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Sample records for engine rocket adventurer

  1. Engineering thermal engine rocket adventurer for space nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung H.; Suh, Kune Y.; Kang, Seong G.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual design for the first-of-a-kind engineering of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventure (TERA) is described. TERA comprising the Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) as the heat resource and the Space Propulsion Reactor Integral System (SPRIS) as the propulsion system, is one of the advanced Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engine utilizing hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant being developed at present time. BORIS in this application is an open cycle high temperature gas cooled reactor that has eighteen fuel elements for propulsion and one fuel element for electricity generation and propellant pumping. Each fuel element for propulsion has its own small nozzle. The nineteen fuel elements are arranged into hexagonal prism shape in the core and surrounded by outer Be reflector. The TERA maximum power is 1,000 MW th , specific impulse 1,000 s, thrust 250,000 N, and the total mass is 550 kg including the reactor, turbo pump and auxiliaries. Each fuel element comprises the fuel assembly, moderators, pressure tube and small nozzle. The TERA fuel assembly is fabricated of 93% enriched 1.5 mm (U, Zr, Nb)C wafers in 25.3% voided Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC). The H 2 propellant passes through these flow channels. This study is concerned with thermohydrodynamic analysis of the fuel element for propulsion with hypothetical axial power distribution because nuclear analysis of TERA has not been performed yet. As a result, when the power distribution of INSPI's M-SLHC is applied to the fuel assembly, the local heat concentration of fuel is more serious and the pressure of the initial inlet H 2 is higher than those of constant average power distribution applied. This means the fuel assembly geometry of 1.5 mm fuel wafers and 25.3% voided SLHC needs to be changed in order to reduce thermal and mechanical shocks. (author)

  2. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y.; Kang, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I sp ) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H 2 /O 2 rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance

  3. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S. G. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H{sub 2}) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I{sub sp}) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance.

  4. Biochemical engineering's grand adventure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, H.J.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Building on the recent revolution in molecular biology, enabling a wealth of bio-product innovations made from renewable feedstocks, the biotechnology field is in a transition phase to bring the products to the market. This requires a shift from natural sciences to engineering sciences with first

  5. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  6. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  7. Cryogenic rocket engine development at Delft aerospace rocket engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, J; Hermsen, R.; Huijsman, R; Akkermans, C.; Denies, L.; Barreiro, F.; Schutte, A.; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current developments regarding cryogenic rocket engine technology at Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE). DARE is a student society based at Delft University of Technology with the goal of being the first student group in the world to launch a rocket into space. After

  8. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  9. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  10. Nuclear rocket engine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Covers a new technology of nuclear reactors and the related materials aspects. Integrates physics, materials science and engineering Serves as a basic book for nuclear engineers and nuclear physicists. The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  11. Adventures in Rocket Science. EG-2007-12-179-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huegele, Vince; Hill, Kristy; Terry, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    This guide was prepared as a tool useful for informal education venues (4-H, Boys and Girls Clubs, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, etc.), science clubs and related programs, and can be adopted for formal education settings. An exciting and productive study in rocket science can be implemented using the selected activities for the above-mentioned…

  12. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, D.W.; Rochow, R.

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps

  13. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  14. Performances Study of a Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Nicolae BUTURACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study which analyses the functioning and performances optimization of a hybrid rocket engine based on gaseous oxygen and polybutadiene polymer (HTPB. Calculations were performed with NASA CEA software in order to obtain the parameters resulted following the combustion process. Using these parameters, the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine were optimized. Using the calculus previously stated, an experimental rocket engine producing 100 N of thrust was pre-dimensioned, followed by an optimization of the rocket engine as a function of several parameters. Having the geometry and the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine combustion process, numerical simulations were performed in the CFX – ANSYS commercial software, which allowed visualizing the flow field and the jet expansion. Finally, the analytical calculus was validated through numerical simulations.

  15. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  16. Yes--This is Rocket Science: MMCs for Liquid Rocket Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelley, J

    2001-01-01

    The Air Force's Integrated High-Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies (IHPRPT) Program has established aggressive goals for both improved performance and reduced cost of rocket engines and components...

  17. Rocket propulsion elements - An introduction to the engineering of rockets (6th revised and enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, George P.

    The subject of rocket propulsion is treated with emphasis on the basic technology, performance, and design rationale. Attention is given to definitions and fundamentals, nozzle theory and thermodynamic relations, heat transfer, flight performance, chemical rocket propellant performance analysis, and liquid propellant rocket engine fundamentals. The discussion also covers solid propellant rocket fundamentals, hybrid propellant rockets, thrust vector control, selection of rocket propulsion systems, electric propulsion, and rocket testing.

  18. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  19. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  20. Development of nuclear rocket engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission, the USAF, and NASA (later on) in the area of nuclear rocket propulsion is discussed. It was found that a graphite reactor, loaded with highly concentrated Uranium 235, can be used to heat high pressure liquid hydrogen to temperatures of about 4500 R, and to expand the hydrogen through a high expansion ratio rocket nozzle assembly. The results of 20 reactor tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site between July 1959 and June 1969 are analyzed. On the basis of these results, the feasibility of solid graphite reactor/nuclear rocket engines is revealed. It is maintained that this technology will support future space propulsion requirements, using liquid hydrogen as the propellant, for thrust requirements ranging from 25,000 lbs to 250,000 lbs, with vacuum specific impulses of at least 850 sec and with full engine throttle capability. 12 refs

  1. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  2. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands in front of a 'pathfinder' rocket engine with Orbital Sciences Corp. President and Chief Operating Officer J.R. Thompson (left) and Aerojet President Scott Seymour during a Feb. 24 news briefing at the south Mississippi facility. The leaders appeared together to announce a partnership for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines at Stennis. The engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. During the event, the Stennis partnership with Orbital was cited as an example of the new direction of NASA to work with commercial interests for space travel and transport.

  3. Nuclear thermal rocket engine operation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.; Savoie, M.T.; Hundal, R.

    1993-06-01

    The operation of a typical Rover/Nerva-derived nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is characterized and the control requirements of the NTR are defined. A rationale for the selection of a candidate diverse redundant NTR engine control system is presented and the projected component operating requirements are related to the state of the art of candidate components and subsystems. The projected operational capabilities of the candidate system are delineated for the startup, full-thrust, shutdown, and decay heat removal phases of the engine operation. 9 refs

  4. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  5. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  6. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  7. Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  8. Numerical investigations of hybrid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betelin, V. B.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Tyurenkova, V. V.; Stamov, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents the results of numerical studies of hybrid rocket engines operating cycle including unsteady-state transition stage. A mathematical model is developed accounting for the peculiarities of diffusion combustion of fuel in the flow of oxidant, which is composed of oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Three dimensional unsteady-state simulations of chemically reacting gas mixture above thermochemically destructing surface are performed. The results show that the diffusion combustion brings to strongly non-uniform fuel mass regression rate in the flow direction. Diffusive deceleration of chemical reaction brings to the decrease of fuel regression rate in the longitudinal direction.

  9. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  10. Optical measurements in rocket engine liquid sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikema, Douglas A.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of liquid propellant rocket engines is dependent upon many elements of the entire system. One of the most fundamental and most critical is the performance of the injector elements. Their characterization is an important part of the development of combustion devices. Optical measurements within these environments have proven to be invaluable tools in quantifying the physical environment of two phase flows. The effort reported herein involves the measurement of drop velocity, drop size, and most importantly mass flux using Phase-Doppler Particle Anemometry within a spray generated by a single swirl injector element operating in atmospheric pressure conditions. The mass flux has been determined and validated by mechanical patternation methods and by profile integration of the mass flux.

  11. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  12. Estimates of the radiation environment for a nuclear rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Manohara, H.M.; Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ambitious missions in deep space, such as manned expeditions to Mars, require nuclear propulsion if they are to be accomplished in a reasonable length of time. Current technology is adequate to support the use of nuclear fission as a source of energy for propulsion; however, problems associated with neutrons and gammas leaking from the rocket engine must be addressed. Before manned or unmanned space flights are attempted, an extensive ground test program on the rocket engine must be completed. This paper compares estimated radiation levels and nuclear heating rates in and around the rocket engine for both a ground test and space environments

  13. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  14. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spark ignition of a bi-propellant rocket engine is a classic, proven, and generally reliable process. However, timing can be critical, and the control logic,...

  15. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The on-ground and Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) provides a system architecture and software tools for performing diagnostics...

  16. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building...

  17. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  18. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  19. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2013-01-01

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application

  20. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application.

  1. Current status of rocket developments in universities -development of a small hybrid rocket with a swirling oxidizer flow type engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yuasa, Saburo; Kitagawa, Koki

    2005-01-01

    To develop an experimental small hybrid rocket with a swirling gaseous oxygen flow type engine, we made a flight model engine. Burning tests of the engine showed that a maximum thrust of 692 N and a specific impulse of 263 s (at sea level) were achieved. We designed a small hybrid rocket with this engine. The rocket measured 1.8 m in length and 15.4 kg in mass. To confirm the flight stability of the rocket, wind tunnel tests using a 112-scale model of the rocket and simulations of the flight ...

  2. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  3. Performance of a RBCC Engine in Rocket-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Kubo, Takahiro; Noboru Sakuranaka; Tani, Koichiro

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket-based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for space launch vehicles. Either SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit) system or TSTO (Two Stage To Orbit) system with separation at high altitude needs final stage acceleration in space, so that the RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine should be operated as rocket engines. Performance of the scramjet combustor as the extension to the rocket nozzle, was experimentally evaluated by injecting inert gas at various pressure through the embedded rocket chamber while the whole sub-scaled model was placed in a low pressure chamber connected to an air-driven ejector system. The results showed that the thrust coefficient was about 1.2, the low value being found to mainly due to the friction force on the scramjet combustor wall, while blocking the scramjet flow pass’s opening to increase nozzle extension thrust surface, was found to have little effects on the thrust performance. The combustor was shortened to reduce the friction loss, however, degree of reduction was limited as friction decreased rapidly with distance from the onset of the scramjet combustor.

  4. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  5. Use of Soft Computing Technologies For Rocket Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Olcmen, Semih; Polites, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to further improve overall engine system reliability and performance. Specifically, this will be presented by enhancing rocket engine control and engine health management (EHM) using SCT coupled with conventional control technologies, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall s Flight Software Group. The principle goals are to improve software management, software development time and maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control and EHM methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, EHM, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion, software engineering for embedded systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian belief networks), much of which is presented in this paper. The first targeted demonstration rocket engine platform is the MC-1 (formerly FASTRAC Engine) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed laboratory that

  6. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  7. Review on film cooling of liquid rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Shine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Film cooling in combination with regenerative cooling is presently considered as an efficient method to guarantee safe operation of liquid rocket engines having higher heat flux densities for long duration. This paper aims to bring all the research carried out in the field of liquid rocket engine film cooling since 1950. The analytical and numerical procedure followed, experimental facilities and measurements made and major inferences drawn are reviewed in detail, and compared where ever possible. Review has been made through a discussion of the analyses methodologies and the factors that influence film cooling performance. An effort has also been made to determine the status of the research, pointing out critical gaps, which are still to be explained and addressed by future generations. Keywords: Heat transfer, Liquid rocket thrust chamber, Film cooling, Cooling effectiveness

  8. Multivariable optimization of liquid rocket engines using particle swarm algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel Ray

    Liquid rocket engines are highly reliable, controllable, and efficient compared to other conventional forms of rocket propulsion. As such, they have seen wide use in the space industry and have become the standard propulsion system for launch vehicles, orbit insertion, and orbital maneuvering. Though these systems are well understood, historical optimization techniques are often inadequate due to the highly non-linear nature of the engine performance problem. In this thesis, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) variant was applied to maximize the specific impulse of a finite-area combustion chamber (FAC) equilibrium flow rocket performance model by controlling the engine's oxidizer-to-fuel ratio and de Laval nozzle expansion and contraction ratios. In addition to the PSO-controlled parameters, engine performance was calculated based on propellant chemistry, combustion chamber pressure, and ambient pressure, which are provided as inputs to the program. The performance code was validated by comparison with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) and the commercially available Rocket Propulsion Analysis (RPA) tool. Similarly, the PSO algorithm was validated by comparison with brute-force optimization, which calculates all possible solutions and subsequently determines which is the optimum. Particle Swarm Optimization was shown to be an effective optimizer capable of quick and reliable convergence for complex functions of multiple non-linear variables.

  9. Two-step rocket engine bipropellant valve concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, J. E.; Ferguson, R. E.; Pohl, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    Initiating combustion of altitude control rocket engines in a precombustion chamber of ductile material reduces high pressure surges generated by hypergolic propellants. Two-step bipropellant valve concepts control initial propellant flow into precombustion chamber and subsequent full flow into main chamber.

  10. Analysis of supercritical methane in rocket engine cooling channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denies, L.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.; Natale, P.; Ricci, D.; Invigorito, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is a promising propellant for liquid rocket engines. As a regenerative coolant, it would be close to its critical point, complicating cooling analysis. This study encompasses the development and validation of a new, open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for analysis of

  11. Additive Manufacturing a Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carl P.; Robertson, Elizabeth H.; Koelbl, Mary Beth; Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Space Propulsion is a 5 day event being held from 2nd May to the 6th May 2016 at the Rome Marriott Park Hotel in Rome, Italy. This event showcases products like Propulsion sub-systems and components, Production and manufacturing issues, Liquid, Solid, Hybrid and Air-breathing Propulsion Systems for Launcher and Upper Stages, Overview of current programmes, AIV issues and tools, Flight testing and experience, Technology building blocks for Future Space Transportation Propulsion Systems : Launchers, Exploration platforms & Space Tourism, Green Propulsion for Space Transportation, New propellants, Rocket propulsion & global environment, Cost related aspects of Space Transportation propulsion, Modelling, Pressure-Thrust oscillations issues, Impact of new requirements and regulations on design etc. in the Automotive, Manufacturing, Fabrication, Repair & Maintenance industries.

  12. Radiation effect on rocket engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang; Kross, K. W.; Krebsbach, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    Critical problem areas involving the effect of radiation on the combustion of bipropellants are addressed by formulating a universal scaling law in combination with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and data pertaining to the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low-enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance setback due to radiative loss, whereas the performance of high-enthalpy engines such as the SSME are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Combustion enhancement by radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact on propellants with high absorptivity.

  13. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  14. Improving of Hybrid Rocket Engine on the Basis of Optimizing Design Fuel Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriekov, K. M.; Ushkin, M. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the processes intrachamber in hybrid rocket engine (HRE) and the comparative assessment of the use of solid rocket motors (SRM) and HRE for meteorological rockets with a mass of payload of the 364 kg. Results of the research showed the possibility of a significant increase in the ballistic effectiveness of meteorological rocket.

  15. Expert System Architecture for Rocket Engine Numerical Simulators: A Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Babu, U.; Earla, A. K.; Hemminger, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of any complex physical system like rocket engines involves modeling the behavior of their different components using mostly numerical equations. Typically a simulation package would contain a set of subroutines for these modeling purposes and some other ones for supporting jobs. A user would create an input file configuring a system (part or whole of a rocket engine to be simulated) in appropriate format understandable by the package and run it to create an executable module corresponding to the simulated system. This module would then be run on a given set of input parameters in another file. Simulation jobs are mostly done for performance measurements of a designed system, but could be utilized for failure analysis or a design job such as inverse problems. In order to use any such package the user needs to understand and learn a lot about the software architecture of the package, apart from being knowledgeable in the target domain. We are currently involved in a project in designing an intelligent executive module for the rocket engine simulation packages, which would free any user from this burden of acquiring knowledge on a particular software system. The extended abstract presented here will describe the vision, methodology and the problems encountered in the project. We are employing object-oriented technology in designing the executive module. The problem is connected to the areas like the reverse engineering of any simulation software, and the intelligent systems for simulation.

  16. Parallelization of Rocket Engine Simulator Software (PRESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1998-01-01

    /18/99). At the least, the research would need to be done on Windows 95/Windows NT based platforms. Moreover, with the acquisition of Lahey Fortran package for PC platform, and the existing Borland C + + 5. 0, we can do work on C + + wrapper issues. We have carefully studied the blueprint for Space Transportation Propulsion Integrated Design Environment for the next 25 years [13] and found the inclusion of HBCUs in that effort encouraging. Especially in the long period for which a map is provided, there is no doubt that HBCUs will grow and become better equipped to do meaningful research. In the shorter period, as was suggested in our presentation at the HBCU conference, some key decisions regarding the aging Fortran based software for rocket propellants will need to be made. One important issue is whether or not object oriented languages such as C + + or Java should be used for distributed computing. Whether or not "distributed computing" is necessary for the existing software is yet another, larger, question to be tackled with.

  17. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  18. Review on pressure swirl injector in liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    The pressure swirl injector with tangential inlet ports is widely used in liquid rocket engine. Commonly, this type of pressure swirl injector consists of tangential inlet ports, a swirl chamber, a converging spin chamber, and a discharge orifice. The atomization of the liquid propellants includes the formation of liquid film, primary breakup and secondary atomization. And the back pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber could have great influence on the atomization of the injector. What's more, when the combustion instability occurs, the pressure oscillation could further affects the atomization process. This paper reviewed the primary atomization and the performance of the pressure swirl injector, which include the formation of the conical liquid film, the breakup and atomization characteristics of the conical liquid film, the effects of the rocket engine environment, and the response of the injector and atomization on the pressure oscillation.

  19. Research Technology (ASTP) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  20. Health management system for rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Edward

    1990-01-01

    The functional framework of a failure detection algorithm for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is developed. The basic algorithm is based only on existing SSME measurements. Supplemental measurements, expected to enhance failure detection effectiveness, are identified. To support the algorithm development, a figure of merit is defined to estimate the likelihood of SSME criticality 1 failure modes and the failure modes are ranked in order of likelihood of occurrence. Nine classes of failure detection strategies are evaluated and promising features are extracted as the basis for the failure detection algorithm. The failure detection algorithm provides early warning capabilities for a wide variety of SSME failure modes. Preliminary algorithm evaluation, using data from three SSME failures representing three different failure types, demonstrated indications of imminent catastrophic failure well in advance of redline cutoff in all three cases.

  1. History of the Development of NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David L., Black

    2000-01-01

    During the 17 yr between 1955 and 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) collaborated on an effort to develop a nuclear rocket engine. Based on studies conducted in 1946, the concept selected was a fully enriched uranium-filled, graphite-moderated, beryllium-reflected reactor, cooled by a monopropellant, hydrogen. The program, known as Rover, was centered at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), funded jointly by the AEC and the USAF, with the intent of designing a rocket engine for long-range ballistic missiles. Other nuclear rocket concepts were studied during these years, such as cermet and gas cores, but are not reviewed herein. Even thought the program went through the termination phase in a very short time, the technology may still be fully recoverable/retrievable to the state of its prior technological readiness in a reasonably short time. Documents; drawings; and technical, purchasing, manufacturing, and materials specifications were all stored for ease of retrieval. If the U.S. space program were to discover a need/mission for this engine, its 1972 'pencils down' status could be updated for the technology developments of the past 28 yr for flight demonstration in 8 or fewer years. Depending on today's performance requirements, temperatures and pressures could be increased and weight decreased considerably

  2. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  3. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  4. Development of CFD model for augmented core tripropellant rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth M.

    1994-10-01

    The Space Shuttle era has made major advances in technology and vehicle design to the point that the concept of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle appears more feasible. NASA presently is conducting studies into the feasibility of certain advanced concept rocket engines that could be utilized in a SSTO vehicle. One such concept is a tripropellant system which burns kerosene and hydrogen initially and at altitude switches to hydrogen. This system will attain a larger mass fraction because LOX-kerosene engines have a greater average propellant density and greater thrust-to-weight ratio. This report describes the investigation to model the tripropellant augmented core engine. The physical aspects of the engine, the CFD code employed, and results of the numerical model for a single modular thruster are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  6. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  7. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  8. Reusable rocket engine preventive maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jiawen; Jin, Ping; Cai, Guobiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the preventive maintenance (PM) scheduling problem of reusable rocket engine (RRE), which is different from the ordinary repairable systems, by genetic algorithm. Three types of PM activities for RRE are considered and modeled by introducing the concept of effective age. The impacts of PM on all subsystems' aging processes are evaluated based on improvement factor model. Then the reliability of engine is formulated by considering the accumulated time effect. After that, optimization model subjected to reliability constraint is developed for RRE PM scheduling at fixed interval. The optimal PM combination is obtained by minimizing the total cost in the whole life cycle for a supposed engine. Numerical investigations indicate that the subsystem's intrinsic reliability characteristic and the improvement factor of maintain operations are the most important parameters in RRE's PM scheduling management

  9. Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2005-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous

  10. Hybrid rocket engine research program at Ryerson University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpynczyk, J.; Greatrix, D.R. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Hybrid rocket engines (HREs) are a combination of solid and liquid propellant rocket engine designs. A solid fuel grain is located in the main combustion chamber and nozzle aft, while a stored liquid or gaseous oxidizer source supplies the required oxygen content through a throttle valve, for combustion downstream in the main chamber. HREs have drawn significant interest in certain flight applications, as they can be advantageous in terms of cost, ease and safety in storage, controllability in flight, and availability of propellant constituents. Key factors that will lead to further practical usage of HREs for flight applications are their predictability and reproducibility of operational performance. This paper presented information on studies being conducted at Ryerson University aimed at analyzing and testing the performance of HREs. It discussed and illustrated the conventional HRE and analyzed engine performance considerations such as the fuel regression rate, mass flux about the fuel surface, burning rate, and zero transformation parameter. Other factors relating to HRE performance that were presented included induced forward and aft oxidizer flow swirl effects as a means for augmenting the fuel regression rate, stoichiometric grain length issues, and feed system stability. Last, the paper presented a simplified schematic diagram of a proposed thrust/test stand for HRE test firings. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  12. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve

    2005-01-01

    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  13. Effects of rocket engines on laser during lunar landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiong, E-mail: wanxiong1@126.com [Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nondestructive Test (Ministry of Education), Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Shu, Rong; Huang, Genghua [Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In the Chinese moon exploration project “ChangE-3”, the laser telemeter and lidar are important equipments on the lunar landing vehicle. A low-thrust vernier rocket engine works during the soft landing, whose plume may influence on the laser equipments. An experiment has first been accomplished to evaluate the influence of the plume on the propagation characteristics of infrared laser under the vacuum condition. Combination with our theoretical analysis has given an appropriate assessment of the plume's effects on the infrared laser hence providing a valuable basis for the design of lunar landing systems.

  14. Effects of rocket engines on laser during lunar landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Xiong; Shu, Rong; Huang, Genghua

    2013-01-01

    In the Chinese moon exploration project “ChangE-3”, the laser telemeter and lidar are important equipments on the lunar landing vehicle. A low-thrust vernier rocket engine works during the soft landing, whose plume may influence on the laser equipments. An experiment has first been accomplished to evaluate the influence of the plume on the propagation characteristics of infrared laser under the vacuum condition. Combination with our theoretical analysis has given an appropriate assessment of the plume's effects on the infrared laser hence providing a valuable basis for the design of lunar landing systems

  15. On the hydrodynamics of rocket propellant engine inducers and turbopumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, L

    2013-01-01

    The lecture presents an overview of some recent results of the work carried out at Alta on the hydrodynamic design and rotordynamic fluid forces of cavitating turbopumps for liquid propellant feed systems of modern rocket engines. The reduced order models recently developed for preliminary geometric definition and noncavitating performance prediction of tapered-hub axial inducers and centrifugal turbopumps are illustrated. The experimental characterization of the rotordynamic forces acting on a whirling four-bladed, tapered-hub, variable-pitch high-head inducer, under different load and cavitation conditions is presented. Future perspectives of the work to be carried out at Alta in this area of research are briefly illustrated

  16. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the PhD thesis presented here is the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of laser-induced spark ignition and laser thermal ignition. Laser ignition systems are currently undergoing a rapidly development with growing intensity involving more and more research groups who mainly concentrate on the field of car and large combustion engines. This research is primarily driven by the engagement to meet the increasingly strict emission limits and by the intention to use the limited energy reserves more efficiently. For internal combustion engines, laser plasma-induced ignition will allow to combine the goals for legally required reductions of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. Also for rocket engines laser ignition turns out to be very attractive. A highly reliable ignition system like laser ignition would represent an option for introducing non-toxic propellants in order to replace highly toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine-based propellants commonly used in launch vehicle upper stages and satellites. The most important results on laser ignition and laser plasma generation, accomplished by the author and, in some respects, enriched by cooperation with colleagues are presented in the following. The emphasis of this thesis is placed on the following issues: - Two-color effects on laser plasma generation - Theoretical considerations about the focal volume concerning plasma generation - Plasma transmission experiments - Ignition experiments on laser-induced ignition - Ignition experiments on thermally-induced ignition - Feasibility study on laser ignition of rocket engines The purpose of the two-color laser plasma experiments is to investigate possible constructive interference effects of driving fields that are not monochromatic, but contain (second) harmonic radiation with respect to the goal of lowering the plasma generation threshold. Such effects have been found in a number of related processes, such as laser ablation or high

  17. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  18. Boiler and Pressure Balls Monopropellant Thermal Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed technology is a rocket engine cycle utilizing as the propulsive fluid a low molecular weight, cryogenic fluid, typically liquid hydrogen, pressure driven, heated, and expelled through a nozzle to generate high velocity and high specific impulse discharge gas. The proposed technology feeds the propellant through the engine cycle without the use of a separate pressurization fluid and without the use of turbomachinery. Advantages of the proposed technology are found in those elements of state-of-the-art systems that it avoids. It does not require a separate pressurization fluid or a thick-walled primary propellant tank as is typically required for a classical pressure-fed system. Further, it does not require the acceptance of intrinsic reliability risks associated with the use of turbomachinery

  19. Gas-Generator Augmented Expander Cycle Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An augmented expander cycle rocket engine includes first and second turbopumps for respectively pumping fuel and oxidizer. A gas-generator receives a first portion of fuel output from the first turbopump and a first portion of oxidizer output from the second turbopump to ignite and discharge heated gas. A heat exchanger close-coupled to the gas-generator receives in a first conduit the discharged heated gas, and transfers heat to an adjacent second conduit carrying fuel exiting the cooling passages of a primary combustion chamber. Heat is transferred to the fuel passing through the cooling passages. The heated fuel enters the second conduit of the heat exchanger to absorb more heat from the first conduit, and then flows to drive a turbine of one or both of the turbopumps. The arrangement prevents the turbopumps exposure to combusted gas that could freeze in the turbomachinery and cause catastrophic failure upon attempted engine restart.

  20. Comparison of Engine Cycle Codes for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltrup, Paul J.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Bradford, John E.; Carreiro, Louis R.; Gettinger, Christopher; Komar, D. R.; McDonald, J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a one day workshop on Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine Cycle Codes held in Monterey CA in November of 2000 at the 2000 JANNAF JPM with the authors as primary participants. The objectives of the workshop were to discuss and compare the merits of existing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine cycle codes being used by government and industry to predict RBCC engine performance and interpret experimental results. These merits included physical and chemical modeling, accuracy and user friendliness. The ultimate purpose of the workshop was to identify the best codes for analyzing RBCC engines and to document any potential shortcomings, not to demonstrate the merits or deficiencies of any particular engine design. Five cases representative of the operating regimes of typical RBCC engines were used as the basis of these comparisons. These included Mach 0 sea level static and Mach 1.0 and Mach 2.5 Air-Augmented-Rocket (AAR), Mach 4 subsonic combustion ramjet or dual-mode scramjet, and Mach 8 scramjet operating modes. Specification of a generic RBCC engine geometry and concomitant component operating efficiencies, bypass ratios, fuel/oxidizer/air equivalence ratios and flight dynamic pressures were provided. The engine included an air inlet, isolator duct, axial rocket motor/injector, axial wall fuel injectors, diverging combustor, and exit nozzle. Gaseous hydrogen was used as the fuel with the rocket portion of the system using a gaseous H2/O2 propellant system to avoid cryogenic issues. The results of the workshop, even after post-workshop adjudication of differences, were surprising. They showed that the codes predicted essentially the same performance at the Mach 0 and I conditions, but progressively diverged from a common value (for example, for fuel specific impulse, Isp) as the flight Mach number increased, with the largest differences at Mach 8. The example cases and results are compared and discussed in this paper.

  1. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  2. Development Testing of 1-Newton ADN-Based Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anflo, K.; Gronland, T.-A.; Bergman, G.; Nedar, R.; Thormählen, P.

    2004-10-01

    With the objective to reduce operational hazards and improve specific and density impulse as compared with hydrazine, the Research and Development (R&D) of a new monopropellant for space applications based on AmmoniumDiNitramide (ADN), was first proposed in 1997. This pioneering work has been described in previous papers1,2,3,4 . From the discussion above, it is clear that cost savings as well as risk reduction are the main drivers to develop a new generation of reduced hazard propellants. However, this alone is not enough to convince a spacecraft builder to choose a new technology. Cost, risk and schedule reduction are good incentives, but a spacecraft supplier will ask for evidence that this new propulsion system meets a number of requirements within the following areas: This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a storable liquid monopropellant blend, based on AND, and its specific rocket engines. After building and testing more than 20 experimental rocket engines, the first Engineering Model (EM-1) has now accumulated more than 1 hour of firing-time. The results from test firings have validated the design. Specific impulse, combustion stability, blow-down capability and short pulse capability are amongst the requirements that have been demonstrated. The LMP-103x propellant candidate has been stored for more than 1 year and initial material compatibility screening and testing has started. 1. Performance &life 2. Impact on spacecraft design &operation 3. Flight heritage Hereafter, the essential requirements for some of these areas are outlined. These issues are discussed in detail in a previous paper1 . The use of "Commercial Of The Shelf" (COTS) propulsion system components as much as possible is essential to minimize the overall cost, risk and schedule. This leads to the conclusion that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 has been reached for the thruster and propellant. Furthermore, that the concept of ADN-based propulsion is feasible.

  3. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  4. Software for Preprocessing Data from Rocket-Engine Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chiu-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Three computer programs have been written to preprocess digitized outputs of sensors during rocket-engine tests at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The programs apply exclusively to the SSC E test-stand complex and utilize the SSC file format. The programs are the following: Engineering Units Generator (EUGEN) converts sensor-output-measurement data to engineering units. The inputs to EUGEN are raw binary test-data files, which include the voltage data, a list identifying the data channels, and time codes. EUGEN effects conversion by use of a file that contains calibration coefficients for each channel. QUICKLOOK enables immediate viewing of a few selected channels of data, in contradistinction to viewing only after post-test processing (which can take 30 minutes to several hours depending on the number of channels and other test parameters) of data from all channels. QUICKLOOK converts the selected data into a form in which they can be plotted in engineering units by use of Winplot (a free graphing program written by Rick Paris). EUPLOT provides a quick means for looking at data files generated by EUGEN without the necessity of relying on the PV-WAVE based plotting software.

  5. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  6. Construction and design of solid-propellant rocket engines. Konstruktsiia i proektirovanie raketnykh dvigatelei tverdogo topliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrutdinov, I.K.; Kotel' nikov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing the durability of different components of solid-propellant rocket engines are presented. The following aspects of engine development are discussed: task formulation, parameter calculation, construction scheme selection, materials, and durability assessment. 45 references.

  7. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are presented (multiport grain and high mixture ratio which aim at reducing negative effects without enhancing regression rate. Furthermore, fuel material changes and nonconventional geometries of grain and/or injector are presented as methods to increase fuel regression rate. Although most of these approaches are still at the laboratory or concept scale, many of them are promising.

  8. Failure characteristics analysis and fault diagnosis for liquid rocket engines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This book concentrates on the subject of health monitoring technology of Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE), including its failure analysis, fault diagnosis and fault prediction. Since no similar issue has been published, the failure pattern and mechanism analysis of the LRE from the system stage are of particular interest to the readers. Furthermore, application cases used to validate the efficacy of the fault diagnosis and prediction methods of the LRE are different from the others. The readers can learn the system stage modeling, analyzing and testing methods of the LRE system as well as corresponding fault diagnosis and prediction methods. This book will benefit researchers and students who are pursuing aerospace technology, fault detection, diagnostics and corresponding applications.

  9. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) Implementation in Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Walker, Mark; Kapadia, Ravi; Venkatesh, Meera

    2010-01-01

    A pilot operational ISHM capability has been implemented for the E-2 Rocket Engine Test Stand (RETS) and a Chemical Steam Generator (CSG) test article at NASA Stennis Space Center. The implementation currently includes an ISHM computer and a large display in the control room. The paper will address the overall approach, tools, and requirements. It will also address the infrastructure and architecture. Specific anomaly detection algorithms will be discussed regarding leak detection and diagnostics, valve validation, and sensor validation. It will also describe development and use of a Health Assessment Database System (HADS) as a repository for measurements, health, configuration, and knowledge related to a system with ISHM capability. It will conclude with a discussion of user interfaces, and a description of the operation of the ISHM system prior, during, and after testing.

  10. Critical Performance of Turbopump Mechanical Elements for Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Masataka; Sudou, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Fumiya; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Makoto

    It is generally acknowledged that bearings and axial seals have a tendency to go wrong compared with other rocket engine elements. And when those components have malfunction, missions scarcely succeed. However, fundamental performance (maximum rotational speed, minimum flow rate, power loss, durability, etc.) of those components has not been grasped yet. Purpose of this study is to grasp a critical performance of mechanical seal and hybrid ball bearing of turbopump. In this result, it was found that bearing outer race temperature and bearing coolant outlet temperature changed along saturation line of liquid hydrogen when flow rate was decreased under critical pressure. And normal operation of bearing was possible under conditions of more than 70,000 rpm of rotational speed and more than 0.2 liter/s of coolant flow rate. Though friction coefficient of seal surface increased several times of original value after testing, the seal showed a good performance same as before.

  11. Optimization of the rocket mode trajectory in a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered SSTO vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1989-07-01

    The application of rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engines to booster-stage propulsion, in combination with all-rocket second stages in orbital-ascent missions, has been studied since the mid-1960s; attention is presently given to the case of the 'ejector scramjet' RBCC configuration's application to SSTO vehicles. While total mass delivered to initial orbit is optimized at Mach 20, payload delivery capability to initial orbit optimizes at Mach 17, primarily due to the reduction of hydrogen fuel tankage structure, insulation, and thermal protection system weights.

  12. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  13. Performance of an Axisymmetric Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine During Rocket Only Operation Using Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye; Keller, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is shown to be a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. An axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and multiple linear regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inlet diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis, using both the Spalart-Allmaras and k-omega turbulence models, was performed with the NPARC code to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both the full flow and gas generator configurations increasing mixer-ejector area ratio and rocket area ratio increase performance, while increasing mixer-ejector inlet area ratio and mixer-ejector length-to-diameter ratio decrease performance. Increasing injected secondary flow increased performance for the gas generator analysis, but was not statistically significant for the full flow analysis. Chamber pressure was found to be not statistically significant.

  14. Studies of Fission Fragment Rocket Engine Propelled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werka, Robert O.; Clark, Rodney; Sheldon, Rob; Percy, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Office of Chief Technologist has funded from FY11 through FY14 successive studies of the physics, design, and spacecraft integration of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) that directly converts the momentum of fission fragments continuously into spacecraft momentum at a theoretical specific impulse above one million seconds. While others have promised future propulsion advances if only you have the patience, the FFRE requires no waiting, no advances in physics and no advances in manufacturing processes. Such an engine unequivocally can create a new era of space exploration that can change spacecraft operation. The NIAC (NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts) Program Phase 1 study of FY11 first investigated how the revolutionary FFRE technology could be integrated into an advanced spacecraft. The FFRE combines existent technologies of low density fissioning dust trapped electrostatically and high field strength superconducting magnets for beam management. By organizing the nuclear core material to permit sufficient mean free path for escape of the fission fragments and by collimating the beam, this study showed the FFRE could convert nuclear power to thrust directly and efficiently at a delivered specific impulse of 527,000 seconds. The FY13 study showed that, without increasing the reactor power, adding a neutral gas to the fission fragment beam significantly increased the FFRE thrust through in a manner analogous to a jet engine afterburner. This frictional interaction of gas and beam resulted in an engine that continuously produced 1000 pound force of thrust at a delivered impulse of 32,000 seconds, thereby reducing the currently studied DRM 5 round trip mission to Mars from 3 years to 260 days. By decreasing the gas addition, this same engine can be tailored for much lower thrust at much higher impulse to match missions to more distant destinations. These studies created host spacecraft concepts configured for manned round trip journeys. While the

  15. Rocket Engine Turbine Blade Surface Pressure Distributions Experiment and Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flow fields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with miniature surface mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in two respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. A three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis was also used to blindly predict the unsteady flow field in the turbine at the design operating conditions and at +15 degrees relative incidence to the first-stage rotor. The predicted time-averaged and unsteady pressure distributions show good agreement with the experimental data. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools are contributing significantly to current Space Launch Initiative turbine airflow test and blade surface pressure prediction efforts.

  16. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  17. Multicamera High Dynamic Range High-Speed Video of Rocket Engine Tests and Launches

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-speed video recording of rocket engine tests has several challenges. The scenes that are imaged have both bright and dark regions associated with plume emission...

  18. Code Validation of CFD Heat Transfer Models for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coy, E. B

    2007-01-01

    .... The design of the rig and its capabilities are described. A second objective of the test rig is to provide CFD validation data under conditions relevant to liquid rocket engine thrust chambers...

  19. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  20. Combustion response to acoustic perturbation in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, Akbar

    An experimental study of the effect of acoustic perturbations on combustion behavior of a model liquid propellant rocket engine has been carried out. A pair of compression drivers were used to excite transverse and longitudinal acoustic fields at strengths of up to 156.6 dB and 159.5 dB respectively in the combustion chamber of the experimental rocket engine. Propellant simulants were injected into the combustion chamber through a single element shear coaxial injector. Water and air were used in cold flow studies and ethanol and oxygen-enriched air were used as fuel and oxidizer in reacting hot flow studies. In cold flow studies an imposed transverse acoustic field had a more pronounced effect on the spray pattern than a longitudinal acoustic fields. A transverse acoustic field widened the spray by as much as 33 percent and the plane of impingement of the spray with chamber walls moved up closer to the injection plane. The behavior was strongly influenced by the gas phase velocity but was less sensitive to changes in the liquid phase velocity. In reacting hot flow studies the effects of changes in equivalence ratio, excitation amplitude, excitation frequency, liquid and gas phase velocity and chamber pressure on the response of the injector to imposed high frequency transverse acoustic excitation were measured. Reducing the equivalence ratio from 7.4 to 3.8 increased the chamber pressure response to the imposed excitation at 3000 Hz. Increasing the excitation amplitude from 147 dB to 155.6 dB at 3000 Hz increased the chamber pressure response to the excitation. In the frequency range of 1240 Hz to 3220 Hz, an excitation frequency of 3000 Hz resulted in the largest response of the chamber pressure indicating the importance of fluid dynamic coupling. Increasing the liquid phase velocity from 9.2 m/sec to 22.7 m/sec, did not change the amplitude of the chamber pressure response to excitation. This implied the importance of local equivalence ratio and not the overall

  1. LOX/Methane Regeneratively-Cooled Rocket Engine Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to advance the technologies required to build a subcritical regeneratively cooled liquid oxygen/methane rocket combustion chamber for...

  2. Nonlinear Longitudinal Mode Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Preburners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear pressure oscillations have been observed in liquid propellant rocket instability preburner devices. Unlike the familiar transverse mode instabilities that characterize primary combustion chambers, these oscillations appear as longitudinal gas motions with frequencies that are typical of the chamber axial acoustic modes. In several respects, the phenomenon is similar to longitudinal mode combustion instability appearing in low-smoke solid propellant motors. An important feature is evidence of steep-fronted wave motions with very high amplitude. Clearly, gas motions of this type threaten the mechanical integrity of associated engine components and create unacceptably high vibration levels. This paper focuses on development of the analytical tools needed to predict, diagnose, and correct instabilities of this type. For this purpose, mechanisms that lead to steep-fronted, high-amplitude pressure waves are described in detail. It is shown that such gas motions are the outcome of the natural steepening process in which initially low amplitude standing acoustic waves grow into shock-like disturbances. The energy source that promotes this behavior is a combination of unsteady combustion energy release and interactions with the quasi-steady mean chamber flow. Since shock waves characterize the gas motions, detonation-like mechanisms may well control the unsteady combustion processes. When the energy gains exceed the losses (represented mainly by nozzle and viscous damping), the waves can rapidly grow to a finite amplitude limit cycle. Analytical tools are described that allow the prediction of the limit cycle amplitude and show the dependence of this wave amplitude on the system geometry and other design parameters. This information can be used to guide corrective procedures that mitigate or eliminate the oscillations.

  3. An historical perspective of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine technology program. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, W.H.; Finger, H.B.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments

  4. Theoretical Acoustic Absorber Design Approach for LOX/LCH4 Pintle Injector Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Jonathan

    Liquid rocket engines, or LREs, have served a key role in space exploration efforts. One current effort involves the utilization of liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) LREs to explore Mars with in-situ resource utilization for propellant production. This on-site production of propellant will allow for greater payload allocation instead of fuel to travel to the Mars surface, and refueling of propellants to travel back to Earth. More useable mass yields a greater benefit to cost ratio. The University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP) Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research Center (cSETR) aims to further advance these methane propulsion systems with the development of two liquid methane - liquid oxygen propellant combination rocket engines. The design of rocket engines, specifically liquid rocket engines, is complex in that many variables are present that must be taken into consideration in the design. A problem that occurs in almost every rocket engine development program is combustion instability, or oscillatory combustion. It can result in the destruction of the rocket, subsequent destruction of the vehicle and compromise the mission. These combustion oscillations can vary in frequency from 100 to 20,000 Hz or more, with varying effects, and occur from different coupling phenomena. It is important to understand the effects of combustion instability, its physical manifestations, how to identify the instabilities, and how to mitigate or dampen them. Linear theory methods have been developed to provide a mathematical understanding of the low- to mid-range instabilities. Nonlinear theory is more complex and difficult to analyze mathematically, therefore no general analytical method that yields a solution exists. With limited resources, time, and the advice of our NASA mentors, a data driven experimental approach utilizing quarter wave acoustic dampener cavities was designed. This thesis outlines the methodology behind the design of an acoustic

  5. Combustion dynamics in cryogenic rocket engines: Research programme at DLR Lampoldshausen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardi, Justin S.; Traudt, Tobias; Bombardieri, Cristiano; Börner, Michael; Beinke, Scott K.; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Nicolas Blanco, P.; Tonti, Federica; Suslov, Dmitry; Dally, Bassam; Oschwald, Michael

    2018-06-01

    The Combustion Dynamics group in the Rocket Propulsion Department at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Lampoldshausen, strives to advance the understanding of dynamic processes in cryogenic rocket engines. Leveraging the test facilities and experimental expertise at DLR Lampoldshausen, the group has taken a primarily experimental approach to investigating transient flows, ignition, and combustion instabilities for over one and a half decades. This article provides a summary of recent achievements, and an overview of current and planned research activities.

  6. Working-cycle processes in solid-propellant rocket engines (Handbook). Rabochie protsessy v raketnykh dvigateliakh tverdogo topliva /Spravochnik/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkov, A.A.; Panin, S.D.; Rumiantsev, B.V.

    1989-01-01

    Physical and mathematical models of processes taking place in solid-propellant rocket engines and gas generators are presented in a systematic manner. The discussion covers the main types of solid propellants, the general design and principal components of solid-propellant rocket engines, the combustion of a solid-propellant charge, thermodynamic calculation of combustion and outflow processes, and analysis of gasdynamic processes in solid-propellant rocket engines. 40 refs.

  7. Data Adventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A B Barros, Gabriella; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a system for generating adventure games based on open data, and describes a sketch of the system im- plementation at its current state. The adventure game genre has been popular for a long time and diers signicantly in design priorities from game genres which are commonly ad......- dressed in PCG research. In order to create believable and engaging content, we use data from DBpedia to generate the game's non-playable characters locations and plot, and OpenStreetMaps to create the game's levels...

  8. Computer Design Technology of the Small Thrust Rocket Engines Using CAE / CAD Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, V.; Lapshin, E.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for designing liquid small thrust rocket engine, the process of which consists of five aggregated stages with feedback. Three stages of the algorithm provide engineering support for design, and two stages - the actual engine design. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach is a deep study of the main technical solutions at the stage of engineering analysis and interaction with the created knowledge (data) base, which accelerates the process and provides enhanced design quality. The using multifunctional graphic package Siemens NX allows to obtain the final product -rocket engine and a set of design documentation in a fairly short time; the engine design does not require a long experimental development.

  9. Identification of Noise Sources During Rocket Engine Test Firings and a Rocket Launch Using a Microphone Phased-Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.

  10. Rocket Science: The Shuttle's Main Engines, though Old, Are not Forgotten in the New Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), developed 30 years ago, remains a strong candidate for use in the new Exploration Initiative as part of a shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable booster. This is because the Boeing-Rocket- dyne man-rated SSME remains the most highly efficient liquid rocket engine ever developed. There are only enough parts for 12-15 existing SSMEs, however, so one NASA option is to reinitiate SSME production to use it as a throw-away, as opposed to a reusable, powerplant for NASA s new heavy-lift booster.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method Developed for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Renewed interest in hypersonic propulsion systems has led to research programs investigating combined cycle engines that are designed to operate efficiently across the flight regime. The Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine is a propulsion system under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This engine integrates a high specific impulse, low thrust-to-weight, airbreathing engine with a low-impulse, high thrust-to-weight rocket. From takeoff to Mach 2.5, the engine operates as an air-augmented rocket. At Mach 2.5, the engine becomes a dual-mode ramjet; and beyond Mach 8, the rocket is turned back on. One Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine variation known as the "Strut-Jet" concept is being investigated jointly by NASA Lewis, the U.S. Air Force, Gencorp Aerojet, General Applied Science Labs (GASL), and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Work thus far has included wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations with the NPARC code. The CFD method was initiated by modeling the geometry of the Strut-Jet with the GRIDGEN structured grid generator. Grids representing a subscale inlet model and the full-scale demonstrator geometry were constructed. These grids modeled one-half of the symmetric inlet flow path, including the precompression plate, diverter, center duct, side duct, and combustor. After the grid generation, full Navier-Stokes flow simulations were conducted with the NPARC Navier-Stokes code. The Chien low-Reynolds-number k-e turbulence model was employed to simulate the high-speed turbulent flow. Finally, the CFD solutions were postprocessed with a Fortran code. This code provided wall static pressure distributions, pitot pressure distributions, mass flow rates, and internal drag. These results were compared with experimental data from a subscale inlet test for code validation; then they were used to help evaluate the demonstrator engine net thrust.

  12. Laser Ignition Technology for Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.; Early, Jim; Trinh, Huu; Dennis, Jay; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The fiber optically coupled laser ignition approach summarized is under consideration for use in igniting bi-propellant rocket thrust chambers. This laser ignition approach is based on a novel dual pulse format capable of effectively increasing laser generated plasma life times up to 1000 % over conventional laser ignition methods. In the dual-pulse format tinder consideration here an initial laser pulse is used to generate a small plasma kernel. A second laser pulse that effectively irradiates the plasma kernel follows this pulse. Energy transfer into the kernel is much more efficient because of its absorption characteristics thereby allowing the kernel to develop into a much more effective ignition source for subsequent combustion processes. In this research effort both single and dual-pulse formats were evaluated in a small testbed rocket thrust chamber. The rocket chamber was designed to evaluate several bipropellant combinations. Optical access to the chamber was provided through small sapphire windows. Test results from gaseous oxygen (GOx) and RP-1 propellants are presented here. Several variables were evaluated during the test program, including spark location, pulse timing, and relative pulse energy. These variables were evaluated in an effort to identify the conditions in which laser ignition of bi-propellants is feasible. Preliminary results and analysis indicate that this laser ignition approach may provide superior ignition performance relative to squib and torch igniters, while simultaneously eliminating some of the logistical issues associated with these systems. Further research focused on enhancing the system robustness, multiplexing, and window durability/cleaning and fiber optic enhancements is in progress.

  13. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  14. JANNAF "Test and Evaluation Guidelines for Liquid Rocket Engines": Status and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas; VanLerberghe, Wayne M.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base has performed remarkably in developing complex liquid rocket engines that can propel critical payloads into service for the nation, as well as transport people and hardware for missions that open the frontiers of space exploration for humanity. This has been possible only at considerable expense given the lack of detailed guidance that captures the essence of successful practices and knowledge accumulated over five decades of liquid rocket engine development. In an effort to provide benchmarks and guidance for the next generation of rocket engineers, the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Interagency Propulsion Committee published a liquid rocket engine (LRE) test and evaluation (T&E) guideline document in 2012 focusing on the development challenges and test verification considerations for liquid rocket engine systems. This document has been well received and applied by many current LRE developers as a benchmark and guidance tool, both for government-driven applications as well as for fully commercial ventures. The USAF Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has taken an additional near-term step and is directing activity to adapt and augment the content from the JANNAF LRE T&E guideline into a standard for potential application to future USAF requests for proposals for LRE development initiatives and launch vehicles for national security missions. A draft of this standard was already sent out for review and comment, and is intended to be formally approved and released towards the end of 2017. The acceptance and use of the LRE T&E guideline is possible through broad government and industry participation in the JANNAF liquid propulsion committee and associated panels. The sponsoring JANNAF community is expanding upon this initial baseline version and delving into further critical development aspects of liquid rocket propulsion testing at the integrated stage level as well as engine component level, in

  15. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, Satira; King, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort

  16. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  17. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliphorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion

  18. Adventure tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løseth, Kristin

    In a rapidly changing tourism industry, the international competition is strong and the well-travelled tourists have high expectations. This has led to an increasing emphasis on the development of new services and experiences to attract tourists’ attention. Innovation has become a “buzz-word”, seen...... as essential for survival and growth. With cases from Norway and NZ this thesis examines what innovation means in the context of adventure tourism businesses, and explore relations between such change processes and the available knowledge resources of the business. Several factors influence the knowledge...... resources of a given business, and this study looks specifically at how the size of the business, its location, and the maturity of the specific adventure tourism activity shapes processes of knowledge development and innovation. The study takes it starting point in research on small businesses and tourism...

  19. Lightweight Exit Cone for Liquid Rocket Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) J-2X engine will power the upper stage of the Ares I and the earth departure stage (EDS) of the Ares V, which will enable...

  20. Rocket Engine Health Management: Early Definition of Critical Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Rick L.; Nelson, Michael A.; Butas, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA led Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program has established key requirements related to safety, reliability, launch availability and operations cost to be met by the next generation of reusable launch vehicles. Key to meeting these requirements will be an integrated vehicle health management ( M) system that includes sensors, harnesses, software, memory, and processors. Such a system must be integrated across all the vehicle subsystems and meet component, subsystem, and system requirements relative to fault detection, fault isolation, and false alarm rate. The purpose of this activity is to evolve techniques for defining critical flight engine system measurements-early within the definition of an engine health management system (EHMS). Two approaches, performance-based and failure mode-based, are integrated to provide a proposed set of measurements to be collected. This integrated approach is applied to MSFC s MC-1 engine. Early identification of measurements supports early identification of candidate sensor systems whose design and impacts to the engine components must be considered in engine design.

  1. Transient Mathematical Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Systems: Methods, Capabilities, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, David C.; Martin, Michael A.; Nguyen, Huy H.; Greene, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The subject of mathematical modeling of the transient operation of liquid rocket engines is presented in overview form from the perspective of engineers working at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The necessity of creating and utilizing accurate mathematical models as part of liquid rocket engine development process has become well established and is likely to increase in importance in the future. The issues of design considerations for transient operation, development testing, and failure scenario simulation are discussed. An overview of the derivation of the basic governing equations is presented along with a discussion of computational and numerical issues associated with the implementation of these equations in computer codes. Also, work in the field of generating usable fluid property tables is presented along with an overview of efforts to be undertaken in the future to improve the tools use for the mathematical modeling process.

  2. Design of a 500 lbf liquid oxygen and liquid methane rocket engine for suborbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Jesus Eduardo

    Liquid methane (LCH4)is the most promising rocket fuel for our journey to Mars and other space entities. Compared to liquid hydrogen, the most common cryogenic fuel used today, methane is denser and can be stored at a more manageable temperature; leading to more affordable tanks and a lighter system. The most important advantage is it can be produced from local sources using in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. This will allow the production of the fuel needed to come back to earth on the surface of Mars, or the space entity being explored, making the overall mission more cost effective by enabling larger usable mass. The major disadvantage methane has over hydrogen is it provides a lower specific impulse, or lower rocket performance. The UTEP Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSETR) in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been the leading research center for the advancement of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4) propulsion technologies. Through this partnership, the CROME engine, a throattable 500 lbf LOX/LCH4 rocket engine, was designed and developed. The engine will serve as the main propulsion system for Daedalus, a suborbital demonstration vehicle being developed by the cSETR. The purpose of Daedalus mission and the engine is to fire in space under microgravity conditions to demonstrate its restartability. This thesis details the design process, decisions, and characteristics of the engine to serve as a complete design guide.

  3. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  4. Analysis of startup strategies for a particle bed reactor nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D. E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper develops and analyzes engine system startup strategies for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear rocket engine. The strategies are designed to maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel element while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The analyses are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. Elements of the startup strategy considered include: the coordinated control of reactor power and coolant flow; turbine inlet temperature and flow control; and use of an external starter system. The simulation results indicate that the use of an external starter system enables the engine to reach design conditions very quickly while maintaining the flow well away from the unstable regime. If a bootstrap start is used instead, the transient does not progress as fast and approaches closer to the unstable flow regime, but allows for greater engine reusability. These results can provide important information for engine designers and mission planners.

  5. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine Flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daines, Russell L.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques are used to study the flowfield of a fixed geometry Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine operating in rocket ejector mode. Heat addition resulting from the combustion of injected fuel causes the subsonic engine flow to choke and go supersonic in the slightly divergent combustor-mixer section. Reacting flow computations are undertaken to predict the characteristics of solutions where the heat addition is determined by the flowfield. Here, adaptive gridding is used to improve resolution in the shear layers. Results show that the sonic speed is reached in the unheated portions of the flow first, while the heated portions become supersonic later. Comparison with results from another code show reasonable agreement. The coupled solutions show that the character of the combustion-based thermal choking phenomenon can be controlled reasonably well such that there is opportunity to optimize the length and expansion ratio of the combustor-mixer.

  7. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  8. An Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for a Reusable Rocket Engine Intelligent Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Paxson, Daniel E.; Wong, Edmond; Saus, Joseph R.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines under development at NASA Lewis Research Center requires a graphical user interface to allow observation of the closed-loop system in operation. The simulation testbed consists of a real-time engine simulation computer, a controls computer, and several auxiliary computers for diagnostics and coordination. The system is set up so that the simulation computer could be replaced by the real engine and the change would be transparent to the control system. Because of the hard real-time requirement of the control computer, putting a graphical user interface on it was not an option. Thus, a separate computer used strictly for the graphical user interface was warranted. An object-oriented LISP-based graphical user interface has been developed on a Texas Instruments Explorer 2+ to indicate the condition of the engine to the observer through plots, animation, interactive graphics, and text.

  9. A unique nuclear thermal rocket engine using a particle bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Donald W.; Dahl, Wayne B.; McIlwain, Melvin C.

    1992-01-01

    Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) studied 75-klb thrust Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines (NTRE) with particle bed reactors (PBR) for application to NASA's manned Mars mission and prepared a conceptual design description of a unique engine that best satisfied mission-defined propulsion requirements and customer criteria. This paper describes the selection of a sprint-type Mars transfer mission and its impact on propulsion system design and operation. It shows how our NTRE concept was developed from this information. The resulting, unusual engine design is short, lightweight, and capable of high specific impulse operation, all factors that decrease Earth to orbit launch costs. Many unusual features of the NTRE are discussed, including nozzle area ratio variation and nozzle closure for closed loop after cooling. Mission performance calculations reveal that other well known engine options do not support this mission.

  10. Design of a 2000 lbf LOX/LCH4 Throttleable Rocket Engine for a Vertical Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Israel

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) has been recognized as an attractive rocket propellant combination because of its in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) capabilities, namely in Mars. ISRU would allow launch vehicles to carry greater payloads and promote missions to Mars. This has led to an increasing interest to develop spacecraft technologies that employ this propellant combination. The UTEP Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSETR) has focused part of its research efforts to developing LOX/LCH4 systems. One of those projects includes the development of a vertical takeoff and landing vehicle called JANUS. This vehicle will employ a LOX/LCH 4 propulsion system. The main propulsion engine is called CROME-X and is currently being developed as part of this project. This rocket engine will employ LOX/LCH4 propellants and is intended to operate from 2000-500 lbf thrust range. This thesis describes the design and development of CROME-X. Specifically, it describes the design process for the main engine components, the design criteria for each, and plans for future engine development.

  11. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang WEI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray, the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the coupling of the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field. The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model, the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model. The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions. The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles, jet momentum and off-center ratios. Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics, such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air. Besides, impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions. First, a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile. The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state, and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state. Second, the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°. The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  12. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang WEI; Guozhu LIANG

    2017-01-01

    To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray,the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the couplingof the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field.The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model,the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model.The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions.The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles,jet momentum and offcenter ratios.Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics,such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air.Besides,impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions.First,a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile.The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state,and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state.Second,the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°.The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  13. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  14. Adventure Education: Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mike; Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the meanings of adventure and its role in learning. An analysis of literature from the fields of education, recreation and tourism suggests that definitions of adventure are constantly undergoing reinterpretation. We highlight how "narrow" views of adventure, which appeal to notions of risk and danger, are…

  15. Investigation of Dual-Vortical-Flow Hybrid Rocket Engine without Flame Holding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 250 kgf thrust hybrid rocket engine was designed, tested, and verified in this work. Due to the injection and flow pattern of this engine, this engine was named dual-vortical-flow engine. This propulsion system uses N2O as oxidizer and HDPE as fuel. This engine was numerically investigated using a CFD tool that can handle reacting flow with finite-rate chemistry and coupled with the real-fluid model. The engine was further verified via a hot-fire test for 12 s. The ground Isp of the engine was 232 s and 221 s for numerical and hot-fire tests, respectively. An oscillation frequency with an order of 100 Hz was observed in both numerical and hot-fire tests with less than 5% of pressure oscillation. Swirling pattern on the fuel surface was also observed in both numerical and hot-fire test, which proves that this swirling dual-vortical-flow engine works exactly as designed. The averaged regression rate of the fuel surface was found to be 0.6~0.8 mm/s at the surface of disk walls and 1.5~1.7 mm/s at the surface of central core of the fuel grain.

  16. Gas core nuclear thermal rocket engine research and development in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehlinger, M.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Motloch, C.G.; Gurfink, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    Beginning in 1957 and continuing into the mid 1970s, the USSR conducted an extensive investigation into the use of both solid and gas core nuclear thermal rocket engines for space missions. During this time the scientific and engineering. problems associated with the development of a solid core engine were resolved. At the same time research was undertaken on a gas core engine, and some of the basic engineering problems associated with the concept were investigated. At the conclusion of the program, the basic principles of the solid core concept were established. However, a prototype solid core engine was not built because no established mission required such an engine. For the gas core concept, some of the basic physical processes involved were studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, no simple method of conducting proof-of-principle tests in a neutron flux was devised. This report focuses primarily on the development of the. gas core concept in the former USSR. A variety of gas core engine system parameters and designs are presented, along with a summary discussion of the basic physical principles and limitations involved in their design. The parallel development of the solid core concept is briefly described to provide an overall perspective of the magnitude of the nuclear thermal propulsion program and a technical comparison with the gas core concept

  17. Fuel/propellant mixing in an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.; Wehrmeyer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the mixing of gaseous uranium and hydrogen inside an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine (spherical geometry) is presented. The gaseous uranium fuel is injected near the centerline of the spherical engine cavity at a constant mass flow rate, and the hydrogen propellant is injected around the periphery of the engine at a five degree angle to the wall, at a constant mass flow rate. The main objective is to seek ways to minimize the mixing of uranium and hydrogen by choosing a suitable injector geometry for the mixing of light and heavy gas streams. Three different uranium inlet areas are presented, and also three different turbulent models (k-var-epsilon model, RNG k-var-epsilon model, and RSM model) are investigated. The commercial CFD code, FLUENT, is used to model the flow field. Uranium mole fraction, axial mass flux, and radial mass flux contours are obtained. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  19. Optimization of the stand for test of hybrid rocket engines of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the laboratory experimental stand of the hybrid rocket engine of solid fuel to study ballistic parameters of the engine at burning of high-energy materials in flow of hot gas is presented. Mixture of air with nitrogen with a specified content of active oxygen is used as a gaseous oxidizer. The experimental stand has modular design and consists of system of gas supply, system of heating of gas, system for monitoring gas parameters, to which a load cell with a model engine was connected. The modular design of the stand allows to change its configuration under specific objective. This experimental stand allows to conduct a wide range of the pilot studies at interaction of a hot stream of gas with samples high-energy materials.

  20. Trade-off analysis of high-aspect-ratio-cooling-channels for rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzarelli, Marco; Nasuti, Francesco; Onofri, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aspect ratio has a significant effect on cooling efficiency and hydraulic losses. • Minimizing power loss is of paramount importance in liquid rocket engine cooling. • A suitable quasi-2D model is used to get fast cooling system analysis. • Trade-off with assigned weight, temperature, and channel height or wall thickness. • Aspect ratio is found that minimizes power loss in the cooling circuit. -- Abstract: High performance liquid rocket engines are often characterized by rectangular cooling channels with high aspect ratio (channel height-to-width ratio) because of their proven superior cooling efficiency with respect to a conventional design. However, the identification of the optimum aspect ratio is not a trivial task. In the present study a trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system that can be of interest for rocket engines. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations and thus cannot be efficiently performed by CFD solvers. Therefore, a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-2D model, is used to have fast and accurate predictions of cooling system properties. This approach relies on its capability of describing the thermal stratification that occurs in the coolant and in the wall structure, as well as the coolant warming and pressure drop along the channel length. Validation of the model is carried out by comparison with solutions obtained with a validated CFD solver. Results of the analysis show the existence of an optimum channel aspect ratio that minimizes the requested pump power needed to overcome losses in the cooling circuit

  1. A reliability as an independent variable (RAIV) methodology for optimizing test planning for liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Richard; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-01

    The hot fire test strategy for liquid rocket engines has always been a concern of space industry and agency alike because no recognized standard exists. Previous hot fire test plans focused on the verification of performance requirements but did not explicitly include reliability as a dimensioning variable. The stakeholders are, however, concerned about a hot fire test strategy that balances reliability, schedule, and affordability. A multiple criteria test planning model is presented that provides a framework to optimize the hot fire test strategy with respect to stakeholder concerns. The Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator, a program of the European Space Agency, is used as example to provide the quantitative answer to the claim that a reduced thrust scale demonstrator is cost beneficial for a subsequent flight engine development. Scalability aspects of major subsystems are considered in the prior information definition inside the Bayesian framework. The model is also applied to assess the impact of an increase of the demonstrated reliability level on schedule and affordability.

  2. Turbulent Mixing of Primary and Secondary Flow Streams in a Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, J. M.; Greene, M. U.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the turbulent mixing of primary and secondary flow streams in a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. A significant RBCC ejector mode database has been generated, detailing single and twin thruster configurations and global and local measurements. On-going analysis and correlation efforts include Marshall Space Flight Center computational fluid dynamics modeling and turbulent shear layer analysis. Potential follow-on activities include detailed measurements of air flow static pressure and velocity profiles, investigations into other thruster spacing configurations, performing a fundamental shear layer mixing study, and demonstrating single-shot Raman measurements.

  3. Operation of a cryogenic rocket engine an outline with down-to-earth and up-to-space remarks

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsche, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the operational aspects of the rocket engine on a test facility. It will be useful to engineers and scientists who are in touch with the test facility. To aerospace students it shall provide an insight of the job on the test facility. And to interest readers it shall provide an impression of this thrilling area of aerospace.

  4. Development and analysis of startup strategies for particle bed nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David E.

    1993-06-01

    The particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine concept is the focus of the Air Force's Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program. While much progress has been made in developing the concept, several technical issues remain. Perhaps foremost among these concerns is the issue of flow stability through the porous, heated bed of fuel particles. There are two complementary technical issues associated with this concern: the identification of the flow stability boundary and the design of the engine controller to maintain stable operation. This thesis examines a portion of the latter issue which has yet to be addressed in detail. Specifically, it develops and analyzes general engine system startup strategies which maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel elements while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The PBR engine studies are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. The computer program utilized is an augmented version of SAFSIM, an existing nuclear thermal propulsion modeling code; the augmentation, dubbed SAFSIM+, was developed by the author and provides a more complete engine system modeling tool.

  5. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Walton, J.T.; Mcguire, M.L.

    1992-07-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines. 11 refs

  6. Influence of atomization quality modulation on flame dynamics in a hypergolic rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schulze

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the numerical evaluation of the thermoacoustic stability of rocket engines often hybrid methods are applied, which separate the computation of wave propagation in the combustor from the analysis of the flame response to acoustic perturbations. Closure requires a thermoacoustic feedback model which provides the heat release fluctuation in the source term of the employed wave transport equations. The influence of the acoustic fluctuations in the combustion chamber on the heat release fluctuations from the modulation of the atomization of the propellants in a hypergolic upper stage rocket engine is studied. Numerical modeling of a single injector provides the time mean reacting flow field. A network of transfer functions representing all aspects relevant for the feedback model is presented. Analytical models for the injector admittances and for the atomization transfer functions are provided. The dynamics of evaporation and combustion are studied numerically and the numerical results are analyzed. An analytical approximation of the computed flame transfer function is combined with the analytical models for the injector and the atomization quality to derive the feedback model for the wave propagation code. The evaluation of this model on the basis of the Rayleigh index reveals the thermoacoustic driving potential originating from the fluctuating spray quality.

  7. Engine Cycle Analysis of Air Breathing Microwave Rocket with Reed Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Komatsu, Reiji; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Katsurayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The Microwave Rocket is a candidate for a low cost launcher system. Pulsed plasma generated by a high power millimeter wave beam drives a blast wave, and a vehicle acquires impulsive thrust by exhausting the blast wave. The thrust generation process of the Microwave Rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine. In order to enhance the performance of its air refreshment, the air-breathing mechanism using reed valves is under development. Ambient air is taken to the thruster through reed valves. Reed valves are closed while the inside pressure is high enough. After the time when the shock wave exhausts at the open end, an expansion wave is driven and propagates to the thrust-wall. The reed valve is opened by the negative gauge pressure induced by the expansion wave and its reflection wave. In these processes, the pressure oscillation is important parameter. In this paper, the pressure oscillation in the thruster was calculated by CFD combined with the flux through from reed valves, which is estimated analytically. As a result, the air-breathing performance is evaluated using Partial Filling Rate (PFR), the ratio of thruster length to diameter L/D, and ratio of opening area of reed valves to superficial area α. An engine cycle and predicted thrust was explained.

  8. Aero-Thermo-Structural Analysis of Inlet for Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Challa, Preeti; Sree, Dave; Reddy, Dhanireddy R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA has been developing advanced space transportation concepts and technologies to make access to space less costly. One such concept is the reusable vehicles with short turn-around times. The NASA Glenn Research Center's concept vehicle is the Trailblazer powered by a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. Inlet is one of the most important components of the RBCC engine. This paper presents fluid flow, thermal, and structural analysis of the inlet for Mach 6 free stream velocity for fully supersonic and supercritical with backpressure conditions. The results concluded that the fully supersonic condition was the most severe case and the largest stresses occur in the ceramic matrix composite layer of the inlet cowl. The maximum tensile and the compressive stresses were at least 3.8 and 3.4, respectively, times less than the associated material strength.

  9. Two-phase flow in the cooling circuit of a cryogenic rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preclik, D.

    1992-07-01

    Transient two-phase flow was investigated for the hydrogen cooling circuit of the HM7 rocket engine. The nuclear reactor code ATHLET/THESEUS was adapted to cryogenics and applied to both principal and prototype experiments for validation and simulation purposes. The cooling circuit two-phase flow simulation focused on the hydrogen prechilling and pump transient phase prior to ignition. Both a single- and a multichannel model were designed and employed for a valve leakage flow, a nominal prechilling flow, and a prechilling with a subsequent pump-transient flow. The latter case was performed in order to evaluate the difference between a nominal and a delayed turbo-pump start-up. It was found that an extension of the nominal prechilling sequence in the order of 1 second is sufficient to finally provide for liquid injection conditions of hydrogen which, as commonly known, is undesirable for smooth ignition and engine starting transients.

  10. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  11. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  12. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  13. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  14. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Technology Development: Inlet CFD Validation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Yungster, S.

    1996-01-01

    A CFD methodology has been developed for inlet analyses of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engines. A full Navier-Stokes analysis code, NPARC, was used in conjunction with pre- and post-processing tools to obtain a complete description of the flow field and integrated inlet performance. This methodology was developed and validated using results from a subscale test of the inlet to a RBCC 'Strut-Jet' engine performed in the NASA Lewis 1 x 1 ft. supersonic wind tunnel. Results obtained from this study include analyses at flight Mach numbers of 5 and 6 for super-critical operating conditions. These results showed excellent agreement with experimental data. The analysis tools were also used to obtain pre-test performance and operability predictions for the RBCC demonstrator engine planned for testing in the NASA Lewis Hypersonic Test Facility. This analysis calculated the baseline fuel-off internal force of the engine which is needed to determine the net thrust with fuel on.

  15. Cooling Duct Analysis for Transpiration/Film Cooled Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklow, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a low cost space transportation system requires that the propulsion system be reusable, have long life, with good performance and use low cost propellants. Improved performance can be achieved by operating the engine at higher pressure and temperature levels than previous designs. Increasing the chamber pressure and temperature, however, will increase wall heating rates. This necessitates the need for active cooling methods such as film cooling or transpiration cooling. But active cooling can reduce the net thrust of the engine and add considerably to the design complexity. Recently, a metal drawing process has been patented where it is possible to fabricate plates with very small holes with high uniformity with a closely specified porosity. Such a metal plate could be used for an inexpensive transpiration/film cooled liner to meet the demands of advanced reusable rocket engines, if coolant mass flow rates could be controlled to satisfy wall cooling requirements and performance. The present study investigates the possibility of controlling the coolant mass flow rate through the porous material by simple non-active fluid dynamic means. The coolant will be supplied to the porous material by series of constant geometry slots machined on the exterior of the engine.

  16. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiya, Karen E.; Walker, Richard E.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Nguyen, Thong V.

    1993-05-01

    This final report includes a discussion of the work accomplished during the period from Dec. 1988 through Nov. 1991. The objective of the program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable design methodology capable of designing and analyzing high-performance and stable LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines. The methodology was then used to design a validation engine. The capabilities and validity of the methodology were demonstrated using this engine in an extensive hot fire test program. The engine used LOX/RP-1 propellants and was tested over a range of mixture ratios, chamber pressures, and acoustic damping device configurations. This volume contains time domain and frequency domain stability plots which indicate the pressure perturbation amplitudes and frequencies from approximately 30 tests of a 50K thrust rocket engine using LOX/RP-1 propellants over a range of chamber pressures from 240 to 1750 psia with mixture ratios of from 1.2 to 7.5. The data is from test configurations which used both bitune and monotune acoustic cavities and from tests with no acoustic cavities. The engine had a length of 14 inches and a contraction ratio of 2.0 using a 7.68 inch diameter injector. The data was taken from both stable and unstable tests. All combustion instabilities were spontaneous in the first tangential mode. Although stability bombs were used and generated overpressures of approximately 20 percent, no tests were driven unstable by the bombs. The stability instrumentation included six high-frequency Kistler transducers in the combustion chamber, a high-frequency Kistler transducer in each propellant manifold, and tri-axial accelerometers. Performance data is presented, both characteristic velocity efficiencies and energy release efficiencies, for those tests of sufficient duration to record steady state values.

  17. Kinetic---a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode

  18. Kinetic—a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eldon; Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  19. KINETIC: A system code for analyzing Nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  20. Status on Technology Development of Optic Fiber-Coupled Laser Ignition System for Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Early, Jim; Osborne, Robin; Thomas, Matthew; Bossard, John

    2003-01-01

    To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for liquid rocket engine applications. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concept: not only offer system simplicity, but also enhance the combustion performance. Test results have shown that chamber performance is markedly high even at a low chamber length-to-diameter ratio. This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  1. Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket-Engine Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Freddie; Bourgeois, Edit Kaminsky

    2005-01-01

    The Highly Accurate Cost Estimating Model (HACEM) is a software system for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center. HACEM is built on a foundation of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) a hybrid software concept that combines the adaptive capabilities of neural networks with the ease of development and additional benefits of fuzzy-logic-based systems. In ANFIS, fuzzy inference systems are trained by use of neural networks. HACEM includes selectable subsystems that utilize various numbers and types of inputs, various numbers of fuzzy membership functions, and various input-preprocessing techniques. The inputs to HACEM are parameters of specific tests or series of tests. These parameters include test type (component or engine test), number and duration of tests, and thrust level(s) (in the case of engine tests). The ANFIS in HACEM are trained by use of sets of these parameters, along with costs of past tests. Thereafter, the user feeds HACEM a simple input text file that contains the parameters of a planned test or series of tests, the user selects the desired HACEM subsystem, and the subsystem processes the parameters into an estimate of cost(s).

  2. Coil-On-Plug Ignition for LOX/Methane Liquid Rocket Engines in Thermal Vacuum Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Morehead, Robert L.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Bugarin, Luz; Chaidez, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed and tested for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane rocket engines operating in thermal vacuum conditions. The igniters were developed and tested as part of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), previously tested as part of the Project Morpheus test vehicle. The ICPTA uses an integrated, pressure-fed, cryogenic LOX/methane propulsion system including a reaction control system (RCS) and a main engine. The ICPTA was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. In order to successfully demonstrate ignition reliability in the vacuum conditions and eliminate corona discharge issues, a coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed. The ICPTA uses spark-plug ignition for both the main engine igniter and the RCS. The coil-on-plug configuration eliminates the conventional high-voltage spark plug cable by combining the coil and the spark-plug into a single component. Prior to ICPTA testing at Plum Brook, component-level reaction control engine (RCE) and main engine igniter testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which demonstrated successful hot-fire ignition using the coil-on-plug from sea-level ambient conditions down to 10(exp.-2) torr. Integrated vehicle hot-fire testing at JSC demonstrated electrical and command/data system performance. Lastly, Plum Brook testing demonstrated successful ignitions at simulated altitude conditions at 30 torr and cold thermal-vacuum conditions at 6 torr. The test campaign successfully proved that coil-on-plug technology will enable integrated LOX/methane propulsion systems in future spacecraft.

  3. Fermilab Education Office: Science Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Education Office: Science Adventures Adventure Catalog Search for Adventures Calendar Class Facebook Group. Contact: Science Adventures Registrar, Education Office Fermilab, MS 777, P.O. Box 500 it again." Opportunities for Instructors The Education Office has openings for instructors who

  4. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  5. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  6. Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

    2014-06-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

  7. Derating design for optimizing reliability and cost with an application to liquid rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmee O.; Roh, Taeseong; Lee, Jae-Woo; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    Derating is the operation of an item at a stress that is lower than its rated design value. Previous research has indicated that reliability can be increased from operational derating. In order to derate an item in field operation, however, an engineer must rate the design of the item at a stress level higher than the operational stress level, which increases the item's nominal failure rate and development costs. At present, there is no model available to quantify the cost and reliability that considers the design uprating as well as the operational derating. In this paper, we establish the reliability expression in terms of the derating level assuming that the nominal failure rate is constant with time for a fixed rated design value. The total development cost is expressed in terms of the rated design value and the number of tests necessary to demonstrate the reliability requirement. The properties of the optimal derating level are explained for maximizing the reliability or for minimizing the cost. As an example, the proposed model is applied to the design of liquid rocket engines. - Highlights: • Modeled the effect of derating design on the reliability and the development cost. • Discovered that derating design may reduce the cost of reliability demonstration test. • Optimized the derating design parameter for reliability maximization or cost minimization.

  8. Fast reconstruction of an unmanned engineering vehicle and its application to carrying rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineering vehicle is widely used as a huge moving platform for transporting heavy goods. However, traditional human operations have a great influence on the steady movement of the vehicle. In this Letter, a fast reconstruction process of an unmanned engineering vehicle is carried out. By adding a higher-level controller and two two-dimensional laser scanners on the moving platform, the vehicle could perceive the surrounding environment and locate its pose according to extended Kalman filter. Then, a closed-loop control system is formed by communicating with the on-board lower-level controller. To verify the performance of automatic control system, the unmanned vehicle is automatically navigated when carrying a rocket towards a launcher in a launch site. The experimental results show that the vehicle could align with the launcher smoothly and safely within a small lateral deviation of 1 cm. This fast reconstruction presents an efficient way of rebuilding low-cost unmanned special vehicles and other automatic moving platforms.

  9. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  10. Improving the performance of LOX/kerosene upper stage rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IgorN. Nikischenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved liquid rocket engine cycles were proposed and analyzed via comparison with existing staged combustion and gas-generator cycles. The key features of the proposed cycles are regenerative cooling of thrust chamber by oxygen and subsequent use of this oxygen for driving one or two oxygen pumps. The fuel pump(s are driven in a conventional manner, for example, using a fuel-rich gas-generator cycle. Comparison with staged combustion cycle based on oxygen-rich pre-burner showed that one of the proposed semi-expander cycles has a specific impulse only on 0.4% lower while providing much lower oxygen temperature, more efficient tank pressurizing system and built-in roll control. This semi-expander cycle can be considered as a more reliable and cost-effective alternative of staged combustion cycle. Another semi-expander cycle can be considered as an improvement of gas-generator cycle. All proposed semi-expander cycles were developed as a derivative of thrust chamber regenerative cooling performed by oxygen. Analysis of existing oxygen/kerosene engines showed that replacing of kerosene regenerative cooling with oxygen allows a significant increase of achievable specific impulse, via optimization of mixture ratio. It is especially the case for upper stage engines. The increasing of propellants average density can be considered as an additional benefit of mixture ratio optimization. It was demonstrated that oxygen regenerative cooling of thrust chamber is a feasible and the most promising option for oxygen/kerosene engines. Combination of oxygen regenerative cooling and semi-expander cycles potentially allows creating the oxygen/kerosene propulsion systems with minimum specific impulse losses. It is important that such propulsion systems can be fully based on inherited and well-proven technical solutions. A hypothetic upper stage engine with thrust 19.6 kN was chosen as a prospective candidate for theoretical analysis of the proposed semi

  11. Peran Layanan Jasa Search Engine Optimization untuk Meningkatkan Daya Saing pada Bisnis Startup (Studi pada Kaldera Trail and Jeep Adventure Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Wira Bharata

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of SEO as a strategic competitive advantage. This study uses a qualitative approach with case studies are used as a research design. Researchers in the interviews to the owner Caldera Trail & Jeep Adventure. The results of this study indicate that the role of SEO to optimize the website proved successful in the company’s competitive advantage strategy Caldera Trail & Jeep Adventure. The results showed online marketing is done through Facebook, ...

  12. Acoustic streaming in simplified liquid rocket engines with transverse mode oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.; Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This study considers a simplified model of a liquid rocket engine in which uniform injection is imposed at the faceplate. The corresponding cylindrical chamber has a small length-to-diameter ratio with respect to solid and hybrid rockets. Given their low chamber aspect ratios, liquid thrust engines are known to experience severe tangential and radial oscillation modes more often than longitudinal ones. In order to model this behavior, tangential and radial waves are superimposed onto a basic mean-flow model that consists of a steady, uniform axial velocity throughout the chamber. Using perturbation tools, both potential and viscous flow equations are then linearized in the pressure wave amplitude and solved to the second order. The effects of the headwall Mach number are leveraged as well. While the potential flow analysis does not predict any acoustic streaming effects, the viscous solution carried out to the second order gives rise to steady secondary flow patterns near the headwall. These axisymmetric, steady contributions to the tangential and radial traveling waves are induced by the convective flow motion through interactions with inertial and viscous forces. We find that suppressing either the convective terms or viscosity at the headwall leads to spurious solutions that are free from streaming. In our problem, streaming is initiated at the headwall, within the boundary layer, and then extends throughout the chamber. We find that nonlinear streaming effects of tangential and radial waves act to alter the outer solution inside a cylinder with headwall injection. As a result of streaming, the radial wave velocities are intensified in one-half of the domain and reduced in the opposite half at any instant of time. Similarly, the tangential waves are either enhanced or weakened in two opposing sectors that are at 90° angle to the radial velocity counterparts. The second-order viscous solution that we obtain clearly displays both an oscillating and a steady flow

  13. Effect of buoyancy on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putre, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis aimed at determining the scaling laws for the buoyancy effect on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine, so conducted that experimental conditions can be related to engine conditions. The fuel volume fraction in a short coaxial flow cavity is calculated with a programmed numerical solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for isothermal, variable density fluid mixing. A dimensionless parameter B, called the Buoyancy number, was found to correlate the fuel volume fraction for large accelerations and various density ratios. This parameter has the value B = 0 for zero acceleration, and B = 350 for typical engine conditions.

  14. Conceptual Engine System Design for NERVA derived 66.7KN and 111.2KN Thrust Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittje, James E.; Buehrle, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept is being evaluated as an advanced propulsion concept for missions to the moon and Mars. A tremendous effort was undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's to develop and test NERVA derived Nuclear Thermal Rockets in the 111.2 KN to 1112 KN pound thrust class. NASA GRC is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies, and has been evaluating NERVA derived engines in the 66.7 KN to the 111.2 KN thrust range. The liquid hydrogen propellant feed system, including the turbopumps, is an essential component of the overall operation of this system. The NASA GRC team is evaluating numerous propellant feed system designs with both single and twin turbopumps. The Nuclear Engine System Simulation code is being exercised to analyze thermodynamic cycle points for these selected concepts. This paper will present propellant feed system concepts and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle points for 66.7 KN and 111.2 KN thrust NTR engine systems. A pump out condition for a twin turbopump concept will also be evaluated, and the NESS code will be assessed against the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine preliminary thermodynamic data

  15. Concept Assessment of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) Propelled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werka, Robert; Clark, Rod; Sheldon, Rob; Percy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The March, 2012 issue of Aerospace America stated that ?the near-to-medium prospects for applying advanced propulsion to create a new era of space exploration are not very good. In the current world, we operate to the Moon by climbing aboard a Carnival Cruise Lines vessel (Saturn 5), sail from the harbor (liftoff) shedding whole decks of the ship (staging) along the way and, having reached the return leg of the journey, sink the ship (burnout) and return home in a lifeboat (Apollo capsule). Clearly this is an illogical way to travel, but forced on Explorers by today's propulsion technology. However, the article neglected to consider the one propulsion technology, using today's physical principles that offer continuous, substantial thrust at a theoretical specific impulse of 1,000,000 sec. This engine unequivocally can create a new era of space exploration that changes the way spacecraft operate. Today's space Explorers could travel in Cruise Liner fashion using the technology not considered by Aerospace America, the novel Dusty Plasma Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE). This NIAC study addresses the FFRE as well as its impact on Exploration Spacecraft design and operation. It uses common physics of the relativistic speed of fission fragments to produce thrust. It radiatively cools the fissioning dusty core and magnetically controls the fragments direction to practically implement previously patented, but unworkable designs. The spacecraft hosting this engine is no more complex nor more massive than the International Space Station (ISS) and would employ the successful ISS technology for assembly and check-out. The elements can be lifted in "chunks" by a Heavy Lift Launcher. This Exploration Spacecraft would require the resupply of small amounts of nuclear fuel for each journey and would be an in-space asset for decades just as any Cruise Liner on Earth. This study has synthesized versions of the FFRE, integrated one concept onto a host spacecraft designed for

  16. Verification on spray simulation of a pintle injector for liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Radhakrishnan, Kanmaniraja; Shin, Bongchul; Koo, Jaye

    2016-02-01

    The pintle injector used for a liquid rocket engine is a newly re-attracted injection system famous for its wide throttle ability with high efficiency. The pintle injector has many variations with complex inner structures due to its moving parts. In order to study the rotating flow near the injector tip, which was observed from the cold flow experiment using water and air, a numerical simulation was adopted and a verification of the numerical model was later conducted. For the verification process, three types of experimental data including velocity distributions of gas flows, spray angles and liquid distribution were all compared using simulated results. The numerical simulation was performed using a commercial simulation program with the Eulerian multiphase model and axisymmetric two dimensional grids. The maximum and minimum velocities of gas were within the acceptable range of agreement, however, the spray angles experienced up to 25% error when the momentum ratios were increased. The spray density distributions were quantitatively measured and had good agreement. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the simulation method was properly constructed to study specific flow characteristics of the pintle injector despite having the limitations of two dimensional and coarse grids.

  17. Adventures in Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bonniejean

    1971-01-01

    Objects to an alleged misrepresentation and inaccurate presentation of a J. R. R. Tolkien quotation in "Adventures in Reading" (Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969), a ninth grade literature anthology. (RD)

  18. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar; Greene, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    NARloy-Z (Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr) alloy is state-of-the-art combustion chamber liner material used in liquid propulsion engines such as the RS-68 and RS-25. The performance of future liquid propulsion systems can be improved significantly by increasing the heat transfer through the combustion chamber liner. Prior work1 done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has shown that the thermal conductivity of NARloy-Z alloy can be improved significantly by embedding high thermal conductivity diamond particles in the alloy matrix to form NARloy-Z-diamond composite (fig. 1). NARloy-Z-diamond composite containing 40vol% diamond showed 69% higher thermal conductivity than NARloy-Z. It is 24% lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 120% better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. The research work consists of (a) developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) of NARloy-Z-D composite, (b) fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and (c) hot-fire testing of the liner to test performance. Initially, NARloy-Z-D composite slabs were made using the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) for the purpose of determining design properties. In the next step, a cylindrical shape was fabricated to demonstrate feasibility (fig. 3). The liner consists of six cylinders which are sintered separately and then stacked and diffusion bonded to make the liner (fig. 4). The liner will be heat treated, finish-machined, and assembled into a combustion chamber and hot-fire tested in the MSFC test facility (TF 115) to determine perform.

  19. Liquid rocket propulsion dynamic flow modeling using the ROCETS engineering modules in the EASY5x environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Randolph F.; Taylor, Robert P.; Nunez, Stephen C.

    1993-01-01

    A report on the progress of porting the ROCETS (ROCket Engine Transient Simulator) into the EASY5x simulation environment is presented. Brief descriptions of each of the software systems, information regarding the actual port process, and examples comparing the results of the two systems are given. It is shown that EASY5x is a suitable environment for utilization of the ROCETS engineering modules, and that, for the example systems shown, EASY5x actually seems to give more accurate solutions than the straight ROCETS code.

  20. Reuse fo a Cold War Surveillance Drone to Flight Test a NASA Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm

    1999-01-01

    Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.

  1. Techniques to assess acoustic-structure interaction in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Benjamin

    Acoustoelasticity is the study of the dynamic interaction between elastic structures and acoustic enclosures. In this dissertation, acoustoelasticity is considered in the context of liquid rocket engine design. The techniques presented here can be used to determine which forcing frequencies are important in acoustoelastic systems. With a knowledge of these frequencies, an analyst can either find ways to attenuate the excitation at these frequencies or alter the system in such a way that the prescribed excitations do result in a resonant condition. The end result is a structural component that is less susceptible to failure. The research scope is divided into three parts. In the first part, the dynamics of cylindrical shells submerged in liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are considered. The shells are bounded by rigid outer cylinders. This configuration gives rise to two fluid-filled cavities---an inner cylindrical cavity and an outer annular cavity. Such geometries are common in rocket engine design. The natural frequencies and modes of the fluid-structure system are computed by combining the rigid wall acoustic cavity modes and the in vacuo structural modes into a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. Eigenvalue veering is observed near the intersections of the curves representing natural frequencies of the rigid wall acoustic and the in vacuo structural modes. In the case of a shell submerged in LH2, system frequencies near these intersections are as much as 30% lower than the corresponding in vacuo structural frequencies. Due to its high density, the frequency reductions in the presence of LOX are even more dramatic. The forced responses of a shell submerged in LH2 and LOX while subject to a harmonic point excitation are also presented. The responses in the presence of fluid are found to be quite distinct from those of the structure in vacuo. In the second part, coupled mode theory is used to explore the fundamental features of

  2. Using Decision Trees to Detect and Isolate Simulated Leaks in the J-2X Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Aguilar, Robert; Figueroa, Fernando F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to use data-driven methods to automatically detect and isolate faults in the J-2X rocket engine. It was decided to use decision trees, since they tend to be easier to interpret than other data-driven methods. The decision tree algorithm automatically "learns" a decision tree by performing a search through the space of possible decision trees to find one that fits the training data. The particular decision tree algorithm used is known as C4.5. Simulated J-2X data from a high-fidelity simulator developed at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and known as the Detailed Real-Time Model (DRTM) was used to "train" and test the decision tree. Fifty-six DRTM simulations were performed for this purpose, with different leak sizes, different leak locations, and different times of leak onset. To make the simulations as realistic as possible, they included simulated sensor noise, and included a gradual degradation in both fuel and oxidizer turbine efficiency. A decision tree was trained using 11 of these simulations, and tested using the remaining 45 simulations. In the training phase, the C4.5 algorithm was provided with labeled examples of data from nominal operation and data including leaks in each leak location. From the data, it "learned" a decision tree that can classify unseen data as having no leak or having a leak in one of the five leak locations. In the test phase, the decision tree produced very low false alarm rates and low missed detection rates on the unseen data. It had very good fault isolation rates for three of the five simulated leak locations, but it tended to confuse the remaining two locations, perhaps because a large leak at one of these two locations can look very similar to a small leak at the other location.

  3. Development and Hotfire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy; Protz, Chris

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. MSFC’s efforts include a 4,000 pounds-force thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber. Small thrust chambers for 1,200 pounds-force LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications have also been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. Similar chambers have also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRCop-84 material, evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser- and arc-based techniques. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25,000-35,000 pounds-force main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  4. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  5. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  6. Preliminary Thermo-hydraulic Core Design Analysis of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nclear rockets improve the propellant efficiency more than twice compared to CRs and thus significantly reduce the propellant requirement. The superior efficiency of nuclear rockets is due to the combination of the huge energy density and a single low molecular weight propellant utilization. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTRs) are particularly suitable for manned missions to Mars because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high propellant efficiency. NTRs use thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat a single low molecular weight propellant, i. e., Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and then exhausted the extremely heated propellant through a thermodynamic nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub sp}) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the rate of propellant consumption. The difference of I{sub sp} makes over three times propellant savings of NTRs for a manned Mars mission compared to CRs. NTRs can also be configured to operate bimodally by converting the surplus nuclear energy to auxiliary electric power required for the operation of a spacecraft. Moreover, the concept and technology of NTRs are very simple, already proven, and safe. Thus, NTRs can be applied to various space missions such as solar system exploration, International Space Station (ISS) transport support, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) interception, etc. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The ROK has also begun the research for space nuclear systems as a volunteer of the international space race and a major world nuclear energy country. KANUTER is one of the advanced NTR engines currently under development at KAIST. This bimodal engine is operated in two modes of propulsion with 100 MW

  7. Engineering aspect of the microwave ionosphere nonlinear interaction experiment (MINIX) with a sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Makoto; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    The Microwave Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment (MINIX) is a sounding rocket experiment to study possible effects of strong microwave fields in case it is used for energy transmission from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) upon the Earth's atmosphere. Its secondary objective is to develop high power microwave technology for space use. Two rocket-borne magnetrons were used to emit 2.45 GHz microwave in order to make a simulated condition of power transmission from an SPS to a ground station. Sounding of the environment radiated by microwave was conducted by the diagnostic package onboard the daughter unit which was separated slowly from the mother unit. The main design drivers of this experiment were to build such high power equipments in a standard type of sounding rocket, to keep the cost within the budget and to perform a series of experiments without complete loss of the mission. The key technology for this experiment is a rocket-borne magnetron and high voltage converter. Location of position of the daughter unit relative to the mother unit was a difficult requirement for a spin-stabilized rocket. These problems were solved by application of such a low cost commercial products as a magnetron for microwave oven and a video tape recorder and camera.

  8. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  9. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Teamwork in adventure racing

    OpenAIRE

    Šavrňák, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...

  11. Copper-Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Copper-Diamond Composites for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, Dave L.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Foygel, Michael; Rape, Aaron; Singh, Jogender; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Thomas, Vinoy; Otte, Kyle G.; Li, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the research effort to improve the thermal conductivity of the copper-based alloy NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt.%Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr), the state-of-the-art alloy used to make combustion chamber liners in regeneratively-cooled liquid rocket engines, using nanotechnology. The approach was to embed high thermal conductivity multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and diamond (D) particles in the NARloy-Z matrix using powder metallurgy techniques. The thermal conductivity of MWCNTs and D have been reported to be 5 to 10 times that of NARloy-Z. Hence, 10 to 20 vol. % MWCNT finely dispersed in NARloy-Z matrix could nearly double the thermal conductivity, provided there is a good thermal bond between MWCNTs and copper matrix. Quantum mechanics-based modeling showed that zirconium (Zr) in NARloy-Z should form ZrC at the MWCNT-Cu interface and provide a good thermal bond. In this study, NARloy-Z powder was blended with MWCNTs in a ball mill, and the resulting mixture was consolidated under high pressure and temperature using Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST). Microstructural analysis showed that the MWCNTs, which were provided as tangles of MWCNTs by the manufacturer, did not detangle well during blending and formed clumps at the prior particle boundaries. The composites made form these powders showed lower thermal conductivity than the base NARloy-Z. To eliminate the observed physical agglomeration, tangled multiwall MWCNTs were separated by acid treatment and electroless plated with a thin layer of chromium to keep them separated during further processing. Separately, the thermal conductivities of MWCNTs used in this work were measured, and the results showed very low values, a major factor in the low thermal conductivity of the composite. On the other hand, D particles embedded in NARloy-Z matrix showed much improved thermal conductivity. Elemental analysis showed migration of Zr to the NARloy-Z-D interface to form ZrC, which appeared to provide a low contact

  12. Copper Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Copper-Diamond Composites for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, Dave L.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Foygel, Michael; Singh, Jogender; Rape, Aaron; Vohra, Yogesh; Thomas, Vinoy; Li, Deyu; Otte, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the research effort to improve the thermal conductivity of the copper-based alloy NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt.%Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr), the state-of-the-art alloy used to make combustion chamber liners in regeneratively-cooled liquid rocket engines, using nanotechnology. The approach was to embed high thermal conductivity multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and diamond (D) particles in the NARloy-Z matrix using powder metallurgy techniques. The thermal conductivity of MWCNTs and D have been reported to be 5 to 10 times that of NARloy-Z. Hence, 10 to 20 vol. % MWCNT finely dispersed in NARloy-Z matrix could nearly double the thermal conductivity, provided there is a good thermal bond between MWCNTs and copper matrix. Quantum mechanics-based modeling showed that zirconium (Zr) in NARloy-Z should form ZrC at the MWCNT-Cu interface and provide a good thermal bond. In this study, NARloy-Z powder was blended with MWCNTs in a ball mill, and the resulting mixture was consolidated under high pressure and temperature using Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST). Microstructural analysis showed that the MWCNTs, which were provided as tangles of MWCNTs by the manufacturer, did not detangle well during blending and formed clumps at the prior particle boundaries. The composites made form these powders showed lower thermal conductivity than the base NARloy-Z. To eliminate the observed physical agglomeration, tangled multiwall MWCNTs were separated by acid treatment and electroless plated with a thin layer of chromium to keep them separated during further processing. Separately, the thermal conductivities of MWCNTs used in this work were measured, and the results showed very low values, a major factor in the low thermal conductivity of the composite. On the other hand, D particles embedded in NARloy-Z matrix showed much improved thermal conductivity. Elemental analysis showed migration of Zr to the NARloy-Z-D interface to form ZrC, which appeared to provide a low contact

  13. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  14. Determination of the Flow Field in the Propellant Tank of a Rocket Engine on Completion of the Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Bedarev, I. A.; Lavruk, S. A.; Trushlyakov, V. I.; Kudentsov, V. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, a method of mathematical simulation is employed to describe processes occurring in the specimens of new equipment and using the remaining propellant in rocket-engine tanks. Within the framework of certain turbulence models, the authors perform a calculation of the flow field in the volume of the tank of the launch-vehicle stage when a hot gas jet is injected into it. A vortex flow structure is revealed; the characteristics of heat transfer for different angles of injection of the jet are determined. The obtained correlation Nu = Nu(Re) satisfactorily describes experimental data.

  15. Rockets: Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Deborah A.; Vogt, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    This guide provides teachers and students many opportunities. Chapters within the guide present the history of rocketry, National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) 21st Century Space Exploration Policy, rocketry principles, and practical rocketry. These topics lay the foundation for what follows--a wealth of dynamic rocket science…

  16. A review of findings of a study of rocket based combined cycle engines applied to extensively axisymmetric single stage to orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensively axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are considered. The information is presented in viewgraph form and the following topics are presented: payload comparisons; payload as a percent of dry weight - a system hardware cost indicator; life cycle cost estimations; operations and support costs estimation; selected engine type; and rocket engine specific impulse calculation.

  17. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

  18. Adventure in a Bun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynes, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Aspects of outdoor adventure education such as sport and risk are increasingly commercialized, whereas the core value of connection--to community, the environment, or other people--is being lost. A shift from providing challenge to encouraging exploration may enable programs emphasizing connection to find a home in the "third sector"…

  19. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2018-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  20. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Engine and Stage: How Small Is Big Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 specific impulse - a 100 percent increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the Lead Fuel option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During fiscal year (FY) 2014, a preliminary Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Department of Energy (DOE) and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included Ground Technology Demonstration (GTD) tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), followed by a Flight Technology Demonstration (FTD) mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 kilopound-force thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a common fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 kilopound-force criticality-limited engine produces approximately157 thermal megawatts and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 kilopound-force Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 thermal megawatts and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35-inch (approximately

  1. Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A

    2007-11-01

    The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.

  2. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  3. Peran Layanan Jasa Search Engine Optimization untuk Meningkatkan Daya Saing pada Bisnis Startup (Studi pada Kaldera Trail and Jeep Adventure Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wira Bharata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of SEO as a strategic competitive advantage. This study uses a qualitative approach with case studies are used as a research design. Researchers in the interviews to the owner Caldera Trail & Jeep Adventure. The results of this study indicate that the role of SEO to optimize the website proved successful in the company’s competitive advantage strategy Caldera Trail & Jeep Adventure. The results showed online marketing is done through Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and website have a positive impact on sales in their services. Applying marketing strategies using social media-based social networks and websites are very efficient because of much greater use conventional marketing strategies. This study also emphasizes the social media as online advertising that can be used as a marketing strategy in today’s digital era.

  4. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING LASER-ULTRASOUND TO MONITOR THE QUALITY SOLDERED CONNECTIONS CHAMBERS OF LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Astredinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process to the design of modern liquid rocket engines are presented important requirements, such as minimum weight, maximum stiffness and strength of nodes, maximum service life in operation, high reliability and quality of soldered and welded seams. Due to the high quality requirements soldered connections and the specific design of the nozzle, it became necessary in the development and testing of a new non-conventional non-destructive testing method – laser-ultrasound diagnosis. In accordance with regulatory guidelines, quality control soldered connections is allowed to use an acoustic kind of control methods of the reflected light, transmitted light, resonant, free vibration and acoustic emission. Attempts to use traditional methods of non-destructive testing did not lead to positive results. This is due primarily to the size of typical solder joint defects, as well as the structural features of the rocket engine, the data structure is not controllable. In connection with this, a new method that provides quality control soldered connections cameras LRE based on the thermo generation of ultrasound. Methods of ultrasonic flaw detection of photoacoustic effect, in most cases, have a number of advantages over methods that use standard (traditional piezo transducers. In the course of studies have found that the sensitivity of the laser-ultrasonic method and flaw detector UDL-2M can detect lack of adhesion in the solder joints on the upper edges of the nozzle in the sub-header area of the site.

  5. Fabrication of High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Greene, Sandra E.; Singh, Jogender

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process development for fabricating a high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond composite (NARloy-Z-D) combustion chamber liner for application in advanced rocket engines. The fabrication process is challenging and this paper presents some details of these challenges and approaches used to address them. Prior research conducted at NASA-MSFC and Penn State had shown that NARloy-Z-40%D composite material has significantly higher thermal conductivity than the state of the art NARloy-Z alloy. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40 %D is much lighter than NARloy-Z. These attributes help to improve the performance of the advanced rocket engines. Increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power, increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and specific impulse. Early work on NARloy-Z-D composites used the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST, Ref. 1, 2) for fabricating discs. NARloy-Z-D composites containing 10, 20 and 40vol% of high thermal conductivity diamond powder were investigated. Thermal conductivity (TC) data. TC increased with increasing diamond content and showed 50% improvement over pure copper at 40vol% diamond. This composition was selected for fabricating the combustion chamber liner using the FAST technique.

  6. The Primary Experiments of an Analysis of Pareto Solutions for Conceptual Design Optimization Problem of Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumiya; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Furuhashi, Takeshi

    Recentry, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm, which is the application of Genetic Algorithm to Multi-objective Optimization Problems is focused on in the engineering design field. In this field, the analysis of design variables in the acquired Pareto solutions, which gives the designers useful knowledge in the applied problem, is important as well as the acquisition of advanced solutions. This paper proposes a new visualization method using Isomap which visualizes the geometric distances of solutions in the design variable space considering their distances in the objective space. The proposed method enables a user to analyze the design variables of the acquired solutions considering their relationship in the objective space. This paper applies the proposed method to the conceptual design optimization problem of hybrid rocket engine and studies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Some Calculated Research Results of the Working Process Parameters of the Low Thrust Rocket Engine Operating on Gaseous Oxygen-Hydrogen Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, V.; Morozov, I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the calculating results of the combustion products parameters in the tract of the low thrust rocket engine with thrust P ∼ 100 N. The article contains the following data: streamlines, distribution of total temperature parameter in the longitudinal section of the engine chamber, static temperature distribution in the cross section of the engine chamber, velocity distribution of the combustion products in the outlet section of the engine nozzle, static temperature near the inner wall of the engine. The presented parameters allow to estimate the efficiency of the mixture formation processes, flow of combustion products in the engine chamber and to estimate the thermal state of the structure.

  8. Modeling of Uneven Flow and Electromagnetic Field Parameters in the Combustion Chamber of Liquid Rocket Engine with a Near-wall Layer Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudinskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns modeling of an uneven flow and electromagnetic field parameters in the combustion chamber of the liquid rocket engine with a near-wall layer available.The research objective was to evaluate quantitatively influence of changing model chamber mode of the liquid rocket engine on the electro-physical characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel combustion by-products.The main method of research was based on development of a final element model of the flowing path of the rocket engine chamber and its adaptation to the boundary conditions.The paper presents a developed two-dimensional non-stationary mathematical model of electro-physical processes in the liquid rocket engine chamber using hydrocarbon fuel. The model takes into consideration the features of a gas-dynamic contour of the engine chamber and property of thermo-gas-dynamic characteristics of the ionized products of combustion of hydrocarbonic fuel. Distributions of magnetic field intensity and electric conductivity received and analyzed taking into account a low-temperature near-wall layer. Special attention is paid to comparison of obtained calculation values of the electric current, which is taken out from intrachamber space of the engine with earlier published data of other authors.

  9. Research on shock wave characteristics in the isolator of central strut rocket-based combined cycle engine under Ma5.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianggeng; Xue, Rui; Qin, Fei; Hu, Chunbo; He, Guoqiang

    2017-11-01

    A numerical calculation of shock wave characteristics in the isolator of central strut rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine fueled by kerosene was carried out in this paper. A 3D numerical model was established by the DES method. The kerosene chemical kinetic model used the 9-component and 12-step simplified mechanism model. Effects of fuel equivalence ratio, inflow total temperature and central strut rocket on-off on shock wave characteristics were studied under Ma5.5. Results demonstrated that with the increase of equivalence ratio, the leading shock wave moves toward upstream, accompanied with higher possibility of the inlet unstart. However, the leading shock wave moves toward downstream as the inflow total temperature rises. After the central strut rocket is closed, the leading shock wave moves toward downstream, which can reduce risks of the inlet unstart. State of the shear layer formed by the strut rocket jet flow and inflow can influence the shock train structure significantly.

  10. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  11. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  12. Parametric Data from a Wind Tunnel Test on a Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Engine Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rene; Trefny, Charles J.; Thomas, Scott R.; Bulman, Mel J.

    2001-01-01

    A 40-percent scale model of the inlet to a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The full-scale RBCC engine is scheduled for test in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn's Plum Brook Station at Mach 5 and 6. This engine will incorporate the configuration of this inlet model which achieved the best performance during the present experiment. The inlet test was conducted at Mach numbers of 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0. The fixed-geometry inlet consists of an 8 deg.. forebody compression plate, boundary layer diverter, and two compressive struts located within 2 parallel sidewalls. These struts extend through the inlet, dividing the flowpath into three channels. Test parameters investigated included strut geometry, boundary layer ingestion, and Reynolds number (Re). Inlet axial pressure distributions and cross-sectional Pitot-pressure surveys at the base of the struts were measured at varying back-pressures. Inlet performance and starting data are presented. The inlet chosen for the RBCC engine self-started at all Mach numbers from 4 to 6. Pitot-pressure contours showed large flow nonuniformity on the body-side of the inlet. The inlet provided adequate pressure recovery and flow quality for the RBCC cycle even with the flow separation.

  13. The issue of ensuring the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a launch vehicle with propulsion rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushlyakov Valeriy I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for increasing the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a space launch vehicle (SLV with a propulsion rocket engine (PRE based on the gasification of unusable residues propellant and venting fuel tanks. For gasification and ventilation the hot gases used produced by combustion of the specially selected gas generating composition (GGC with a set of physical and chemical properties. Excluding the freezing of the drainage system on reset gasified products (residues propellant+pressurization gas+hot gases in the near-Earth space is achieved by selecting the physical-chemical characteristics of the GGC. Proposed steps to ensure rotation of gasified products due to dumping through the drainage system to ensure the most favorable conditions for propellant gasification residues. For example, a tank with liquid oxygen stays with the orbital spent second stage of the SLV “Zenit”, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. A Review of Adventure Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adventure learning (AL is an approach for the design of digitally-enhanced teaching and learning environments driven by a framework of guidelines grounded on experiential and inquiry-based education. The purpose of this paper is to review the adventure learning literature and to describe the status quo of the practice by identifying the current knowledge, misconceptions, and future opportunities in adventure learning. Specifically, the authors present an integrative analysis of the adventure learning literature, identify knowledge gaps, present future research directions, and discuss research methods and approaches that may improve the AL approach.The authors engaged in a systematic search strategy to identify adventure learning studies then applied a set of criteria to decide whether to include or exclude each study. Results from the systematic review were combined, analyzed, and critiqued inductively using the constant comparative method and weaved together using the qualitative metasynthesis approach.Results indicate the appeal and promise of the adventure learning approach. Nevertheless, the authors recommend further investigation of the approach. Along with studies that investigate learning outcomes, aspects of the AL approach that are engaging, and the nature of expert-learner collaboration, future adventure learning projects that focus on higher education and are (a small and (b diverse can yield significant knowledge into adventure learning. Research and design in this area will benefit by taking an activity theory and design-based research perspective.

  15. The main indicators of the health of children and adolescents in residential zone of the facility for disposal of rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarakanova S.Y.

    2014-12-01

    39.5%. The main cause of morbidity in children is diseases of the nervous system and mental disorders, and congenital anomalies. Conclusion. Operation of installations for the disposal of rocket engines solid fuel according to the official reporting forms medical institutions has no effect on child health.

  16. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a Supersonic Turbine for Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Lauren M.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Sieja, James P.; Huber, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    In order to mitigate the risk of rocket propulsion development, efficient, accurate, detailed fluid dynamics analysis and testing of the turbomachinery is necessary. To support this requirement, a task was developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to improve turbine aerodynamic performance through the application of advanced design and analysis tools. These tools were applied to optimize a supersonic turbine design suitable for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The hot gas path and blading were redesigned-to obtain an increased efficiency. The goal of the demonstration was to increase the total-to- static efficiency of the turbine by eight points over the baseline design. A sub-scale, cold flow test article modeling the final optimized turbine was designed, manufactured, and tested in air at MSFC s Turbine Airflow Facility. Extensive on- and off- design point performance data, steady-state data, and unsteady blade loading data were collected during testing.

  17. Coil-On-Plug Ignition for Oxygen/Methane Liquid Rocket Engines in Thermal-Vacuum Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Morehead, Robert L.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Bugarin, Luz; Chaidez, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed and tested for Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/liquid methane (LCH4) rocket engines operating in thermal vacuum conditions. The igniters were developed and tested as part of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), previously tested as part of the Project Morpheus test vehicle. The ICPTA uses an integrated, pressure-fed, cryogenic LOX/LCH4 propulsion system including a reaction control system (RCS) and a main engine. The ICPTA was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed to successfully demonstrate ignition reliability at these conditions while preventing corona discharge issues. The ICPTA uses spark plug ignition for both the main engine igniter and the RCS. The coil-on-plug configuration eliminates the conventional high-voltage spark plug cable by combining the coil and the spark plug into a single component. Prior to ICPTA testing at Plum Brook, component-level reaction control engine (RCE) and main engine igniter testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which demonstrated successful hot-fire ignition using the coil-on-plug from sea-level ambient conditions down to 10(exp -2) torr. Integrated vehicle hot-fire testing at JSC demonstrated electrical and command/data system performance. Lastly, hot-fire testing at Plum Brook demonstrated successful ignitions at simulated altitude conditions at 30 torr and cold thermal-vacuum conditions at 6 torr. The test campaign successfully proved that coil-on-plug technology will enable integrated LOX/LCH4 propulsion systems in future spacecraft.

  18. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Automated preflight methods concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, C. M.; Hertzberg, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of automating preflight engine checkouts on orbit transfer engines is discussed. The minimum requirements in terms of information and processing necessary to assess the engine'e integrity and readiness to perform its mission were first defined. A variety of ways for remotely obtaining that information were generated. The sophistication of these approaches varied from a simple preliminary power up, where the engine is fired up for the first time, to the most advanced approach where the sensor and operational history data system alone indicates engine integrity. The critical issues and benefits of these methods were identified, outlined, and prioritized. The technology readiness of each of these automated preflight methods were then rated on a NASA Office of Exploration scale used for comparing technology options for future mission choices. Finally, estimates were made of the remaining cost to advance the technology for each method to a level where the system validation models have been demonstrated in a simulated environment.

  19. Adventures in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The complete beginner's guide to Python, for young people whowant to start today Adventures in Python is designed for 11-to 15-year oldswho want to teach themselves Python programming, but don't knowwhere to start. Even if you have no programming experience at all,this easy to follow format and clear, simple instruction will getyou up and running quickly. The book walks you through nineprojects that teach you the fundamentals of programming in general,and Python in particular, gradually building your skills until youhave the confidence and ability to tackle your own projects. Videoclips accom

  20. Adventures in Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, Carrie Anne

    2015-01-01

    Start programming quickly with this super-fun guide to Raspberry Pi Adventures in Raspberry Pi, 2nd Edition includes 9 cool projects that show you how to set up and start developing on your Raspberry Pi. Updated for the release of the Rev 3 board, this second edition covers all the latest features and tells you everything you need to know. Written specifically for 11-15 year-olds, this book uses the wildly successful, Raspberry Pi to explain the fundamentals of computing. You'll have a blast learning basic programming and system administration skills, beginning with the very basics of how to p

  1. The Adventurous Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Cantwell, John A.; Kappen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the notion of imprinting in the multinational corporation (MNC), specifically how during the brief period when foreign subsidiaries turn into technologically advanced units they are influenced by the technological activities carried out at headquarters and home country...... units. We hypothesize and empirically show that during that period of transition the degree of adventurousness or explorative intensity of home country units is replicated and has a long-lasting effect on the type of technological work carried out by the foreign subsidiaries. The results suggest...

  2. Adventures in Celestial Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Szebehely, Victor G

    1998-01-01

    A fascinating introduction to the basic principles of orbital mechanics. It has been three hundred years since Isaac Newton first formulated laws to explain the orbits of the Moon and the planets of our solar system. In so doing he laid the groundwork for modern science's understanding of the workings of the cosmos and helped pave the way to the age of space exploration. Adventures in Celestial Mechanics offers students an enjoyable way to become acquainted with the basic principles involved in the motions of natural and human-made bodies in space. Packed with examples in which these principle

  3. Multiphysics Framework for Prediction of Dynamic Instability in Liquid Rocket Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mitigation of dynamic combustion instability is one of the most difficult engineering challenges facing NASA and industry in the development of new continuous-flow...

  4. Technical engineering services in support of the Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Task assignments in support of the Nike-Tomahawk vehicles, which were completed from May, 1970 through November 1972 are reported. The services reported include: analytical, design and drafting, fabrication and modification, and field engineering.

  5. Air Force Research Laboratory's Rocket Engine Program Enters Fast-Paced Test Phase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornburg, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    .... Recent tests of the Integrated Powerhead Demonstration project here established a technical first for the United States and mark the first advancements in boost engine technology since the space...

  6. The development of a solid-state hydrogen sensor for rocket engine leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogen propellant leakage poses significant operational problems in the rocket propulsion industry as well as for space exploratory applications. Vigorous efforts have been devoted to minimizing hydrogen leakage in assembly, test, and launch operations related to hydrogen propellant. The objective has been to reduce the operational cost of assembling and maintaining hydrogen delivery systems. Specifically, efforts have been made to develop a hydrogen leak detection system for point-contact measurement. Under the auspices of Lewis Research Center, the Electronics Design Center at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, has undertaken the development of a point-contact hydrogen gas sensor with potential applications to the hydrogen propellant industry. We envision a sensor array consisting of numbers of discrete hydrogen sensors that can be located in potential leak sites. Silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining techniques are used in the fabrication of these sensor prototypes. Evaluations of the sensor are carried out in-house at Case Western Reserve University as well as at Lewis Research Center and GenCorp Aerojet, Sacramento, California. The hydrogen gas sensor is not only applicable in a hydrogen propulsion system, but also usable in many other civilian and industrial settings. This includes vehicles or facility use, or in the production of hydrogen gas. Dual space and commercial uses of these point-contacted hydrogen sensors are feasible and will directly meet the needs and objectives of NASA as well as various industrial segments.

  7. The development of a solid-state hydrogen sensor for rocket engine leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun

    Hydrogen propellant leakage poses significant operational problems in the rocket propulsion industry as well as for space exploratory applications. Vigorous efforts have been devoted to minimizing hydrogen leakage in assembly, test, and launch operations related to hydrogen propellant. The objective has been to reduce the operational cost of assembling and maintaining hydrogen delivery systems. Specifically, efforts have been made to develop a hydrogen leak detection system for point-contact measurement. Under the auspices of Lewis Research Center, the Electronics Design Center at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, has undertaken the development of a point-contact hydrogen gas sensor with potential applications to the hydrogen propellant industry. We envision a sensor array consisting of numbers of discrete hydrogen sensors that can be located in potential leak sites. Silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining techniques are used in the fabrication of these sensor prototypes. Evaluations of the sensor are carried out in-house at Case Western Reserve University as well as at Lewis Research Center and GenCorp Aerojet, Sacramento, California. The hydrogen gas sensor is not only applicable in a hydrogen propulsion system, but also usable in many other civilian and industrial settings. This includes vehicles or facility use, or in the production of hydrogen gas. Dual space and commercial uses of these point-contacted hydrogen sensors are feasible and will directly meet the needs and objectives of NASA as well as various industrial segments.

  8. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  9. Study on the Effect of water Injection Momentum on the Cooling Effect of Rocket Engine Exhaust Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Qiang, Yanhui; Zhong, Chenghang; Yu, Shaozhen

    2017-10-01

    For the study of water injection momentum factors impact on flow field of the rocket engine tail flame, the numerical computation model of gas-liquid two phase flow in the coupling of high temperature and high speed gas flow and low temperature liquid water is established. The accuracy and reliability of the numerical model are verified by experiments. Based on the numerical model, the relationship between the flow rate and the cooling effect is analyzed by changing the water injection momentum of the water spray pipes. And the effective mathematical expression is obtained. What’s more, by changing the number of the water spray and using small flow water injection, the cooling effect is analyzed to check the application range of the mathematical expressions. The results show that: the impact and erosion of the gas flow field could be reduced greatly by water injection, and there are two parts in the gas flow field, which are the slow cooling area and the fast cooling area. In the fast cooling area, the influence of the water flow momentum and nozzle quantity on the cooling effect can be expressed by mathematical functions without causing bifurcation flow for the mainstream gas. The conclusion provides a theoretical reference for the engineering application.

  10. Solid propellant ignition motors for LH_2/LOX rocket engine system

    OpenAIRE

    ARAKI, Tetsuo; AKIBA, Ryojiro; HASHIMOTO, Yasunari; AIHARA, Kenji; TOMITA, Etsu; YASUDA, Seiichi; 荒木, 哲夫; 秋葉, 鐐二郎; 橋本, 保成; 相原, 賢二; 富田, 悦; 安田, 誠一

    1983-01-01

    Solid propellant ignition motors are used in the series of experiments of the 10 ton LH_2/LOX engine featured by the channel wall thrust chamber, This paper presents design specification, experiments and results obtained by actual applications of those ignition motors.

  11. Ozone Depletion Caused by Rocket Engine Emissions: A Fundamental Limit on the Scale and Viability of Space-Based Geoengineering Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. N.; Toohey, D.

    2008-12-01

    Emissions from solid and liquid propellant rocket engines reduce global stratospheric ozone levels. Currently ~ one kiloton of payloads are launched into earth orbit annually by the global space industry. Stratospheric ozone depletion from present day launches is a small fraction of the ~ 4% globally averaged ozone loss caused by halogen gases. Thus rocket engine emissions are currently considered a minor, if poorly understood, contributor to ozone depletion. Proposed space-based geoengineering projects designed to mitigate climate change would require order of magnitude increases in the amount of material launched into earth orbit. The increased launches would result in comparable increases in the global ozone depletion caused by rocket emissions. We estimate global ozone loss caused by three space-based geoengineering proposals to mitigate climate change: (1) mirrors, (2) sunshade, and (3) space-based solar power (SSP). The SSP concept does not directly engineer climate, but is touted as a mitigation strategy in that SSP would reduce CO2 emissions. We show that launching the mirrors or sunshade would cause global ozone loss between 2% and 20%. Ozone loss associated with an economically viable SSP system would be at least 0.4% and possibly as large as 3%. It is not clear which, if any, of these levels of ozone loss would be acceptable under the Montreal Protocol. The large uncertainties are mainly caused by a lack of data or validated models regarding liquid propellant rocket engine emissions. Our results offer four main conclusions. (1) The viability of space-based geoengineering schemes could well be undermined by the relatively large ozone depletion that would be caused by the required rocket launches. (2) Analysis of space- based geoengineering schemes should include the difficult tradeoff between the gain of long-term (~ decades) climate control and the loss of short-term (~ years) deep ozone loss. (3) The trade can be properly evaluated only if our

  12. Computer Modeling of a Rotating Detonation Engine in a Rocket Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    detonation engine ( RDE ) has one or more shock waves rotating around an annulus. The RDE can theoretically be 20% more thermally efficient than a traditional...deflagration- based cycle. An RDE was modeled in Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) based on a model developed in Microsoft Excel. The...thermodynamic analysis of the RDE in these models is broken into four streams. Empirical models were used to find the per- centage of the total flow in each

  13. Rocket Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Evera, Bill; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity for designing, building, and launching rockets that provides students with an intrinsically motivating and real-life application of what could have been classroom-only concepts. Includes rocket design guidelines and a sample grading rubric. (KHR)

  14. Numerical Optimisation in Non Reacting Conditions of the Injector Geometry for a Continuous Detonation Wave Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, T.; Davidenko, D.; Dupoirieux, F.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the methodology and the results of a numerical study, which is aimed at the investigation and optimisation of different means of fuel and oxidizer injection adapted to rocket engines operating in the rotating detonation mode. As the simulations are achieved at the local scale of a single injection element, only one periodic pattern of the whole geometry can be calculated so that the travelling detonation waves and the associated chemical reactions can not be taken into account. Here, separate injection of fuel and oxidizer is considered because premixed injection is handicapped by the risk of upstream propagation of the detonation wave. Different associations of geometrical periodicity and symmetry are investigated for the injection elements distributed over the injector head. To analyse the injection and mixing processes, a nonreacting 3D flow is simulated using the LES approach. Performance of the studied configurations is analysed using the results on instantaneous and mean flowfields as well as by comparing the mixing efficiency and the total pressure recovery evaluated for different configurations.

  15. Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

  16. Blade Surface Pressure Distributions in a Rocket Engine Turbine: Experimental Work With On-Blade Pressure Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flowfields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with surface-mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in three respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, two independent unsteady data acquisition systems and fundamental signal processing approaches were used. Finally, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools will contribute to future turbine programs such as those for reusable launch vehicles.

  17. Large eddy simulation of combustion characteristics in a kerosene fueled rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-wei; He, Guo-qiang; Qin, Fei; Cao, Dong-gang; Wei, Xiang-geng; Shi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This study reports combustion characteristics of a rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor operating at ramjet mode numerically. Compressible large eddy simulation with liquid kerosene sprayed and vaporized is used to study the intrinsic unsteadiness of combustion in such a propulsion system. Results for the pressure oscillation amplitude and frequency in the combustor as well as the wall pressure distribution along the flow-path, are validated using experimental data, and they show acceptable agreement. Coupled with reduced chemical kinetics of kerosene, results are compared with the simultaneously obtained Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes results, and show significant differences. A flow field analysis is also carried out for further study of the turbulent flame structures. Mixture fraction is used to determine the most probable flame location in the combustor at stoichiometric condition. Spatial distributions of the Takeno flame index, scalar dissipation rate, and heat release rate reveal that different combustion modes, such as premixed and non-premixed modes, coexisted at different sections of the combustor. The RBCC combustor is divided into different regions characterized by their non-uniform features. Flame stabilization mechanism, i.e., flame propagation or fuel auto-ignition, and their relative importance, is also determined at different regions in the combustor.

  18. Rocket science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Expanding across the Solar System will require more than a simple blast off, a range of promising new propulsion technologies are being investigated by ex- NASA shuttle astronaut Chang Diaz. He is developing an alternative to chemical rockets, called VASIMR -Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasm Rocket. In 2012 Ad Astra plans to test a prototype, using solar power rather than nuclear, on the International Space Station. Development of this rocket for human space travel is discussed. The nuclear reactor's heat would be converted into electricity in an electric rocket such as VASIMR, and at the peak of nuclear rocket research thrust levels of almost one million newtons were reached.

  19. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  20. Validation of Supersonic Film Cooling Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher I.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Topics include: upper stage engine key requirements and design drivers; Calspan "stage 1" results, He slot injection into hypersonic flow (air); test articles for shock generator diagram, slot injector details, and instrumentation positions; test conditions; modeling approach; 2-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux profiles from 2-d flat plate simulations (run #4); heat flux profiles from 2-d backward facing step simulations (run #43); isometric sketch of single coolant nozzle, and x-z grid of half-nozzle domain; comparison of 2-d and 3-d simulations of coolant nozzles (run #45); flowfield properties along coolant nozzle centerline (run #45); comparison of 3-d CFD nozzle flow calculations with experimental data; nozzle exit plane reduced to linear profile for use in 2-d film-cooling simulations (run #45); synthetic Schlieren image of coolant injection region (run #45); axial velocity profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); coolant mass fraction profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #47, #45, and #47); 3-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux contours from 3-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); and heat flux profiles from 3-d and 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #44, #46, and #47).

  1. Application of powder metallurgy techniques to produce improved bearing elements for liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracz, D. J.; Shipley, R. J.; Moxson, V. S.; Killman, R. J.; Munson, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to apply powder metallurgy techniques for the production of improved bearing elements, specifically balls and races, for advanced cryogenic turbopump bearings. The materials and fabrication techniques evaluated were judged on the basis of their ability to improve fatigue life, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) propellant bearings over the currently used 440C. An extensive list of candidate bearing alloys in five different categories was considered: tool/die steels, through hardened stainless steels, cobalt-base alloys, and gear steels. Testing of alloys for final consideration included hardness, rolling contact fatigue, cross cylinder wear, elevated temperature wear, room and cryogenic fracture toughness, stress corrosion cracking, and five-ball (rolling-sliding element) testing. Results of the program indicated two alloys that showed promise for improved bearing elements. These alloys were MRC-2001 and X-405. 57mm bearings were fabricated from the MRC-2001 alloy for further actual hardware rig testing by NASA-MSFC.

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF ADVENTURE TOURISTS IN PRETORIA

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Jeanette Lötter; Sue Geldenhuys; Marius Potgieter

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to examine different motivations and segment differentiations in niche markets such as adventure tourism seeing that it is not a well-defined segment in the discipline of tourism studies. In order to assist adventure tourism companies towards identifying and developing effective marketing strategies to attract or penetrate the adventure niche market, this study aims to contribute towards the current understanding of adventure tourists in Pretoria by compiling a demographic pro...

  3. Marketing of adventure tourism destination in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Baral, Nirajan

    2016-01-01

    Adventure tourism is one of the key factors of the Nepalese tourism industry. The main aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to clarify the current situation and challenges for developing adventure tourism in Nepal and to evaluate the importance of appropriate marketing strategies. The thesis also focuses on promoting adventure tourism activities and rural tourism destinations. The objective of the thesis was to explore Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve as an adventure tourism destination at internationa...

  4. Labyrinth Seal Flutter Analysis and Test Validation in Support of Robust Rocket Engine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Park, John; Frady, Greg; Nesman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    High energy-density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps, utilize labyrinth seals, also referred to as knife-edge seals, to control leakage flow. The pressure drop for such seals is order of magnitude higher than comparable jet engine seals. This is aggravated by the requirement of tight clearances resulting in possible unfavorable fluid-structure interaction of the seal system (seal flutter). To demonstrate these characteristics, a benchmark case of a High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) outlet Labyrinth seal was studied in detail. First, an analytical assessment of the seal stability was conducted using a Pratt & Whitney legacy seal flutter code. Sensitivity parameters including pressure drop, rotor-to-stator running clearances and cavity volumes were examined and modeling strategies established. Second, a concurrent experimental investigation was undertaken to validate the stability of the seal at the equivalent operating conditions of the pump. Actual pump hardware was used to construct the test rig, also referred to as the (Flutter Rig). The flutter rig did not include rotational effects or temperature. However, the use of Hydrogen gas at high inlet pressure provided good representation of the critical parameters affecting flutter especially the speed of sound. The flutter code predictions showed consistent trends in good agreement with the experimental data. The rig test program produced a stability threshold empirical parameter that separated operation with and without flutter. This empirical parameter was used to establish the seal build clearances to avoid flutter while providing the required cooling flow metering. The calibrated flutter code along with the empirical flutter parameter was used to redesign the baseline seal resulting in a flutter-free robust configuration. Provisions for incorporation of mechanical damping devices were introduced in the redesigned seal to ensure added robustness

  5. Outdoor Adventure Programs Fulfilling Heroic Archetypal Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johnny

    The experiences found in adventure programs often parallel the archetypes depicted in mythological quests. Drawing on the work of Joseph Campbell, the stages and trials of adventure participants are compared to similar rites of passage and epic adventures experienced by heroes and heroines in epic literature and mythology. The basic pattern of…

  6. Development and Hot-fire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Christopher S.; Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder-bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. NASA's efforts include a 4K lbf thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber and subscale thrust chambers for 1.2K lbf LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications that have been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25-35K lbf main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  7. Adventures in graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Joyner, W David

    2017-01-01

    This textbook acts as a pathway to higher mathematics by seeking and illuminating the connections between graph theory and diverse fields of mathematics, such as calculus on manifolds, group theory, algebraic curves, Fourier analysis, cryptography and other areas of combinatorics. An overview of graph theory definitions and polynomial invariants for graphs prepares the reader for the subsequent dive into the applications of graph theory. To pique the reader’s interest in areas of possible exploration, recent results in mathematics appear throughout the book, accompanied with examples of related graphs, how they arise, and what their valuable uses are. The consequences of graph theory covered by the authors are complicated and far-reaching, so topics are always exhibited in a user-friendly manner with copious graphs, exercises, and Sage code for the computation of equations. Samples of the book’s source code can be found at github.com/springer-math/adventures-in-graph-theory. The text is geared towards ad...

  8. Easier Analysis With Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing rocket engines is one of Marshall Space Flight Center's specialties. When Marshall engineers lacked a software program flexible enough to meet their needs for analyzing rocket engine fluid flow, they overcame the challenge by inventing the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which was named the co-winner of the NASA Software of the Year award in 2001. This paper describes the GFSSP in a wide variety of applications

  9. Adventures in public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Dan W

    2011-10-14

    This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'). We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge) EDITORIAL PREFACE: The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually decided to publish this

  10. Adventures in public data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharevitz Dan W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'. We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge Editorial preface The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually

  11. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Rocket-based Combined-cycle Engine Response During Mode Transition Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jack R.; McRae, D. Scott; Bond, Ryan B.; Steffan, Christopher (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The GTX program at NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to develop a launch vehicle concept based on rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion. Experimental testing, cycle analysis, and computational fluid dynamics modeling have all demonstrated the viability of the GTX concept, yet significant technical issues and challenges still remain. Our research effort develops a unique capability for dynamic CFD simulation of complete high-speed propulsion devices and focuses this technology toward analysis of the GTX response during critical mode transition events. Our principal attention is focused on Mode 1/Mode 2 operation, in which initial rocket propulsion is transitioned into thermal-throat ramjet propulsion. A critical element of the GTX concept is the use of an Independent Ramjet Stream (IRS) cycle to provide propulsion at Mach numbers less than 3. In the IRS cycle, rocket thrust is initially used for primary power, and the hot rocket plume is used as a flame-holding mechanism for hydrogen fuel injected into the secondary air stream. A critical aspect is the establishment of a thermal throat in the secondary stream through the combination of area reduction effects and combustion-induced heat release. This is a necessity to enable the power-down of the rocket and the eventual shift to ramjet mode. Our focus in this first year of the grant has been in three areas, each progressing directly toward the key initial goal of simulating thermal throat formation during the IRS cycle: CFD algorithm development; simulation of Mode 1 experiments conducted at Glenn's Rig 1 facility; and IRS cycle simulations. The remainder of this report discusses each of these efforts in detail and presents a plan of work for the next year.

  12. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, volume 2, book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The technical requirements for the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) propulsion system definition, (2) solid rocket engine stage design, (3) solid rocket engine stage recovery, (4) environmental effects, (5) manrating of the solid rocket engine stage, (6) system safety analysis, and (7) ground support equipment.

  13. Application of C/C composites to the combustion chamber of rocket engines. Part 1: Heating tests of C/C composites with high temperature combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Makoto; Sato, Masahiro; Kuroda, Yukio; Kusaka, Kazuo; Ueda, Shuichi; Suemitsu, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kude, Yukinori

    1995-04-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite (C/C composite) has various superior properties, such as high specific strength, specific modulus, and fracture strength at high temperatures of more than 1800 K. Therefore, C/C composite is expected to be useful for many structural applications, such as combustion chambers of rocket engines and nose-cones of space-planes, but C/C composite lacks oxidation resistivity in high temperature environments. To meet the lifespan requirement for thermal barrier coatings, a ceramic coating has been employed in the hot-gas side wall. However, the main drawback to the use of C/C composite is the tendency for delamination to occur between the coating layer on the hot-gas side and the base materials on the cooling side during repeated thermal heating loads. To improve the thermal properties of the thermal barrier coating, five different types of 30-mm diameter C/C composite specimens constructed with functionally gradient materials (FGM's) and a modified matrix coating layer were fabricated. In this test, these specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of the rocket engine using nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) / monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) to evaluate the properties of thermal and erosive resistance on the thermal barrier coating after the heating test. It was observed that modified matrix and coating with FGM's are effective in improving the thermal properties of C/C composite.

  14. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  15. Technology Development of a Fiber Optic-Coupled Laser Ignition System for Multi-Combustor Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Early, Jim; Osborne, Robin; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the progress of technology development of a laser ignition system at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The first two years of the project focus on comprehensive assessments and evaluations of a novel dual-pulse laser concept, flight- qualified laser system, and the technology required to integrate the laser ignition system to a rocket chamber. With collaborations of the Department of Energy/Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), MSFC has conducted 26 hot fire ignition tests with lab-scale laser systems. These tests demonstrate the concept feasibility of dual-pulse laser ignition to initiate gaseous oxygen (GOX)/liquid kerosene (RP-1) combustion in a rocket chamber. Presently, a fiber optic- coupled miniaturized laser ignition prototype is being implemented at the rocket chamber test rig for future testing. Future work is guided by a technology road map that outlines the work required for maturing a laser ignition system. This road map defines activities for the next six years, with the goal of developing a flight-ready laser ignition system.

  16. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  17. Experimental investigation of solid rocket motors for small sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksila, Thada

    2018-01-01

    Experimentation and research of solid rocket motors are important subjects for aerospace engineering students. However, many institutes in Thailand rarely include experiments on solid rocket motors in research projects of aerospace engineering students, mainly because of the complexity of mixing the explosive propellants. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a solid rocket motor for total impulse in the class I-J that can be utilised as a small sounding rocket by researchers in the near future. Initially, the test stands intended for measuring the pressure in the combustion chamber and the thrust of the solid rocket motor were designed and constructed. The basic design of the propellant configuration was evaluated. Several formulas and ratios of solid propellants were compared for achieving the maximum thrust. The convenience of manufacturing and casting of the fabricated solid rocket motors were a critical consideration. The motor structural analysis such as the combustion chamber wall thickness was also discussed. Several types of nozzles were compared and evaluated for ensuring the maximum thrust of the solid rocket motors during the experiments. The theory of heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber was discussed and compared with the experimental data.

  18. Our Heroic Adventure: Creating a Personal Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing Joseph Campbell's concept of the hero's adventure, this article provides a technique through which clients can story their lives and challenges as an unfolding personal myth or epic adventure. The use of personal narrative and storytelling has found efficacy in the counseling field and, as such, forms a useful foundation for clinical…

  19. Learning in Action and Adventure Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmer, Eva; Rynne, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth in action and adventure sport (e.g. snowboarding, bicycle motorcross (BMX), surfing, parkour) participation over the past two decades has been showcased in world championship events and the inclusion in Olympic programs. Yet, by virtue of their alternative, escapist and/or adventure-based origins, these sports do not fully…

  20. Gestalt and Adventure Therapy: Parallels and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsdorf, Rudiger

    This paper calls attention to parallels in the literature of adventure education and that of Gestalt therapy, demonstrating that both are rooted in an experiential tradition. The philosophies of adventure or experiential education and Gestalt therapy have the following areas in common: (1) emphasis on personal growth and the development of present…

  1. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  2. Application of Probabilistic Methods to Assess Risk Due to Resonance in the Design of J-2X Rocket Engine Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; DeHaye, Michael; DeLessio, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The LOX-Hydrogen J-2X Rocket Engine, which is proposed for use as an upper-stage engine for numerous earth-to-orbit and heavy lift launch vehicle architectures, is presently in the design phase and will move shortly to the initial development test phase. Analysis of the design has revealed numerous potential resonance issues with hardware in the turbomachinery turbine-side flow-path. The analysis of the fuel pump turbine blades requires particular care because resonant failure of the blades, which are rotating in excess of 30,000 revolutions/minutes (RPM), could be catastrophic for the engine and the entire launch vehicle. This paper describes a series of probabilistic analyses performed to assess the risk of failure of the turbine blades due to resonant vibration during past and present test series. Some significant results are that the probability of failure during a single complete engine hot-fire test is low (1%) because of the small likelihood of resonance, but that the probability increases to around 30% for a more focused turbomachinery-only test because all speeds will be ramped through and there is a greater likelihood of dwelling at more speeds. These risk calculations have been invaluable for use by program management in deciding if risk-reduction methods such as dampers are necessary immediately or if the test can be performed before the risk-reduction hardware is ready.

  3. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  4. Air-Powered Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

    This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)

  5. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  6. Base Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Four-Nozzle Clustered Rocket Engine: Effect of Nozzle Pressure Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasamy, R.; Kandula, M.; Duncil, L.; Schallhorn, P.

    2010-01-01

    The base pressure and heating characteristics of a four-nozzle clustered rocket configuration is studied numerically with the aid of OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes code. A pressure ratio (chamber pressure to freestream static pressure) range of 990 to 5,920 and a freestream Mach number range of 2.5 to 3.5 are studied. The qualitative trends of decreasing base pressure with increasing pressure ratio and increasing base heat flux with increasing pressure ratio are correctly predicted. However, the predictions for base pressure and base heat flux show deviations from the wind tunnel data. The differences in absolute values between the computation and the data are attributed to factors such as perfect gas (thermally and calorically perfect) assumption, turbulence model inaccuracies in the simulation, and lack of grid adaptation.

  7. CECE: Expanding the Envelope of Deep Throttling Technology in Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engines for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Victor J.; Leonard, Timothy G.; Lyda, Randy T.; Kim, Tony S.

    2010-01-01

    As one of the first technology development programs awarded by NASA under the Vision for Space Exploration, the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Deep Throttling, Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) program was selected by NASA in November 2004 to begin technology development and demonstration toward a deep throttling, cryogenic engine supporting ongoing trade studies for NASA s Lunar Lander descent stage. The CECE program leverages the maturity and previous investment of a flight-proven hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine, the PWR RL10, to develop and demonstrate an unprecedented combination of reliability, safety, durability, throttlability, and restart capabilities in high-energy, cryogenic, in-space propulsion. The testbed selected for the deep throttling demonstration phases of this program was a minimally modified RL10 engine, allowing for maximum current production engine commonality and extensibility with minimum program cost. Four series of demonstrator engine tests have been successfully completed between April 2006 and April 2010, accumulating 7,436 seconds of hot fire time over 47 separate tests. While the first two test series explored low power combustion (chug) and system instabilities, the third test series investigated and was ultimately successful in demonstrating several mitigating technologies for these instabilities and achieved a stable throttling ratio of 13:1. The fourth test series significantly expanded the engine s operability envelope by successfully demonstrating a closed-loop control system and extensive transient modeling to enable lower power engine starting, faster throttle ramp rates, and mission-specific ignition testing. The final hot fire test demonstrated a chug-free, minimum power level of 5.9%, corresponding to an overall 17.6:1 throttling ratio achieved. In total, these tests have provided an early technology demonstration of an enabling cryogenic propulsion concept with invaluable system-level technology data

  8. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  9. The adventure of atom. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Gorce, P.M. de; Bacher, P.; Bourgeois, J.; Bussac, J.; Cauquais, C.; Gauvenet, A.; Goldschmidt, B.; Le Baut, Y.; Mezin, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the first volume on the ambiguous adventure of atom, the authors present the history of atom conquest with the discoveries of natural and artificial radioactivity and chain reactions, before to explain the first military uses

  10. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  11. Rocket Tablet,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-12

    not accustomed to Chinese food, he ran off directly to the home of the Mayor of Beijing and requested two Western cuisine cooks from a hotel. At the...played out by our Chinese sons and daughters of ancient times. The famous Han dynasty general Li Guang was quickly cured of disease and led an army...Union) of China. This place was about to become the birthplace of the Chinese people’s first rocket baby. Section One In this eternal wasteland called

  12. The Thermal State Computational Research of the Low-Thrust Oxygen-Methane Gaseous-Propellant Rocket Engine in the Pulse Mode of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Vorozheeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently promising development direction of space propulsion engineering is to use, as spacecraft controls, low-thrust rocket engines (RDTM on clean fuels, such as oxygen-methane. Modern RDTM are characterized by a lack regenerative cooling and pulse mode of operation, during which there is accumulation of heat energy to lead to the high thermal stress of RDTM structural elements. To get an idea about the thermal state of its elements, which further will reduce the number of fire tests is therefore necessary in the development phase of a new product. Accordingly, the aim of this work is the mathematical modeling and computational study of the thermal state of gaseous oxygen-methane propellant RDMT operating in pulse mode.In this paper we consider a model RDTM working on gaseous propellants oxygen-methane in pulse mode.To calculate the temperature field of the chamber wall of model RDMT under consideration is used the mathematical model of non-stationary heat conduction in a two-dimensional axisymmetric formulation that takes into account both the axial heat leakages and the nonstationary processes occurring inside the chamber during pulse operation of RDMT.As a result of numerical study of the thermal state of model RDMT, are obtained the temperature fields during engine operation based on convective, conductive, and radiative mechanisms of heat transfer from the combustion products to the wall.It is shown that the elements of flanges of combustion chamber of model RDMT act as heat sinks structural elements. Temperatures in the wall of the combustion chamber during the engine mode of operation are considered relatively low.Raised temperatures can also occur in the mixing head in the feeding area of the oxidant into the combustion chamber.During engine operation in the area forming the critical section, there is an intensive heating of a wall, which can result in its melting, which in turn will increase the minimum nozzle throat area and hence

  13. The Analysis of Fourth Adventure of Seven-Adventures of Iranian National Epic based on Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Ebrahimi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seven-adventures of Rostam, in particular, and other Iranian seven-adventures such as Esfandyar seven-adventures or Gorshasp pseudo-seven-adventures are a kind of eternity search, a kind of battle with selfhood that aims to facilitate the problems, the difficulties of evolution way and human ascent. By discussing and analyzing Iranian seven-adventures, this research aims to study the fourth adventure of all the seven-adventures, which is, at the surface, the battle between man (hero, champion and woman but, in essence, it is the battle between fire and water. Fire is the son of Ahura Mazda and water is its enemy. Water, which was at one time the symbol of holiness and purity of Ahura, became a satanic element during Sassanid era and following the dominance of Zorvani thoughts on religious system of that time. By analyzing Rostam, Esfandyar, Gorshasp, Heracles fourth adventure and looking at Zal and Roodabe stories, Khajavi Kermani’s Sam-Nameh, Nezemi’s Khosro and Shirin and Mahmoud Dolatabadi’s Kalidar, we try to prove this hypothesis.

  14. Rocket + Science = Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris,Bruce; Sullivan, Greg; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    It's a cliche that rocket engineers and space scientists don t see eye-to-eye. That goes double for rocket engineers working on human spaceflight and scientists working on space telescopes and planetary probes. They work fundamentally different problems but often feel that they are competing for the same pot of money. Put the two groups together for a weekend, and the results could be unscientific or perhaps combustible. Fortunately, that wasn't the case when NASA put heavy lift launch vehicle designers together with astronomers and planetary scientists for two weekend workshops in 2008. The goal was to bring the top people from both groups together to see how the mass and volume capabilities of NASA's Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle could benefit the science community. Ares V is part of NASA's Constellation Program for resuming human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, starting with missions to the Moon. In the current mission scenario, Ares V launches a lunar lander into Earth orbit. A smaller Ares I rocket launches the Orion crew vehicle with up to four astronauts. Orion docks with the lander, attached to the Ares V Earth departure stage. The stage fires its engine to send the mated spacecraft to the Moon. Standing 360 feet high and weighing 7.4 million pounds, NASA's new heavy lifter will be bigger than the 1960s-era Saturn V. It can launch almost 60 percent more payload to translunar insertion together with the Ares I and 35 percent more mass to low Earth orbit than the Saturn V. This super-sized capability is, in short, designed to send more people to more places to do more things than the six Apollo missions.

  15. Analysis of supply adventure tourism in the South Bohemian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klečacká, Simona

    2009-01-01

    The thesis, entitled "Analysis of supply adventure tourism in the South Bohemian Region" is to describe and analyze the options and instruments of tourism in selected destination. Work processes typology adventure tourism and also defines key terms related to this topic. It then focuses on identifying different types of adventure tourism, cooperation in the design of an appropriate design and implementation of a new product in the field of adventure tourism.

  16. Empowerment and women in adventure tourism : a negotiated journey

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Adele

    2016-01-01

    Women’s participation in adventure tourism is growing, yet few studies have explored this group of tourists. This conceptual paper seeks to extend our understanding of female adventure tourists by examining the empowering journey women can take through constraint negotiation to enjoy the benefits of adventure tourism. Using content analysis to review the literature on women’s adventure experiences in tourism and recreation settings reveals prominent themes that have been consolidated to propo...

  17. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  18. Here Be Dragons: voorgeschiedenis en ontstaan van Adventure Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, Connie

    2004-01-01

    The article traces the history of adventure games from the birth of the fantasy genre in William Morris' work and the origins of the Kriegspiel, through Tolkien's fantasy world and Dungeons and Dragons to the early text adventures and the first graphical adventures.

  19. Development and Performance of the 10 kN Hybrid Rocket Motor for the Stratos II Sounding Rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, R.M.; Knop, T.R.; Wink, J; Ehlen, J; Huijsman, R; Powell, S; Florea, R.; Wieling, W; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development work of the 10 kN hybrid rocket motor DHX-200 Aurora. The DHX-200 Aurora was developed by Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE) to power the Stratos II and Stratos II+ sounding rocket, with the later one being launched in October 2015. Stratos II and Stratos

  20. Safety in New Zealand's adventure tourism industry: the client accident experience of adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley , T A; Page, S J; Laird, I S

    2000-01-01

    Injuries and fatalities among participants of adventure tourism activities have the potential to seriously impact on New Zealand's tourism industry. However, the absence of statistics for tourist accidents in New Zealand, and the lack of detailed academic research into adventure tourism safety, means the extent of the problem is unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence of client injuries across a range of adventure tourism activity sectors, and to identify common accident events and contributory risk factors. A postal questionnaire survey of New Zealand adventure tourism operators was used. Operators were asked to provide information related to their business; the number of recorded client injuries during the preceding 12 month period, January to December 1998; common accident and injury events associated with their activity; and perceived risk factors for accidents in their sector of the adventure tourism industry. The survey was responded to by 142 New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The operators' reported client injury experience suggests the incidence of serious client injuries is very low. Highest client injury incidence rates were found for activities that involved the risk of falling from a moving vehicle or animal (e.g., cycle tours, quad biking, horse riding, and white-water rafting). Slips, trips, and falls on the level were common accident events across most sectors of the industry. Perceived accident/incident causes were most commonly related to the client, and in particular, failure to attend to and follow instructions. The prevalence of client injuries in activity sectors not presently covered by government regulation, suggests policy makers should look again at extending codes of practice to a wider range of adventure tourism activities. Further research considering adventure tourism involvement in overseas visitor hospitalized injuries in New Zealand, is currently in progress. This will provide supporting evidence

  1. Participating in Paintball: Adventure or extreme sport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Jessica (2012 paintball is recognised as one of the world's most exciting outdoor participation sports. Paintball is played in over 104 countries by millions of men and women of all ages and lifestyles. Whether homemakers or high-school students, professionals or retirees, all paintball players share in common a love for adventure and a strong competitive spirit. Some confusion exists in industry and amongst players on whether paintball is and adventure or extreme sport as well as terminologies used. The article serves to analyse and clarify the unique terminologies used in paintball and debate classification of paintball as either an adventure or extreme sport. A detailed description of equipment used, player categories as well as formats that are employed are discussed so as to elucidate for readers who are unfamiliar with paintball.

  2. ADVENTURE TOURISM AN INSUFFICENTLY EXPLOITED OPPORTUNITY IN BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Liana LĂZURAN (GIURĂU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The routine of everyday life, the stifling society, the desire of novel and unexpected alongside the unlimited access to information got the modern man on the threshold of a new experience: adventure. Within this context in the tourism industry one type of tourism seems to gain more and more followers: adventure tourism. The adventure tourism is a nature-based tourism involving challenging outdoors activities with a great potential of thrill and excitement. Thus, this paper aims to emphasise the potential for adventure tourism in Bihor County by highlighting the areas where activities related to adventure tourism are developed and to propose new itineraries.

  3. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  4. Newton's laws through a science adventure

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštar, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of my diploma thesis is to create a scientific adventure based on the Newton's laws. My aim has been to introduce this topic to the kids in elementary school as well as the general public. That is why the adventure will take place in the House of Experiments. The first part is dedicated to theory and various experiments, which lead to deeper understanding of the laws. I implemented experiments on rollerblades, such as free movement, movement with the help of springs which wer...

  5. The South African Adventure Tourism Economy: An urban phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Tracey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires ‘wild’ and outdoor spaces. With many adventure tourism enterprises located in South Africa’s metropolitan areas, it is a hither too unknown sub-sector of the South African urban tourism market. Urban settlements with large populations and a strong general tourism sector form a significant support base for adventure tourism operators. Cape Town is the dominant adventure tourism destination, making it the adventure capital of South Africa. A few small settlements were found to be highly dependent upon the sector for survival.

  6. Development of a numerical tool to study the mixing phenomenon occurring during mode one operation of a multi-mode ejector-augmented pulsed detonation rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joshua

    A novel multi-mode implementation of a pulsed detonation engine, put forth by Wilson et al., consists of four modes; each specifically designed to capitalize on flow features unique to the various flow regimes. This design enables the propulsion system to generate thrust through the entire flow regime. The Multi-Mode Ejector-Augmented Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine operates in mode one during take-off conditions through the acceleration to supersonic speeds. Once the mixing chamber internal flow exceeds supersonic speed, the propulsion system transitions to mode two. While operating in mode two, supersonic air is compressed in the mixing chamber by an upstream propagating detonation wave and then exhausted through the convergent-divergent nozzle. Once the velocity of the air flow within the mixing chamber exceeds the Chapman-Jouguet Mach number, the upstream propagating detonation wave no longer has sufficient energy to propagate upstream and consequently the propulsive system shifts to mode three. As a result of the inability of the detonation wave to propagate upstream, a steady oblique shock system is established just upstream of the convergent-divergent nozzle to initiate combustion. And finally, the propulsion system progresses on to mode four operation, consisting purely of a pulsed detonation rocket for high Mach number flight and use in the upper atmosphere as is needed for orbital insertion. Modes three and four appear to be a fairly significant challenge to implement, while the challenge of implementing modes one and two may prove to be a more practical goal in the near future. A vast number of potential applications exist for a propulsion system that would utilize modes one and two, namely a high Mach number hypersonic cruise vehicle. There is particular interest in the dynamics of mode one operation, which is the subject of this research paper. Several advantages can be obtained by use of this technology. Geometrically the propulsion system is fairly

  7. It's Time for an Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldam Pommer, R.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, studies have repeatedly illustrated the significance of children seeing themselves reflected in careers and cultures that they may not typically identify with. The current lack of diversity in accessible media, however, limits the potential for self-reflection from children of different socioeconomic, racial, and gender identity backgrounds. This isolates substantial sections of our population from experiencing these moments of recognition and inspiration. As scientists in a rapidly evolving field that requires diversity in perspective and ideas, it is incumbent upon us to innovate new ways to engage with these future generations in the pursuit of inspiring future earth scientists. Inspired by the work of others (e.g. Doc McStuffins, The Sandwich Swap) and through a successful crowdfunding campaign, I was able to develop a project which integrates children's love of adventure with foundational critical thinking skills. That project is MD and Finn. MD and Finn is a self-written/published children's book series which was developed to address the lack of diversity in children's literature. MD is a little girl who continuously explores, discovers, and builds the world around her with her best friend, Finn the fox. They encourage one another to ask questions, brainstorm, make mistakes, and learn from absolutely everything. While the primary goal of the series is to create a character in which young girls can see themselves solving problems, learning from mistakes, and enjoying the little pieces of science in daily life, as the project progresses, characters from different races, ethnicities, gender identities, religions, and disabilities are purposefully introduced. In bringing these books to life, I have been given the unique opportunity to regularly engage with classrooms and families who may be meeting an actual scientist for the very first time. For a few young girls, they may also finally be seeing just a little bit of themselves - in a lab coat

  8. Safe adventures. An ethnographic study of safety and adventure guides in Arctic Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Mats Hoel

    2016-01-01

    With numerous entrepreneurs already established within the area, adventure tourism is a growing industry within Arctic Norway. The continuously expanding interest for the phenomenon has gained universities’ attention with recent education programs for guides being established. A cultural change involving a more professionalized approach to adventure tourism has also been noticed. At the forefront of ensuring tourists’ safety are the guides, who work in the area. In former research on safety i...

  9. Focused RBCC Experiments: Two-Rocket Configuration Experiments and Hydrocarbon/Oxygen Rocket Ejector Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    This addendum report documents the results of two additional efforts for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector mode research work carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA s technology development efforts for enabling 3 d generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The tasks reported here build on an earlier NASA MSFC funded research program on rocket ejector investigations. The first task investigated the improvements of a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen twin thruster RBCC rocket ejector system over a single rocket system. The second task investigated the performance of a hydrocarbon (liquid JP-7)/gaseous oxygen single thruster rocket-ejector system. To gain a systematic understanding of the rocket-ejector s internal fluid mechanic/combustion phenomena, experiments were conducted with both direct-connect and sea-level static diffusion and afterburning (DAB) configurations for a range of rocket operating conditions. For all experimental conditions, overall system performance was obtained through global measurements of wall static pressure profiles, heat flux profiles and engine thrust. Detailed mixing and combustion information was obtained through Raman spectroscopy measurements of major species (gaseous oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapor) for the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen rocket ejector experiments.

  10. Biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing ''state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing ''hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs

  11. The Tipping Point and the Adventure Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Dick

    1998-01-01

    Insights from chaos theory--the interconnectedness of everything, nonlinear cause and effect, leverage and the "tipping point," and the importance of aligning interventions within a system--are applied to social action and illustrated via the role of adventure education in school and community interventions in the Brattleboro (Vermont) Leadership…

  12. The Universe Adventure - The Beginnings of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Universe Adventure [ next ] [ home ] Go The Beginnings of Cosmology Since the beginning of of stars? What do the stars tell us about the future? Where did the Universe come from? Cosmology is will introduce you to Cosmology and the study of the structure, history, and fate of the Universe. In

  13. Subsonic Glideback Rocket Demonstrator Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTurris, Dianne J.; Foster, Trevor J.; Barthel, Paul E.; Macy, Daniel J.; Droney, Christopher K.; Talay, Theodore A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the past two years, Cal Poly's rocket program has been aggressively exploring the concept of remotely controlled, fixed wing, flyable rocket boosters. This program, embodied by a group of student engineers known as Cal Poly Space Systems, has successfully demonstrated the idea of a rocket design that incorporates a vertical launch pattern followed by a horizontal return flight and landing. Though the design is meant for supersonic flight, CPSS demonstrators are deployed at a subsonic speed. Many steps have been taken by the club that allowed the evolution of the StarBooster prototype to reach its current size: a ten-foot tall, one-foot diameter, composite material rocket. Progress is currently being made that involves multiple boosters along with a second stage, third rocket.

  14. Computational and Experimental Investigation of Liquid Propellant Rocket Combustion Instability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combustion instability has been a problem faced by rocket engine developers since the 1940s. The complicated phenomena has been highly unpredictable, causing engine...

  15. Adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa: A demographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Lötter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adventure activities and experiences constantly evolve because individuals, motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. In order to assist adventure tourism companies to promote and sell specific activities and experiences that will meet the specific needs and wants of their identified target markets, this paper focuses on the demographic profile of adventure tourists who used the products/services of adventure tourism companies within Pretoria, South Africa. The realised sample was 234, providing a 93.6% response rate. The research instrument used was a self-completing questionnaire. Based on the results, these adventure tourists were Afrikaans speaking individuals between the ages of twenty-eight and forty-nine years. Their households consisted of two to four people and there were generally two income earners per household. This study established that there is a need for further researching of comprehensive adventure tourist profiles.

  16. Adventure tourism in South Africa: Challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Giddy, Julia Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    There is great potential for the development of adventure tourism in Southern Africa for a number of reasons. One is the variety of landscapes provided by South Africa's natural environment that are suitable for adventure tourism activities, many of which remain relatively pristine. In addition, the development of adventure tourism has significant potential to uplift local communities through local economic development strategies due to the relatively low capital needed to establish many acti...

  17. The South African Adventure Tourism Economy: An urban phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    McKay Tracey

    2017-01-01

    The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires ‘wild’ and...

  18. ADVENTURE TOURISM AN INSUFFICENTLY EXPLOITED OPPORTUNITY IN BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria Liana LĂZURAN (GIURĂU); Mihaela UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    The routine of everyday life, the stifling society, the desire of novel and unexpected alongside the unlimited access to information got the modern man on the threshold of a new experience: adventure. Within this context in the tourism industry one type of tourism seems to gain more and more followers: adventure tourism. The adventure tourism is a nature-based tourism involving challenging outdoors activities with a great potential of thrill and excitement. Thus, this paper aim...

  19. Rockets two classic papers

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Rockets, in the primitive form of fireworks, have existed since the Chinese invented them around the thirteenth century. But it was the work of American Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) and his development of liquid-fueled rockets that first produced a controlled rocket flight. Fascinated by rocketry since boyhood, Goddard designed, built, and launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in 1926. Ridiculed by the press for suggesting that rockets could be flown to the moon, he continued his experiments, supported partly by the Smithsonian Institution and defended by Charles Lindbergh. T

  20. Adventure Tourism Benchmark – Analyzing the Case of Suesca, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Tsao Borrero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adventure tourism is a growing sector within the tourism industry and understanding its dynamics is fundamental for adventure tourism destinations and their local authorities. Destination benchmarking is a strong tool to identify the performance of tourism services offered at the destination in order to design appropriate policies to improve its competitiveness. The benchmarking study of Suesca, an adventure tourism destination in Colombia, helps to identify the gaps compared with successful adventure tourism destinations around the world, and provides valuable information to local policy-makers on the features to be improved. The lack of available information to tourists and financial facilities hinders the capability of Suesca to improve its competitiveness.

  1. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  2. A History of Adventure in Children's Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCausland, Elly

    2017-01-01

    with popular medievalism and the figure of the bold chivalric knight intersected with bourgeois forms of venture capitalism; the resulting children’s adventure narratives attempt to negotiate and even combine these two very different forms of risk-taking. Next, I will explore the rise of fantasy literature......This project will examine representations of risk in children’s literature from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. It will explore how issues of risk and trust have been mediated through children’s narratives, and how the adventurous child has served, and continues to serve...... for children following the Second World War. There are numerous overviews of trends within children’s literature during this period, but little exists that links these trends with their immediate sociocultural context and with changing attitudes towards childhood during the aftermath of the war...

  3. Inside/outside the Western 'Bubble': The nexus of adventure, adventure sports and perceptions of risk in UK and Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Humberstone, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Globalization can be thought of as the widening, deepening and quickening of the worldwide interconnections in social, cultural, political and economic life (Held et al., 1999). For adventure sports enthusiasts from the West, this has opened up the world for them to pursue their activities in more ‘exotic’ natural locations. Marketing of adventure holidays has increased with the greater ease of travelling to suitable geographical locations, providing apparently ‘authentic’ adventure experienc...

  4. ADVENTURE TOURISM IN THE SURVEYED POLISH ADVENTURE TOURISTS’ OPINION – OUTLINE OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a kind of human activity, which has the ability to simultaneously satisfy a wide human needs’ range and develop people’s personality. Adventure tourism term is a type of tourism able to fulfill these types of human needs. The aim of the study was to know the Polish tourists opinion about the adventure tourism in Poland. The study involved 50 people, taking into account their gender, age, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The study indicated that it is not a popular form of tourism in Poland. Its proponents, the information about places and facilities derive mainly from the Internet. The most popular forms are trekking, tramping, caves exploration, paintball, windsurfing, bungejumping and rafting. Rather average possibility of practicing the adventure tourism in Poland is associated with multitude barriers, mainly financial investments, lack of free time, as well as fear and general fear of some of its forms.

  5. Injuries to New Zealanders participating in adventure tourism and adventure sports: an analysis of Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Macky, Keith; Edwards, Jo

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were identified from the data, representing 28 activity sectors. Injuries were most common during the summer months, and were most frequently located in the major population centres. The majority of injuries were incurred by claimants in the 20-50 years age groups, although claimants over 50 years of age had highest claims costs. Males incurred 60% of all claims. Four activities (horse riding, mountain biking, tramping/hiking, and surfing) were responsible for approximately 60% of all adventure tourism and adventure sports-related injuries. Slips, trips, and falls were the most common injury initiating events, and injuries were most often to the back/spine, shoulder, and knee. These findings suggest the need to investigate whether regulatory intervention in the form of codes of practice for high injury count activities such as horse riding and mountain biking may be necessary. Health promotion messages and education programs should focus on these and other high-injury risk areas. Improved risk management practices are required for commercial adventure tourism and adventure sports operators in New Zealand if safety is to be improved across this sector.

  6. Droplet behaviour in an acoustic field: application to high frequency instability in liquid propellant rocket engines; Comportement de gouttes dans un champ acoustique: applications aux instabilites hautes-frequences dans les moteurs de fusees a ergols liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisneau, O.; Lecourt, R.; Grisch, F.; Orain, M.

    2002-07-01

    A setup has been developed at ONERA in the scope of studying interaction between calibrated droplets and a transversal acoustic wave in the scope of high frequency instabilities in liquid rocket engines. First, the setup has been checked acoustically by hot-wire anemometer and microphone. We present an analytical solution of the Stokes' droplet motion equation in an acoustic field. The trajectory equation can be split into three different parts: a sinusoidal part (negligible in liquid rocket engines), a transient part and a final mean position (only function of the loudspeaker characteristics but never reached). Some kind of vibrational breakup at low Weber's number has been observed using line-of-sight visualization of acoustic/droplet interactions. However, preponderant phenomena observed were jet oscillations and droplet coalescence. For ambient temperature, PLIF visualization has shown a coupling between the created vapor cylinder and the acoustic induced jet position. For hot temperature, some unsteady phenomena seem to appear but further processing are needed. (authors)

  7. Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christe, Steven; Zeiger, Ben; Pfaff, Rob; Garcia, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rocket technology, originally developed for military applications, has provided a low-cost observing platform to carry critical and rapid-response scientific investigations for over 70 years. Even with the development of launch vehicles that could put satellites into orbit, high altitude sounding rockets have remained relevant. In addition to science observations, sounding rockets provide a unique technology test platform and a valuable training ground for scientists and engineers. Most impor...

  8. Going Pro: Point of View Cameras in Adventure Sports Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The role of the adventure sports coach was first identified by Collins and Collins (2012) who suggested that the sports coaching process is significantly different in an adventurous context. Whilst there is a growing body of literature surrounding coaching pedagogy (Hay, Dickens, Crudginton, & Engstrom, 2012), investigation of coaching…

  9. Emotional Safety in Adventure Therapy Programs: Can It Be Defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    Ninety-eight adventure therapy professionals analyzed a proposed definition of emotional safety and rated 26 factors hypothesized to affect an individual's level of emotional safety during adventure activities. Factors were related to specific techniques used by instructors, instructor skills and abilities, the physical environment, and group…

  10. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  11. Outdoor Recreation and Adventure Tourism: Unique but Allied Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, H. K.; Lewis, T. Grant

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism are overlapping industries serving similar clientele. While descriptive marketing research exists for both industries (George Washington University School of Business [GW], Adventure Travel Trade Association [ATTA], & Xola Consulting [XC], 2010; Outdoor Foundation [OF], 2014), there is no clear…

  12. Mitigating Litigation for Adventure Recreation Operators: The Ski Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgoch, Shea; Lower, Leeann M.

    2017-01-01

    Adventure tourism is a rapidly growing segment of the tourism industry, which can be regarded as specific activities that are alluring for their uncertain and potentially dangerous outcomes. Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors may be common among adventure recreationists and increase the potential for litigation against recreation operators. In…

  13. Eddie Rocket's Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Vahter, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Eddie Rocket's Franchise - Setting up a franchise restaurant in Helsinki. TIIVISTELMÄ: Eddie Rocket's on menestynyt amerikkalaistyylinen 1950-luvun ”diner” franchiseravintolaketju Irlannista. Ravintoloita on perustettu viimeisen 18 vuoden aikana 28 kappaletta Irlantiin ja Isoon Britanniaan sekä yksi Espanjaan. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tutkia onko Eddie Rocket'silla potentiaalia menestyä Helsingissä, Suomessa. Tutkimuskysymystä on lähestytty toimiala-analyysin, markkinatutkimuksen j...

  14. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  15. Cultural Bridging through Shared Adventure: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Adventure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Christine L.; Hsieh, Chi-Mou

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of the therapeutic relationship and the need for cultural competence in adventure therapy. Cultural differences between therapist and client can sometimes result in possible misinterpretation and conflict, which can lead to problems in the therapeutic relationship and negatively affect treatment outcomes. This…

  16. Outdoor Program Models: Placing Cooperative Adventure and Adventure Education Models on the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Steven P.

    In two articles on outdoor programming models, Watters distinguished four models on a continuum ranging from the common adventure model, with minimal organizational structure and leadership control, to the guide service model, in which leaders are autocratic and trips are highly structured. Club programs and instructional programs were in between,…

  17. Not just rocket science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAdam, S.; Anderson, R. [Celan Energy Systems, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The paper explains a different take on oxyfuel combustion. Clean Energy Systems (CES) has integrated aerospace technology into conventional power systems, creating a zero-emission power generation technology that has some advantages over other similar approaches. When using coal as a feedstock, the CES process burns syngas rather than raw coal. The process uses recycled water and steam to moderate the temperature, instead of recycled CO{sub 2}. With no air ingress, the CES process produces very pure CO{sub 2}. This makes it possible to capture over 99% of the CO{sub 2} resulting from combustion. CES uses the combustion products to drive the turbines, rather than indirectly raising steam for steam turbines, as in the oxyfuel process used by companies such as Vattenfall. The core of the process is a high-pressure oxy-combustor adapted from rocket engine technology. This combustor burns gaseous or liquid fuels with gaseous oxygen in the presence of water. Fuels include natural gas, coal or coke-derived synthesis gas, landfill and biodigester gases, glycerine solutions and oil/water emulsion. 2 figs.

  18. A new facility for advanced rocket propulsion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Joseph G.; Green, James M.; Raitano, Paul

    1993-06-01

    A new test facility was constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Rocket Laboratory for the purpose of conducting rocket propulsion research at up to 8.9 kN (2000 lbf) thrust, using liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A laser room adjacent to the test cell provides access to the rocket engine for advanced laser diagnostic systems. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods, with rapid turnover between programs. These capabilities make the new test facility an important asset for basic and applied rocket propulsion research.

  19. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  20. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  1. SMART-1 - the lunar adventure begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    instruments to see it. New technologies to prepare for future interplanetary missions Future scientific missions will greatly profit from the technologies being tested on SMART-1. Solar-electric primary propulsion is a new propulsion technique based on so-called 'ion engines' that feed on electricity derived from solar panels. It is a technique that has only ever been used once before. These engines provide a very gentle thrust, but they work for years while conventional, more powerful chemical rockets burn for only a few minutes. Ion engines offer key advantages. They need considerably less propellant than chemical propulsion, which means less weight at launch and more mass available for scientific instruments and payload. Ion engines open the door to truly deep space exploration. They slash the time for interplanetary flight: although they provide less thrust they can last for years. The ion tortoise will therefore eventually overtake the chemical hare. Moreover, another application of the gentle thrust provided by electric propulsion allows very accurate spacecraft attitude control, a skill that will be useful for scientific missions that require highly precise and undisturbed pointing. Future ESA science missions will rely on ion engines. SMART-1 will also test new miniaturisation techniques that save space and economise on mass: in space, less mass per instrument enables scientists to have more instruments on board, so more science. The SMART-1 payload consists of a dozen technological and scientific investigations performed by seven instruments weighing only 19 kilograms in total. For example, the X-ray telescope D-CIXS, consists of a cube just 15 centimetres wide and weighing less than 5 kilograms. The ultra-compact electronic camera, AMIE, weighs no more than an amateur’s camera. New navigation and space-communication techniques will also be tested. An experiment called OBAN, based on images from the miniature camera AMIE and the star trackers, is the first step

  2. NASA rocket launches student project into space

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    A project that began in 2002 will culminate at sunrise on Tuesday, March 15, when a team of Virginia Tech engineering students watch a payload section they designed lift off aboard a sounding rocket from a launch pad at NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility and travel 59 miles into space.

  3. Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

    2005-01-01

    Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or

  4. ELIMINATION OF ROCKET IGNITION SIDE LOADS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to Topic H10: Ground Processing and in particular to Subtopic H10.02. When a rocket motor/engine is ignited at low altitude its...

  5. Design study of RL10 derivatives. Volume 3, part 2: Operational and flight support plan. [analysis of transportation requirements for rocket engine in support of space tug program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Transportation requirements are considered during the engine design layout reviews and maintenance engineering analyses. Where designs cannot be influenced to avoid transportation problems, the transportation representative is advised of the problems permitting remedies early in the program. The transportation representative will monitor and be involved in the shipment of development engine and GSE hardware between FRDC and vehicle manufacturing plant and thereby will be provided an early evaluation of the transportation plans, methods and procedures to be used in the space tug support program. Unanticipated problems discovered in the shipment of development hardware will be known early enough to permit changes in packaging designs and transportation plans before the start of production hardware and engine shipments. All conventional transport media can be used for the movement of space tug engines. However, truck transport is recommended for ready availability, variety of routes, short transit time, and low cost.

  6. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  7. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the ninth story in a series of chemical mysteries with emphasis on forensic chemistry, physical properties, and qualitative organic analysis. The mystery centers around the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (DDR)

  8. The History of Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the origins and development of rockets mainly from the perspective of warfare. Includes some early enthusiasts, such as Congreve, Tsiolkovosky, Goddard, and Oberth. Describes developments from World War II, and during satellite development. (YP)

  9. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Ib Schou

    2014-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  10. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  11. Nuclear deterrence - The French nuclear adventure - The cockerel's spurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensi, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    This book reveals the secrets of the French strike force: the formidable adventure which provided France with first ranking strategic forces, the incredible fight given by Europe and the European Commission states to prohibit France from acquiring nuclear weapons, the US ambiguous game of accompanying France in her nuclear adventure in order to better monitor her, the core of deterrence with its doctrine of use, and for the future, the measures which will make French deterrence a decisive tool for worldwide peace

  12. The LHIN adventure: The journey continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huras, Paul; Switzer, Gary; Eliasoph, Hy

    2015-11-01

    The Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) adventure began 10 years ago with the intent of transforming the Ontario health system by providing system-based leadership and building collaborative capacity among health service providers. The LHIN construct has continued its evolution during this time and is still in the midst of testing and reshaping the boundaries of its mandate and authority. Working closely and in tandem with the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, LHINs have grappled with governance, funding, integration, and engagement, changing the nature of relationships and the dynamics inherent across the health system. The next decade holds considerable promise for LHINs and the health system in Ontario as a whole. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  13. Autistic phenomena in The Adventures of Pinocchio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that the protagonist of Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio illustrates numerous autistic phenomena such as communication difficulties, sensory and perceptual distortions and mindblindness. While Pinocchio is viewed as a literary construct with contraindications of autism, it will be argued that his autistic traits are sufficient to suggest the possibility that Collodi had a partial intuition of the syndrome 60 years before it was identified by Leo Kanner. Approaching Collodi's text in this manner is taken as an opportunity to survey and reflect upon the psychoanalytic literature on autism and to position it in relation to contemporary theories from cognitive neuroscience. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. KEMASAN PAKET WISATA JATILUWIH SIGHTSEEING AND ADVENTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Sri Lestari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses and examines potential identification and package tour in Tabanan regency. Qualitative approaches were applied in this research. The data were collected by using observation techniques, in-depths interviews, and documentation technique. Informant and key informant techniques were used to determine the informantion. This study used descriptive qualitative data analysis techniques with three steps which are data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. In this study, showed potential identifications taken place in Alas Kedaton, Jatiluwih, Batukaru Temple, Subak Museum, and Tengkudak Village. The packaging of this package tour with itinerary such as visit the Subak Museum, Tengkudak village adventure, visit Jatiluwih, sightseeing in Batukaru temple, sightseeing in Alas Kedaton and shopping in Krisna oleh-oleh. This package tour was presented in tabulated style, Graphic style as well as the calculation of travel costs.

  15. US Rocket Propulsion Industrial Base Health Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    The number of active liquid rocket engine and solid rocket motor development programs has severely declined since the "space race" of the 1950s and 1960s center dot This downward trend has been exacerbated by the retirement of the Space Shuttle, transition from the Constellation Program to the Space launch System (SLS) and similar activity in DoD programs center dot In addition with consolidation in the industry, the rocket propulsion industrial base is under stress. To Improve the "health" of the RPIB, we need to understand - The current condition of the RPIB - How this compares to past history - The trend of RPIB health center dot This drives the need for a concise set of "metrics" - Analogous to the basic data a physician uses to determine the state of health of his patients - Easy to measure and collect - The trend is often more useful than the actual data point - Can be used to focus on problem areas and develop preventative measures The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs. center dot The RPIB encompasses US government, academic, and commercial (including industry primes and their supplier base) research, development, test, evaluation, and manufacturing capabilities and facilities. center dot The RPIB includes the skilled workforce, related intellectual property, engineering and support services, and supply chain operations and management. This definition touches the five main segments of the U.S. RPIB as categorized by the USG: defense, intelligence community, civil government, academia, and commercial sector. The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs

  16. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting method is a normative forecasting technique that allows the designer to quantify the effects of adding new technologies on a given design. This method can be used to assess and identify the necessary technological improvements needed to close the gap that exists between the current design and one that satisfies all constraints imposed on the design. The TIF methodology allows for more design knowledge to be brought to the earlier phases of the design process, making use of tools such as Quality Function Deployments, Morphological Matrices, Response Surface Methodology, and Monte Carlo Simulations.2 This increased knowledge allows for more informed decisions to be made earlier in the design process, resulting in shortened design cycle time. This paper will investigate applying the TIF method, which has been widely used in aircraft applications, to the conceptual design of a hydrocarbon rocket engine. In order to reinstate a manned presence in space, the U.S. must develop an affordable and sustainable launch capability. Hydrocarbon-fueled rockets have drawn interest from numerous major government and commercial entities because they offer a low-cost heavy-lift option that would allow for frequent launches1. However, the development of effective new hydrocarbon rockets would likely require new technologies in order to overcome certain design constraints. The use of advanced design methods, such as the TIF method, enables the designer to identify key areas in need of improvement, allowing one to dial in a proposed technology and assess its impact on the system. Through analyses such as this one, a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-fueled vehicle that meets all imposed requirements can be achieved.

  17. Thermo-acoustic instabilities of high-frequency combustion in rocket engines; Instabilites thermo-acoustiques de combustion haute-frequence dans les moteurs fusees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheuret, F

    2005-10-15

    Rocket motors are confined environments where combustion occurs in extreme conditions. Combustion instabilities can occur at high frequencies; they are tied to the acoustic modes of the combustion chamber. A common research chamber, CRC, allows us to study the response of a turbulent two-phase flame to acoustic oscillations of low or high amplitudes. The chamber is characterised under cold conditions to obtain, in particular, the relative damping coefficient of acoustic oscillations. The structure and frequency of the modes are determined in the case where the chamber is coupled to a lateral cavity. We have used a powder gun to study the response to a forced acoustic excitation at high amplitude. The results guide us towards shorter flames. The injectors were then modified to study the combustion noise level as a function of injection conditions. The speed of the gas determines whether the flames are attached or lifted. The noise level of lifted flames is higher. That of attached flames is proportional to the Weber number. The shorter flames whose length is less than the radius of the CRC, necessary condition to obtain an effective coupling, are the most sensitive to acoustic perturbations. The use of a toothed wheel at different positions in the chamber allowed us to obtain informations on the origin of the thermo-acoustic coupling, main objective of this thesis. The flame is sensitive to pressure acoustic oscillations, with a quasi-zero response time. These observations suggest that under the conditions of the CRC, we observe essentially the response of chemical kinetics to pressure oscillations. (author)

  18. Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

  19. A constraints-based approach to the acquisition of expertise in outdoor adventure sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Keith; Brymer, Eric; Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A constraints-based framework enables a new understanding of expertise in outdoor adventure sports by considering performer-environment couplings through emergent and self-organizing behaviours in relation to interacting constraints. Expert adventure athletes, conceptualized as complex, dynamical

  20. SSTO rockets. A practical possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1994-07-01

    Most experts agree that single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rockets would become feasible if more advanced technologies were available to reduce the vehicle dry weight, increase propulsion system performance, or both. However, these technologies are usually judged to be very ambitious and very far off. This notion persists despite major advances in technology and vehicle design in the past decade. There appears to be four major misperceptions about SSTOs, regarding their mass fraction, their presumed inadequate performance margin, their supposedly small payloads, and their extreme sensitivity to unanticipated vehicle weight growth. These misperceptions can be dispelled for SSTO rockets using advanced technologies that could be matured and demonstrated in the near term. These include a graphite-composite primary structure, graphite-composite and Al-Li propellant tanks with integral reusable thermal protection, long-life tripropellant or LOX-hydrogen engines, and several technologies related to operational effectiveness, including vehicle health monitoring, autonomous avionics/flight control, and operable launch and ground handling systems.

  1. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  2. The Eustress Paradigm: A Strategy for Decreasing Stress in Wilderness Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrellas, Anjanette

    This essay proposes that stress has been misused in traditional adventure education and presents a new model of risk taking based on the literature on stress and feminist perspectives in adventure education. Proponents of the traditional adventure perspective state that the intentional use of stress is central to the change process in wilderness…

  3. Adolescent Girls and Body Image: Influence of Outdoor Adventure on Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Wilson, Susie K.; Roberts, Nina S.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor adventure may improve body image. However, minimal research exists on the effect outdoor adventure has on body image in adolescent girls, a demographic continually plagued by negative body image. In response, this exploratory study considered the influence of one outdoor adventure program in the San Francisco Bay Area. Through…

  4. Adventures with cyanobacteria: a personal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindjee e

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, or the blue-green algae as they used to be called until 1974, are the oldest oxygenic photosynthesizers. We summarize here adventures with them since the early 1960s. This includes studies on light absorption by cyanobacteria, excitation energy transfer at room temperature down to liquid helium temperature, fluorescence (kinetics as well as spectra and its relationship to photosynthesis, and afterglow (or thermoluminescence from them. Further, we summarize experiments on their two-light reaction - two-pigment system, as well as the unique role of bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate on the electron acceptor side of their photosystem II, PSII. This review, in addition, includes a discussion on the regulation of changes in phycobilins (mostly in PSII and chlorophyll a (Chl a; mostly in photosystem I, PSI under oscillating light, on the relationship of the slow fluorescence increase (the so-called S to M rise, especially in the presence of diuron in minute time scale with the so-called state-changes, and on the possibility of limited oxygen evolution in mixotrophic PSI (minus mutants, up to 30 minutes, in the presence of glucose. We end this review with a brief discussion on the position of cyanobacteria in the evolution of photosynthetic systems.

  5. SOTUNKI: An Island Of Education and Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi HEIKKILÄ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Last year some of the teachers of Sotunki Distance Learning Centre set out to find a new approach to teaching different subjects in Upper Secondary School. We wanted to do this by using social media and finally decided on using Second Life. I think social media like Second Life can offer a lot to our students who study via internet and rarely meet each other or their teachers. In Second Life students can meet their teachers, guidance counselors and fellow students face to face and in real time. This brings more interaction to the learning process and gives the students a chance to get to know each other. Also the interaction in Second Life is slightly different – it gives us teachers a different kind of chance to get to know our students better in a more informal way. There were many decisions to make when we first started building our school. We started by deciding on whether we wanted to have a traditional school building with traditional classrooms in it – and decided against it. Why repeat the real world in Second Life? What is the point of using a virtual world if not to benefit from the possibilities that the real world does not have? So we set out to do something new and extraordinary: instead of a school house we have a mountainous jungle waiting for explorers, and instead of classrooms we have lots of different innovations customized to fit the virtual world. It is important to us that students want to explore our island and learn while exploring it: learning can be a real adventure.I chose the course of history of literature as my project because Second Life has wonderful tools for creating historical settings. Building a pathway came naturally too: the history of literature is linear by nature; a pathway is its natural form. There are plenty of time periods in literature that have distinctive styles but I could not include them all. Finally I decided to build information points for eight different stylistic periods

  6. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  7. This Is Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical than that offered by Estes Industries, but more basic than the analysis of Nelson et al. In particular, drag is neglected until the very end of the exercise, which allows the concept of conservation of energy to be shown when predicting the rocket's flight. Also, the variable mass of the rocket motor is assumed to decrease linearly during the flight (while the propulsion charge and recovery delay charge are burning) and handled simplistically by using an average mass value. These changes greatly simplify the equations needed to predict the times and heights at various stages of flight, making it more useful as a review of basic physics. Details about model rocket motors, range safety, and other supplemental information may be found online at Apogee Components4 and the National Association of Rocketry.5

  8. The Relativistic Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  9. This "Is" Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical…

  10. ROCKETS: Soar to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Christine E. W.; O'Merle, Mary Jane; White, Gene

    2017-01-01

    This article describes ROCKETS, an after-school program for at-risk youth, and how the university students became involved in this service-learning project. The article discusses the steps that were taken to start the program, what is being done to continue the program, and the challenges that faculty have faced. This program is an authentic…

  11. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  12. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  13. Liquid Oxygen Rotating Friction Ignition Testing of Aluminum and Titanium with Monel and Inconel for Rocket Engine Propulsion System Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, S.; Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    Metallic contaminant was found in the liquid oxygen (LOX) pre-valve screen of the shuttle main engine propulsion system on two orbiter vehicles. To investigate the potential for an ignition, NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility performed (modified) rotating friction ignition testing in LOX. This testing simulated a contaminant particle in the low-pressure oxygen turbo pump (LPOTP) and the high-pressure oxygen turbo pump (HPOTP) of the shuttle main propulsion system. Monel(R) K-500 and Inconel(R) 718 samples represented the LPOTP and HPOTP materials. Aluminum foil tape and titanium foil represented the contaminant particles. In both the Monel(R) and Inconel(R) material configurations, the aluminum foil tape samples did not ignite after 30 s of rubbing. In contrast, all of the titanium foil samples ignited regardless of the rubbing duration or material configuration. However, the titanium foil ignitions did not propagate to the Monel and Inconel materials.

  14. Design considerations for a pressure-driven multi-stage rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Steven Craig

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using propellant tank pressurization to eliminate the use of high-pressure turbopumps in multi-stage liquid-fueled satellite launchers. Several new technologies were examined to reduce the mass of such a rocket. Composite materials have a greater strength-to-weight ratio than metals and can be used to reduce the weight of rocket propellant tanks and structure. Catalytically combined hydrogen and oxygen can be used to heat pressurization gas, greatly reducing the amount of gas required. Ablatively cooled rocket engines can reduce the complexity and cost of the rocket. Methods were derived to estimate the mass of the various rocket components. These included a method to calculate the amount of gas needed to pressurize a propellant tank by modeling the behavior of the pressurization gas as the liquid propellant flows out of the tank. A way to estimate the mass and size of a ablatively cooled composite cased rocket engine. And a method to model the flight of such a rocket through the atmosphere in conjunction with optimization of the rockets trajectory. The results show that while a liquid propellant rocket using tank pressurization are larger than solid propellant rockets and turbopump driven liquid propellant rockets, they are not impractically large.

  15. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  16. Matołek Broda. Creative and publishing adventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Staroń

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to the creative process and the editorial fate of The Adventures of Matołek the Billy-Goat by Kornel Makuszyński. It contains collected informations on the appearance of an idea for a book-comic for children (as told by Makuszyński’s wife – Janina, Marian Walentynowicz, Jan Gebethner, through the actual process of writing, the first edition and post-war issue. Also it discusses drawings from The 120 adventures of Matołek the Billy-Goat which sometimes differ quite significantly depending on the edition.

  17. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  18. Significant profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Jeanette Lötter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different adventure activities/experiences evolve because individuals, their motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. This notion illustrates the broad nature of adventure tourism and its links with other forms of tourism. In turn, adventure tourism companies are compelled to promote/sell an array of activities/experiences to a diverse range of markets as novel and exclusive experiences to facilitate the growth of adventure holidays (Swarbrooke et al., 2003. To assist adventure tourism companies in achieving effective marketing strategies, the study’s objective is to identify significant sociopsychological profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa. Furthermore, to facilitate the comparison of adventure tourists’ profiles, an equal number of respondents were male (117 and female (117, which provided a 93.6% response rate. In comparison to female respondents, male respondents prefer winter as a season to participate in hard/high-risk adventure activities when they are with or without their family, and they participate in adventure activities for travelling and socialising purposes. Whereas, female respondents predominantly regard scuba-diving, abseiling, and helicopter flights as a hard/high-risk adventure activity, although these activities are generally regarded by the overall sample as being soft/low-risk adventure activities. Furthermore, even though females’ participation in adventure activities is sponsored, they did not participate or only participated in adventure activities once over the past year due to fear/risk and/or lack of skill. This study established that there is a need to further research adventure tourists’ profiles before it could be equally accepted and interpreted.

  19. The relativistic rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.

  20. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Simulation in NPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, Michael L.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Four nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) models have been created in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. The models are divided into two categories. One set is based upon the ZrC-graphite composite fuel element and tie tube-style reactor developed during the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) project in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The other reactor set is based upon a W-UO2 ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuel element. Within each category, a small and a large thrust engine are modeled. The small engine models utilize RL-10 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 33.4 kN (7,500 lbf ). The large engine models utilize scaled RL-60 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 111.2 kN (25,000 lbf ). Power deposition profiles for each reactor were obtained from a detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) model of the reactor cores. Performance factors such as thermodynamic state points, thrust, specific impulse, reactor power level, and maximum fuel temperature are analyzed for each engine design.

  1. The impact of an adventure based experiential learning programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an adventure based experiential learning programme (AEP) in developing the life effectiveness of black high school learners. “Life Effectiveness” reflects the psychological and behavioural aspects of human functioning which determine the proficiency of a person in society.

  2. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  3. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  4. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  5. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  6. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation: Camphor to Vitamin B12. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 593-623 ... Keywords. Camphor; vitamin B12; art of creation.

  7. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  8. “Soldiers of paint”: Relationship between leisure adventure combat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adventure sports tourism has shown consistent growth during the last several decades as a leisure activity that stands as an antithesis of traditional leisure tourism. ... An exploratory factor analysis on the leisure aspects of paintball, positive sport lifestyle, leisure and recreation life domain positive/negative effect and quality ...

  9. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Challenge/Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.

    This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the…

  10. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  11. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  12. Cardiovascular disease in the Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, S V

    2001-03-12

    The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle contains many incidents of medical interest. While disorders of the cardiovascular system do not play an important role in these tales, there are, nevertheless, some illnesses that invite speculation. Eleven such incidents are reviewed and discussed in light of the times in which they occurred and in light of current medical knowledge.

  13. Challenges in the delivery of adventure education: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This qualitative study explored the substantive issues and challenges faced by Physical Education teachers in delivering adventure education in the context of Botswana junior secondary schools. In the first stage of the study, 22 respondents completed a semi-structured questionnaire requesting information pertaining to the ...

  14. The effect of adventure-based experiential learning on personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Adventure-based Experiential Learning (AEL) in developing the personal effectiveness of adolescents. Twenty three adolescents, currently enrolled in a post-matriculation development centre were studied. The study consisted of an experimental (n=12) and ...

  15. The Writing Process for "Edutaining" CD-ROM Adventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Lee

    2000-01-01

    Describes a CD-ROM adventure story written by the author to educate her students about the word relationships of synonyms and antonyms. Discusses how this interactive medium put a different twist on each of the stages of the writing process itself. Relates how two students enthusiastically used the program, and were inspired to write one of their…

  16. An Environmental Scan of Adventure Therapy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Patrick, Krysten; Corbould, Gordon Marcus; Harper, Nevin J.; Oddson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an environmental scan (ES) of adventure therapy (AT) literature, organizations, and activities in Canada. The ES methodology involved (a) an examination of final reports related to a series of national symposiums on AT in Canada, (b) a review of academic literature related to AT in Canada, and (c) a summary of AT programs and courses…

  17. Evaluation of Team Development in a Corporate Adventure Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Jim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An intact work unit of 17 corporate managers participated in a 3-day adventure training program to develop teamwork and group unity. The unit improved significantly on 8 of 10 items of the Team Development Inventory, administered before and 2 months after training, relative to an intact control group. (SV)

  18. Locating opportunities for outdoor action and adventure recreation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper indicates how modern spatial computing technology can be used for developing spatial policy for, and planning of outdoor action and adventure recreation and tourism (OAART). An application was performed in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The research overviews spatial recreation and tourism ...

  19. The Censorship of the "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn": An Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Michele V.

    1984-01-01

    Explores reasons why "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" has been continuously censored from its publication in 1885 to present. Historical precedents for censorship of library materials in the United States and specific censorship attempts are discussed. Controversial passages are examined in light of both praise and criticism.…

  20. Re-Examining Group Development in Adventure Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraaf, Don; Ashby, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Small-group development is an important aspect of adventure therapy. Supplementing knowledge of sequential stages of group development with knowledge concerning within-stage nonsequential development yields a richer understanding of groups. Integrating elements of the individual counseling relationship (working alliance, transference, and real…

  1. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  2. The Social System in Outdoor Adventure Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Jostad, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the social system interact with one another to produce group-level behavior that determines the functionality of the small group in outdoor adventure education (OAE). This article synthesizes the contemporary literature and theory regarding eight aspects of the OAE social system: (a) Macro Contextual Factors, (b) Student…

  3. Turbopump Design and Analysis Approach for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shucheng S.; Veres, Joseph P.; Fittje, James E.

    2006-01-01

    A rocket propulsion system, whether it is a chemical rocket or a nuclear thermal rocket, is fairly complex in detail but rather simple in principle. Among all the interacting parts, three components stand out: they are pumps and turbines (turbopumps), and the thrust chamber. To obtain an understanding of the overall rocket propulsion system characteristics, one starts from analyzing the interactions among these three components. It is therefore of utmost importance to be able to satisfactorily characterize the turbopump, level by level, at all phases of a vehicle design cycle. Here at the NASA Glenn Research Center, as the starting phase of a rocket engine design, specifically a Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine design, we adopted the approach of using a high level system cycle analysis code (NESS) to obtain an initial analysis of the operational characteristics of a turbopump required in the propulsion system. A set of turbopump design codes (PumpDes and TurbDes) were then executed to obtain sizing and performance parameters of the turbopump that were consistent with the mission requirements. A set of turbopump analyses codes (PUMPA and TURBA) were applied to obtain the full performance map for each of the turbopump components; a two dimensional layout of the turbopump based on these mean line analyses was also generated. Adequacy of the turbopump conceptual design will later be determined by further analyses and evaluation. In this paper, descriptions and discussions of the aforementioned approach are provided and future outlooks are discussed

  4. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  5. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  6. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway

  7. Adventures in Evaluation: Reviewing a CD-ROM Based Adventure Game Designed for Young People Recovering from Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Bradley; Hurworth, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Recently the Centre for Program Evaluation (CPE) at the University of Melbourne was approached by a mental health agency to undertake the unique and challenging task of evaluating a prototype CD-ROM based adventure game designed for young people recovering from psychosis. This unusual and inventive game, titled Pogo's Pledge, used…

  8. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI PERMAINAN ADVENTURE OF FRUNIMAL UNTUK EDUKASI BAHASA INGGRIS BERBASIS ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ridwan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah aplikasi permainan berjenis platformer game yang menghibur dengan tema buah dan hewan dalam bahasa inggris, dan untuk mengetahui kualitas aplikasi permainan tersebut menggunakan standar ISO 25010 dari aspek functional suitability, performance efficiency, compatibility, dan usability. Hasil dari penelitian dapat diketahui bahwa game edukasi bahasa Inggris “Adventure of Frunimal” berhasil dikembangkan dengan game engine Construct2 dengan metode pengembangan Multimedia Luther. Pengujian pada aspek functional suitability sudah memenuhi standar AQuA, pada aspek performance efficiency sudah memenuhi ambang batas aman yang ditetapkan oleh Little Eye dan tidak terjadi memory leak, pada aspek compatibility dapat berjalan pada OS Android dari versi Ice Cream Sandwich sampai Marshmallow, dan pada aspek usability secara keseluruhan didapatkan hasil baik dalam hal kegunaan, mudah digunakan dan dipelajari serta memuaskan.

  9. Rocket Assembly and Checkout Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Integrates, tests, and calibrates scientific instruments flown on sounding rocket payloads. The scientific instruments are assembled on an optical bench;...

  10. Nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Miller, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. An Interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and FY 1991, discusses the progress to date, and reviews the project plan. Critical technology issues have been identified and include: nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; nuclear system ground test; safety; autonomous system operation and health monitoring; minimum mass and high specific impulse

  11. How safe is adventure tourism in New Zealand? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, T; Page, S; Meyer, D; Chalmers, D; Laird, I

    2001-08-01

    The paper reports findings from a multidisciplinary programme of research, the major aims of which were to determine the nature and extent of the New Zealand adventure tourism injury problem. Analysis of hospital discharge and mortality data for a 15-year period identified adventure tourism-related activities as contributing to approximately 20% of overseas visitor injuries, and 22% of fatalities. Activities that commonly involve independent-unguided adventure tourism, notably mountaineering, skiing and tramping, contributed most to injury and fatality incidence. Horse riding and cycling activities were identified from hospital discharge data and adventure tourism operators' reported client injury-incidence, as the commercial adventure tourism activities most frequently involved in client injuries. Falls were the most common injury events, and a range of client, equipment, environmental and organisational risk factors were identified. Possible interventions to reduce injury risk among overseas and domestic adventure tourists are discussed.

  12. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  13. Additively Manufactured Ceramic Rocket Engine Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HRL Laboratories, LLC, with Vector Space Systems (VSS) as subcontractor, has a 24-month effort to develop additive manufacturing technology for reinforced ceramic...

  14. Rocket and Missile Container Engineering Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    provide the required rigidity. TABLE 9-4. GROUP IV WOODS Ash Beech Birch Elm, hard Hackberry Hickory Locust Maple, hard Oak Pecan Stacking...SWEDEN ·., FRANCE SWITZERLAND GREECE NETHERLANDS HUNGARY ITALY LUXEMBOURG GERMANY POLAND NORWAY ROMANIA YUGOSLAVIA FLAT CAR ITEM LENGTH 32’ 10

  15. Construction and Design of Rocket Engines,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-12

    dIrop and an incrsase in 6th- particle speea iqmains frcm a change- in thi PAGE z:rr-4ioondJna oaranz*-rs of jas, 4Lz conditi.ons thA lcss=’s of scifi ...which the coolant is introduced inside the chamber/camera and is created a wall layer of gas of a reduced temperature, is called internal cr film . For the...liquid films , which are generated with the spreading of the streams of propellant components on the plate, collide, prcviding their good fragmentation

  16. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  17. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  18. Solid rocket motor cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  19. Numerical simulation of divergent rocket-based-combined-cycle performances under the flight condition of Mach 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.

  20. Micro-Rockets for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jay S.; Fletcher, Alice S.; Cato, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Compares micro-rockets to commercial models and water rockets. Finds that micro-rockets are more advantageous because they are constructed with inexpensive and readily available materials and can be safely launched indoors. (CCM)

  1. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.

    2008-01-01

    To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts

  2. Ablative Material Testing at Lewis Rocket Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The increasing demand for a low-cost, reliable way to launch commercial payloads to low- Earth orbit has led to the need for inexpensive, expendable propulsion systems for new launch vehicles. This, in turn, has renewed interest in less complex, uncooled rocket engines that have combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles fabricated from ablative materials. A number of aerospace propulsion system manufacturers have utilized NASA Lewis Research Center's test facilities with a high degree of success to evaluate candidate materials for application to new propulsion devices.

  3. Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 2 Agenda • Solid Rocket Motors • History of Sea Level Testing • Small Component Testing • Full-scale Testing • Altitude...Facility • History of Testing • Questions -Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 3 RQ-West • AFRL/RQ...INTEGRATION FACILITY NATIONAL HOVER TEST FACILITY TITAN SRM TEST FACILITY TS-1C1-125 LARGE ENGINE/COMPONENT TEST FACILITY TS-1A 1-120 1-115 X-33 LAUNCH

  4. Is ecotourism an alternative to adventure tourism in El Chaco?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polanco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El Chaco is one of the cantons has excelled in adventure tourism. However, since 2006 this activity has not broken and tourism has been separated from the local development. The objective of the present investigation is to find out the issues that affect the adventure tourism in El Chaco and to propose a new tourism product regarding the zone possibilities. In order to obtain the results, it has been developed a theoretical and methodological investigation focused in interviews and social cartography in Gonzalo Díaz de Pineda and in the cantonal head El Chaco. The main results denote the lack of organization, the high costs and the impacts generated by the construction of the Coca Codo Sinclair hydroelectric power plant. These results make visible the problems and support the suggestion of practicing ecotourism as a new choice of local development in the region.

  5. Mythic Frodo and his Predestinate Call to Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of J.R.R. Tolkien’s stories, especially The Lord of the Rings is the presentation of the multidimensional characters; therefore, the complexity of interpretations concerning their actions, motives, and aims will be manifested from the beginning of the story, until the end. Following the study of a mythic hero’s adventure, initiation, and psychological aspects, the present paper focuses on the investigation of Predestinate Call to Adventure. The researcher has benefited the theories of Joseph Campbell, presented in his renowned book The Hero with a Thousand Faces and the supplementary comments of Christopher Vogler. In fact, the researcher’s motivation for the work initiated in this regard is to improve the very few previous attempts studied by others, concerning Frodo Baggins’ role as the main and the most tragic hero of The Lord of the Rings.

  6. Split, Croatia - Educational, Adventurous and Sustainable Tourism Destination

    OpenAIRE

    Chabik, Szymon; Imran, Md. Azim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create an audio-visual documentation about an educational trip to Split, Croatia. The trip took place in April, 2014. The educational tour was organized by Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The destination, Split, were chosen by participants’ vote. The tour was arranged and planned by a group of students and the theme of the tour was Educational Tourism. The entire trip was taken into consideration from sustainable, Adventure and educational po...

  7. CREATING NEW MARKETING STRATEGY FOR CASE COMPANY ADVENTURE NET

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, Hristina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create new, more successful marketing strategy for case company Adventure Net through analyzing the current marketing strategy and market environment of the company. The tools included in the theoretical part were used to analyze the market environment and marketing strategy. The analyzing tools included were PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Ecologic, Legal) analysis, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats, Opportunities) analysis and com...

  8. How Does Rocket Propulsion Work? The most common answer to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internal combustion engines. The fuel or propellant is stored in the fuel tank. Here we will consider liquid hydrogen as the fuel. For the combustion to take place in outer space or in the absence of atmospheric oxygen the rocket carries along an oxidizer; here we will consider liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. The oxidizer or in.

  9. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  10. Laser-Induced Emissions Sensor for Soot Mass in Rocket Plumes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method is proposed to measure soot mass concentration non-intrusively from a distance in a rocket engine exhaust stream during ground tests using laser-induced...

  11. Two-Rockets Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    Let n>=2 be identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1, v2, ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. Let's focus on two arbitrary rockets Ri and Rjfrom the previous n rockets. Let's suppose, without loss of generality, that their speeds verify virocket Rj is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Lj =Lj' C(vj -vi) .(2) But in the reference frame of the astronaut in Rjit is like rocket Rjis stationary andRi moves with the speed vj -vi in opposite direction. Therefore, similarly, the non-proper time interval as measured by the astronaut inRj with respect to the event inRi is dilated with the same factor D(vj -vi) , i.e. Δtj . i = Δt' D(vj -vi) , and rocketRi is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Li =Li' C(vj -vi) .But it is a contradiction to have time dilations in both rockets. (3) Varying i, j in {1, 2, ..., n} in this Thought Experiment we get again other multiple contradictions about time dilations. Similarly about length contractions, because we get for a rocket Rj, n-2 different length contraction factors: C(vj -v1) , C(vj -v2) , ..., C(vj -vj - 1) , C(vj -vj + 1) , ..., C(vj -vn) simultaneously! Which is abnormal.

  12. X-ray Radiography Measurements of Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    Shear coaxial jets can be found in a number of combustion devices – Turbofan engine exhaust , air blast furnaces, and liquid rocket engines ...water and gaseous nitro-gen as propellant simulants at atmospheric backpressure , the effect of momentum flux ratio and mass flux ratio, are...the effect of momentum flux ratio, mass flux ratio and post thickness on the liquid mass distribution – Use quantitative centerline profiles to

  13. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  14. Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, A.

    2008-12-01

    Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they

  15. Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancati, M.L.; Collins, J.T.; Borowski, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits

  16. The Meaning Associated with the Experience of a Sea Kayaking Adventure among Adults with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Eagan

    2004-01-01

    What is the meaning associated with participation in an outdoor adventure for a person with a disability? A number of studies have investigated the topic of adventure program outcomes for people with and without disabilities. The author located two studies about kayaking with individuals with disabilities: 1) Siegel Taylor and Evans McGruder (1995) found “subjects...

  17. Adventure Counseling as an Adjunct to Group Counseling in Hospital and Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.; Balkin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Adventure counseling has been thought of as a highly specialized application of group counseling skills in a wilderness environment. In fact, adventure counseling is based on a developmental theory of group, can be useful for a variety of clients, and can be thoughtfully integrated into clinical and hospital settings. This article describes the…

  18. Outdoor Education Opportunities for Middle School Students: Academic and Social Impacts of Adventure Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines components of outdoor adventure programs for middle school students, using a school with a successful program as a model. Outdoor education is often left out of these years for financial and safety reasons, however the benefits of adventure programs are both measurable and profound to self-concept, confidence, identity growth,…

  19. Effects of a Developmental Adventure on the Self-Esteem of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Linda; Brassard, Audrey; Guérin, Audrey; Fortin-Chevalier, Justine; Tanguay-Beaudoin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of outdoor developmental adventure programming (ODA) on college students' self-esteem. Although some previous studies have shown that outdoor adventure programming has positive effects on self-esteem, others did not find any effect. A quasi-experimental study was conducted over 5 months, which included two pretests…

  20. The Romance of Risk: Adventure's Incorporation in Risk Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Adventure has outgrown its use as a metaphor and motive for educational journeys into the cultural outdoors. Self-reliance cannot counter the mechanisation of everyday life. "Adventure" is produced and serviced by the very people who felt its worth to their own individualisation and now advance its professionalisation for their own…

  1. Connecting to the Good Life through Outdoor Adventure Leadership Experiences Designed for Indigenous Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Wabano, Mary Jo; Corbiere, Rita G.; Restoule, Brenda M.; Russell, Keith C.; Young, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous voices are largely silent in the outdoor education and adventure therapy literature. The purpose of this research collaboration was to understand how a 10-day outdoor adventure leadership experience (OALE) may promote resilience and well-being for Indigenous youth through their participation in the program. The process was examined…

  2. Theodore von Karman - Rocket Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seminal contributions to several areas of fluid and solid mechanics, as the first head of ... nent position in Aeronautics research, as a pioneer of rocket science in America ... toral work, however, was on the theory of buckling of large structures.

  3. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  4. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  5. Risk Stratification for Athletes and Adventurers in High-Altitude Environments: Recommendations for Preparticipation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aaron D; McIntosh, Scott E; Nyberg, Andy; Powell, Amy P; Schoene, Robert B; Hackett, Peter

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude athletes and adventurers face a number of environmental and medical risks. Clinicians often advise participants or guiding agencies before or during these experiences. Preparticipation evaluation (PPE) has the potential to reduce risk of high-altitude illnesses in athletes and adventurers. Specific conditions susceptible to high-altitude exacerbation also important to evaluate include cardiovascular and lung diseases. Recommendations by which to counsel individuals before participation in altitude sports and adventures are few and of limited focus. We reviewed the literature, collected expert opinion, and augmented principles of a traditional sport PPE to accommodate the high-altitude wilderness athlete/adventurer. We present our findings with specific recommendations on risk stratification during a PPE for the high-altitude athlete/adventurer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Pablo

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

  7. Potential climate impact of black carbon emitted by rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Martin; Mills, Michael; Toohey, Darin

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. A global climate model predicts that emissions from a fleet of 1000 launches per year of suborbital rockets would create a persistent layer of black carbon particles in the northern stratosphere that could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical stratospheric ozone abundances are predicted to change as much as 1%, while polar ozone changes by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures change as much as one degree K regionally with significant impacts on polar sea ice fractions. After one decade of continuous launches, globally averaged radiative forcing from the black carbon would exceed the forcing from the emitted CO2 by a factor of about 105 and would be comparable to the radiative forcing estimated from current subsonic aviation.

  8. An International Polar Year Adventure in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.

    2008-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. The program's student body is approximately 94 percent Alaska Native. RAHI students take classes that earn them seven to ten college credits, thus giving them a head start on college. Courses include: writing, study skills, desk top publishing, Alaska Native dance or swimming, and a choice of biochemistry, math, business, or engineering. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities to make up the RAHI program of early preparation for college. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. They are treated as honors students and are expected to meet all rigorous academic and social standards set by the program. All of this effort and activity support the principal goal of RAHI: promoting academic success for rural students in college. Over 26 years, 1,200 students have attended the program. Sixty percent of RAHI's alumni have entered four-year academic programs. Over 245 have earned a bachelor's degree, thirty-one have earned master's degrees, and seven have graduated with professional degrees (J.D., Pharm., or M.D.), along with 156 associate degrees and certificates. In looking at the RAHI cohort, removing those students who have not been in college long enough to obtain a degree, 27.3 percent of RAHI alums have received a bachelor's degree. An April 2006 report by the American Institutes for Research through the National Science Foundation found that: Rural

  9. Turbopump options for nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissell, W.R.; Gunn, S.V.

    1992-07-01

    Several turbopump options for delivering liquid nitrogen to nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines were evaluated and compared. Axial and centrifugal flow pumps were optimized, with and without boost pumps, utilizing current design criteria within the latest turbopump technology limits. Two possible NTR design points were used, a modest pump pressure rise of 1,743 psia and a relatively higher pump pressure rise of 4,480 psia. Both engines utilized the expander cycle to maximize engine performance for the long duration mission. Pump suction performance was evaluated. Turbopumps with conventional cavitating inducers were compared with zero NPSH (saturated liquid in the tanks) pumps over a range of tank saturation pressures, with and without boost pumps. Results indicate that zero NSPH pumps at high tank vapor pressures, 60 psia, are very similar to those with the finite NPSHs. At low vapor pressures efficiencies fall and turbine pressure ratios increase leading to decreased engine chamber pressures and or increased pump pressure discharges and attendant high-pressure component weights. It may be concluded that zero tank NSPH capabilities can be obtained with little penalty to the engine systems but boost pumps are needed if tank vapor pressure drops below 30 psia. Axial pumps have slight advantages in weight and chamber pressure capability while centrifugal pumps have a greater operating range. 10 refs

  10. 'RCHX-1-STORM' first Slovenian meteorological rocket program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago; Trauner, Amalija; Britovšek, Zvone

    2004-08-01

    Astronautic and Rocket Society Celje (ARSC) formed a special working team for research and development of a small meteorological hail suppression rocket in the 70th. The hail suppression system was established in former Yugoslavia in the late 60th as an attempt to protect important agricultural regions from one of the summer's most vicious storm. In this time Slovenia was a part of Yugoslavia as one of the federal republic with relative high developed agricultural region production. The Rocket program 'RCHX-STORM' was a second attempt, for Slovenia indigenously developed in the production of meteorological hail suppression rocket. ARSC has designed a family of small sounding rocket that were based on highly promising hybrid propellant propulsion. Hybrid propulsion was selected for this family because it was offering low cost, save production and operation and simple logistics. Conventional sounding rockets use solid propellant motor for their propulsion. The introduction of hybrid motors has enabled a considerable decrease in overall cost. The transportation handling and storage procedures were greatly simplified due to the fact that a hybrid motor was not considered as explosive matter. A hybrid motor may also be designed to stand a severe environment without resorting to conditioning arrangements. The program started in the late 70th when the team ARSC was integrated in the Research and Development Institute in Celje (RDIC). The development program aimed to produce three types of meteorological rockets with diameters 76, 120 and 160 mm. Development of the RCHX-76 engine and rocket vehicle including flight certification has been undertaken by a joint team comprising of the ARCS, RDIC and the company Cestno podjetje Celje (CPC), Road building company Celje. Many new techniques and methods were used in this program such as computer simulation of external and internal ballistics, composite materials for rocket construction, intensive static testing of models and

  11. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  12. Guided Rocket Weapon,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-11

    nyn;tei% (fuel/propellant ir, extruded trent the tanks by *C Cc:’ njie d g a. Work liquid-propellant engines on the same principle, as on the ~c~A t...82052705 PAGE 44-- Fig. 26. Starting/launcing of the guided winged missile * Snack ". Page 49.1 Ballistic short-range missiles. The most widely used short

  13. A medical perspective on the adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J

    2001-12-01

    The adventures of Sherlock Holmes, although primarily famous as stories of detection of crime, offer a considerable amount to interest the medical reader. There are many medical references in the stories, and the influence of Conan Doyle's medical background is clearly seen in the main characters. Aspects of the stories also reflect Conan Doyle's medical career, and also something of his attitude towards the profession. From Holmes's sayings and accounts of his methods, parallels can be drawn between Holmesian deduction and the diagnostic process. It is concluded, however, that deduction cannot be used as a direct paradigm since medical problems are rarely soluble through a process of logic alone.

  14. Wake effect in rocket observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)

  15. Multi-Rocket Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    We consider n>=2 identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1 ,v2 , ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. (1) If we consider the observer on earth and the first rocket R1, then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with the factor D(v1) : or Δt = Δt' D(v1) (1) But if we consider the observer on earth and the second rocket R2 , then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with a different factor D(v2) : or Δt = Δt' D(v2) And so on. Therefore simultaneously Δt is dilated with different factors D(v1) , D(v2), ..., D(vn) , which is a multiple contradiction.

  16. Computational study of variable area ejector rocket flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etele, Jason

    Access to space has always been a scientific priority for countries which can afford the prohibitive costs associated with launch. However, the large scale exploitation of space by the business community will require the cost of placing payloads into orbit be dramatically reduced for space to become a truly profitable commodity. To this end, this work focuses on a next generation propulsive technology called the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine in which rocket, ejector, ramjet, and scramjet cycles operate within the same engine environment. Using an in house numerical code solving the axisymmetric version of the Favre averaged Navier Stokes equations (including the Wilcox ko turbulence model with dilatational dissipation) a systematic study of various ejector designs within an RBCC engine is undertaken. It is shown that by using a central rocket placed along the axisymmetric axis in combination with an annular rocket placed along the outer wall of the ejector, one can obtain compression ratios of approximately 2.5 for the case where both the entrained air and rocket exhaust mass flows are equal. Further, it is shown that constricting the exit area, and the manner in which this constriction is performed, has a significant positive impact on the compression ratio. For a decrease in area of 25% a purely conical ejector can increase the compression ratio by an additional 23% compared to an equal length unconstricted ejector. The use of a more sharply angled conical section followed by a cylindrical section to maintain equivalent ejector lengths can further increase the compression ratio by 5--7% for a total increase of approximately 30%.

  17. Nuclear-powered rocket of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunqiao, B

    1979-06-01

    A possible manned mission to Mars with a crew of 7 in an 80-meter-long nuclear-powered rocket will take 180 days to reach its destination, will spend 10 to 14 days on the surface, and will take 200 days to return. A nuclear-powered engine (using U-235 or U-239) is the most likely means of propulsion. Four designs are described. The superheated exhaust engine will use a reactor to heat liquid hydrogen to over 4000/sup 0/C, after which it will be ejected from the exhaust. A plasma compression engine will use electric current produced by a reactor to heat hydrogen to plasma temperature (70,000/sup 0/C), after which it will be ejected through the exhaust by a magnetic field. In a gaseous-core reactor engine, gaseous fuel will heat liquid hydrogen to over 9,000/sup 0/C and use it as the propellant. The boldest solution is a proposal to use small nuclear explosions as the propulsive force. The first alternative will probably not produce enough thrust, while there will be a difficulty producing sufficient electricity in the second alternative. The other two alternatives seem promising.

  18. Aging Adventure Athletes Assess Achievements and Alter Aspirations to Maintain Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2018-01-01

    Achievements and capabilities influence the self-esteem of skilled adventure athletes. Self-esteem affects individual mental health. Aging commonly reduces adventure capabilities. To avoid loss in self-esteem, aging adventure athletes are forced to adjust their aspirations. Here, I examine this process using participant observation, ethnographic and autoethnographic approaches. The qualitative data for this analysis are derived from 60 years' experience in outdoor adventure activities, and ∼30,000 person-hours of participant observation. I argue that individuals assess their own capabilities against a set of specific feats. For some activities, successful completion of a specific feat is known as nailing it. The selection of these feats depends on factors such as activity and geographic location, as well as individual experience and peer comparisons. I examine the detailed process using a single feat repeated over a period of decades, the bubble-line kayak run through Lava Falls on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. I compare other examples of nail or fail to construct a general framework for self-esteem in aging adventure athletes, with both physical and psychological feedback loops. I also identify two key thresholds, as aging adventure athletes recognize their declining skills. These may apply to aging more broadly, beyond outdoor adventure.

  19. Aging Adventure Athletes Assess Achievements and Alter Aspirations to Maintain Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C. Buckley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Achievements and capabilities influence the self-esteem of skilled adventure athletes. Self-esteem affects individual mental health. Aging commonly reduces adventure capabilities. To avoid loss in self-esteem, aging adventure athletes are forced to adjust their aspirations. Here, I examine this process using participant observation, ethnographic and autoethnographic approaches. The qualitative data for this analysis are derived from 60 years’ experience in outdoor adventure activities, and ∼30,000 person-hours of participant observation. I argue that individuals assess their own capabilities against a set of specific feats. For some activities, successful completion of a specific feat is known as nailing it. The selection of these feats depends on factors such as activity and geographic location, as well as individual experience and peer comparisons. I examine the detailed process using a single feat repeated over a period of decades, the bubble-line kayak run through Lava Falls on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. I compare other examples of nail or fail to construct a general framework for self-esteem in aging adventure athletes, with both physical and psychological feedback loops. I also identify two key thresholds, as aging adventure athletes recognize their declining skills. These may apply to aging more broadly, beyond outdoor adventure.

  20. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  1. Rocket Science 101 Interactive Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Dennis; Funkhouse, Deborah; DiMarzio, Donald

    2007-01-01

    To better educate the public on the basic design of NASA s current mission rockets, Rocket Science 101 software has been developed as an interactive program designed to retain a user s attention and to teach about basic rocket parts. This program also has helped to expand NASA's presence on the Web regarding educating the public about the Agency s goals and accomplishments. The software was designed using Macromedia s Flash 8. It allows the user to select which type of rocket they want to learn about, interact with the basic parts, assemble the parts to create the whole rocket, and then review the basic flight profile of the rocket they have built.

  2. Major accomplishments of America's nuclear rocket program (ROVER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finseth, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The United States embarked on a program to develop nuclear rocket engines in 1955. This program was known as project Rover. Initially nuclear rockets were considered as a potential backup for intercontinental ballistic missile propulsion but later proposed applications included both a lunar second stage as well as use in manned-Mars flights. Under the Rover program, 19 different reactors were built and tested during the period of 1959-1969. Additionally, several cold flow (non-fuelled) reactors were tested as well as a nuclear fuels test cell. The Rover program was terminated in 1973, due to budget constraints and an evolving political climate. The Rover program would have led to the development of a flight engine had the program continued through a logical continuation. The Rover program was responsible for a number of technological achievements. The successful operation of nuclear rocket engines on a system level represents the pinnacle of accomplishment. This paper will discuss the engine test program as well as several subsystems

  3. Nuclear rockets: High-performance propulsion for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.W.

    1994-05-01

    A new impetus to manned Mars exploration was introduced by President Bush in his Space Exploration Initiative. This has led, in turn, to a renewed interest in high-thrust nuclear thermal rocket propulsion (NTP). The purpose of this report is to give a brief tutorial introduction to NTP and provide a basic understanding of some of the technical issues in the realization of an operational NTP engine. Fundamental physical principles are outlined from which a variety of qualitative advantages of NTP over chemical propulsion systems derive, and quantitative performance comparisons are presented for illustrative Mars missions. Key technologies are described for a representative solid-core heat-exchanger class of engine, based on the extensive development work in the Rover and NERVA nuclear rocket programs (1955 to 1973). The most driving technology, fuel development, is discussed in some detail for these systems. Essential highlights are presented for the 19 full-scale reactor and engine tests performed in these programs. On the basis of these tests, the practicality of graphite-based nuclear rocket engines was established. Finally, several higher-performance advanced concepts are discussed. These have received considerable attention, but have not, as yet, developed enough credibility to receive large-scale development

  4. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale.

  5. On fundamentally new sources of energy for rockets in the early works of the pioneers of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkumov, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The research for more efficient methods of propelling a spacecraft, than can be achieved with chemical energy, was studied. During a time when rockets for space flight had not actually been built pioneers in rocket technology were already concerned with this problem. Alternative sources proposed at that time, were nuclear and solar energy. Basic engineering problems of each source were investigated.

  6. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  7. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  8. Pegasus Rocket Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A small, desk-top model of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus winged rocket booster. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable

  9. Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

  10. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  11. Significant Climate Changes Caused by Soot Emitted From Rockets in the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Ross, M.; Toohey, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine with a larger soot emission index than current kerosene rockets is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. At projected launch rates, emissions from these rockets will create a persistent soot layer in the northern middle stratosphere that would disproportionally affect the Earth’s atmosphere and cryosphere. A global climate model predicts that thermal forcing in the rocket soot layer will cause significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical ozone columns decline as much as 1%, while polar ozone columns increase by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures rise one Kelvin regionally and polar summer sea ice fractions shrink between 5 - 15%. After 20 years of suborbital rocket fleet operation, globally averaged radiative forcing (RF) from rocket soot exceeds the RF from rocket CO_{2} by six orders of magnitude, but remains small, comparable to the global RF from aviation. The response of the climate system is surprising given the small forcing, and should be investigated further with different climate models.

  12. Design study of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Shoyama, Hidetoshi; Kanda, Yukinori

    1991-01-01

    A design study was made on a rocket powered by laser fusion. Dependence of its flight performance on target gain, driver repetition rate and fuel composition was analyzed to obtain optimal design parameters of the laser fusion rocket. The results indicate that the laser fusion rocket fueled with DT or D 3 He has the potential advantages over other propulsion systems such as fission rocket for interplanetary travel. (author)

  13. Karl Poggensee - A widely unknown German rocket pioneer - The early years 1930-1934 - A chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrwild, Karlheinz

    2017-09-01

    The rediscovered estate of Karl Poggensee allows to reproduce chronologically his rocket tests of the period 1930-1934 almost completely for the first time. Thrilled by the movie ;The Woman in the Moon; for the idea of space travel, he started as a student of Hinderburg-Polytechnikum (IAO), Oldenburg, to build his first solid-fuel rocket, producing his own propellant charges. Being a coming electrical engineer his main goal was not set up new record heights, but to provide his rockets with automatic measuring instruments, camera and parachute release systems. The optimization of this sequence was his main focus.

  14. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  15. Bibliography of Books and Published Reports on Gas Turbines, Jet Propulsion, and Rocket Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-06-01

    Ink , New York, 1945. W. Ley, Rockets. Viking Press. New York. 1945. LI. S. Zim, Rockets and jets. Harcourt Brace, New York, 1945. Jet propulsion...Hausenblas, Design nomograms for turbine stages. Motortechnische Zeit. 11, 96 (Aug. 1950). S. L. Koutz et al., Effect of beat and power extraction on...Edelman, The pulsating engine-its evolution and future prospects. SAE Quart. Trans. 1, 204 (1947). R. McLarren, Project Squid probes pulsejet. Aviation

  16. GoNorth! - An Adventure Learning Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsild, M.; Doering, A.; Pregont, P.

    2008-12-01

    GoNorth! is an adventure learning series developed at the University of Minnesota in collaboration with NOMADS Online Expeditions. GoNorth! uses real-time experiences of dogsled expeditions on a multimedia saturated website at http://www.PolarHusky.com to motivate and engage millions of K-12 students and teachers. The program is free and research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007) shows that it can be adopted by any teacher who signs up to use the program. It is currently utilized in 3400+ classrooms across the 50 US States and in 29 countries worldwide. Research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007; 2008) notes that students working with GoNorth! are excited, motivated, and eager to engage with authentic tasks, solve real-world problems, collaborate with colleagues and experts, and initiate actions in their own community. Our team of educators, scientists and explorers circumnavigate the Arctic traveling by dog team to a new Arctic locale every year. Driven by an environmental question of particular relevance to the given Arctic region, each year a comprehensive natural and social science GoNorth! Curriculum & Activity Guide (450+ pages) is developed reflecting the expedition's current Arctic locale and its indigenous culture. The associated online learning environment delivers comprehensive resources about the region of travel, collaborative opportunities, live field updates and field research findings synched real-time to the curriculum. Field research relevant to understanding patterns of climate change and polar science is conducted with independent researchers featured as "Cool GoNorth! Scientists." Collaborations span from scientists at NASA and the United States Department of Agriculture to student observers in pan-Arctic communities as part of the NSF-supported initiative "What Is Climate Change to You?." This scientific research and fieldwork in turn coincides with the curriculum. The result is a community of learners on the Internet gaining knowledge from Arctic

  17. Improving student understanding in web programming material through multimedia adventure games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriasari, N. S.; Ashiddiqi, M. F.; Nurdin, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to make multimedia adventure games and find out the improvement of learners’ understanding after being given treatment of using multimedia adventure game in learning Web Programming. Participants of this study are students of class X (ten) in one of the Vocational Schools (SMK) in Indonesia. The material of web programming is a material that difficult enough to be understood by the participant therefore needed tools to facilitate the participants to understand the material. Solutions offered in this study is by using multimedia adventures game. Multimedia has been created using Construct2 and measured understood with method Non-equivalent Control Group Design. Pre-test and post-test has given to learners who received treatment using the multimedia adventure showed increase in understanding web programming material.

  18. Development of Engine Loads Methodology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR seeks to improve the definition of design loads for rocket engine components such that higher performing, lighter weight engines can be developed more...

  19. Uranium mines and French mining companies: a magnificent adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.

    2008-01-01

    The French mining adventure still arouses enthusiasm. The search for uranium began in 1945 with the creation of the Cea (Atomic Energy Board) whose one mission was to supply the nascent French nuclear programme with the necessary materials. Prospecting works were then led throughout France, Madagascar, the Ivory Coast and the French equatorial Africa. More than 60 years later the only surviving actor of this quest for uranium has become the mining department of Areva Nuclear Cycle which is itself a sub-company of Areva. The author, who was an ancient high executive of Cogema draws a detailed history of the French uranium mining industry with with its ups and downs, by analysing the impact of the 2 oil crisis and of the decline of nuclear energy in the decade following the Chernobyl accident. (A.C.)

  20. A grande aventura urbana The great urban adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Freire Prysthon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Caiafa, Janice (2007. Aventura das cidades. ensaios e etnografias. Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV. Em Aventura das cidades, Janice Caiafa reúne oito ensaios apresentados e publicados nos últimos anos. O tema central de sete deles é justamente a experiência urbana e a errância pelas metrópoles contemporâneas, o último traz à tona as questões metodológicas que permeiam as etnografias das cidades feitas pela autora. In Adventure of the Cities, Janice Caiafa compiles eight essays presented and published in recent years. The central theme of seven of these essays is, as indicated by the title, the urban experience and wandering through contemporary metropolises. The eighth essay broaches methodological issues that permeate the author's ethnographies of the city.

  1. To Capture Student Interest in Geosciences, Plan an Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, Caroline; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2011-01-01

    It is dawn, -17°C, and 4700 meters above sea level, and two young scientists are alone in a tiny tent in the middle of the immense desert of the Bolivian Altiplano. Their bicycles and sleeping bags are coated with a thin layer of ice. Muscles aching, as they did yesterday and probably will tomorrow, they shrug off their sleepiness as the sunrise heats up their tent. After a simple breakfast, the researchers peek out and feast their eyes on a stunning view of high volcanic peaks and salt lakes. They are on the Andean Geotrail, a 9-month bike adventure through the Andes mountains, from Ushuaia in Argentinean Tierra del Fuego to Nazca, Peru (see Figure 1). Their goal is to share this spectacular geological setting with primary-, secondary- and high-school students.

  2. Dynamic Music and Immersion in the Action-Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnaires each time after playing a 3rd-person action-adventure in one of three conditions accounting for (1) dynamic music, (2) non-dynamic music/low arousal potential and (3) non-dynamic music/high arousal potential......Aiming to immerse players into a new realm of drama experience, a growing number of video games utilize interactive, ‘dynamic’ music that reacts adaptively to game events. Though little is known about the involved perceptual processes, the design rationale of enhanced immersive experiences is taken...... over by public discussion including scientific accounts, despite lacking empirical validation. The present paper intends to fill this gap by hypothesizing facilitatory effects of dynamic music on attention allocation in the matching of expected and incoming expressive characteristics of concurrent...

  3. Maps to the other side adventures of a bipolar cartographer

    CERN Document Server

    DuBrul, Sascha Altman

    2013-01-01

    Part mad manifesto, part revolutionary love letter, part freight train adventure story — Maps to the Other Side is a self-reflective shattered mirror, a twist on the classic punk rock travel narrative that searches for authenticity and connection in the lives of strangers and the solidarity and limitations of underground community. Beginning at the edge of the internet age, a time when radical zine culture prefigured social networking sites, these timely writings paint an illuminated trail through a complex labyrinth of undocumented migrants, anarchist community organizers, brilliant visionary artists, revolutionary seed savers, punk rock historians, social justice farmers, radical mental health activists, and iconoclastic bridge builders. This book is a document of one person's odyssey to transform his experiences navigating the psychiatric system by building community in the face of adversity; a set of maps for how rebels and dreamers can survive and thrive in a crazy world.

  4. Current and Future Critical Issues in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaz, Homayun K.; Dix, Jeff C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to tackle several problems that are currently of great importance to NASA. In a liquid rocket engine several complex processes take place that are not thoroughly understood. Droplet evaporation, turbulence, finite rate chemistry, instability, and injection/atomization phenomena are some of the critical issues being encountered in a liquid rocket engine environment. Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) performance, combustion chamber instability analysis, 60K motor flowfield pattern from hydrocarbon fuel combustion, and 3D flowfield analysis for the Combined Cycle engine were of special interest to NASA. During the summer of 1997, we made an attempt to generate computational results for all of the above problems and shed some light on understanding some of the complex physical phenomena. For this purpose, the Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code, mainly designed for liquid rocket engine applications, was utilized. The following test cases were considered: (1) Characterization of a detonation wave in a Pulse Detonation Tube; (2) 60K Motor wall temperature studies; (3) Propagation of a pressure pulse in a combustion chamber (under single and two-phase flow conditions); (4) Transonic region flowfield analysis affected by viscous effects; (5) Exploring the viscous differences between a smooth and a corrugated wall; and (6) 3D thrust chamber flowfield analysis of the Combined Cycle engine. It was shown that the LTCP-2D and LTCP-3D codes are capable of solving complex and stiff conservation equations for gaseous and droplet phases in a very robust and efficient manner. These codes can be run on a workstation and personal computers (PC's).

  5. Metallic hydrogen: The most powerful rocket fuel yet to exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvera, Isaac F [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Cole, John W, E-mail: silvera@physics.harvard.ed [NASA MSFC, Huntsville, AL 35801 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Wigner and Huntington first predicted that pressures of order 25 GPa were required for the transition of solid molecular hydrogen to the atomic metallic phase. Later it was predicted that metallic hydrogen might be a metastable material so that it remains metallic when pressure is released. Experimental pressures achieved on hydrogen have been more than an order of magnitude higher than the predicted transition pressure and yet it remains an insulator. We discuss the applications of metastable metallic hydrogen to rocketry. Metastable metallic hydrogen would be a very light-weight, low volume, powerful rocket propellant. One of the characteristics of a propellant is its specific impulse, I{sub sp}. Liquid (molecular) hydrogen-oxygen used in modern rockets has an Isp of {approx}460s; metallic hydrogen has a theoretical I{sub sp} of 1700s. Detailed analysis shows that such a fuel would allow single-stage rockets to enter into orbit or carry economical payloads to the moon. If pure metallic hydrogen is used as a propellant, the reaction chamber temperature is calculated to be greater than 6000 K, too high for currently known rocket engine materials. By diluting metallic hydrogen with liquid hydrogen or water, the reaction temperature can be reduced, yet there is still a significant performance improvement for the diluted mixture.

  6. Stakeholders willingness to apply sustainable adventure tourism indicators: a case of Waterval Boven in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Tshipala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa and across the globe, the development of adventure tourism industry has resulted in a multitude of different types of activities, destinations, risks, impacts and unsustainable practices. The development of adventure tourism in many destinations has boosted many economies across rural communities and countries. The added benefits of developing adventure tourism in a sustainable manner include the promotion of responsible investment, infrastructure development and a host of other positive economic, social and environmental impacts. This study investigates the stakeholders will to utilise sustainable adventure tourism indicators from residents, tourists, business owners and government employees at Waterval Boven if made available. Descriptive statistics were presented; Cronbach Alpha and Chi-square tests were also applied. In general, the respondents perceived the indicators positively and felt they could assist in the sustainable development of adventure tourism. The study contributes towards the development of sustainable adventure tourism destinations that can make a significant contribution towards poverty alleviation by maximising social and economic benefits for locals, enhancing cultural heritage and reducing any negative impacts on the environment.

  7. Adventurous activities, embodiment and nature: spiritual, sensual and sustainable? Embodying environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Humberstone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines research on adventurous physical activities in nature from the perspective of the sentient body. Drawing upon ethnographic and autoethnographic research, I examine what has been termed 'peak' happenings or 'flow' which many who practise adventurous activities claim to experience through their whole body when in the 'zone'. I consider the concept of 'edgework', voluntary risk-taking, and insightful mobile and social understanding of the relationships between body, emotions and the elements, where the adventurous activity is experienced and interpreted as oneness with nature or expressed as 'spiritual' not only in high but also low risk nature-based sport. I then consider if and in what ways these knowledges may bring about greater understanding and action in relation to social and environmental justice. I argue that adventurous activities/nature-based sport may provide processes and practices that are alternative or complementary to traditional sporting 'body techniques' or 'body pedagogics'. I suggest that modern embodied adventurous practices in nature challenge dominant narratives of body/mind separation and potentially provide a pedagogic process fostering kinetic empathy. Finally I draw attention to the paradox of (re-presenting sensorial experiences of sport in nature and ask for consideration on how we interconnect with the environment when we participate in adventureous nature-based sports.

  8. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When operating...

  9. Integration of rocket turbine design and analysis through computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wayne; Boynton, Jim

    1988-01-01

    An interactive approach with engineering computer graphics is used to integrate the design and analysis processes of a rocket engine turbine into a progressive and iterative design procedure. The processes are interconnected through pre- and postprocessors. The graphics are used to generate the blade profiles, their stacking, finite element generation, and analysis presentation through color graphics. Steps of the design process discussed include pitch-line design, axisymmetric hub-to-tip meridional design, and quasi-three-dimensional analysis. The viscous two- and three-dimensional analysis codes are executed after acceptable designs are achieved and estimates of initial losses are confirmed.

  10. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  11. Determination of the availability of appropriate aged flight rocket motors. [captive tests to determine case bond separation and grain bore cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    A program to identify surplus solid rocket propellant engines which would be available for a program of functional integrity testing was conducted. The engines are classified as: (1) upper stage and apogee engines, (2) sounding rocket and launch vehicle engines, and (3) jato, sled, and tactical engines. Nearly all the engines were available because their age exceeds the warranted shelf life. The preference for testing included tests at nominal flight conditions, at design limits, and to establish margin limits. The principal failure modes of interest were case bond separation and grain bore cracking. Data concerning the identification and characteristics of each engine are tabulated. Methods for conducting the tests are described.

  12. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  13. Extension of a simplified computer program for analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to develop a computer program for the preliminary design and performance analysis of solid propellant rocket engines is discussed. The following capabilities are included as computer program options: (1) treatment of wagon wheel cross sectional propellant configurations alone or in combination with circular perforated grains, (2) calculation of ignition transients with the igniter treated as a small rocket engine, (3) representation of spherical circular perforated grain ends as an alternative to the conical end surface approximation used in the original program, and (4) graphical presentation of program results using a digital plotter.

  14. The natural-geographical basics for the development of the adventure tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalević Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adventure tourism represents traveling motivated by the wish to be in the nature. It includes both physical and cultural interaction between the nature and a tourist. The concept of “adventure” includes the wish of a guest for unusual activities and experience. This is also followed by excitement. The natural and tourist potentials of Serbia are analyzed in this work. The types of adventure tourism, for which there are favorable conditions in our country, are sorted out. Among different adventure activities the most important are: hiking, speleo tourism, rafting, cannoning, paragliding and mountain biking. Nevertheless, due to many problems this branch of tourism is undeveloped. In the analysis of the tourist space of Serbia, the beginning point is the mountain documents from the section about the development of tourism. In accordance with them and based on natural and anthropogenic resources and the potentials of Serbia, the possible ways of development of adventure tourism in Serbia are defined. The aim of this work is to draw attention to adventure tourism of Serbia and to point out the possibilities of its development based on the characteristics of the natural values. It also aims to suggest the potential areas-centers of development of this tourist branch.

  15. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  16. Adventures in supercomputing: An innovative program for high school teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, C.E.; Hicks, H.R.; Summers, B.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Staten, D.G. [Wartburg Central High School, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Within the realm of education, seldom does an innovative program become available with the potential to change an educator`s teaching methodology. Adventures in Supercomputing (AiS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is such a program. It is a program for high school teachers that changes the teacher paradigm from a teacher-directed approach of teaching to a student-centered approach. {open_quotes}A student-centered classroom offers better opportunities for development of internal motivation, planning skills, goal setting and perseverance than does the traditional teacher-directed mode{close_quotes}. Not only is the process of teaching changed, but the cross-curricula integration within the AiS materials is remarkable. Written from a teacher`s perspective, this paper will describe the AiS program and its effects on teachers and students, primarily at Wartburg Central High School, in Wartburg, Tennessee. The AiS program in Tennessee is sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  17. The adventure of nuclear energy: a scientifical and industrial history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear energy history is one of the most exciting scientifical and industrial adventure. In France, in a few decades, nuclear energy has become the main energy source for power generation. The aim of this book is to present the stakes of this challenge, to better outline the difficulties that have been encountered all along its development in order to better understand the complexness of such a development. After an overview of the successive advances of atomic and nuclear physics since more than a century, the book describes the genesis of nuclear energy, its industrial developments and its still wide open perspectives. The conclusions makes a status of the advantages and risks linked with this energy source. The book contains also the testimonies of two French nuclear actors: P. Benoist and S. David. The forewords by H. Langevin, daughter of F. and I. Joliot-Curie, stresses on the past and future role of nuclear energy in the live synergy between research and industry. (J.S.)

  18. Pre-Participation Medical Evaluation for Adventure and Wilderness Watersports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Andrew T; Young, Justin Mark J; Young, Craig

    2015-12-01

    A request for a preparticipation medical evaluation for wilderness watersports may be made by guiding agencies, instructional camps, or by patients presenting for an annual visit. Although guidelines have been published regarding preparticipation physical evaluation for traditional competitive high school and collegiate sports, little has been written about medical evaluations for those wishing to engage in wilderness and adventure watersports. in this article, we offer guidance based on literature review and expert opinion. Watersports are among the most common recreational activities in the United states and are generally safe. Drowning, however, is a significant risk, particularly in small, self-propelled craft, and among children. Medical counseling before participation in watersports should include screening for medical conditions which may impair swimming ability, including a history of seizures, heart disease, and lung disease. Physicians should also promote preventive health measures such as use of lifejackets and sun protection, as well as alcohol avoidance. Swim testing tailored to specific activities should be strongly considered for children and those with questionable swimming ability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. "My petticoat encumbrances"; the 'female adventurer' and the north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Walchester

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the northern travelogues of two women travellers from the late nineteenth century, Ethel Brilliana Tweedie’s A Winter Jaunt to Norway: with Accounts of Nansen, Ibsen, Bjornson, Brandes, and Many Others and Polar Gleams; an Account of a Voyage on the Yacht ‘Blencathra’ by Helen Peel, this article suggests that rather than presenting a polarized gendered perspective of Arctic travel, in their writing Peel and Tweedie negotiate between masculine and feminine-coded associations in order to legitimate and popularize their travels, whilst remaining within the conventions of Victorian femininity.  Of the strategies for ensuring the apparent propriety of their text, the references to clothing are highly significant on several levels. Not only could Peel and Tweedie show their adherence (or not to conventional feminine dress through their descriptions of their clothing, they could also illustrate their relationship to other travellers and the Norwegians they encountered. Thus the ‘petticoat encumbrances’ have a double function in the text. Symbolic of Victorian conventions of femininity and their limitations on women, the adherence to sartorial norms at least indicated to readers and critics of the woman traveller’s compliance with gender conventions. This achieved, the woman travel writer had more scope to embark on her remarkable journey and to write about its potential adventures with enthusiasm as a ‘female adventurer’ and still remain within the acceptable boundaries of late-Victorian femininity.

  20. 'The adventure': Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz's extraordinary stroke diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, J

    2010-01-01

    The famous Swiss writer Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz suffered a stroke at 65 years, which he called 'the adventure' or 'the accident'. He developed language disturbances suggesting crossed aphasia in a right hander with left hemiparesis. This uncommon pattern allowed him to continue to write his diary and to report his disturbances, with a unique depth and precision, especially for cognitive-emotional changes. Language and motor dysfunction recovered within a few weeks, but Ramuz complained of persisting emotional flattening alternating with irritability, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and concentration difficulty, which gave him the feeling to have become another person and to be inhabited by a stranger, whom he compared with devils. Ramuz fought several months to resume his literary activity, having the impression to have lost inspiration and creativity. However, the novels he wrote less than 6 months after stroke show no stylistic changes and have been found to be of the same quality as his previous production. Ramuz even 'used' his stroke experience in his work, in particular in a novel depicting an old man who has a stroke and dies of it. Ramuz's diary, with his own daily description of stroke features and consequences during acute and recovery phases, is a unique document in a writer of his importance, and provides invaluable information on subjective emotional and cognitive experience of stroke. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Adventures of Geo: Using comics as a learning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K. M.; Wallenta, A.

    2015-12-01

    Illustrations are a good way to visualize what is not readily seen. To take this medium a step further, we use illustrations in the form of comics as a way to teach Earth science concepts. The comic book format lends itself to engaging reading for young and old alike and has been used recently by the American Physical Society (APS) and by NASA as an outreach teaching tool. Due to their sequential nature, comic books make it easy for readers to follow a story and grasp concepts that are covered. The limited text in each panel can also help those where reading is a challenge or for those who become nervous and/or discouraged with long text passages. The illustrations also add visual clues that can aid in understanding the concepts being laid out. In the second installment of "Adventures of Geo," we use the comic book format to introduce the Moon, its formation, evolution, orbit and its interplay with Earth. The exploration of such faraway places is readily disseminated to the public through such a graphical approach. The comic books are aimed at middle school students in the New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) where Earth Science topics are covered in the curriculum.

  2. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping

  3. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  4. Nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application to Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.; Young, A.C.; Mulqueen, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Options for vehicle configurations are reviewed in which nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is used for a reference mission to Mars. The scenario assumes an opposition-class Mars transfer trajectory, a 435-day mission, and the use of a single nuclear engine with 75,000 lbs of thrust. Engine parameters are examined by calculating mission variables for a range of specific impulses and thrust/weight ratios. The reference mission is found to have optimal values of 925 s for the specific impulse and thrust/weight ratios of 4.0 and 0.06 for the engine and total stage ratios respectively. When the engine thrust/weight ratio is at least 4/1 the most critical engine parameter is engine specific impulse for reducing overall stage weight. In the context of this trans-Mars three-burn maneuver the NTR engine with an expander engine cycle is considered a more effective alternative than chemical/aerobrake and other propulsion options

  5. Designing and Building of 3D Adventure Game “Tetuko: Childhood of Ghatotkacha” Using Kinect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Basuki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the young people are not interested in the local culture as a “wayang” puppet. This condition threatens the extinction of some of the local culture that should be a mainstay of the industry entering an era of creative industries. On the other hand, theyare more interested in playing computer games as changing of people's lifestyles. It becomes our basic idea to produce a game as a creative product. The genre of this game is fighting-adventure. This game depictures a story of fighting between the baby Tetuko and giant Kala Pracona. The game uses Kinect and 3D platform technology to attract more players to feel their adventures. With Kinect technology, the player can control the character with his gesture. Thus, this game will increase the awareness of young people about the culture of Wayang. Keywords : 3D game, kinect,adventure, local culture, creative industry.

  6. Integration of professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the integration of professional judgement and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. The study utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. Results revealed that, in order to make judgements and decisions in practice, expert coaches employ a range of practical and pedagogic management strategies to create and opportunistically use time for decision-making. These approaches include span of control and time management strategies to facilitate the decision-making process regarding risk management, venue selection, aims, objectives, session content, and differentiation of the coaching process. The implication for coaches, coach education, and accreditation is the recognition and training of the approaches that "create time" for the judgements in practice, namely "creating space to think". The paper concludes by offering a template for a more expertise-focused progression in adventure sports coaching.

  7. Understanding Action and Adventure Sports Participation-An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Tuomas; Brymer, Eric; Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Feletti, Francesco; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has considered action and adventure sports using a variety of associated terms and definitions which has led to confusing discourse and contradictory research findings. Traditional narratives have typically considered participation exclusively as the pastime of young people with abnormal characteristics or personalities having unhealthy and pathological tendencies to take risks because of the need for thrill, excitement or an adrenaline 'rush'. Conversely, recent research has linked even the most extreme forms of action and adventure sports to positive physical and psychological health and well-being outcomes. Here, we argue that traditional frameworks have led to definitions, which, as currently used by researchers, ignore key elements constituting the essential merit of these sports. In this paper, we suggest that this lack of conceptual clarity in understanding cognitions, perception and action in action and adventure sports requires a comprehensive explanatory framework, ecological dynamics which considers person-environment interactions from a multidisciplinary perspective. Action and adventure sports can be fundamentally conceptualized as activities which flourish through creative exploration of novel movement experiences, continuously expanding and evolving beyond predetermined environmental, physical, psychological or sociocultural boundaries. The outcome is the emergence of a rich variety of participation styles and philosophical differences within and across activities. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to point out some limitations of existing research on action and adventure sports; (b) based on key ideas from emerging research and an ecological dynamics approach, to propose a holistic multidisciplinary model for defining and understanding action and adventure sports that may better guide future research and practical implications.

  8. Maneuver of Spinning Rocket in Flight

    OpenAIRE

    HAYAKAWA, Satio; ITO, Koji; MATSUI, Yutaka; NOGUCHI, Kunio; UESUGI, Kuninori; YAMASHITA, Kojun

    1980-01-01

    A Yo-despin device successfully functioned to change in flight the precession axis of a sounding rocket for astronomical observation. The rocket attitudes before and after yodespin were measured with a UV star sensor, an infrared horizon sensor and an infrared telescope. Instrumentation and performance of these devices as well as the attitude data during flight are described.

  9. Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

  10. Aerodynamics and flow characterisation of multistage rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Prakash, M. V. S.

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to conduct a systematic flow analysis on single, double and multistage rockets using ANSYS software. Today non-air breathing propulsion is increasing dramatically for the enhancement of space exploration. The rocket propulsion is playing vital role in carrying the payload to the destination. Day to day rocket aerodynamic performance and flow characterization analysis has becoming challenging task to the researchers. Taking this task as motivation a systematic literature is conducted to achieve better aerodynamic and flow characterization on various rocket models. The analyses on rocket models are very little especially in numerical side and experimental area. Each rocket stage analysis conducted for different Mach numbers and having different flow varying angle of attacks for finding the critical efficiency performance parameters like pressure, density and velocity. After successful completion of the analysis the research reveals that flow around the rocket body for Mach number 4 and 5 best suitable for designed payload. Another major objective of this paper is to bring best aerodynamics flow characterizations in both aero and mechanical features. This paper also brings feature prospectus of rocket stage technology in the field of aerodynamic design.

  11. Design methods in solid rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    A compilation of lectures summarizing the current state-of-the-art in designing solid rocket motors and and their components is presented. The experience of several countries in the use of new technologies and methods is represented. Specific sessions address propellant grains, cases, nozzles, internal thermal insulation, and the general optimization of solid rocket motor designs.

  12. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  13. A study of air breathing rockets. 3: Supersonic mode combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuya, G.; Chinzel, N.; Kudo, K.; Murakami, A.; Komuro, T.; Ishii, S.

    An experimental study was made on supersonic mode combustors of an air breathing rocket engine. Supersonic streams of room-temperature air and hot fuel-rich rocket exhaust were coaxially mixed and burned in a concially diverging duct of 2 deg half-angle. The effect of air inlet Mach number and excess air ratio was investigated. Axial wall pressure distribution was measured to calculate one dimensional change of Mach number and stagnation temperature. Calculated results showed that supersonic combustion occurred in the duct. At the exit of the duct, gas sampling and Pitot pressure measurement was made, from which radial distributions of various properties were deduced. The distribution of mass fraction of elements from rocket exhaust showed poor mixing performance in the supersonic mode combustors compared with the previously investigated cylindrical subsonic mode combustors. Secondary combustion efficiency correlated well with the centerline mixing parameter, but not with Annushkin's non-dimensional combustor length. No major effect of air inlet Mach number or excess air ratio was seen within the range of conditions under which the experiment was conducted.

  14. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One advantageous feature of this rocket concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode which maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode which maximizes thrust. This presentation will describe a proposed flight experiment in which a simple version of the rocket will be tested in space. In addition to the plasma rocket, the flight experiment will also demonstrate the use of a superconducting electromagnet, extensive use of heat pipes, and possibly the transfer of cryogenic propellant in space.

  15. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs

  16. The Role of CFD Simulation in Rocket Propulsion Support Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Outline of the presentation: CFD at NASA/MSFC (1) Flight Projects are the Customer -- No Science Experiments (2) Customer Support (3) Guiding Philosophy and Resource Allocation (4) Where is CFD at NASA/MSFC? Examples of the expanding Role of CFD at NASA/MSFC (1) Liquid Rocket Engine Applications : Evolution from Symmetric and Steady to 3D Unsteady (2)Launch Pad Debris Transport-> Launch Pad Induced Environments (a) STS and Launch Pad Geometry-steady (b) Moving Body Shuttle Launch Simulations (c) IOP and Acoustics Simulations (3)General Purpose CFD Applications (4) Turbomachinery Applications

  17. Review of coaxial flow gas core nuclear rocket fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    In a prematurely aborted attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of using a gas core nuclear reactor as a rocket engine, NASA initiated a number of studies on the relevant fluid mechanics problems. These studies were carried out at NASA laboratories, universities and industrial research laboratories. Because of the relatively sudden termination of most of this work, a unified overview was never presented which demonstrated the accomplishments of the program and pointed out the areas where additional work was required for a full understanding of the cavity flow. This review attempts to fulfill a part of this need in two important areas

  18. Combustion Performance of a Staged Hybrid Rocket with Boron addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lee, C.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of boron on overall system specific impulse was investigated. Additionally, a series of combustion tests was carried out to analyze and evaluate the effect of boron addition on O/F variation and radial temperature profiles. To maintain the hybrid rocket engine advantages, upper limit of boron contents in solid fuel was set to be 10 wt%. The results also suggested that, when adding boron to solid fuel, it helped to provide more uniform radial temperature distribution and also to increase specific impulse by 3.2%.

  19. Space Processing Applications rocket project SPAR III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presents the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarizes the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies

  20. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.