simulate soil stress under defined loads. Stress in the soil profile at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was measured during wheeling at a water content close to field capacity on five soils (13–66% clay). Stress transmission was then simulated with a semi-analytical model, using vertical stress at 0.1 m depth......The transmission of stress induced by agricultural machinery within an agricultural soil is typically modelled on the basis of the theory of stress transmission in elastic media, usually in the semi-empirical form that includes the “concentration factor” (v). The aim of this paper was to measure...... estimated from tyre characteristics as the upper boundary condition, and v was obtained at minimum deviation between measurements and simulations. For the five soils, we obtained an average v of 3.5 (for stress transmitting from 0.1 to 0.7 m depth). This was only slightly different from v = 3 for which...

  19. Delayed Diagnosis of Pharyngeal Perforation following Exploding Tyre Blast Barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Field

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal perforation secondary to barotrauma is a rare phenomenon that can have serious complications if identified late. It is challenging to detect due to nonspecific symptoms. We present a case in which detection proved difficult leading to delayed diagnosis. Case Report. A 27-year-old mechanic presented with haemoptysis, dysphonia, and odynophagia after a car tyre exploded in his face. Flexible nasoendoscopy (FNE revealed blood in the pharynx, thought to represent mucosal haemorrhage. Initial treatment consisted of IV dexamethasone and antibiotics. After 3 days, odynophagia persisted prompting a CT scan. This revealed a defect in the posterior hypopharynx and surgical emphysema in the deep neck tissues. Contrast swallow confirmed posterior hypopharyngeal leak. NG feeding was commenced until repeated contrast swallow confirmed resolution of the defect. Discussion. Prompt nonsurgical management of pharyngoesophageal perforation has good outcomes but untreated perforation can have serious complications. FNE should be performed routinely, but only a contrast swallow can diagnose a functional perforation. Clinicians should have a high index of clinical suspicion when patients present with barotrauma and odynophagia. Patients should be kept nil by mouth until perforation has been excluded. Conclusion. When faced with cases of facial barotrauma, clinicians should have a low threshold for further imaging to exclude pharyngoesophageal perforation.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED PROPERTIES OF NORMAL CONCRETES WITH THE GRINDED RUBBER FROM WORN OUT VEHICLE TYRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ołdakowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubber from the worn tyres is associated with a useless material, strenuous for environment, whose most popular recovery method until recently was storage (currently forbidden by law. The adoption and dissemination of new ecological standards, created not only by the European and national legislation, but also developing as a result of expanding ecological consciousness, forces the necessity of seeking efficient methods of utilization of the vehicle tyres. The exemplary solution for the problem of tyres withdrawn from the operation, presented in the article, is using them in the grinded form as a substitute for the natural aggregate for the production of normal concrete. The article presents the results of the tests of selected properties of the modified normal concrete, upon the basis of which it has been found that the rubber causes decrease of compression strength, concrete weight, limits water absorbability, and does not influence significantly the physical and chemical phenomena accompanying the composite structure formation.

  1. Measurement of stress distributions in truck tyre contact patch in real rolling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, Gabriel; Moisescu, Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Stress distributions on three orthogonal directions have been measured across the contact patch of truck tyres using the complex measuring system that contains a transducer assembly with 30 sensing elements placed in the road surface. The measurements have been performed in straight line, in real rolling conditions. Software applications for calibration, data acquisition, and data processing were developed. The influence of changes in inflation pressure and rolling speed on the shapes and sizes of truck tyre contact patch has been shown. The shapes and magnitudes of normal, longitudinal, and lateral stress distributions, measured at low speed, have been presented and commented. The effect of wheel toe-in and camber on the stress distribution results was observed. The paper highlights the impact of the longitudinal tread ribs on the shear stress distributions. The ratios of stress distributions in the truck tyre contact patch have been computed and discussed.

  2. The influence of tyre contact patch and on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, M.; Ball, A.; Ash, J.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    This contribution presents the experimental tests results about the influence of the tyre contact patch on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles. The objective of the performed tests is the evaluation of the effect of tyre inflation pressure, hence the resulting tyre contact patch on the braking system and the brake distance. The conditions of the experiment are a dry and level road surface without steering inputs. To record scientific results, a brake robot system is used. The benefit of a robotic system is the elimination of the interfering variable driver, who is not able to apply the brake system at the same time with the same force. State-of-the-art data acquisition tools are used to log the data.

  3. The influence of tyre contact patch and on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, M; Ball, A; Ash, J; Schmidt, K

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents the experimental tests results about the influence of the tyre contact patch on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles. The objective of the performed tests is the evaluation of the effect of tyre inflation pressure, hence the resulting tyre contact patch on the braking system and the brake distance. The conditions of the experiment are a dry and level road surface without steering inputs. To record scientific results, a brake robot system is used. The benefit of a robotic system is the elimination of the interfering variable driver, who is not able to apply the brake system at the same time with the same force. State-of-the-art data acquisition tools are used to log the data.

  4. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Amin, Mahasen S. [Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. (author)

  5. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A.; Amin, Mahasen S.

    2010-01-01

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue.

  6. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  8. Ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor for tyres decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Pis'menetskij, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of ozone disintegration kinetics in the chemical reactor which is developed for decomposition of tyres in the ozone-air environment are presented. Analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from parameters of the task, such as volume speed of ozone-air mixture feed on a reactor input, concentration of ozone on the input to the reactor, volume speed of output of the used mixture, reactor size, and square of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that at the same speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, with growth of ozone concentration on the input, value of stationary concentration in the reactor grows, remaining always less than concentration on the input. It is also shown that at the same ozone concentration on the input, with growth of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, value of stationary ozone concentration in the reactor also grows, remaining always less than ozone concentration on the input. The ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor in a wide range of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 m3/hour) and various ozone concentration on the input (5, 10, 15, 20 g/m3) is experimentally studied. It is shown that experimental results with good accuracy coincide with the theoretical. Direct experiment showed the essential influence of the internal surface of the reactor on the ozone disintegration kinetics.

  9. Radiation pre-vulcanization of transitional layer of all-steel load meridian tyre and performance tests of the tyre products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benshang; Zhu Chengshen; Ying Shizhou; Liu Kebo; Li Zhaopeng; Li Kunhao; Zhang Hongna; Zhao Meihong; Yang Mingcheng

    2012-01-01

    In this article, natural rubber is chosen as transitional layer of all-steel load meridian tyre, which is pre-vulcanized by 500 keV E-beam irradiation of up to 60 kGy. The results show that the Green strength of transitional layer increases with the dose, reaching four times at 60 kGy as much as the control (without irradiation). The viscosity of transitional layer increases rapidly below about 29 kGy, but changes little at higher doses. The final mechanical properties do not differ significantly from those of the control. However, thickness of the natural rubber transitional layer for an average single tire can be reduced by 1 mm (or 1.5 kg), without obvious adverse effect on the tyre performance. (authors)

  10. Modelling tyre-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available between rolling tyres and the road structure it needs to be durable so as to withstand current traffic loading and hence contact stresses, given the environmental forces also acting on it. For road infrastructure to perform as expected, it is important...

  11. Stress-in-motion (SIM) - tyre/road interface contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tyre or road interface stresses are those induced by vehicular traffic running on roads, and are the primary cause of surfacing problems. The cost of asphalt layers is often the most significant in road construction and maintenance work...

  12. The new challenges of end-of-life tyres management systems: A Spanish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruburu, Ángel; Ponce-Cueto, Eva; Cobo-Benita, José Ramón; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of the implementation of the Directive 2008/98/EC in Spain for end-of-life tyres. ► Characterization of the reverse supply chain for collecting, recovering, and treating end-of-life tyres. ► Identification of challenges to be coped and issues to be covered. ► Potential new applications for end-of-life tyres and development of new management related strategies. - Abstract: Directive 2008/98/EC released by the European Union represents a significant step forward in all relevant aspects of waste management. Under the already established, extended produced responsibility (EPR) principle, new policies have been enunciated to continuously achieve better overall environmental performance of key products throughout their life phases. This paper discusses how the directive is being articulated in Spain by the main integrated management system (IMS) for end-of-life (EOL) tyres since its creation in 2006. Focusing on the IMS technological, economic and legal aspects, the study provides a global perspective and evaluation of how the IMS is facing the current issues to resolve, the new challenges that have appeared and the management vision for the coming years

  13. Modelling and experimental investigation of waste tyre pyrolysis process in a laboratory reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudniak Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of waste tyre pyrolysis process is developed in this work. Tyre material decomposition based on a simplified reaction mechanism leads to main product lumps: noncondensable (gas, condensable (pyrolytic oil and solid (char. The model takes into account kinetics of heat and mass transfer in the grain of the shredded rubber material as well as surrounding gas phase. The main reaction routes were modelled as the pseudo-first order reactions with a rate constant calculated from the Arrhenius type equation using literature values of activation energy determined for main tyre constituents based on TG/DTG measurements and tuned pre-exponential parameter values obtained by fitting theoretical predictions to the experimental results obtained in our laboratory reactor. The model was implemented within the CFD software (ANSYS Fluent. The results of numerical simulation of the pyrolysis process revealed non-uniformity of sample’s porosity and temperature. The simulation predictions were in satisfactory agreement with the experimentally measured mass loss of the tyre sample during pyrolysis process investigated in a laboratory reactor.

  14. Parametrisation of a Maxwell model for transient tyre forces by means of an extended firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hackl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing functions for advanced driver assistance systems requires very accurate tyre models, especially for the simulation of transient conditions. In the past, parametrisation of a given tyre model based on measurement data showed shortcomings, and the globally optimal solution obtained did not appear to be plausible. In this article, an optimisation strategy is presented, which is able to find plausible and physically feasible solutions by detecting many local outcomes. The firefly algorithm mimics the natural behaviour of fireflies, which use a kind of flashing light to communicate with other members. An algorithm simulating the intensity of the light of a single firefly, diminishing with increasing distances, is implicitly able to detect local solutions on its way to the best solution in the search space. This implicit clustering feature is stressed by an additional explicit clustering step, where local solutions are stored and terminally processed to obtain a large number of possible solutions. The enhanced firefly algorithm will be first applied to the well-known Rastrigin functions and then to the tyre parametrisation problem. It is shown that the firefly algorithm is qualified to find a high number of optimisation solutions, which is required for plausible parametrisation for the given tyre model.

  15. Co-gasification of a lignite/waste-tyre in a moving bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bučko, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2009), s. 1202-1206 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : co-gasification * waste-tyre * lignite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  16. The new challenges of end-of-life tyres management systems: A Spanish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uruburu, Ángel, E-mail: angel.uruburu@upm.es [Industrial Management Department, Technical University of Madrid, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ponce-Cueto, Eva, E-mail: eva.ponce@upm.es [Industrial Management Department, Technical University of Madrid, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Center for Transportation and Logistics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cobo-Benita, José Ramón, E-mail: joseramon.cobo@upm.es [Industrial Management Department, Technical University of Madrid, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín, E-mail: j.ordieres@upm.es [Industrial Management Department, Technical University of Madrid, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Impact of the implementation of the Directive 2008/98/EC in Spain for end-of-life tyres. ► Characterization of the reverse supply chain for collecting, recovering, and treating end-of-life tyres. ► Identification of challenges to be coped and issues to be covered. ► Potential new applications for end-of-life tyres and development of new management related strategies. - Abstract: Directive 2008/98/EC released by the European Union represents a significant step forward in all relevant aspects of waste management. Under the already established, extended produced responsibility (EPR) principle, new policies have been enunciated to continuously achieve better overall environmental performance of key products throughout their life phases. This paper discusses how the directive is being articulated in Spain by the main integrated management system (IMS) for end-of-life (EOL) tyres since its creation in 2006. Focusing on the IMS technological, economic and legal aspects, the study provides a global perspective and evaluation of how the IMS is facing the current issues to resolve, the new challenges that have appeared and the management vision for the coming years.

  17. On the influence of tyre and structural properties on the stability of bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Alberto; Roa Melo, Sergio Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In recent years the Whipple Carvallo Bicycle Model has been extended to analyse high speed stability of bicycles. Various researchers have developed models taking into account the effects of front frame compliance and tyre properties, nonetheless, a systematic analysis has not been yet carried out. This paper aims at analysing parametrically the influence of front frame compliance and tyre properties on the open loop stability of bicycles. Some indexes based on the eigenvalues of the dynamic system are defined to evaluate quantitatively bicycle stability. The parametric analysis is carried out with a factorial design approach to determine the most influential parameters. A commuting and a racing bicycle are considered and numerical results show different effects of the various parameters on each bicycle. In the commuting bicycle, the tyre properties have greater influence than front frame compliance, and the weave mode has the main effect on stability. Conversely, in the racing bicycle, the front frame compliance parameters have greater influence than tyre properties, and the wobble mode has the main effect on stability.

  18. The waste tyre problem in South Africa: An analysis of the REDISA plan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available problem only but has the potential to contribute to job creation, capacity building, establishment of small businesses as well as research and development of new and innovative waste tyre utilization techniques. The Plan is seen as the only viable approach...

  19. Design and testing of an innovative measurement device for tyre-road contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Brusarosco, M.; Mancosu, F.; Sabbioni, E.

    2011-08-01

    The measurement of tyre-road contact forces is the first step towards the development of new control systems for improving vehicle safety and performances. Tyre-road contact forces measurement systems are very expensive and significantly modify the unsprung masses of the vehicle as well as the rotational inertia of the tyres. Thus, vehicle dynamics results are significantly affected. As a consequence, the measured contact forces do not correspond to the contact forces under real working conditions. A new low-cost tyre-road contact forces measurement system is proposed in this paper that can be applied to passenger cars. Its working principle is based on the measurement of three deformations of the wheel rim through strain gauges. The tyre-rim assembly is thus turned into a sensor for tyre-road contact forces. The influence of the strain gauges position onto the measurement results has been assessed through finite element simulations and experimental tests. It has been proven that, for a large variety of rims, the strain gauge position that leads to high signal-to-noise ratios is almost the same. A dynamic calibration procedure has been developed in order to allow the reconstruction of contact force and torque components once per wheel turn. The capability of the developed device to correctly estimate tyre-road contact forces has been assessed, in a first stage, through indoor laboratory experimental test on an MTS Flat-Trac ® testing machine. Results show that the implemented measuring system allows to reconstruct contact forces once per wheel turn with a precision that is comparable to that of existing high-cost measurement systems. Subsequently, outdoor tests with a vehicle having all four wheels equipped with the developed measuring device have also been performed. Reliability of the measurements provided by the developed sensor has been assessed by comparing the global measured longitudinal/lateral forces and the product of the measured longitudinal

  20. Dynamic interaction of brakes, tyres and road surface; Dynamische Interaktion Bremse - Reifen - Strasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huinink, H.; Schroeder, C.

    1999-12-01

    Rubber friction of rough surfaces is characterised by the molecular physics of the highly dynamic interaction between a polymer network and the road on nano- micrao- and macroscale length. The problems of power transmission of ALS-controlled tyres at quasi-stationary conditions (interaction tyres/braking system) are described by the grip/slip characteristics defined for the area of tyre contact, which in terms forms the basis for the interaction between material and road surface (according to Persson 1997) under the respective technical conditions of the vehicle. ALS-braking with time-dependent brake torque is a technically highly dynamic system state within the interaction of material, tyres, vehicle and road surface. New systems based on sensors such as the side-torsion-sensor made by Continental AG improve safety, comfort and economy by combining this feature with a vehicle management system which uses tyre forces and -deformation as input parameters. [Deutsch] Die Gummireibung auf rauhen Oberflaechen ist durch eine molekulare Physik der hochdynamischen Interaktion Polymernetzwerk / Fahrbahn auf nano-, mikro- und makroskaligen Laengen gekennzeichnet. Die Problematik der Kraftuebertragung bei ABS-geregelten Reifen unter quasistationaeren Bedingungen (Interaktion Reifen - Bremssystem) wird durch die in der Bodenaufstandsflaeche ortsaufgeloesten Kraftschluss - Schlupf - Kennlinien erfasst, deren Basis die Interaktion Material / Fahrbahn nach Persson (1997) unter den gegebenen technischen Bedingungen am Fahrzeug darstellt. Der ABS-Bremsvorgang bei zeitabhaengigem Bremsmoment ist ein technisch hochdynamischer Systemzustand im Wechselspiel Material - Reifen - Fahrzeug-Fahrbahn. Auf der Sensorik basierende dynamische Systemerweiterungen, wie z.B. durch den Seitenwand-Torsions-Sensor der Continental AG, verbessern Fahrsicherheit, Komfort und Wirtschaftlichkeit durch die Kombination mit einem Fahrzeugmanagementsystem, das die Reifenkraefte und -verformungen als

  1. Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: mats.gustafsson@vti.se; Blomqvist, Goeran [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linkoeping (Sweden); Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas [Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Swietlicki, Erik [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bohgard, Mats [Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lindbom, John; Ljungman, Anders [Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM{sub 10}, respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM{sub 10} emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties.

  2. Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Goeran; Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas; Swietlicki, Erik; Bohgard, Mats; Lindbom, John; Ljungman, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM 10 ) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM 10 , respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM 10 emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of tyres' properties on the straight running stability of a sport-touring motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, Vittore; Doria, Alberto; Formentini, Matteo; Peretto, Martino

    2012-03-01

    The behaviour of a motorcycle on the road is largely governed by tyre properties. This paper presents experimental and numerical analyses dealing with the influence of tyre properties on the stability of weave and wobble in straight running. The final goal is to find optimal sets of tyre properties that improve the stability of a motorcycle. The investigation is based on road tests carried out on a sport-touring motorcycle equipped with sensors. Three sets of tyres are tested at different speeds in the presence of weave and wobble. The analysis of telemetry data highlights significant differences in the trends of frequency and damping of weave and wobble against speed. The experimental analysis is integrated by a parametric numerical analysis. Tyre properties are varied according to the design of experiments method, in order to highlight the single effects on stability of lateral and cornering coefficient of front and rear tyres.

  4. Predicted tyre-soil interface area and vertical stress distribution based on loading characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Stettler, M.; Keller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The upper boundary condition for all models simulating stress patterns throughout the soil profile is the stress distribution at the tyre–soil interface. The so-called FRIDA model (Schjønning et al., 2008. Biosyst. Eng. 99, 119–133) treats the contact area as a superellipse and has been shown...... of the actual to recommended inflation pressure ratio. We found that VT and Kr accounted for nearly all variation in the data with respect to the contact area. The contact area width was accurately described by a combination of tyre width and Kr, while the superellipse squareness parameter, n, diminished...... slightly with increasing Kr. Estimated values of the contact area length related to observed data with a standard deviation of about 0.06 m. A difference between traction and implement tyres called for separate prediction equations, especially for the contact area. The FRIDA parameters α and β, reflecting...

  5. Kinetics of the Thermal Degradation of Granulated Scrap Tyres: a Model-free Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix A. LÓPEZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is a technology with a promising future in the recycling of scrap tyres. This paper determines the thermal decomposition behaviour and kinetics of granulated scrap tyres (GST by examining the thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric (TGA/DTG data obtained during their pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere at different heating rates. The model-free methods of Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Coats-Redfern were used to determine the reaction kinetics from the DTG data. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the degradation of GST were calculated. A comparison with the results obtained by other authors was made.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2947

  6. An optimal pole-matching observer design for estimating tyre-road friction force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mohammad; Johari Majd, Vahid; Saghafi, Behrooz; Sojoodi, Mahdi

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, considering the dynamical model of tyre-road contacts, we design a nonlinear observer for the on-line estimation of tyre-road friction force using the average lumped LuGre model without any simplification. The design is the extension of a previously offered observer to allow a muchmore realistic estimation by considering the effect of the rolling resistance and a term related to the relative velocity in the observer. Our aim is not to introduce a new friction model, but to present a more accurate nonlinear observer for the assumed model. We derive linear matrix equality conditions to obtain an observer gain with minimum pole mismatch for the desired observer error dynamic system. We prove the convergence of the observer for the non-simplified model. Finally, we compare the performance of the proposed observer with that of the previously mentioned nonlinear observer, which shows significant improvement in the accuracy of estimation.

  7. Fatigue Properties and Fracture Morphology of Micronised Rubber Powder (MRP) from Waste Tyres in Unfilled Elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Habibah A.I.H., D; Abraham, F; Summerscales, J; Brown, P

    2018-01-01

    Ground rubber from waste tyres may be added to elastomers with economic and environmental benefits. The untreated or treated fillers have been investigated in different types of virgin rubber matrix. A principal concern is their crosslinked structure and large particle sizes. These additives introduce flaws leading to micro-crack initiation especially under dynamic loading. The incorporation of smaller particles at a suitable concentration may avoid deterioration in the key properties. The pr...

  8. Mechanical characterization of sportive tracks made with materials recycled from end-of-life tyres

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Gámiz, F. J.; Escriba, S.; García-Villena, S. A.; Bermejo, J. M.; Saiz, L.

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. The European Framework Directive 2008/98/EC on waste established as priority reuse and recycling before other recovery alternatives. In this normative reference, one the main waste flows identified are the end-of-life tyres, as a material whose mechanical properties could provide advantage in the construction of new structures. This paper presents the mechanical character...

  9. Compound soil-tyre chips modified by cement as a road construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Promputthangkoon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to overcome the two problems of low-quality soil and a growing number of discarded tyres bymixing low-CBR soil with recycled tyre chips. The compound soil-tyre chips was then stabilised by Portland cement with theaim of using them as a new material in road construction in order to reduce the occurrence of shrinkage cracks. To achievethe purposes of this research three standard geotechnical testing programmes were employed: (1 modified compaction tests,(2 California Bearing Ratio tests (CBR, and (3 unconfined compression tests. The modified compaction test results provedthat for the mixtures having very low tyre chips and cement content, the behaviour is very complex. It was also observed thatthe greater the percentage of rubber added the lower the global density. However, this is predictable as the specific gravityof the rubber is much lower than that of the soil. For the relationship between the optimum moisture content (OMC and thecement content, it was observed that there is no clear pattern.For the specimens having no cement added, the CBR for unsoaked specimens was observed to be greater than that forsoaked specimens. However, when the cement was introduced the CBR test showed that the resistance to penetration for thesoaked specimens was significantly greater, indicating the effects of cement added on the strength. In addition, it was foundthat the CBR values for both soaked and unsoaked specimens gradually increased with the increase of cement content.Lastly, the unconfined compressive strength progressively increased with the increased percentage of cement.

  10. Importance of tread inertia and damping on the tyre/road contact stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winroth, J.; Andersson, P. B. U.; Kropp, W.

    2014-10-01

    Predicting tyre/road interaction processes like roughness excitation, stick-slip, stick-snap, wear and traction requires detailed information about the road surface, the tyre dynamics and the local deformation of the tread at the interface. Aspects of inertia and damping when the tread is locally deformed are often neglected in many existing tyre/road interaction models. The objective of this paper is to study how the dynamic features of the tread affect contact forces and contact stiffness during local deformation. This is done by simulating the detailed contact between an elastic layer and a rough road surface using a previously developed numerical time domain contact model. Road roughness on length scales smaller than the discretisation scale is included by the addition of nonlinear contact springs between each pair of contact elements. The dynamic case, with an elastic layer impulse response extending in time, is compared with the case where the corresponding quasi-static response is used. Results highlight the difficulty of estimating a constant contact stiffness as it increases during the indentation process between the elastic layer and the rough road surface. The stiffness-indentation relation additionally depends on how rapidly the contact develops; a faster process gives a stiffer contact. Material properties like loss factor and density also alter the contact development. This work implies that dynamic properties of the local tread deformation may be of importance when simulating contact details during normal tyre/road interaction conditions. There are however indications that the significant effect of damping could approximately be included as an increased stiffness in a quasi-static tread model.

  11. MODELLING AND VALIDATION OF A TESTING TRAILER FOR ABS AND TYRE INTERACTION ON ROUGH TERRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Žuraulis, Vidas; van der Merwe, Nico A.; Scholtz, Odette; Els, P. Schalk

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of a vehicle anti-lock braking system (ABS) is to prevent the tyres from locking-up in order to brake efficiently whilst maintaining steering control and stability. Sport utility vehicles (SUV) are designed to drive on various roads under different driving conditions, making it challenging to identify optimal operating conditions for ABS algorithms to be implemented. This paper describes the development and modelling of a testing trailer that is designed to benefit the res...

  12. The durability of concrete containing recycled tyres as a partial replacement of fine aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Othman, Nurulain; Shamsuddin, Shamrul-mar; Ibrahim, M. H. W.; Zuki, S. S. Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, uncontrolled disposal of waste materials such as tyres can affect the environment. Therefore, careful management of waste disposal must be done in order to conserve the environment. Waste tyres can be use as a replacement for both fine aggregate and coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. This research was conducted to assess the durability of concrete containing recycled tyres which have been crushed into fine fragments to replace fine aggregate in the concrete mix. This study presents an overview of the use of waste rubber as a partial replacement of natural fine aggregate in a concrete mix. 36 concrete cubes measuring 100mm × 100mm × 100mm and 12 concrete cubes measuring 150mm × 150mm × 150mm were prepared and added with different percentages of rubber from recycled tyres (0%, 3%, 5% and 7%) as fine aggregate replacement. The results obtained show that the replacement of fine aggregate with 7% of rubber recorded a compressive strength of 43.7MPa while the addition of 3% of rubber in the concrete sample recorded a high compressive strength of 50.8MPa. This shows that there is a decrease in the strength and workability of concrete as the amount of rubber used a replacement for fine aggregate in concrete increases. On the other hand, the water absorption test indicated that concrete which contains rubber has better water absorption ability. In this study, 3% of rubber was found to be the optimal percentage as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in the production of concrete.

  13. Evaluation of the properties of tyre pyrolysis oils obtained in a conical spouted bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Lopez, G.; Amutio, M.; Mkhize, N.M.; Danon, B.; Gryp, P. van der; Görgens, J.F.; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Waste truck tyre valorization by fast pyrolysis has been performed in a conical spouted bed reactor in the 425–575 °C range. The tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) yield was found to decrease with increasing temperature whilst the yield of gas increased. The effect of temperature on TPO properties has been studied in order to establish the best possible valorization route. FTIR and chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of some undesired compounds with sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen functionalities (benzotiatholes, nitriles and carboxylic acids amongst others) and an increase of TPO aromaticity with increasing temperature. The carbon and sulphur content and the heating value of the TPO increased with temperature. The simulated distillation showed that approximately 70% of the TPOs produced at 425 and 475 °C correspond to diesel range, whereas that TPO obtained at 575 °C is between diesel and gasoline range. The properties of the TPOs evidenced their potential to substitute conventional fuels. However, some of them need to be improved, i.e., by reduction of the sulphur, nitrogen and aromatic content. Additionally, the TPO obtained at 425 and 475 °C could be an important source of limonene and that at 575 °C of xylenes, although current removal methods present some limitations. - Highlights: • The conical spouted bed reactor is suitable for truck tyre fast pyrolysis. • The highest oil yields are attained between 425 and 475 °C (≈58 wt %). • Tyre oil is a mixture of water, aromatic, aliphatic and heteroaromatic compounds. • Limonene is the major compound with a maximum yield of 13.30 wt % at 475 °C. • 425 and 475 °C oils share similarities with diesel and 575 °C one with gasoline.

  14. Waste truck-tyre processing by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.; Alvarez, J.; Amutio, M.; Mkhize, N.M.; Danon, B.; Gryp, P.; Görgens, J.F. van der; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flash pyrolysis improves TPO and limonene yields vs. slow pyrolysis. • The most suitable temperature for TPO and limonene maximization was 475 °C. • Operating at 575 °C gas yields and char quality was enhanced. • Temperature showed a limited effect on sulphur distribution among products. - Abstract: The flash pyrolysis of waste truck-tyres was studied in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) operating in continuous regime. The influence of temperature on product distribution was analysed in the 425–575 °C range. A detailed characterization of the pyrolysis products was carried out in order to assess their most feasible application. Moreover, special attention was paid to the sulphur distribution among the products. The analysis of gaseous products was carried out using a micro-GC and the tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) by means of GC-FID using peak areas for quantification, with GC/MS for identification and elemental analysis. Finally, the char was subjected to elemental analysis and surface characterization. According to the results, 475 °C is an appropriate temperature for the pyrolysis of waste tyres, given that it ensures total devolatilisation of tyre rubber and a high TPO yield, 58.2 wt.%. Moreover, the quality of the oil is optimum at this temperature, especially in terms of high concentrations of valuable chemicals, such as limonene. An increase in temperature to 575 °C reduced the TPO yield to 53.9 wt.% and substantially changed its chemical composition by increasing the aromatic content. However, the quality of the recovered char was improved at high temperatures.

  15. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  16. On the impact of `smart tyres' on existing ABS/EBD control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Federico; Leo, Elisbetta; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2010-12-01

    The paper focuses on the possibility of enhancing the performances of the ABS (Antilock Braking System)/EBD (electronic braking distribution) control system by using the additional information provided by 'smart tyres' (i.e. tyres with embedded sensors and digital-computing capability). In particular, on the basis of previous works [Braghin et al., Future car active controls through the measurement of contact forces and patch features, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 44 (2006), pp. 3-13], the authors assumed that these components should be able to provide estimates for the normal loads acting on the four wheels and for the tyre-road friction coefficient. The benefits produced by the introduction of these additional channels into the existing ABS/EBD control logic were evaluated through simulations carried out with a validated 14 degrees of freedom (dofs) vehicle + ABS/EBD control logic numerical model. The performance of the ABS control system was evaluated through a series of braking manoeuvres on straight track focusing the attention on μ -jump conditions, while the performance of the EBD control system was assessed by means of braking manoeuvres carried out considering several weight distributions.

  17. Factors Affecting the Adsorption of Trivalent Chromium Ions by Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Rubber Tyres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia E. Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic gains are generally the outcome of industrialization and consequently urbanization. However, positive fiscal index generates a negative impact on natural environment sources heaving pollutant burden on soil, air and water. Industries throw tones of contaminated water into soil and water bodies without proper treatment and create a potential threat for both living and non-living species. Chromium in trivalent state (Cr3+ is added in water bodies and soil through waste water from tanneries, cooling water systems, chemical and pulp and paper industries. The present research work aims at the preparation of an inexpensive activated carbon prepared from non- degradable waste scrap rubber tyres. The carbon produced from scrap rubber tyres was activated by 5% solution of BaCl2 and 0.4 N solution of HCl and verified by ethylene blue solution. The adsorption capacity of the Tyre activated carbon (TAC was investigated for different parameters i.e., initial chromium (III ion concentration, activated carbon dosage, contact/ stirring time and pH. The adsorption capacity of TAC depends on the initial metal ion concentration and the TAC dose. pH of the chromium solution effects the adsorption capacity of TAC due to the formation of tetra hydroxochromate(III complexes,. The results show that TAC offers a cost effective reclamation process for the removal of Cr3+ from effluent waters.

  18. An emissions audit of a chain grate stoker burning shredded tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.M.; Jones, H.H.; King, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the Emissions Audit carried out on a chain-grate stoker shell boiler burning shredded tyres at the Byker Heat Station. The unit has a thermal output of 5.75 MW. At the time of the audit the unit had no pollution abatement equipment fitter other than a cyclone grit arrestor. Combustion gas concentrations were good with test averages of CO and THC at -3 and -3 respectively. CO 2 and O 2 concentrations were steady throughout both tests. However, improvements in CO concentrations could be achieved by further optimisation. Acid gas concentrations were relatively steady throughout the test periods, the dominant gas being SO 2 at about 1450 mgm -3 . There are at present no concentration guidelines for SO 2 emissions for a unit of this size, however, the concentrations were well in excess of guidelines for units burning more than one tonne per hour of tyres. HCl concentrations at -3 were well below the guidelines, a reflection of the low Cl content of tyres. (Author)

  19. New results on the relation between tyre-road longitudinal stiffness and maximum available grip for motor car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, A.; Vandanjon, P. O.; Lengelle, R.; Chabanon, C.

    2010-12-01

    Tyre-road estimation methods have been the objective of many research programmes throughout the world. Most of these methods aim at estimating the friction components such as tyre longitudinal slip rate κ and friction coefficient μ in the contact patch area. In order to estimate the maximum available friction coefficient μmax, these methods generally use a probabilistic relationship between the grip obtained for low tyre excitations (such as constant speed driving) and the grip obtained for high tyre excitations (such as emergency braking manoeuvre). Confirmation or invalidation of this relationship from experimental results is the purpose of this paper. Experiments have been carried out on a reference track including several test boards corresponding to a wide textural spectrum. The main advantage of these experiments lies in the use of a vehicle allowing us to accurately build point-by-point relationship between κ and μ. This relationship has been determined for different tyres and pavement textures. Finally, the curves obtained are analysed to check the validity of the relationship between the current friction coefficient used by the car during normal driving conditions and μmax.

  20. Local effects of friction between car tyres and roads; Lokale Effekte der Reibung zwischen Pkw-Reifen und Fahrbahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fach, M.

    2000-07-01

    Local effects of friction in the contact surface of car tyres were measured and interpreted using specially developed or modified emthods of measurement. The sensors were used in test stands and in driving tests. - The results on local sliding and elastic deformations show that interaction of both components governs the friction forces between tyres and roads. Deformation slip and sliding slip occur jointly, leading to a characterstic shape of the friction-slip curve. A closed theory on the characteristics of tyre friction is presented. - Analogies are established between the local effects resulting from frictional load on the tyres and the methods of friction coeffcient analysis using the Darmstadt tyre sensors. The fundmental mechanisms are derived and presented. [German] Die Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Messung und Interpretation lokaler Effekte der Reibung in der Aufstandsflaeche von Pkw-Reifen. Zur Messung dieser Effekte wurden im Rahmen der Arbeit Messmethoden geschaffen bzw. vorhandene Verfahren angepasst. Die Sensorik wurde auf Pruefstaenden und im Fahrversuch eingesetzt. - Die Ergebnisse zum lokalen Gleiten und zu den elastischen Deformationen zeigen, dass ein Zusammenspiel der beiden Komponenten fuer die Auspraegung von Reibkraeften zwischen Reifen und Strasse massgeblich ist. Es entsteht das gemeinsame Auftreten von Deformations- und Gleitschlupf am Reifen und damit das charakteristische Aussehen der Reibwert-Schlupf-Kurve. Eine geschlossene Theorie zur Charakteristik der Reifenreibung wird vorgestellt. - Daneben zeigen sich deutliche Analogien zwischen den lokalen Effekten in Folge von Reibwertbeanspruchung vom Reifen und der Verfahren zur Reibwerterkennung mit Hilfe der Darmstaedter Reifensensorik. Die grundlegenden Mechanismen dafuer werden hergeleitet. (orig.)

  1. An appraisal of mass differences between individual tyres, axles and axle groups of a selection of heavy vehicles in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available study of 2 666 heavy vehicles (HVs) with Gross Combination Mass, (GCM) > 3 500 kg was conducted, where the mass (or weight) of each tyre (approximately 47 242 tyres (or wheels)) was measured. The measurements were done at slow speed over the SIM device...

  2. Resource recovery from end-of-life tyres in Greece: a field survey, state-of-art and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kasampalis, T

    2010-06-01

    Lack of consistent and available information for the entire tyre industry has often hindered adequate understanding of current and future issues that need to be addressed for improving the sustainable end-of-life tyre management. The aim of this paper is to review related best available technologies and techniques for Greece, ranging from simple mechanical processing, up to complex multistep, mechanochemical and/or thermal treatment. End-of-life tyre management guidelines in the form of a manual for supporting future entrepreneurs in this field are also discussed. Extensive data mining, classification and inventorying was performed, both in the field via questionnaires and in the literature, for the purpose of accurately determining Hellenic conditions, in order to pinpoint encountered problems, propose interventions and determine new entrepreneurship opportunities.

  3. A waveguide finite element aided analysis of the wave field on a stationary tyre, not in contact with the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiniarz, Patrick; Kropp, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Although tyre/road noise has been a research subject for more than three decades, there is still no consensus in the literature as to which waves on a tyre are mainly responsible for the radiation of sound during rolling. Even the free vibrational behaviour of a stationary (non-rotating) tyre, not in contact with the ground, is still not well understood in the mid- and high-frequency ranges. Thus, gaining an improved understanding of this behaviour is a natural first step towards illuminating the question of which waves on a rolling tyre contribute to sound radiation. This is the topic of the present paper, in which a model based on the waveguide finite element method (WFEM) is used to study free wave propagation, on a stationary tyre, in the range 0-1500 Hz. In the low-frequency region (0-300 Hz), wave propagation is found to be rather straightforward, with two main wave-types present. Both have cross-section modes involving a nearly rigid motion of the belt. For higher frequencies (300-1500 Hz) the behaviour is more complex, including phenomena such as 'curve veering' and waves for which the phase speed and group speed have opposite signs. Wave-types identified in this region include (i) waves involving mainly sidewall deformation, (ii) belt bending waves, (iii) a wave with significant extensional deformation of the central belt region and (iv) a wave with a 'breathing' cross-section mode. The phase speed corresponding to found waves is computed and their radiation efficiency is discussed, assuming free-field conditions. In a future publication, the tyre model will be used in conjunction with a contact model and a radiation model to investigate the contribution of these waves to radiated sound during rolling.

  4. A model for prediction of the transient rolling resistance of tyres based on inner-liner temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Matthias; Unrau, Hans-Joachim; Gauterin, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of rolling resistance in thermal equilibrium of a tyre, like measurements according to ISO 28580, do not allow statements about rolling resistances under other driving conditions. Such statements, however, are necessary to determine the energy consumption in driving cycles. Especially for the proper calculation of electric-vehicle remaining ranges and the selection of the respective driving strategies, the real amount of energy consumption is required. This paper presents a model approach, which by means of only one standardised rolling resistance measurement can be parameterised and, considering the present driving speed and tyre temperature, can predict the respective current rolling resistance.

  5. Mixtures of rubber tyre and plastic wastes pyrolysis: A kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Miguel; Cabrita, I.; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, I.

    2013-01-01

    The study performed aimed at analysing possible routes for pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of polymeric materials namely RT (rubber tyre) and plastic wastes (PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PS (polystyrene)). Consequently, and seeking sustainable transformation of waste streams into valuable chemicals and renewable liquid fuels, mixture of 30% RT, 20% PE, 30% PP and 20% PS was subjected to pyrolysis. Different kinetic models were studied using experimental data. None of the mechanisms found in literature led to a numerical adjustment and different pathways were investigated. Kinetic studies were performed aiming to evaluate direct conversions into new solid, liquid and gaseous products and if parallel reactions and/or reversible elementary steps should be included. Experiments were performed in batch system at different temperatures and reaction times. Kinetic models were evaluated and reaction pathways were proposed. Models reasonably fit experimental data, allow explaining wastes thermal degradation. Kinetic parameters were estimated for all temperatures and dependence of Ea and pre-exponential factor on temperature was evaluated. The rate constant of some reactions exhibited nonlinear temperature dependence on the logarithmic form of Arrhenius law. This fact strongly suggests that temperature has a significant effect on reaction mechanism of pyrolysis of mixtures of rubber tyre and plastic wastes. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of rubber tyre (RT) and different plastic wastes (PE, PP and PS) was performed in batch reactor. • Definition of possible pathways taken into account for the formation of final products. • Kinetic parameters were estimated. • The effect of reaction temperature and reaction time on liquid composition was performed

  6. Cooking time harmonization attempts for main rubbers in a truck tyre-III. Activation energy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadima, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The harmonization of optimum cooking time of rubbers containing in a tyre is became possible. This occurrence is the result of the knowledge about the respective function of each element containing in the rubber. Many kind of rubbers are been studied. The obtained results demonstrate the realization of the harmonization of optimum cooking time in different rubbers at some conditions by modifying either a kind of vulcanization accelerator or a quantity of vulcanization activator. So, accelerator or activator modifies need of energy during cooking. In this paper, we are estimated activation energy for all new rubbers obtained

  7. Assessment on the methods of measuring the tyre-road contact patch stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, G.; Moisescu, A.-R.; Buretea, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper reviews established and modern methods for investigating tri-axial stress distributions in the tyre-road contact patch. The authors used three methods of measuring stress distributions: strain gauge method; force sensing technique; acceleration measurements. Four prototypes of instrumented pins transducers involving mentioned measuring methods were developed. Data acquisitions of the contact patch stresses distributions were performed using each transducer with instrumented pin. The results are analysed and compared, underlining the advantages and drawbacks of each method. The experimental results indicate that the three methods are valuable.

  8. Ozone decay in chemical reactor for ozone-dynamical disintegration of used tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Pismenetskii, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.; Benitskaja, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ozone decay kinetics in the chemical reactor intended for used tyres disintegration is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ozone was synthesized in barrierless ozonizers based on the streamer discharge. The chemical reactor for tyres disintegration in the ozone-air environment represents the cylindrical chamber, which feeds from the ozonizer by ozone-air mixture with the specified rate of volume flow, and with known ozone concentration. The output of the used mixture, which rate of volume flow is also known, is carried out through the ozone destructor. As a result of ozone decay in the volume and on the reactor walls, and output of the used mixture from the reactor, the ozone concentration in the reactor depends from time. In the paper, the analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from the parameters of a problem such as the volumetric feed rate, ozone concentration on the input in the reactor, volume flow rate of the used mixture, the volume of the reactor and the area of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that experimental results coincide with good accuracy with analytical ones.

  9. A multibody motorcycle model with rigid-ring tyres: formulation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Luca; Mancinelli, Nicolò

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is the development and validation of a three-dimensional multibody motorcycle model including a rigid-ring tyre model, taking into account both the slopes and elevation of the road surface. In order to achieve accurate assessment of ride and handling performances of a road racing motorcycle, a tyre model capable of reproducing the dynamic response to actual road excitation is required. While a number of vehicle models with such feature are available for car application, the extension to the motorcycle modelling has not been addressed yet. To do so, a novel parametrisation for the general motorcycle kinematics is proposed, using a mixed reference point and relative coordinates approach. The resulting description, developed in terms of dependent coordinates, makes it possible to include the rigid-ring kinematics as well as road elevation and slopes, without affecting computational efficiency. The equations of motion for the whole multibody system are derived symbolically and the constraint equations arising from the dependent coordinate formulation are handled using the position and velocity vector projection technique. The resulting system of equations is integrated in time domain using a standard ordinary differential equation (ODE) algorithm. Finally, the model is validated with respect to experimentally measured data in both time and frequency domains.

  10. Effects of the stress field induced by a running tyre on the soil pore system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    state in the soil profile beneath the harvester tyre was calculated using the SoilFlex model. Pore continuity index (N) and blocked air-filled porosity (εb) were estimated from the relationship between ka and air-filled porosity (εa) for a range of matric potentials. Calculated and measured stresses...... repeated wheelings were performed by a forage harvester (wheel load 6100 kg; tyre width 80 cm). Mean normal and horizontal stresses were measured with Bolling probes (at 10, 20 and 40 cm depth) and load cells (at 40, 50, 60 cm lateral distance from the centreline of the wheel rut at 10, 30 and 50 cm depth......), respectively. Intact soil cores of 100 cm3 sampled at 10, 30 and 50 cm depth in a soil transcet running from the centreline of the wheel rut to the unwheeled part of the field were used for measurements of water retention and air permeability (ka) at −30, −100 and −300 hPa matric potential. The complete stress...

  11. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azira, A. A., E-mail: azira@lgm.gov.my; Kamal, M. M., E-mail: mazlina@lgm.gov.my [High Value Added Rubber Products and Nanostructured Materials, Stesen Penyelidikan RRIM, LGM 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor (Malaysia); Verasamy, D., E-mail: devaraj@lgm.gov.my [Environmental Technology & Sustainability, Technology & Engineering Division, Malaysian Rubber Board, Stesen Penyelidikan RRIM, LGM 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.

  12. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azira, A. A.; Kamal, M. M.; Verasamy, D.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.

  13. The influence of various pressures in pneumatic tyre on braking process of car with anti-lock braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian HADRYŚ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article has been presented the influence of various pressures inpneumatic tyre of passenger car Fiat Panda 1.3 JTD with anti-lock braking system on chosen parameters of braking process: course of braking deceleration, maximum value of deceleration, braking distances.

  14. The influence of various pressures in pneumatic tyre on braking process of car with anti-lock braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Damian HADRYŚ; Tomasz WĘGRZYN; Michał MIROS

    2008-01-01

    In this article has been presented the influence of various pressures inpneumatic tyre of passenger car Fiat Panda 1.3 JTD with anti-lock braking system on chosen parameters of braking process: course of braking deceleration, maximum value of deceleration, braking distances.

  15. Tyres and road surfaces : paper presented to the Second Internation Skid Prevention Conference, Columbus, Ohio, May 2-6, 1977.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The study concerning the contact between a tyre and a road surface was conducted by means of an experimental multifactor investigation. It was attempted not only to determine the effect of variables such as type of road surface and speed on the skid resistance but also interaction effects. In the

  16. Tyre-road grip coefficient assessment - Part II: online estimation using instrumented vehicle, extended Kalman filter, and neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Pablo; Mántaras, Daniel A.; Fidalgo, Eloy; Álvarez, Javier; Riva, Paolo; Girón, Pablo; Compadre, Diego; Ferran, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the limit of safe driving conditions by identifying the maximal friction coefficient in a real vehicle. The study will focus on finding a method to determine this limit before reaching the skid, which is valuable information in the context of traffic safety. Since it is not possible to measure the friction coefficient directly, it will be estimated using the appropriate tools in order to get the most accurate information. A real vehicle is instrumented to collect information of general kinematics and steering tie-rod forces. A real-time algorithm is developed to estimate forces and aligning torque in the tyres using an extended Kalman filter and neural networks techniques. The methodology is based on determining the aligning torque; this variable allows evaluation of the behaviour of the tyre. It transmits interesting information from the tyre-road contact and can be used to predict the maximal tyre grip and safety margin. The maximal grip coefficient is estimated according to a knowledge base, extracted from computer simulation of a high detailed three-dimensional model, using Adams® software. The proposed methodology is validated and applied to real driving conditions, in which maximal grip and safety margin are properly estimated.

  17. A novel vehicle dynamics stability control algorithm based on the hierarchical strategy with constrain of nonlinear tyre forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Jia, Gang; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Hongjun; Cao, Dongpu; Song, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment for the vehicle stability in a steering process, is an important part of electric stability control system. In this field, most control methods utilise the active brake pressure with a feedback controller to adjust the braked wheel. However, the method might lead to a control delay or overshoot because of the lack of a quantitative project relationship between target values from the upper stability controller to the lower pressure controller. Meanwhile, the stability controller usually ignores the implementing ability of the tyre forces, which might be restrained by the combined-slip dynamics of the tyre. Therefore, a novel control algorithm of DYC based on the hierarchical control strategy is brought forward in this paper. As for the upper controller, a correctional linear quadratic regulator, which not only contains feedback control but also contains feed forward control, is introduced to deduce the object of the stability yaw moment in order to guarantee the yaw rate and side-slip angle stability. As for the medium and lower controller, the quantitative relationship between the vehicle stability object and the target tyre forces of controlled wheels is proposed to achieve smooth control performance based on a combined-slip tyre model. The simulations with the hardware-in-the-loop platform validate that the proposed algorithm can improve the stability of the vehicle effectively.

  18. A Semi-Empirical Three-Dimensional Model of the Pneumatic Tyre Rolling over Arbitrarily Uneven Road Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeitz, A.J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays virtual prototyping tools play an important part in the development of vehicles. For studying the dynamics of a vehicle, complex vehicle models are required that are composed of several accurately modelled components. As the tyre constitutes the only contact between the vehicle and the road

  19. Aromatization of oils from coal-tyre cothermolysis. Part 2. PAH content study as a function of the process variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, S.; Garcia, T.; Navarro, M.V. [Department of Energy and Environmental, Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, P.O. Box 589, C/Maria de Luna, 12, 50015, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-10-01

    In this work, the PAH content in the oils obtained from hydro-cothermolysis have been analysed. The influence of the process variables (H{sub 2} pressure, 1 and 10 MPa, different feed materials: coal, tyre and a blend of coal-tyre (1:1 in organic matter) in two reactors, tubing bomb and autoclave reactors (TBR, AR)), on PAH formation has been studied.Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is used as the main analytical technique after fractionation into four chemical fractions using neutral alumina column chromatography (CC). As the complementary technique, thin layer chromatography with flame ionisation detector (TLC/FID) was used to compare the analytical tool on the total aromatic compounds, leading to the conclusion that the nature of synthetic oils is also dependent on the analytical technique.In relation to the variables studied, the lower the pressure the higher the concentration of PAH detected. The hydrogen abundance reduces the PAH content. The hydropyrolysis of tyre, coal, and a blend of coal-tyre at the same conditions show that coal produces higher concentrations of PAH at hydrogenating conditions. PAHs that contain three and four cycles are the main PAHs detected regardless of the feed.

  20. Time domain contact model for tyre/road interaction including nonlinear contact stiffness due to small-scale roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P. B. U.; Kropp, W.

    2008-11-01

    Rolling resistance, traction, wear, excitation of vibrations, and noise generation are all attributes to consider in optimisation of the interaction between automotive tyres and wearing courses of roads. The key to understand and describe the interaction is to include a wide range of length scales in the description of the contact geometry. This means including scales on the order of micrometres that have been neglected in previous tyre/road interaction models. A time domain contact model for the tyre/road interaction that includes interfacial details is presented. The contact geometry is discretised into multiple elements forming pairs of matching points. The dynamic response of the tyre is calculated by convolving the contact forces with pre-calculated Green's functions. The smaller-length scales are included by using constitutive interfacial relations, i.e. by using nonlinear contact springs, for each pair of contact elements. The method is presented for normal (out-of-plane) contact and a method for assessing the stiffness of the nonlinear springs based on detailed geometry and elastic data of the tread is suggested. The governing equations of the nonlinear contact problem are solved with the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Relations between force, indentation, and contact stiffness are calculated for a single tread block in contact with a road surface. The calculated results have the same character as results from measurements found in literature. Comparison to traditional contact formulations shows that the effect of the small-scale roughness is large; the contact stiffness is only up to half of the stiffness that would result if contact is made over the whole element directly to the bulk of the tread. It is concluded that the suggested contact formulation is a suitable model to include more details of the contact interface. Further, the presented result for the tread block in contact with the road is a suitable input for a global tyre/road interaction model

  1. A tyre slip-based integrated chassis control of front/rear traction distribution and four-wheel independent brake from moderate driving to limit handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joa, Eunhyek; Park, Kwanwoo; Koh, Youngil; Yi, Kyongsu; Kim, Kilsoo

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a tyre slip-based integrated chassis control of front/rear traction distribution and four-wheel braking for enhanced performance from moderate driving to limit handling. The proposed algorithm adopted hierarchical structure: supervisor - desired motion tracking controller - optimisation-based control allocation. In the supervisor, by considering transient cornering characteristics, desired vehicle motion is calculated. In the desired motion tracking controller, in order to track desired vehicle motion, virtual control input is determined in the manner of sliding mode control. In the control allocation, virtual control input is allocated to minimise cost function. The cost function consists of two major parts. First part is a slip-based tyre friction utilisation quantification, which does not need a tyre force estimation. Second part is an allocation guideline, which guides optimally allocated inputs to predefined solution. The proposed algorithm has been investigated via simulation from moderate driving to limit handling scenario. Compared to Base and direct yaw moment control system, the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce tyre dissipation energy in the moderate driving situation. Moreover, the proposed algorithm enhances limit handling performance compared to Base and direct yaw moment control system. In addition to comparison with Base and direct yaw moment control, comparison the proposed algorithm with the control algorithm based on the known tyre force information has been conducted. The results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is similar with that of the control algorithm with the known tyre force information.

  2. Kalman and particle filtering methods for full vehicle and tyre identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Karol; Best, Matthew C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers identification of all significant vehicle handling dynamics of a test vehicle, including identification of a combined-slip tyre model, using only those sensors currently available on most vehicle controller area network buses. Using an appropriately simple but efficient model structure, all of the independent parameters are found from test vehicle data, with the resulting model accuracy demonstrated on independent validation data. The paper extends previous work on augmented Kalman Filter state estimators to concentrate wholly on parameter identification. It also serves as a review of three alternative filtering methods; identifying forms of the unscented Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter and particle filter are proposed and compared for effectiveness, complexity and computational efficiency. All three filters are suited to applications of system identification and the Kalman Filters can also operate in real-time in on-line model predictive controllers or estimators.

  3. Innovative Mesoporous Nanosilicas: SBR Nanocomposite for Low Environmental Impact Tread Tyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Maila; Turturro, Antonio; Finocchio, Elisabetta; Busca, Guido; Legami, Rossella Di; Vicini, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    Silica nanoparticles with different aspect ratios (A.R.) were tested as reinforcing fillers of styrenebutadiene copolymer (s-SBR) for "green tyres," i.e., tires with lower rolling resistance. A commercial nanosilica with A.R. = 1 (Aerosil® 200) was compared with two nanosilica samples with A.R. = 2 and 4, synthesized by means of an innovative process, to ascertain if the filler shape was significant to improve the composite properties. In addition, bis-triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulfide was grafted onto the particles surface, in order to obtain more hydrophobic materials and to enhance their dispersion in the elastomeric composites: pristine and modified silicas were then compared. Grafting extent was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. The surface properties of silicas were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and inverse gas chromatography. s-SBR/silica nanocomposites were then prepared and characterized assessing their dynamic-mechanical properties and carrying out morphological observations by transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Batch study, equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of naphthalene using waste tyre rubber granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Aisien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of waste tyre rubber granules (WTRG for the batch adsorption of naphthalene from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of various operational variables such as contact time, initial naphthalene concentration, adsorbent dose, size of adsorbent particles, and temperature of solution on the adsorption capacity of WTRG was evaluated. The adsorption of naphthalene by WTRG was a fast kinetic process with an equilibrium contact time of 60 min. A low temperature (5°C, small adsorbent particle size (0.212 mm and higher adsorbent dosage favored the adsorption process. Results of isotherm studies revealed that adsorption of naphthalene was best described by the Langmuir isotherm equation (R2=0.997 while the kinetics of the process was best described by the Lagergren pseudofirst order kinetic equation (R2=0.998. This study has demonstrated the suitability of WTRG for the removal of naphthalene from aqueous solution.

  5. Recovery of value-added products from the catalytic pyrolysis of waste tyre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, J.; Jan, M.R.; Mabood, F. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, N.W.F.P., Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan)

    2009-04-15

    The influence of an acidic (SiO{sub 2}), basic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and mixture of acidic and basic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: SiO{sub 2}) catalyst on the pyrolysis of used tyre rubber has been investigated. The yield of the derived gas, liquid and solid has been studied in term of the temperature, time and amount of catalyst. Oil fractions were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy and gas chromatography with FID. Oil derived with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing higher concentration of polar hydrocarbons (40%) and lower concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons while 40% aliphatic hydrocarbons and 30% polar hydrocarbons were found in oil derived with SiO{sub 2}. A mixture of catalyst (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: SiO{sub 2}) gave equal concentration of aliphatic (35%) and polar (35%) hydrocarbons in oil. (author)

  6. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  7. Contribution to tyre noise measurement adapted to human ears to future optimisation of tyre/road noise; Was kann die gehoergerechte Schallmesstechnik zur zukunftsorientierten Gestaltung des Reifen-/Fahrbahngeraeusches beitragen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuit, K. [HEAD acoustics, Herzogenrath-Kohlscheid (Germany); Poggenburg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The share of tyre noise in the total motor car noise has increased constantly in the past years. Today, legal regulations governing car noise and the car industry`s increasing demands on driving comfort are forcing car tyre producers to reduce tyre noise. This is made more difficult by the high and varied demands on tyres. The authors therefore suggest that rolling noise design should be given more attention supplementary to the current noise level measurements. This would result in a product-specific type of noise and also enhance the social acceptance of motor cars. The limits of conventional measuring techniques are pointed out, as are the possibilities of binaural measurement and analysis. Exemplary applications are listed, and an outlook to the future is attempted. [Deutsch] Der prozentuale Anteil der Reifen am Gesamtgeraeusch eines Fahrzeuges ist in der Vergangenheit stetig angestiegen. Bestehende gesetzliche Vorschriften fuer das Fahrzeug-Aussengeraeusch sowie hohe Ansprueche der Kunden, d.h. primaer der Automobilindustrie, zwingen die Reifenhersteller generell, das Rollgeraeusch zu reduzieren. Die an einen Fahrzeugreifen gestellten vielfaeltigen Anforderungen bedingen hierbei im allgemeinen einen hohen Aufwand. Im Beitrag wird daher fuer eine Vorgehensweise plaediert, die in Ergaenzung zum begrenzt aussagekraeftigen A-bewerteten Schalldruckpegel eine Gestaltung des Rollgeraeusches in den Mittelpunkt stellt. Hiermit kann nicht nur die Realisierung eines produktbezogenen Aussengeraeusches unterstuetzt werden, sondern es sichert darueber hinaus die gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz des Autos. Es werden die Grenzen konventioneller Messverfahren kurz aufgezeigt und die mittels binauraler Mess- und Analysetechnik bestehenden Moeglichkeiten dargestellt. Sinnvolle Vorgehensweisen werden anhand verschiedener Anwendungsbeispiele erlaeutert. Ein abschliessender Ausblick beschreibt das Potential zur Reduzierung der Belaestigungswirkung von Reifengeraeuschen durch

  8. Scrap tyre recycling process with molten zinc as direct heat transfer and solids separation fluid: A new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Goode, Kieran; Sexton, Aidan; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Every year about 1.5 billion tyres are discarded worldwide representing a large amount of solid waste, but also a largely untapped source of raw materials. The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel scrap tyre recycling process which uses molten zinc as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this media to separate the solids products (i.e. steel and rCB) in a sink-float separation at an operating temperature of 450-470 °C. This methodology involved: •construction of the laboratory scale batch reactor,•separation of floating rCB from the zinc,•recovery of the steel from the bottom of the reactor following pyrolysis.

  9. Combined removal of a BTEX, TCE, and cis-DCE mixture using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2015-09-01

    The simultaneous aerobic removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene (BTEX); cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE); and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the artificially contaminated water using an indigenous bacterial isolate identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida immobilized on waste scrap tyres was investigated. Suspended and immobilized conditions were compared for the removal of these volatile organic compounds. For the immobilized system, toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene were completely removed, while the highest removal efficiencies of 99.0 ± 0.1, 96.8 ± 0.3, 73.6 ± 2.5, and 61.6 ± 0.9% were obtained for o-xylene, m,p-xylene, TCE, and cis-DCE, respectively. The sorption kinetics of contaminants towards tyre surface was also evaluated, and the sorption capacity generally followed the order of toluene > benzene > m,p-xylene > o-xylene > ethylbenzene > TCE > cis-DCE. Scrap tyres showed a good capability for the simultaneous sorption and bioremoval of BTEX/cis-DCE/TCE mixture, implying a promising waste material for the removal of contaminant mixture from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater.

  10. Theory of rubber friction and traction properties of car tyres; Theorie der Gummireibung und Traktionseigenschaften von Reifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueppel, M.; Alshuth, T.; Schuster, R.H. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Kautschuktechnologie e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    ABS braking on dry and wet roads involves different mechanisms of rubber friction on rough surfaces. This improves car safety in terms of higher manoeuvrability and shorter braking lengths especially on wet roads. Current research focuses on optimisation of tyrecontact surface materials with better traction characteristics and lower rolling resistance. Laboratory predictions of the traction properties of tyre faces must be based on fundamental knowledge of the local sliding phenomena in the tyre contact surface and the resulting energy dissipation during ABS braking. This contribution therefore attempts to relate the elementary mechanisms of tyre mechanics in ABS braking processes to theoretical concepts of rubber friction on rough surfaces. [Deutsch] Beim ABS-Bremsen auf trockenen und nassen Strassen werden unterschiedliche Mechanismen der Gummireibung auf rauhen Oberflaechen wirksam. In der Summe bewirkt dies eine hoehere Fahrsicherheit, da neben der Manoevrierfaehigkeit des Autos auch der Bremsweg, vor allem auf nassen Strassen, verkuerzt sein kann. In diesem Zusammenhang wird zur Zeit verstaerkt an einer Optimierung von Laufflaechenmaterialien durch den Einsatz von massgeschneiderten Loesungs-SBR-Typen in Verbindung mit gefaellten Kieselsaeuren gearbeitet, wodurch neben einer Verbesserung der Traktionseigenschaften beim ABS-Bremsen auch eine Verringerung des Rollwiderstandes erreicht wird. Fuer Laborvorhersagen der Traktionseigenschaften von Reifenlaufflaechen ist ein grundlegendes Verstaendnis der lokalen Gleitphaenomene in der Reifenaufstandsflaeche und der damit verbundenen Energiedissipation beim ABS-Bremsen erforderlich. In dieser Arbeit wird deshalb angestrebt, die elementaren Mechanismen der Reifenmechanik beim ABS-Bremsen mit theoretischen Konzepten der Gummireibung auf rauhen Oberflaechen in Verbindung zu bringen. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic Properties and Fatigue Life of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with Waste Tyre Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, virgin polymer modified asphalt mixes are comparatively more expensive for road pavement. One way to reduce the expense of such construction and to make it more convenient is the application of inexpensive polymer, such as waste polymer. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM on the stiffness and fatigue properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA mixtures. Various percentages of waste CRM with size of 0.60 mm were added to SMA mixtures. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus test was conducted at temperatures of 5, 25, and 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (2000, 2500, and 3000 N. The results show that the stiffness modulus of reinforced SMA samples containing various contents of CRM is significantly high in comparison with that of nonreinforced samples, and the stiffness modulus of reinforced samples is in fact less severely affected by the increased temperature compared to the nonreinforced samples. Further, the results show that CRM reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue lives compared to the nonreinforced mixtures help in and promotion of sustainable technology by recycling of waste materials in much economical and environmental-friendly manner.

  12. Pyrolysis of tyre powder using microwave thermogravimetric analysis: Effect of microwave power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhanlong; Yang, Yaqing; Zhou, Long; Zhao, Xiqiang; Wang, Wenlong; Mao, Yanpeng; Ma, Chunyuan

    2017-02-01

    The pyrolytic characteristics of tyre powder treated under different microwave powers (300, 500, and 700 W) were studied via microwave thermogravimetric analysis. The product yields at different power levels were studied, along with comparative analysis of microwave pyrolysis and conventional pyrolysis. The feedstock underwent preheating, intense pyrolysis, and final pyrolysis in sequence. The main and secondary weight loss peaks observed during the intense pyrolysis stage were attributed to the decomposition of natural rubbers and synthetic rubbers, respectively. The total mass loss rates, bulk temperatures, and maximum temperatures were distinctively higher at higher powers. However, the maximum mass loss rate (0.005 s -1 ), the highest yields of liquid product (53%), and the minimum yields of residual solid samples (43.83%) were obtained at 500 W. Compared with conventional pyrolysis, microwave pyrolysis exhibited significantly different behaviour with faster reaction rates, which can decrease the decomposition temperatures of both natural and synthetic rubber by approximately 110 °C-140 °C.

  13. TRIP-ID: A tool for a smart and interactive identification of Magic Formula tyre model parameters from experimental data acquired on track or test rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Flavio; Lamberti, Raffaele; Mancinelli, Nicolò; Timpone, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Tyres play a key role in ground vehicles' dynamics because they are responsible for traction, braking and cornering. A proper tyre-road interaction model is essential for a useful and reliable vehicle dynamics model. In the last two decades Pacejka's Magic Formula (MF) has become a standard in simulation field. This paper presents a Tool, called TRIP-ID (Tyre Road Interaction Parameters IDentification), developed to characterize and to identify with a high grade of accuracy and reliability MF micro-parameters from experimental data deriving from telemetry or from test rig. The tool guides interactively the user through the identification process on the basis of strong diagnostic considerations about the experimental data made evident by the tool itself. A motorsport application of the tool is shown as a case study.

  14. Horn amplification at a tyre/road interface. Pt. 1. Experiment and computation; Tire/romenkan ni okeru horn koka. Jikken to keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Tyre/road interface noise can be amplified by a horn type space formed by the tread face of the tyre and the road. This paper is a report on studies on experiment and computation to elucidate the above phenomenon in detail. Measurement and computation were carried out on a tyre replaced with a single cylinder, whereas it was verified that the horn effect by each frequency can be calculated by BEM computation. Then, discussions were given on actual tyres combined with the BEM computation, and the following results were acquired: (1) the horn effect is small in zones of low frequencies; (2) the larger the tread width, the larger the horn effect increases; (3) the relationship between the tread width and the horn effect is governed by the ratio of the road contact width to noise wavelength; (4) the frequency characteristics of the horn effect vary largely according to whether the sound source exists in forward or rearward locations; (5) the relationship between the forward and rearward locations of the sound source with the horn effect is governed by the distance between the front and rear ends of the road contact face of the tyre; (6) the smaller the radius of the tread shoulder, the greater the horn effect; (7) tread deformation due to load applied on the tyre slightly changes the frequency characteristics of the horn effect; (8) with the sound source existing closer to the center of ground contacting width, the horn effect increases; and (9) the present study has verified the horn effect of 22 dB as the maximum. If the sound source is not present at the center of ground contacting width, the horn effect is reduced to about 10 dB, but the value cannot be ignored as the influence on traffic noise. (translated by NEDO)

  15. An Evaluation of the Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation of Unbound Mixtures of Granular Materials and Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres to be Used in Subballast Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Signes, Carlos Hidalgo; Fernández, Pablo Martínez; Garzón-Roca, Julio; de la Torre, María Elvira Garrido; Franco, Ricardo Insa

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Over the last years rubber from scrap tyres has been reused in different civil works such as road embankments and railway platforms due to its resilient properties, low degradation and vibration attenuation. Unfortunately, this issue is still scarce. For instance, in Spain about 175.000 tonnes of scrap tyres were collected in 2014, of which only 0.6% were reused in civil works. Aiming to contribute to the reutilisation of large quantities of this waste material, this paper focuses on the...

  16. An Evaluation of the Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation of Unbound Mixtures of Granular Materials and Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres to Be Used in Subballast Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Sgnes, Carlos; Martínez Fernández, Pablo; Garzón Roca, Julio; Garrido De La Torre, Mª Elvira; Insa Franco, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Over the last years rubber from scrap tyres has been reused in different civil works such as road embankments and railway platforms due to its resilient properties, low degradation and vibration attenuation. Unfortunately, this issue is still scarce. For instance, in Spain about 175.000 tonnes of scrap tyres were collected in 2014, of which only 0.6% were reused in civil works. Aiming to contribute to the reutilisation of large quantities of this waste material, this paper focuses on the...

  17. Evolution of tyre/road noise research in India: Investigations using statistical pass-by method and noise trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Khan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research study was to investigate and analyze the acoustical characteristics of asphalt concrete and cement concrete surface types by two noise measurement techniques: statistical pass-by (SPB and Close Proximity (CPX methods. A noise trailer was devised and manufactured as part of the CPX methodology to evaluate tyre/pavement noise interaction at source. Two national highway test sections covering over 11 km of asphalt and cement concrete surfaces were selected to carry out the noise measurements, and the effects of vehicle speeds and/or sizes on the overall noise profiles were investigated. The major contribution of this first of its kind study in India was the utilization of sophisticated tools and techniques to measure the tyre/pavement interaction noise at source through CPX, which helped correlate the influence of road surfaces on the generation of overall road traffic noise using SPB technique. The SPB method noise profiles revealed that the noise pressure levels increased with increasing vehicle speeds and weights. The noise trailer CPX findings corroborated the results obtained from the SPB method in that cement concrete surface produced a higher noise at source than that of the asphalt concrete surface by about 5 dBA. Further, there was about 5 dBA differential in noise between SPB and CPX methods for cement concrete pavement sections; also, there was about 10 dBA differential in noise between the two methods for asphalt concrete pavement stretches. Keywords: Tyre/road noise, Statistical pass-by, Close proximity, Noise trailer, Asphalt concrete, Cement concrete

  18. Efficient direct yaw moment control: tyre slip power loss minimisation for four-independent wheel drive vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao; Katsuyama, Etsuo; Sugiura, Hideki; Ono, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes an efficient direct yaw moment control (DYC) capable of minimising tyre slip power loss on contact patches for a four-independent wheel drive vehicle. Simulations identified a significant power loss reduction with a direct yaw moment due to a change in steer characteristics during acceleration or deceleration while turning. Simultaneously, the vehicle motion can be stabilised. As a result, the proposed control method can ensure compatibility between vehicle dynamics performance and energy efficiency. This paper also describes the results of a full-vehicle simulation that was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed DYC.

  19. SIMS depth profiling of rubber-tyre cord bonding layers prepared using 64Zn depleted ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, W.S.; Sykes, D.E.; Smith, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc oxide and copper/zinc sulphide layers are formed during vulcanisation and moulding of rubber to brass-coated steel tyre reinforcing cords. Previous studies have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber-brass interface to form zinc sulphide, and combines with oxygen to create zinc oxide during dezincification. The zinc is usually assumed to originate in the brass of the tyre cord, however, zinc oxide is also present in the rubber formulation. We reveal how zinc from these sources is distributed within the interfacial bonding layers, before and after heat and humidity ageing. Zinc oxide produced using 64 Zn-isotope depleted zinc was mixed in the rubber formulation in place of the natural ZnO and the zinc isotope ratios within the interfacial layers were followed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling. Variations in the relative ratios of the zinc isotopes during depth profiling were measured for unaged, heat-aged and humidity-aged wire samples and in each case a relatively large proportion of the zinc incorporated into the interfacial layer as zinc sulphide was shown to have originated from ZnO in the rubber compound

  20. Immediate emergency free anterolateral thigh flap after car-tyre friction injury: A case report with eight years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Merter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The car-tyre friction injury has differences from other injuries. The components of injury which are burn, crushing, shearing, and degloving occur. Many treatment options can be performed for coverage of wound which are Vacuum Assisted Closure system (V.A.C, skin grafting, free flaps, local flaps and cross leg flap.

  1. Experimental investigations of tyre-road interactions during braking; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Interaktion zwischen Pkw-Reifen und Fahrbahn beim Bremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunyang Xie

    2002-07-01

    Tyre-road interactions during braking were investigated experimentally. The measurements were found to be highly accurate. In the first stage, the braking force is enhanced by elastic deformation of the profile elements at the onset of tyre contact. In case of high slip or a high sliding velocity, frictional vibration of the tyre section in contact with the road may occur, which is enhanced by the reduction of braking pressure in case of automatic brake control. The eigenfreequency of the frictional vibration also depends on the road texture and friction coefficient. The measured movements of the profile elements provide a good explanation of the causes of tyre noise. [German] In der Dissertation wurde die Interaktion Reifen/Fahrbahn beim Bremsen experimentell untersucht. Die Messungen zeigen, dass die mit dem neuen Reifensensor erfassten Profilelementverformungen den Reibungszustand zwischen Reifen und Fahrbahn gut widerspiegeln. Die Bremskraft wird zunaechst durch die elastischen Verformungen der Profilelemente am Anfang des Reifenlatsches wesentlich aufgebaut. Beim hohen Bremsschlupf bzw. der hohen Gleitgeschwindigkeit kann die Reibungsschwingung des Laufstreifens des Reifens auftreten. Der Bremsdruckabbau der ABS-Regelung beguenstigt die Entstehung dieser Reibungsschwingung. Die Eigenfrequenz der Reibungsschwingung ist auch abhaengig von der Fahrbahntextur und dem Reibwert. Die aus den Signalen des Profilrillensensors berechneten Beschleunigungen der Profilelemente zeigen deutlich den Aufschlag beim Einlauf des Reifens und das Ausschnappen beim Auslauf. Durch die gemessenen Bewegungen der Profilelemente laesst sich die Entstehung des Reifengeraeusches in einigen Frequenzbereichen gut erklaeren. (orig.)

  2. Three dimensional contact stresses under the LINTRACK wide base single tyres, measured with the Vehicle-Road Surface Pressure Transducer Array (VRSPTA) system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available testing. The vertical, transverse (or lateral) and longitudinal contact stresses between the tyres and the pavement were measured with the Vehicle-Road Surface Pressure Transducer Array (VRSPTA), developed in South Africa as part of the ongoing Accelerated...

  3. Investigating the feasibility of a reuse scenario for textile fibres recovered from end-of-life tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Daniele; Gigli, Silvia; Germani, Michele; Marconi, Marco

    2018-05-01

    The management of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) is regulated by several national and international legislations aiming to promote the recovery of materials and energy from this waste. The three main materials used in tyres are considered: rubber (main product), which is currently reused in other closed-loop applications; steel, which is used for the production of virgin materials; and textile fibres (approximately 10% by weight of ELTs), which are mainly incinerated for energy recovery (open-loop scenario). This study aims to propose and validate a new closed-loop scenario for textile fibres based on material reuse for bituminous conglomerates. The final objective is to verify the technical, environmental, financial, and economic feasibility of the proposed treatment process and reuse scenario. After characterization of the textile material, which is required to determine the technological feasibility, a specific process has been developed to clean, compact, and prepare the fibres for subsequent reuse. A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to quantify the environmental benefits of reusing the fibres. Finally, a cost benefit analysis based on the LCA results was conducted to establish the long-term financial and economic sustainability. From a technological point of view, the tyre textile fibres could be a promising substitute to the reinforcement cellulose commonly used in asphalts as long as the fibres are properly prepared (compaction and pellet production) for application in the standard bituminous conglomerate production process. From an environmental point of view, relevant benefits in terms of global warming potential and acidification potential reduction were observed in comparison with the standard incineration for energy recovery (respectively -86% and -45%). Moreover, the proposed scenario can be considered as financially viable in the medium to long term (cumulative generated cash flow is positive after the 5th year) and economically sustainable

  4. Adsorption of dyes by ACs prepared from waste tyre reinforcing fibre. Effect of texture, surface chemistry and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Beatriz; Rocha, Raquel P; Pereira, Manuel F R; Figueiredo, José L; Barriocanal, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares the importance of the texture and surface chemistry of waste tyre activated carbons in the adsorption of commercial dyes. The adsorption of two commercial dyes, Basic Astrazon Yellow 7GLL and Reactive Rifafix Red 3BN on activated carbons made up of reinforcing fibres from tyre waste and low-rank bituminous coal was studied. The surface chemistry of activated carbons was modified by means of HCl-HNO3 treatment in order to increase the number of functional groups. Moreover, the influence of the pH on the process was also studied, this factor being of great importance due to the amphoteric characteristics of activated carbons. The activated carbons made with reinforcing fibre and coal had the highest SBET, but the reinforcing fibre activated carbon samples had the highest mesopore volume. The texture of the activated carbons was not modified upon acid oxidation treatment, unlike their surface chemistry which underwent considerable modification. The activated carbons made with a mixture of reinforcing fibre and coal experienced the largest degree of oxidation, and so had more acid surface groups. The adsorption of reactive dye was governed by the mesoporous volume, whilst surface chemistry played only a secondary role. However, the surface chemistry of the activated carbons and dispersive interactions played a key role in the adsorption of the basic dye. The adsorption of the reactive dye was more favored in a solution of pH 2, whereas the basic dye was adsorbed more easily in a solution of pH 12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 港口管理港口流动机械设备轮胎运营管理%Mnanagement of Tyre for Mobile Machinery Equipemnt of Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乾

    2011-01-01

    It is useful to enterprise for reducing cost and enhancing to strengthening management of tyre for mobile machinery equipment of port. This paper analyzes the difficulties in the running management. Then it puts forward measures from 6 aspects of the standard and profesional management of tyre of mobile machinery equipment, which has got good effect.%对港口流动机械轮胎加强管理有助于企业降低成本,提高效益。分析了大连港湾集装箱码头目前流动机械设备轮胎运营管理面临的困难,从6个方面提出了流动机械设备轮胎规范化、专业化管理的措施,取得了很好的效果。

  6. Pyrolysis of tyres. Influence of the final temperature of the process on emissions and the calorific value of the products recovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, C.; Martinez, O.; Calvo, L.F.; Cara, J.; Moran, A.

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of the pyrolysis of tyre particles, with the aim of determining the possibilities of using the products resulting from the process as fuel. Three final temperatures were used, determined from thermogravimetric data. The design of the experiment was a horizontal oven containing a reactor into which particles of the original tyre were placed. After the process, a solid fraction (char) remained in the reactor, while the gases generated went through a set of scrubbers where most of the condensable fraction (oils) was retained. Finally, once free of this fraction, the gases were collected in glass ampoules. Solid and liquids fractions were subjected to thermogravimetric analyses in order to study their combustibility. The gas fraction was analysed by means of gas chromatography to establish the content of CO, CO 2 , H 2 and hydrocarbons present in the samples (mainly components of gases produced in the pyrolysis process). A special study was made of the sulphur and chlorine content of all the fractions, as the presence of these elements could be problematic if the products are used as fuel. Tyre pyrolysis engenders a solid carbon residue that concentrates sulphur and chorine, with a relatively high calorific value, although not so high as that of the original tyre. The liquid fraction produced by the process has a high calorific value, which rises with the final temperature, up to 40 MJ/kg. The chlorine content of this fraction is negligible. Over 95% of the gas fraction, regardless of the final temperature, is composed of hydrocarbons of a low molecular weight and hydrogen, this fraction also appearing to be free of chlorine

  7. Influence of silica-alumina support ratio on H2 production and catalyst carbon deposition from the Ni-catalytic pyrolysis/reforming of waste tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Tao, Yongwen; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The influence of catalyst support alumina-silica in terms of different Al 2 O 3 to SiO 2 mole ratios containing 20 wt.% Ni on the production of hydrogen and catalyst coke formation from the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste tyres is reported. A two-stage reactor system was used with pyrolysis of the tyres followed by catalytic reaction. There was only a small difference in the total gas yield and hydrogen yield by changing the Al 2 O 3 to SiO 2 mole ratios in the Ni-Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 catalyst. The 1:1 ratio of Al 2 O 3 :SiO 2 ratio produced the highest gas yield of 27.3 wt.% and a hydrogen production of 14.0 mmol g -1 tyre . Catalyst coke formation decreased from 19.0 to 13.0 wt.% as the Al 2 O 3 :SiO 2 ratio was changed from 1:1 to 2:1, with more than 95% of the coke being filamentous-type carbon, a large proportion of which was multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Further experiments introduced steam to the second-stage reactor to investigate hydrogen production for the pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming of the waste tyres using the 1:1 Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 nickel catalyst. The introduction of steam produced a marked increase in total gas yield from ~27 wt. % to ~58 wt.%; in addition, hydrogen production was increased to 34.5 mmol g -1 and there was a reduction in catalyst coke formation to 4.6 wt.%.

  8. Immediate emergency free anterolateral thigh flap after car-tyre friction injury: A case report with eight years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merter, Abdullah; Armangil, Mehmet; Kaya, Burak; Bilgin, Sinan

    2017-01-01

    The car-tyre friction injury has differences from other injuries. The components of injury which are burn, crushing, shearing, and degloving occur. Many treatment options can be performed for coverage of wound which are Vacuum Assisted Closure system (V.A.C), skin grafting, free flaps, local flaps and cross leg flap. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of silica–alumina support ratio on H2 production and catalyst carbon deposition from the Ni-catalytic pyrolysis/reforming of waste tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Tao, Yongwen; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The influence of catalyst support alumina–silica in terms of different Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios containing 20 wt.% Ni on the production of hydrogen and catalyst coke formation from the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste tyres is reported. A two-stage reactor system was used with pyrolysis of the tyres followed by catalytic reaction. There was only a small difference in the total gas yield and hydrogen yield by changing the Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios in the Ni-Al2O3/SiO2 catalyst. The 1:1 ratio of Al2O3:SiO2 ratio produced the highest gas yield of 27.3 wt.% and a hydrogen production of 14.0 mmol g-1tyre. Catalyst coke formation decreased from 19.0 to 13.0 wt.% as the Al2O3:SiO2 ratio was changed from 1:1 to 2:1, with more than 95% of the coke being filamentous-type carbon, a large proportion of which was multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Further experiments introduced steam to the second-stage reactor to investigate hydrogen production for the pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming of the waste tyres using the 1:1 Al2O3/SiO2 nickel catalyst. The introduction of steam produced a marked increase in total gas yield from ~27 wt. % to ~58 wt.%; in addition, hydrogen production was increased to 34.5 mmol g-1 and there was a reduction in catalyst coke formation to 4.6 wt.%. PMID:28789599

  10. Frictional contact behaviour of the tyre: the effect of tread slip on the in-plane structural deformation and stress field development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotras, Achillefs; Mavros, George

    2010-08-01

    The analysis of the in-plane deformation of the tyre in relation to the frictional contact between the road and the tread is a crucial first step in the understanding of its contribution to the longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle. In this work, the physical mechanism of the generation of the two-dimensional contact pressure distribution for a non-rolling tyre is studied. Towards this aim, a physical tyre model is constructed, consisting of an analytical ring under pretension, a non-linear sidewall foundation, and a discretised foundation of viscoelastic elements representing the tread. Tread behaviour is examined first, with focus on the development of shear micro-slip. The tread simulation is enhanced with the combination of radial and tangential tread elements and the benefits of such an approach are identified. Subsequently, the contact of the complete model is examined by implementing an algorithm for transient simulations in the time domain. The effects of the imposed vertical load and sidewall non-linearity on the contact stress and strain fields are identified. The modelling approach is validated by comparison with published experimental results. The physical mechanism that couples the torsional and horizontal/vertical deformations of the carcass with the frictional forces at the tread is identified and discussed in detail. The proposed modelling approach is found appropriate for the description of the development of the two-dimensional contact pressure field as a function of the frictional potential of the contact.

  11. Pyrolysis process application on scrap tyres. Experimental results on pilot scale; Applicazione del processo di pirolisi al trattamento del granulato di pneumatico. Sperimentazione su impianto pilota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvagno, S.; Casu, S.; Casabianca, T.; Calabrese, A.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Dipartimento Ambiente, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    The world production of waste tyres amounts to 5 {center_dot} 10{sup 6} ton/year, 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 6} tons of which are produced in Europe; the Italian production of waste tyres is up to 360 thousand tons per year. Even today, the final destination of nearly 65-70% of waste tyres is the landfill, legal or illegal; but this solution seems to be not so advantageous, as far as the high added value materials lost and the environmental impact are concerned. Treatments alternative to land filling take into account the tyres reconstruction and reuse or the matter and/or energy recovery by means of thermal treatment processes. With respect to the latter processes, the pyrolysis process definitely shows the less environmental impact and gets to process products (gases, oils and solid residue) able to be back on the market after the suitable treatment. Present work shows the results of the pyrolysis process experimental survey on tyres granulate, developed on the pilot plant of ENEA-Trisaia Research Centre. [Italian] La produzione mondiale di pneumatici usati conta annualmente piu' di 5 milioni di tonnellate di cui 2 milioni generati in Europa: in Italia, sono generate circa 360 mila tonnellate l'anno di pneumatici usati. Il destino finale del 65-70% dei pneumatici usati e' ancora oggi lo smaltimento in discarica, sia essa autorizzata o abusiva; questa soluzione risulta poco vantaggiosa per la perdita di materiali che in precedenza possedevano un alto valore aggiunto e in termini d'impatto ambientale. Trattamenti alternativi alla discarica, prevedono la ricostruzione e il riutilizzo oppure il recupero di materia e/o di energia mediante processi di trattamento termico. Tra questi ultimi il processo di pirolisi presenta senz'altro il minor impatto ambientale e conduce a prodotti di processo (gas, olii e residuo solido) che, opportunamente trattati, possono essere immessi sul mercato. Questo lavoro presenta i risultati della sperimentazione del

  12. Evaluation of sorption capacity of scrap tyre in the removal of copper (II) ion from aqua system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladoja, N.A.; Ofomaja, A.; Ebare, E.; Ebare, E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of scrap-tyre (ST), which was both a waste and pollutant was investigated as a low-cost sorbent to sorbed Cu (II) from aqueous solution. The influence of pH, sorbent dosage, contact time, and initial sorbate concentration on the uptake of Cu (II) by ST were studied. Optimum sorption of Cu (II) by ST was achieved at pH 6. The amount Of sorbate sorbed per gram of sorbent decreased with increase in sorbent dosage. Maximum uptake of the Cu (II) was achieved within the first thirty minutes of contact between the ST and the Cu (II). The equilibrium relationship between the concentration of the Cu (II) in the fluid phase and the concentration in the ST particles at a given temperature showed that the sorption mechanism was like adsorption rather than distribution into any phase. Analysis of the result using Langmuir and Freundlich models showed that it conformed to Langmuir equation based on the formation of a monomolecular layer. The adsorption capacity due to monolayer coverage was 12.95 mg/g, while the energy of adsorption was 3.95 dm/mg. (author)

  13. Recycling of pneumatic scrap tyre into nano-crumb rubber by pulsed laser ablation in different pH media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaan Khamsan, Nur; Bidin, Noriah; Islam, Shumaila; Daud, Suzairi; Krishnan, Ganesan; Bakar, Mohamad Aizat A.; Naqiuddin Razali, Muhamad; Khamis, Jamil

    2018-05-01

    Nano crumb rubber from scrap tyre is synthesized via 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation in three different pH media i.e. DI-water (pH∼6.45), D-limonene (pH∼3.47) and NaOH solution (pH∼13.41). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) results show spherical morphology of crumb rubber with high degree of aggregation in DI-water and in D-limonene. However, dispersion of crumb rubbers is observed in NaOH solution. The smallest particles size is obtained in NaOH solution within the range of 10.9 nm – 74.3 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and FTIR analysis confirmed the elements distribution and chemical bonding of rubber with DI-water, D-limonene and NaOH solution. The experimental findings shows that pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation has potential for fabricating nano-crumb rubber in liquid media.

  14. The contribution of tyre and brake abrasion to soot levels in streets; Beitrag des Reifen- und Bremsenabriebs zur Russemission an Strassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauterberg-Wulff, A.

    1998-09-01

    After the coming into force of the new soot emission thresholds as of July 1998, excess values are measured along many city streets. The author investigated whether tyre and brake abrasion contributes to soot emissions in addition to diesel soot. For this purpose, characteristic material and physical parameters of particles of diesel soot, tyre and brake material were investigated by thermography, AAS, and SEM. With the aid of a receptor-oriented approach, the contribution of these particles to soot levels measured in a highway tunnel and a Berlin city street could be assessed. The contribution of local traffic was calculated from the difference between soot levels along the road and in a background station. The measurements inside the tunnel served to determine emissin factors for diesel soot and abrasion particles from tyres and brakes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Inkrafttreten des endgueltigen Russ-Immissionswertes der 23. Verordnung zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz im Juli 1998 ist an zahlreichen innerstaedtischen Strassen mit einer Ueberschreitung dieser Werte zu rechnen. Zur Beantwortung der Frage, inwieweit neben Dieselruss auch Reifen- und Bremsenabrieb zur verkehrsbedingten Russimmission beitragen, wurden charakteristische stoffliche und physikalische Eigenschaften von Dieselruss, Reifenabrieb und Bremsenabrieb mit der Thermographie, der AAS und der Rasterelektronenmikroskopie untersucht. Mit Hilfe dieses rezeptororientierten Ansatzes konnte der Beitrag dieser Partikel zur Russimmission in einem Autobahntunnel und an einer Hauptverkehrsstrasse in Berlin bestimmt werden, wobei zuerst der Beitrag des lokalen Verkehrs zur Russimmission aus der Differenz zwischen der Russimmission an der Strassen- und einer Hintergrundstation berechnet wurde. Mit Hilfe der Messungen im Tunnel konnten Emissionsfaktoren fuer Dieselruss und fuer Reifen- und Bremsenabriebpartikel bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  15. Research and Enhancement of Used Tyres, Such as Material Innovative in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabdelouahab, F.; Trouzine, H.

    Currently engineers seeking to improve the characteristics of soils used for the construction of earthworks, with innovations developed from ideas, products or processes of original construction, the land army is an early example particularly successful but there are many other processes as well as other Pneusol processes more or less known to sometimes use bulky industrial wastes, while fitting well into the existing environment. In this paper, we discuss a particular research work within the framework of environmental protection and sustainable development, led to the realization of the recovery and reuse of used tires in the construction of works civil engineering. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of studies in Algiers on ENSTP "Pneusol reducing the thrust" on a scale model on the study of a retaining wall reinforced by a simulation tablecloths tires, and the results of particular research enterprise at the University Djillali Liabes of Sidi Bel Abbes, on an experimental campaign on the Pneusol under expansive soil foundations. Topics will also present the projects carried out in Algeria, as the pilot of stability of a slope to Pneusol in Bousmail (2005), then another item of protection against landslides in Bejaia (2006), from the project of Africa in Mostaganem (2007), concerning the stability of an embankment on the RN11 road, and the conduct of a small dike protection technology Pneusol in Blida (2008), and in 2010 the stability of a landslide in Miliana.

  16. Stabilising high energy orbit oscillations by the utilisation of centrifugal effects for rotating-tyre-induced energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshun; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters are frequently considered in preference to linear devices because they can potentially overcome the narrow frequency bandwidth limitations inherent to linear variants; however, the possibility of variable harvesting efficiency is raised for the nonlinear case. This paper proposes a rotational energy harvester which may be fitted into an automobile tyre, with the advantage that it may broaden the rotating frequency bandwidth and simultaneously stabilise high-energy orbit oscillations. By consideration of the centrifugal effects due to rotation, the overall restoring force will potentially be increased for a cantilever implemented within the harvester, and this manifests as an increase in its equivalent elastic stiffness. In addition, this study reveals that the initial potential well barriers become as shallow as those for a bistable system. When the rotational frequency increases beyond an identifiable boundary frequency, the system transforms into one with a potential barrier of a typical monostable system. On this basis, the inter-well motion of the bistable system can provide sufficient kinetic energy so that the cantilever maintains its high-energy orbit oscillation for monostable hardening behaviour. Furthermore, in a vehicle drive experiment, it has been shown that the effective rotating frequency bandwidth can be widened from 15 km/h-25 km/h to 10 km/h-40 km/h. In addition, it is confirmed that the centrifugal effects can improve the harvester performance, producing a mean power of 61 μW at a driving speed of 40 km/h, and this is achieved by stabilising the high-energy orbit oscillations of the rotational harvester.

  17. Fine granular of shredded waste tyre for road kerb application as improvised road furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munikanan, Vikneswaran; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Radzi, Muhammad Haris Fauzan

    2018-02-01

    Solid waste management in Malaysia was still in a backward stage. Population growth, urbanization and rapid industrialization led to an increase in the solid waste generated by society. Solid waste management is one of the main problems faced by the community, especially in the city. Solid waste management costs of the collection, collecting, transporting waste to the landfill, is very high. The quantity of solid waste should be reduced in order to reduce government spending. Moreover, improper solid waste management caused a negative impact on people and the environment. Method of recycling is one of the best alternatives to reduce the number of solid waste. Therefore, this study was to identify methods of recycling used tires to be used in civil engineering. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness and properties of rubber from used tires to be add in the road kerb design.

  18. An Evaluation of the Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation of Unbound Mixtures of Granular Materials and Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres to Be Used in Subballast Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Sgnes, C.

    2016-07-01

    Over the last years rubber from scrap tyres has been reused in different civil works such as road embankments and railway platforms due to its resilient properties, low degradation and vibration attenuation. Unfortunately, this issue is still scarce. For instance, in Spain about 175.000 tonnes of scrap tyres were collected in 2014, of which only 0.6% were reused in civil works. Aiming to contribute to the reutilisation of large quantities of this waste material, this paper focuses on the analysis of unbound mixtures of granular materials with different percentages of rubber particles to be used as subballast layers. Mixtures are tested under cyclic triaxial tests so as to obtain their resilient modulus and evaluate their permanent deformations. It is found that as the rubber content increases, the resilient modulus decreases and the permanent deformation increases. Taking into account the usual loads transmitted to the subballast layer, the optimum rubber content that does not compromise the behaviour of the mixture is set in a range between 2.5% and 5% in terms of weight. (Author)

  19. The Ageing Effect of Mechanical Joints on the Tyre/Joint Noises Monitored by a Control Vehicle Method without Traffic Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the ageing effect of mechanical joints reflecting from the tyre/joint impacting noise by measuring the vehicle structure-borne noise change. Field data is collected applying two measurement methods suitable for newly installed and existing old expansion joints. The measurement methodology is improved by designing and applying a trailer for equipment installation. The main advantage of this method is not to disturb existing traffic by lane closure for measurement. Field measurements were conducted regularly for a study period up to 16 months after new joint replacement to monitor the variation of the structure-borne noise change inside a test vehicle while passing through mechanical joints. Empirical relationship is developed based on the field data of the roadside airborne noise change and the vehicle structure-borne noise change. The roadside tyre/joint noises could be converted using calibrated empirical formula. Key result findings include the following. (1 The vehicle structure-borne noise change is found smallest during the 3rd–6th months even lower than that measured when a new joint is installed. The structure-borne noise change then keeps increasing afterwards till the end of the study period. (2 Similar observations are found in all study cases incorporating various mechanical joint types and test vehicle types.

  20. Skidding accidents : considerations on road surface and vehicle characteristics : summary of the present situation. Provisional recommendation concerning skidding resistance of road surfaces investigation programme. Interim report of the SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    1970-01-01

    This is the first report of SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents". Skidding is considered to be an important contributory factor in traffic accidents. Skidding can in principle be prevented in two ways, viz: (1) reduction of the minimum necessary friction, and (2)

  1. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  2. Emissions of road dust by winter tyres and the contributions of different road dust sources in road side particle samples; Talvirenkaiden poelypaeaestoet ja eri katupoelylaehteiden osuudet kadunvarrella keraetyissae hiukkasnaeytteissae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupiainen, K.; Pirjola, L.; Ritola, R.; Stojiljkovic, A.; Malinen, A.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine: (1) the relative contributions from pavement wear and traction sanding in PM{sub 10} road side air and road dust resuspension samples; (2) PM{sub 10} dust emissions from studded and studless tyres in on-road conditions. The study was conducted as part of the NASTA research program during the winter season 2011/2012. The studies were carried out in Suurmetsaentie and Viikintie in Helsinki, Finland. The results showed that dust from pavement aggregates was the largest source during spring, accounting for 40- 50 percent of the particulate matter in the air and resuspension samples. Based on studies on formation of dust, major source of the dust from pavement aggregates is the wear by studded tyres. Traction sand and road salt were used frequently during the winter 2011/2012. Sanding material explained about 25 percent of the road dust in the air and resuspension samples. Traction sanding is estimated to account for approximately few percent of the pavement dust via the sandpaper effect. Effect of road salt was few percent in the samples. The source contributions from pavement and traction sanding observed in spring 2011/2012 at Suurmetsaentie are similar to what has been estimated in previous studies conducted in the early 2000s in Finland. In a study conducted in the city of Hanko, it was estimated the contribution from traction sanding to be in average of about 10 percent. In another study in the center of Helsinki the contribution was estimated to be about half of the PM{sub 10}. The general perception in Finland has been that traction sanding is the main source of airborne road dust. Studies conducted in 2000s and the results of this study, however, indicate that traction sanding has been an important but not the main source of PM10 road dust even in winters with extensive use of gravel for traction control. Emissions of road dust by a single tyre consist of direct emissions of wear products as well as resuspension emissions of

  3. Device for combusting spent car tyres made of rubber etc. Anlage zum Verbrennen von nicht mehr erneuerbaren Fahrzeugreifen aus Gummi u. dgl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprunck, H

    1980-09-11

    The combustion system for rubber tyres etc. consists of a trolley conveyor, an automatic throw-off unit, and an airlock leading to the combustion grate in the furnace. The furnace has a travelling grate which lowers from the airlock to the ash chamber and whose hydraulically moved rods have protruding cooling tongues and drilled holes to supply primary air or cooling air. At the ends of the grate, above the ash box, the combustion chamber is enclosed by a battered brick-and-mortar wall. There are two post-combustion chambers behind the combustion chamber. The ash is transported to the ashbox via spiral conveyors. The high temperature of the flue gases, i.e. 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C, is utilized by a boiler. With its high combustion temperatures (800 to 1400/sup 0/C), the plant assures complete combustion and a metal-containing slag.

  4. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence from useless tyres samples with a Si PIN detector; Fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia de amostras de pneus inserviveis com detector de Si-PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Scheibel, Viviane [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada]. E-mail: bonn@uel.br; Melquiades, Fabio Luiz [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Moraes, Liz Mary Bueno de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    The concentration of Zn from discard tyre samples is of environmental interest, since on its production are used S for the rubber vulcanization process, and Zn O as reaction catalyze. The useless tyres are been used for asphalt pave, burn in cement industry and thermoelectric power plant and in erosion control of agriculture areas. Analyses of these samples requires frequently chemical digestion that is expensive and take a long time. Trying to eliminate these limitations, the objective of this work was use Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) with a portable system as the technique is multi elementary and needs a minimum sample preparation. Five useless tyres samples were grind in a knife mill and after this in a cryogenic mill, and analyzed in pellets form, using a X ray mini tube (Ag target, Mo {sub l}ter, 25 kV/20 {sub A}) for 200 s and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Were obtained Zn concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 {sub g} g{sub 1}, representing nearly 0.4. (author)

  5. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  6. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  7. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  8. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  9. Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : an investigation into the statistical relationship between the skidding resistance of the road surface and relative road risk. Summary of the research report of Sub-committee V of the Working Group on Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents of the Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M

    1975-01-01

    This study forms part of an extended research programme of the Working Group on Tyres, Road-surfaces and Skidding accidents. According to the terms of reference a statistical relationship had to be established between the skidding resistance of a road-surface and the number of accidents per million

  10. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  11. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  12. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  13. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  14. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  15. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  16. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  17. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  18. Determination of bitumen and rubber content in bituminous mixes containing crumb tyre rubber; Determinacion del contenido de betum y de caucho en las mezclas bituminosas que incorporan plvo de caucho procedente de neumaticos fuera de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Guzamn, B.; Jimenez Saez, R.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years the use of crumb rubber from scrap tyres as a component of hot bituminous mixes for road construction, has been officially promoted by the Public Administration in Spain, by issuing several publications of both informative and normative nature, aimed to spread knowledge and experiences on the subject and also to specify the requirement and regulate the working applications for this material. However, it also seems necessary to develop new test methods which, allows control of the rubber content in crumb rubber-added mixes, regardless of the process (wet or dry) followed for the mix production. This article describes a procedure reliable enough to determine both the soluble bituminous binder and the rubber contents in bituminous mixes based on two combined, previously standardized test methods: binder extraction with solvent and ignition. (Author) 7 refs.

  19. EVALUASI EFEKTIVITAS PENERAPAN SISTEM MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN ISO 14001 DI PABRIK BAN XYZ-JAWA BARAT (Evaluation on The Effectiveness of Implementation ISO 14001 Environmental Management System in XYZ Tyre Factory-West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ryan Natasaputra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pabrik ban XYZ yang berlokasi di Jawa Barat merupakan salah satu industri ban yang telah memiliki komitmen untuk meningkatkan kinerja lingkungan dengan menerapkan Sistem Manajemen Lingkungan (SML ISO 14001. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efektivitas penerapan SML ISO 14001 berdasarkan kinerja manajemen, kinerja lingkungan, dan kesesuaian dengan sertifikasi Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18001. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan dua metode, yaitu pengumpulan data primer melalui pemantauan lapang dan data sekunder melalui dokumen-dokumen yang berhubungan dengan SML serta data hasil pengukuran Aspek Lingkungan Penting (ALP. Data tersebut dievaluasi dan dibandingkan dengan SNI 19-14001-2005, program lingkungan perusahaan, serta peraturan perundangan yang berlaku agar diketahui efektivitas penerapan SML ISO 14001. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan lingkungan telah sesuai dengan tiga komitmen utama dalam SNI 19-14001-2005. Prosedur identifikasi dan klasifikasi ALP telah dilaksanakan dengan metode penilaian terhadap empat kriteria yang dibuat oleh pihak manajemen pabrik ban. Data hasil pengukuran ALP yang dievaluasi meliputi kebisingan, debu, limbah cair industri, dan penggunaan air. Efektivitas penerapan SML ISO 14001 di pabrik ban melalui hasil penilaian kinerja manajemen sebesar 80% dan kinerja lingkungan dari data hasil pengukuran ALP sebesar 81,3%, secara umum membuktikan bahwa penerapan SML ISO 14001 dengan nilai pencapaian sebesar 80,7% telah efektif dalam memenuhi tujuan dari komitmen pencegahan pencemaran, penerapan program lingkungan, dan peraturan perundangan yang berlaku. Ketidaksesuaian disebabkan oleh masalah komunikasi, kesadaran karyawan, dan kelayakan teknis. Dalam hal keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja terdapat integrasi dengan OHSAS 18001 melalui penggunaan Alat Pelindung Diri (APD dan prosedur tanggap darurat.   ABSTRACT XYZ tyre factory in West Java is one of the tyre

  20. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  1. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  2. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  3. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  4. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  5. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  6. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  7. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  8. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  9. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  10. Mechanical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  11. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  12. Materials Science & Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  13. Electrical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  14. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  15. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  16. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  17. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  18. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  19. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  20. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  1. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  2. Glycosylation Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  3. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  4. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  5. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  6. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  7. Engineering personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.

    The expansion of nuclear power is taxing human, material, and capital resources in developed and developing countries. This paper explores the human resources as represented by employment, graduation statistics, and educational curricula for nuclear engineers. (E.C.B.)

  8. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  9. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  10. Geoenvironmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Cheol; Park, Jeong Jun

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.

  11. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  12. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  13. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  14. Hire a Milwaukee Engineer | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  15. Assessment of DNA damage and telomerase activity in exfoliated urinary cells as sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex-workers of a rubber tyres industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Delia; Casadio, Valentina; Bravaccini, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Maiello, Raffaele; Ciervo, Aureliano; Buresti, Giuliana; Zoli, Wainer; Calistri, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test), comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion) was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens.

  16. Assessment of DNA Damage and Telomerase Activity in Exfoliated Urinary Cells as Sensitive and Noninvasive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer in Ex-Workers of a Rubber Tyres Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test, comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens.

  17. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  18. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  19. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  20. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  1. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  2. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  3. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  4. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  5. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  6. Engineering Obsolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Editor's Note: In this contribution to the series on Hackers, Makers, and Engineers, she tells us about her research on relationships to technological change in a long-lived NASA-ESA software infrastructure project. Her research considers how people live alongside technological change, inhabit...

  7. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  8. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  9. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  10. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  11. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  12. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  13. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  14. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  15. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  16. TIRO Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES DE LA ECONOMÍA FENICIA DURANTE EL SIGLO VIII ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Tyre and the Fluctuations of Phoenician Economy during the 8th Century BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis de los ajuares funerarios hasta ahora publicados de la necrópolis fenicia de Tiro-Al Bass, Líbano, permite aislar las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales experimentados por la población tiria durante el siglo VIII a. C. En concreto, se detecta una larga prosperidad desde mediados del siglo IX hasta mediados del VIII antes de nuestra era, con un máximo de bonanza a lo largo del periodo 775-750 a. C. En cambio, la segunda mitad del siglo VIII muestra una aguda crisis económica asociada a una elevada conflictividad social. Estos resultados coinciden plenamente con los acontecimientos históricos conocidos a través de las fuentes literarias antiguas, aportando evidencias que las complementan. En todo caso, con este nuevo ejemplo se confirma, una vez más, la universalidad de la metodología empleada y su irrefutable validez científica. ENGLISH: By applying the contextual valuation method to the analysis of grave goods from the Phoenician cemetery of Tyre-Al Bass, Lebanon, we can isolate the economic fluctuations and social changes experienced by the Tyrian population during the 8th century BC. Based on the evidence, the mid-9th to the mid-8th century BC was a period of prosperity, with the most pronounced economic boom between 775-750 BC. In contrast, the second half of the 8th century BC shows a sharp economic crisis associated with a high level of social conflict. These results are fully consistent with the historical events known through ancient literary sources. This new example confirms the universality of this methodology and its irrefutable scientific validity.

  17. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  18. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  19. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  20. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  1. Engineering Encounters: Teaching Educators about Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina M.; Raman, D. Raj; Lamm, Monica H.; Sundararajan, Sriram; Estapa, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance science teaching. This month's issue describes preservice elementary teachers learning engineering principles from engineers. Few elementary teachers have experience with implementing engineering into the classroom. While engineering professional development opportunities for inservice teachers…

  2. An engineering context for software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riehle, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    New engineering disciplines are emerging in the late Twentieth and early Twenty-first Century. One such emerging discipline is software engineering. The engineering community at large has long harbored a sense of skepticism about the validity of the term software engineering. During most of the fifty-plus years of software practice, that skepticism was probably justified. Professional education of software developers often fell short of the standard expected for conventional engineers; so...

  3. Mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Division provides the other NAC divisions with design and construction services. Items of special mechanical significance are discussed here. The projects which received major design attention during the past year were: a coupling capacitor for SPC2; a bending magnet and solenoid for ECR ion source; a scanner for outer orbits of the SSC; a scattering chamber for an experimental beamline; a beam swinger; a rotary target magazine for isotope production; a robot arm for isotope production; an isotope transport system and a target cooling system for isotope production. The major projects that were under construction are: a magnetic spectrometer; a second injector cyclotron (SPC2) and extensions to the high-energy beamlines. 4 figs

  4. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  5. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  6. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  7. Emplacement engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Ernest E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Emplacement Engineering can be defined as that portion of a nuclear explosive project that is concerned with the emplacement of the explosive. This definition would then include virtually everything except the design and fabrication of the explosive and the post-shot-effects program. For future commercial application, the post-shot-effects program will essentially disappear. This emplacement portion of a nuclear explosive project constitutes a large fraction of the total project cost, but it has largely been overshadowed by the explosive and explosive-effects portions. As we move into commercial applications. Emplacement Engineering must receive more attention from both industry and government. To place emplacement costs in their proper relationship with total projects costs, we have performed a study of commercial underground nuclear explosive applications such as gas stimulation. Although there are many intangibles in such a study, we have been able to at least obtain some feel for the relative fractional costs of the non-explosive costs compared with the explosive costs. This study involved estimating the cost elements for applications using a single explosive at 5,000 ft, 10,000 ft, and 15,000 ft. For each depth, the cost estimates were made for a range of emplacement hole and explosive diameters. Results of these estimates for explosive-related costs, hole-related costs, and total costs are shown for the three depths. Note that the explosive package outside diameter is assumed as 2 inches less than the hole (or casing) inside diameter for all cases. For the 5,000-ft application the explosive-related costs dominate, and of particular importance is the indicated diameter for minimum total cost which occurs at approximately a 17.5-in. hole (15.5-in. explosive). The hole-related costs are in 'the same range as the explosive-related costs for the 10,000-ft application. For this case, the minimum total cost occurs at approximately a 14-in. hole (12-in. explosive

  8. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern.......What is an engineer? Or maybe better: how are engineers, and how are they “gebilded” in order to be able to be called engineers? In order to shed some light on this question we could ask: How is the relation between engineering and the making of an engineer, or the relation between engineering...

  9. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  10. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz, Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  11. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  12. Engineering allostery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or as orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most crucial for allostery to be identified. This approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G protein-coupled receptors, and protein kinases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Meta Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  14. NDE in biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Aditya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering (BME) is an interdisciplinary field, marking the conjunction of Medical and Engineering disciplines. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy

  15. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-01-01

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine

  16. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  17. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as…

  18. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  19. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  20. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  1. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  2. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  3. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  4. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  5. 2016 Milwaukee Engineering Research Conference | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  6. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  7. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  8. Strategic Plan | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  9. News | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  10. Structures Laboratory | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  11. Contact | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  12. Johnson Controls | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  13. FAQ's | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  14. Current Students | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  15. Admissions - Undergraduate Students | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  16. Student Organizations | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  17. Community | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  18. Corporate Partners | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  19. Travel Directions | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. Strategic Planning | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  1. Fast Facts | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  2. Tutoring | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  3. Transfer Students | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  4. Scholarships | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  5. Donate | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  6. Corporate Services | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  7. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  8. Alumni | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  9. Advising | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  10. Research Collaborations | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  11. Study Abroad | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  12. Undergraduate Curriculum | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  13. Incoming Freshman | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  14. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  15. Mechanical engineer's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marghitu, Dan B

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineer's Handbook was developed and written specifically to fill a need for mechanical engineers and mechanical engineering students throughout the world. With over 1000 pages, 550 illustrations, and 26 tables the Mechanical Engineer's Handbook is very comprehensive, yet affordable, compact, and durable. The Handbook covers all major areas of mechanical engineering with succinct coverage of the definitions, formulas, examples, theory, proofs, and explanations of all principle subject areas. The Handbook is an essential, practical companion for all mechanic

  16. Software Engineering Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  17. Health care engineering management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, W B

    1980-01-01

    Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.

  18. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Mechanics Laboratory Environmental Engineering Laboratory Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering

  20. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades

  1. Transforming Systems Engineering through Model Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Report No. SERC-2017-TR-110 Date: August 8, 2017 Transforming Systems Engineering through Model-Centric... Engineering Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-110 Update: August 8, 2017 Principal Investigator: Mark Blackburn, Stevens Institute of Technology Co...Evangelista Sponsor: U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for

  2. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This is the first handbook to cover comprehensively both software engineering and knowledge engineering - two important fields that have become interwoven in recent years. Over 60 international experts have contributed to the book. Each chapter has been written in such a way that a practitioner of software engineering and knowledge engineering can easily understand and obtain useful information. Each chapter covers one topic and can be read independently of other chapters, providing both a general survey of the topic and an in-depth exposition of the state of the art.

  3. Biomedical engineering education through global engineering teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M; Garth-Davis, B; Eisenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    Most industrial projects require a team of engineers from a variety of disciplines. The team members are often culturally diverse and geographically dispersed. Many students do not acquire sufficient skills from typical university courses to function efficiently in such an environment. The Global Engineering Teams (GET) programme was designed to prepare students such a scenario in industry. This paper discusses five biomedical engineering themed projects completed by GET students. The benefits and success of the programme in educating students in the field of biomedical engineering are discussed.

  4. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  5. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a) Engine...

  6. THE INTERPRETATION TO BE ACCORDED TO THE TERM "BENEFITS" IN SECTION 186(2(a OF THE LRA CONTINUES: APOLLO TYRES SOUTH AFRICA (PTY LIMITED V CCMA (DA1/11 [2013] ZALAC 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    need not persist. It based this statement on the reasoning that if the issue in dispute concerns a demand by employees that certain benefits be granted then this is a matter for the collective bargaining process (strike action but where the issue in dispute concerns the fairness of the employer’s conduct then this is subject to arbitration. It is then no surprise that the issue regarding the interpretation of the term benefits once again came before the LAC in Apollo Tyres South Africa (Pty Limited v CCMA & others. The LAC was tasked with deciding if the term could be interpreted to include a benefit which is to be granted subject to the discretion of the employer upon application by the employee. In deciding this, the LAC overturned the decisions in Samsung and Hospersa and opted to follow the decision in Protekon. Apollo is worthy of note as it is the latest contribution from the LAC regarding the interpretation of the term benefits and it is of binding force for the Commission for Conciliation Mediation and Arbitration and Labour Courts in terms of the principle of stare decisis. The purpose of this note is threefold. Firstly, the facts, arguments and judgment in Apollo are stated briefly. Secondly, the judgment is critically analysed and commented upon. Thirdly, the note concludes by commenting on the way forward for benefit disputes in terms of section 186(2(a of the LRA.

  7. Vieweg manual of motor car engineering. 3. tot. new rev. and enl. ed.; Vieweg Handbuch Kraftfahrzeugtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braess, H.H.; Seiffert, U. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    This is the 3rd, revised and re-edited edition. Current trends are considered, i.e. DI and variable valve operation, particulate filters, double clutch gears, ESP-Plus, SUN-Fuel, and variable adaptive lighting. There are new chapters on standardisation (e.g. telematics and interface problems), accident research, internals, software, service-friendly design, maintenance and diagnosis, as well as sports and racing cars. Contents: Requirements on motor cars; Innovative technologies; Aerodynamics; Air conditioning; Acoustics; Design; Package; Fuel cell; Electric vehicles; Gas turbine; Spark ignition engine; Diesel engine; Superchargers; Couplings and gears; Four-wheel drives; Brakes and control systems; Two-stroke engines; Car bodies; Materials; Surface protection; Passenger compartment; Safety; Brakes; Tyres; Chassis; Fuels; Electric and electronic systems; Software; Driver assistant systems; Lighting; Sensors; Onboard network; EMP; Materials; Simultaneous engineering; Simulations; Experimental technologies; Motor cars and transportation in the future; Legislation and standardisation; Accident research; Diagnosis and maintenance; Racing cars and sports cars. [German] Fahrzeugingenieure in Praxis und Ausbildung benoetigen den raschen und sicheren Zugriff auf Grundlagen und Details der Fahrzeugtechnik sowie wesentliche zugehoerige industrielle Prozesse. Solche Informationen, die in ganz unterschiedlichen Quellen abgelegt sind, systematisch und bewertend zusammenzufuehren, hat sich dieses Handbuch zum Ziel gesetzt. Die Autoren sind bedeutende Fachleute der deutschen Automobil- und Zuliefererindustrie, sie stellen sicher, dass Theorie und Praxis vernetzt vermittelt werden. Die dritte Auflage wurde neu bearbeitet, aktualisiert und erweitert. Damit haben die aktuellen Entwicklungen von Benzindirekteinspritzung und variabler Ventilbetrieb, sowie Partikelfilter, Doppelkupplungsgetriebe, ESP-Plus, SUN-Fuel oder variable adaptive Beleuchtungssysteme Eingang gefunden. Neu

  8. Teaching Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-03-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.

  9. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  10. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  11. Service Cart For Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  12. Infusing Engineering Concepts: Teaching Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Engineering has gained considerable traction in many K-12 schools. However, there are several obstacles or challenges to an effective approach that leads to student learning. Questions such as where engineering best fits in the curriculum; how to include it authentically and appropriately; toward what educational end; and how best to prepare…

  13. Becoming an Engineer or a Lady Engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, Janwillem; Udas, Pranita Bhushan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, using the Department of Irrigation in Nepal as a case study, we argue that professional performance in irrigation engineering and water resources development is gendered and normalised as ‘masculine’. In Nepal, the masculinity of professional performance in irrigation engineering is

  14. Engineering Encounters: Identifying an Engineering Design Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek, Lisa; VanMeeteren, Beth; McDermott, Mark; Uhlenberg, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Engineering is an intriguing way for students to connect the design process with their knowledge of science (NRC 2012). This article describes the "Engineering a Pancake Recipe" design process which was created to make the structure and properties of matter more meaningful for fifth grade students. The whole pancake recipe engineering…

  15. Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Viljoen_1982.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 64 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Viljoen_1982.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Tyre influences on untripped vehicle rollover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Lupker, H.A.; Koppenaal, C.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Vehicle rollover can be initiated by steering actions that occur at vehicle evasive manoeuvres or high speed cornering of commercial vehicles. This untripped vehicle rollover is more difficult to reproduce for passenger cars then for commercial vehicles. For passenger cars it occurs closer to the

  17. Estimated combined steady state tyre slip characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, A.L.A.; Pauwelussen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Excessive behaviour of vehicles is often the subject of study, motivated by either the development of active safety systems uch as ESP, or the improvement of vehicle performance such as for racecars. In all of these cases, combined slip needs to be taken into account. In many cases however, the full

  18. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  19. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  20. Culture in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Christensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    As engineers today often work in intercultural projects and contexts, intercultural competences must be part of the learning objectives in engineering educations. Cultural aspects of engineering education should not just be treated as a question of appropriate communication and teaching: cultural...... aspects are basically part of engineering discipli¬nes, work challenges as well as the contextual elements in engineering curriculum [1,2]. This is reflected in the aims of the CDIO programme [3,4]; however, the programme, as well as the teaching practises, undoubtedly needs to further develop approaches...... to cultural aspects in engineering education. Hence the key-question of this paper is how CDIO support the development of intercultural competences in engineering education. The paper explores the implementation of CDIO in an intercultural arctic engineering programme in Greenland that since 2001 has been...

  1. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  2. Engineering qualifications for competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Engineering Council has a responsibility across all fields of engineering to set standards for those who are registered as Chartered Engineers, Incorporated Engineers or Engineering Technicians. These standards amount to a basic specification of professional competence to which must be added the features needed in each different branch of engineering, such as nuclear, and each particular occupation, such as quality assurance. This article describes The Engineering Council's general standards and includes a guide to the roles and responsibilities which should lie within the domain of those who are registered with the Council. The concluding section describes the title of European Engineer and its relationship to the European Community directive governing the movement of professionals across community frontiers. (author)

  3. NASA systems engineering handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  4. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  5. Unified Engineering Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  6. Mechanical engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering is defined nowadays as a discipline "which involves the application of principles of physics, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems". Recently, mechanical engineering has also focused on some cutting-edge subjects such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, as well as aspects related to sustainable mechanical engineering.This book covers mechanical engineering higher education with a particular emphasis on quality assurance and the improvement of academic

  7. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami

    2011-01-01

    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  8. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  9. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  10. Engineering synergy in biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Fussenegger, Martin; Keasling, Jay

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on approaches in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for the creation of efficient cell factories, which can be bused to convert biomass and other feedstocks for the generation of chemicals. Topics discussed include development of restriction enzymes......, engineering plasmids and recyclable markers, production of 1,3-propanediol using a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli and production of isobutanol by using metabolically engineered yeast....

  11. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  12. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  13. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  14. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  15. Fostering Creative Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    . As the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this paper...

  16. Ethics and engineering design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering

  17. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  18. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  19. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  20. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  1. Kali Linux social engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide to learning and performing SET attacks with multiple examples.Kali Linux Social Engineering is for penetration testers who want to use BackTrack in order to test for social engineering vulnerabilities or for those who wish to master the art of social engineering attacks.

  2. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  3. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  4. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  5. Programming Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Dan

    2010-01-01

    As one of today's cloud computing services, Google App Engine does more than provide access to a large system of servers. It also offers you a simple model for building applications that scale automatically to accommodate millions of users. With Programming Google App Engine, you'll get expert practical guidance that will help you make the best use of this powerful platform. Google engineer Dan Sanderson shows you how to design your applications for scalability, including ways to perform common development tasks using App Engine's APIs and scalable services. You'll learn about App Engine's a

  6. Solar powered Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  7. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...

  8. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corner Strategic Plan Budget Advisory Council Staff Directory Careers History Visitor Information You are here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Rehabilitation Engineering SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links ...

  9. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  11. 78 FR 5710 - Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... all Engine Alliance GP7270 and GP7277 turbofan engines. This AD requires initial and repetitive...) Applicability This AD applies to all Engine Alliance GP7270 and GP7277 turbofan engines with a high-pressure...

  12. Systems Engineering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges proposed by the development of the new computer systems demand new guidance related to engineer´s education, because they will solve these problems. In the XXI century, system engineers must be able to integrate a number of topics and knowledge disciplines that complement that traditionally has been known as Computer Systems Engineering. We have enough software development engineers, today we need professional engineers for software integration, leaders and system architects that make the most of the technological development for the benefit of society, leaders that integrate sciences to the solutions they build and propose. In this article the current situation of Computer Systems Engineering is analyzed and is presented a theory proposing the need for modifying the approach Universities have given to these careers, to achieve the education of leader engineers according to the needs of this century.

  13. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  14. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  15. Da "Search engines" a "Shop engines"

    OpenAIRE

    Lupi, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    The change occuring related to “search engines” is going towards e-commerce, transforming all the main search engines into information and commercial suggestion conveying means, basing their businnes on this activity. In a next future we will find two main series of search engines: from one side, the portals that will offer a general orientation guide being convoying means for services and to-buy products; from the other side, vertical portals able to offer information and products on specifi...

  16. What Chemistry To Teach Engineers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines possible general chemistry topics that would be most relevant and practical for engineering majors. Consults the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), engineering textbooks, texts from other required subjects, and practicing engineers for recommendations. (Contains 24 references.) (WRM)

  17. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  18. Educating the humanitarian engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Kevin M

    2009-12-01

    The creation of new technologies that serve humanity holds the potential to help end global poverty. Unfortunately, relatively little is done in engineering education to support engineers' humanitarian efforts. Here, various strategies are introduced to augment the teaching of engineering ethics with the goal of encouraging engineers to serve as effective volunteers for community service. First, codes of ethics, moral frameworks, and comparative analysis of professional service standards lay the foundation for expectations for voluntary service in the engineering profession. Second, standard coverage of global issues in engineering ethics educates humanitarian engineers about aspects of the community that influence technical design constraints encountered in practice. Sample assignments on volunteerism are provided, including a prototypical design problem that integrates community constraints into a technical design problem in a novel way. Third, it is shown how extracurricular engineering organizations can provide a theory-practice approach to education in volunteerism. Sample completed projects are described for both undergraduates and graduate students. The student organization approach is contrasted with the service-learning approach. Finally, long-term goals for establishing better infrastructure are identified for educating the humanitarian engineer in the university, and supporting life-long activities of humanitarian engineers.

  19. The BMW Z8. Pt. 2. Engine, powertrain, chassis, acoustics, quality and repair procedures; Der BMW Z8. T. 2. Motor, Antrieb, Fahrwerk, Akustik, Qualitaetsmanagement, Reparaturverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    As the new kid on the block among the super sports cars, the Z8 is aimed at a small group of discerning customers who have the highest demands and wish to combine 'the ultimate driving machine and the ultimate design with exclusivity, safety, relability and quality'. The very latest in engineering, such as the aluminium structure and aluminium exterior skin, the high peformance powertrain and the sophisticated sports chassis, the stability control system, the high-performance braking system and the tyres with emergency 'Run-Flat' features go together make the Z8 an extraordinary sports car. A full range of equipment with a hardtop, telephone, audio and navigation system, attention to detail and lots of aluminium in the interior combined with high quality leather underline the exclusivity of the Z8. (orig.) [German] Als Neuling im Kreis der Supersportwagen ist der Z8 fuer einen kleinen Kreis von Kunden bestimmt, die hoechste Ansprueche stellen, die 'Freude am Fahren, Freude an der Form mit Exklusivitaet, Sicherheit, Zuverlaessigkeit und Qualitaet' verbinden wollen. Modernste Technik wie die Aluminiumstruktur und Aluminiumaussenhaut, das Hochleistungstriebwerk in Verbindung mit dem aufwendigen Sportfahrwerk, den Stabilitaetsregelsystemen, der Hochleistungsbremsanlage und den Reifen mit Notlaufeigenschaften machen den Z8 zu einem aussergewoehnlichen Sportwagen. (orig.)

  20. Embedded engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Kaštelan, Ivan; Temerinac, Miodrag; Barak, Moshe; Sruk, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the outcome of the European research project “FP7-ICT-2011-8 / 317882: Embedded Engineering Learning Platform” E2LP. Additionally, some experiences and researches outside this project have been included. This book provides information about the achieved results of the E2LP project as well as some broader views about the embedded engineering education. It captures project results and applications, methodologies, and evaluations. It leads to the history of computer architectures, brings a touch of the future in education tools and provides a valuable resource for anyone interested in embedded engineering education concepts, experiences and material. The book contents 12 original contributions and will open a broader discussion about the necessary knowledge and appropriate learning methods for the new profile of embedded engineers. As a result, the proposed Embedded Computer Engineering Learning Platform will help to educate a sufficient number of future engineers in Europe, capable of d...

  1. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yuntao; Wu, Weiyue; Du, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Provides a systematic introduction to tokamaks in engineering mechanics. Includes design guides based on full mechanical analysis, which makes it possible to accurately predict load capacity and temperature increases. Presents comprehensive information on important design factors involving materials. Covers the latest advances in and up-to-date references on tokamak devices. Numerous examples reinforce the understanding of concepts and provide procedures for design. Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study of mechanical/fusion engineering with a general understanding of tokamak engineering mechanics.

  2. Engineering and design skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2006-01-01

    In various branches of society there is focus on the need for design skills and innovation potential as a means of communicating and handling constant change. In this context, the traditional idea of the engineer as a poly-technician inventing solutions by understanding the laws of nature...... concept of diagrammatic reasoning to some extent incarnates the very method of engineering and design. On this background, it is argued how the work field and techniques of the engineer and the engineering scientist could be characterized in a broader creative context of learning and communication....... This leads to considering the fundamental skills of the engineering practice as basic abilities to see the structures and dynamics of the world, to model it, and to create new solutions concerning practical as well as theoretical matters. Finally, it is assumed that the essence of engineering “bildung...

  3. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  4. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  5. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John D; Blanchard, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of John Enderle, Susan Blanchard and Joe Bronzino, leaders in the field have contributed chapters on the most relevant subjects for biomedical engineering students. These chapters coincide with courses offered in all biomedical engineering programs so that it can be used at different levels for a variety of courses of this evolving field. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition provides a historical perspective of the major developments in the biomedical field. Also contained within are the fundamental principles underlying biomedical engineering design, analysis, and modeling procedures. The numerous examples, drill problems and exercises are used to reinforce concepts and develop problem-solving skills making this book an invaluable tool for all biomedical students and engineers. New to this edition: Computational Biology, Medical Imaging, Genomics and Bioinformatics. * 60% update from first edition to reflect the developing field of biomedical engineering * New chapters o...

  6. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  7. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  8. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-10-08

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine. The first and second inlets can be aligned along a common axis. The inlets can be connected to nozzles and a separator can be positioned between the nozzles and along the common axis.

  9. Car engine breather icing

    OpenAIRE

    Horoufi, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Icing in an engine breather system can block the engine breather pipe, cause excessive crankcase pressure and degrade the engine performance. In this project, a numerical study, experimental tests and CFD analysis are employed in order to understand condensation and the extent of freezing inside a vertical pipe, a horizontal pipe and a T-joint pipe which are exposed to an external convective cooling. The pipe internal flow is assumed to be a vapour/air mixture. This study has l...

  10. Advanced rotary engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  11. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  12. Stirling Engine Cycle Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Naddaf, Nasrollah

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study strives to provide a clear explanation of the Stirling engine and its efficiency using new automation technology and the Lab View software. This heat engine was invented by Stirling, a Scottish in 1918. The engine’s working principles are based on the laws of thermodynamics and ability of volume expansion of ideal gases at different temperatures. Basically there are three types of Stirling engines: the gamma, beta and alpha models. The commissioner of the thesis ...

  13. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process...

  14. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies......-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories....

  15. Game mechanics engine

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Lars V

    2011-01-01

    Game logic and game rules exists in all computer games, but they are created di erently for all game engines. This game engine dependency exists because of how the internal object model is implemented in the engine, as a place where game logic data is intermingled with the data needed by the low- level subsystems. This thesis propose a game object model design, based on existing theory, that removes this dependency and establish a general game logic framework. The thesis the...

  16. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study

  17. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  18. Advanced rotary engine studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  19. Applied clinical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book demonstrates how clinical engineering has applied engineering principles to the development and use of complex medical devices for the diagnosis and treatment of the sick and injured. It discusses the proper utilization of medical devices and equipment in the health-care industry and provides understanding of complex engineering systems, and their uses in the modern hospital or other health-care facility

  20. Nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Shin, Young Jun

    1989-08-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of chemical engineering and related chemistry on an atomic reactor, foundation of the chemistry nuclear chemical engineering, theory on nuclear engineering, the cycle of uranium and nuclear fuel, a product of nuclear division, nuclear reprocessing, management of spent fuel separation of radioisotope, materials of an atomic reactor, technology and chemistry related water in atomic reactors and utilization of radioisotope and radiation. This book has the exercises and reference books for the each chapter.

  1. Systems engineering research

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraoui , Abd-El-Kader; Buede , Dennis ,; Sage , Andrew ,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that ar...

  2. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  3. Mechanical engineers data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Carvill, James

    1994-01-01

    This text provides the student and professional mechanical engineer with a reference text of an essentially practical nature. It is uncluttered by text, and extensive use of illustrations and tables provide quick and clear access to information. It alsoincludes examples of detailed calculations on many of the applications of technology used by mechanical and production engineers, draughtsmen and engineering designers.Although mainly intended for those studying and practising mechanical engineering, a glance at the contents will show that it is also useful to those in related br

  4. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  5. Cyber-Informed Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Benjamin, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinones, Luis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paz, Jonathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A continuing challenge for engineers who utilize digital systems is to understand the impact of cyber-attacks across the entire product and program lifecycle. This is a challenge due to the evolving nature of cyber threats that may impact the design, development, deployment, and operational phases of all systems. Cyber Informed Engineering is the process by which engineers are made aware of both how to use their engineering knowledge to positively impact the cyber security in the processes by which they architect and design components and the services and security of the components themselves.

  6. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  7. Computers in engineering. 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipnis, V.A.; Patton, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: Knowledge base systems; Computers in designing; uses of artificial intelligence; engineering optimization and expert systems of accelerators; and parallel processing in designing

  8. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  9. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  10. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  11. Cyber-Informed Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Benjamin, Jacob; Wright, Virginia L.; Quinones, Luis; Paz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A continuing challenge for engineers who utilize digital systems is to understand the impact of cyber-attacks across the entire product and program lifecycle. This is a challenge due to the evolving nature of cyber threats that may impact the design, development, deployment, and operational phases of all systems. Cyber Informed Engineering is the process by which engineers are made aware of both how to use their engineering knowledge to positively impact the cyber security in the processes by which they architect and design components and the services and security of the components themselves.

  12. Engine and method for operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo [Dunlap, IL; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh [Peoria, IL; Gong, Weidong [Dunlap, IL

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  13. Special theory on chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This book give a special description about chemical engineering. The contents of this book are special technique for isolation on introduction and separation by membrane, biochemistry engineering, process system engineering, energy engineering, environment engineering, a high molecular new material, election material and research on surface property of catalyst. It has appendixes on history of transition on Korean chemical engineering text contents and history of the activity of Korea chemical engineering institute.

  14. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  15. Engineering Sustainable Engineers through the Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherton, Yvette Pearson; Sattler, Melanie; Mattingly, Stephen; Chen, Victoria; Rogers, Jamie; Dennis, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of sustainable development, our approach to education must be modified to equip students to evaluate alternatives and devise solutions that meet multi-faceted requirements. In 2009, faculty in the Departments of Civil, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington began implementation…

  16. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  17. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  18. An Engineering Context for Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    predictable properties. The first two are due to Boehm as described in Pressman [Pre05] and called validation versus verification. 1. solving the right...Quality Software, 2nd ed., New York: Macmillan, 1991. [Pre05] Pressman , Roger, Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, Sixth Edition, McGraw

  19. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  20. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  1. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  2. Electromechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train electromechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of electromechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard…

  3. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  4. Sustainability in Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of

  5. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2017-01-01

    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  6. Building Open in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Devin

    2018-01-01

    A description of ongoing efforts to build a culture for open in engineering. I will overview some of the tools that have been developed to promote open practices in engineering and discuss some of the barriers to adoption within the field.Presented 27 March 2018 at the "E"ffordabilitiy Summit, Menomonie, WI.

  7. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  8. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  9. Teaching Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be…

  10. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design...

  11. Engineering for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards make it a priority for schools to focus more on the E in STEM, to help students learn the skills and practices of engineering. Schools that are doing so face a challenge, however: How to design educational experiences in engineering that engage all students--including girls and minorities, who are…

  12. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  13. Civil engineering work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousyn, Rene; Goubin, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    Although it does not require a specifically new technicality, the Civil Engineering site of a nuclear power plant is a complex work. Considering as an example the power plant currently in construction at Tricastin, the authors describe the main Civil Engineering work and task organization applied to carry it out [fr

  14. Emerging Engine Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, susch...

  15. Radiation engineering formation begin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, A.F.; Starykh, V.B.; Yanovskaya, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The main problems of the military-industrial complex and atomic industry conversion and the ways for their realization are discussed. Development of radiation engineering is considered as one of trends of atomic industry conversion. Rates of radiation engineering development are assumed to be determined by commercial but not governmental structures. 9 refs

  16. The gerontechnology engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Brink, M.; Vlies, van der R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pushing supportive technology to serve an aging society originated from the social sciences. Only about 20 years ago did engineers discover the field and formulated it as gerontechnology. The question arises whether engineers and social scientists have succeeded to form a community of practice with

  17. Engineering of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Morten Emil; Salomonsen, Bo; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    -efficient methods for identification and validation of candidate genes are needed. This chapter covers the methodology we are using for gene discovery in glucosinolate engineering, namely, guilt-by-association-based in silico methods and fast proof-of-function screens by transient expression in Nicotiana...... here will be beneficial to elucidate and engineer other plant biosynthetic pathways....

  18. Software Engineering Education Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    and Engineering (CMSC 735) Codes: GPEV2 * Textiooks: IEEE Tutoria on Models and Metrics for Software Management and Engameeing by Basi, Victor R...Software Engineering (Comp 227) Codes: GPRY5 Textbooks: IEEE Tutoria on Software Design Techniques by Freeman, Peter and Wasserman, Anthony 1. Software

  19. Unplanned ecological engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Gislason, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    unexpectedly large catches by removing predators from the ecosystem. Such ecosystem engineering stands in stark contrast to reigning management paradigms that do not allow fishing down predators to increase the productivity of their prey. The theoretical support for such a feat of ecosystem engineering is well...

  20. Stirling engine design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.