WorldWideScience

Sample records for engaging artisanal mining

  1. Mercury Mining in Mexico: I. Community Engagement to Improve Health Outcomes from Artisanal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Andrea; Van Brussel, Evelyn; Carrizales, Leticia; Flores-Ramírez, Rogelio; Verduzco, Beatriz; Huerta, Selene Ruvalcaba-Aranda; Leon, Mauricio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is an element that cannot be destroyed and is a global threat to human and environmental health. In Latin America and the Caribbean, artisanal and small-scale gold mining represents the main source of mercury emissions, releases, and consumption. However, another source of concern is the primary production of mercury. In the case of Mexico, in the past 2 years the informal production of mercury mining has increased 10-fold. Considering this scenario, an intervention program was initiated to reduce health risks in the mining communities. The program's final goal is to introduce different alternatives in line to stop the mining of mercury, but introducing at the same time, a community-based development program. The aim of this study was to present results from a preliminary study in the community of Plazuela, located in the municipality of Peñamiller in the State of Queretaro, Mexico. Total mercury was measured in urine and environmental samples using atomic absorption spectrometry by cold vapor technique. Urine samples were collected from children aged 6-14 years and who had lived in the selected area from birth. Urine samples were also collected from miners who were currently working in the mine. To confirm the presence of mercury in the community, mining waste, water, soil, and sediment samples were collected from those high-risk areas identified by members of the community. Children, women, and miners were heavily exposed to mercury (urine samples); and in agreement, we registered high concentrations of mercury in soils and sediments. Considering these results and taking into account that the risk perception toward mercury toxicity is very low in the community (mining is the only economic activity), an integral intervention program has started. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  3. Women, mercury and artisanal gold mining : Risk communication and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, J. J.; Veiga, M. M.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    Artisanal miners employ rudimentary techniques for minéral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labour intensive, highly disorganized and illegal conditions. Gold is the main mineral extracted by artisanal miners, and the ecological and human health impacts resulting from mercury (Hg) use in gold extraction warrant special consideration. More than 30% of world's 13 million artisanal miners are women and, as they are often perceived to be less suited for labour intensive mining methods, the majority of women work in the processing aspect of artisanal mining, including amalgamation with Hg. As women are also predominantly responsible for food preparation, they are in an excellent position to respond to health risks associated with consumption of Hg-contaminated foods in impacted areas. In addition to their influence on consumption habits, women in artisanal mining communities may be in a position to effect positive change with respect to the technologies employed. Thus, gender sensitive approaches are necessary to reduce exposure risks to women and their families, promote clean technologies and support the development of stronger, healthier artisanal mining communities. This paper describes the roles of women in artisanal gold mining, highlights their importance in reducing the Hg exposure in these communities, and provides insight into how risks from Hg pollution can effectively be communicated and mitigated.

  4. Work and Masculinity in Katanga’s Artisanal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Cuvelier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on 16 months of anthropological fieldwork between 2005 and 2012, examines the relationship between work and masculinity among artisanal miners, or creuseurs, in Katanga, the southeastern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It argues that men’s involvement in artisanal mining should be considered not only as an economic survival strategy but also as an attempt to experiment with new ways of being a man in a context of economic crisis and changing gender relations. Furthermore, the article criticizes the tendency to downplay or underestimate the complexity and diversity of processes of masculine identity construction in Africa’s artisanal-mining areas. In order to do justice to the intricacy of these processes, the article proposes using concepts and insights from the field of masculinity studies and distinguishing between a levelling and a differentiating trend in artisanal miners’ masculinity practices.

  5. Mining Together : Large-Scale Mining Meets Artisanal Mining, A Guide for Action

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The present guide mining together-when large-scale mining meets artisanal mining is an important step to better understanding the conflict dynamics and underlying issues between large-scale and small-scale mining. This guide for action not only points to some of the challenges that both parties need to deal with in order to build a more constructive relationship, but most importantly it sh...

  6. Socio – economic and environmental impact of artisanal mining in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the socio – economic and environmental impact of artisanal mining in parts of Naraguta Sheet 168. Geochemical data, environmental analysis from previous studies and on the spot interviews and interactions were employed to obtain the data for this study. Results revealed over 5000 ...

  7. Artisanal mining of gold with mercury in Ghana | Donkor | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Artisanal mining of gold with mercury in Ghana.

  8. Internationalisation of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It takes a closer look at the causes, effects and dynamics of confrontation and collaboration between migrant artisanal and small scale miners and their counterparts in the host nation. It argues that the current governance system of small scale mining based on national control over exploitation is anachronic and not well ...

  9. Formalizing artisanal and small-scale mining: Whither the workforce?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Besmanos, B.

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a critique of ongoing formalization efforts in the Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) sector. By departing from erroneous assumptions about a homogeneous ASM-sector, and by focusing on the recognition of mineral property rights, these formalization efforts tend to overlook

  10. Geology and environmental impact of artisanal gold mining around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geology and effect of artisanal gold mining was investigated in Kataeregi and environ, North-central Nigeria with the aim of determining its host rock and assessing the impact of such activity on the surrounding. Geological field mapping show the area comprise of the Migmatite-Gneiss complex, Schist, Granite and ...

  11. Effects of artisanal small-scale gold mining on fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) has direct and indirect impacts on fisheries management. These impacts are mainly about the quality of the water where fish lives, ownership of the surrounding waters, land and human health. This study was carried out in two landing sites of Wagusu and Riskis Kogwari in ...

  12. The impacts of small scale artisanal diamond mining on the environment

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.A. This mini-dissertation establishes the extent to which small scale artisanal diamond mining impacts on the environment. There has, in the past, been research undertaken specifically on the water related impacts of small scale artisanal diamond mining. This study however, looks at the environment holistically, and gauges the total degradation to the receiving environment. Small scale artisanal diamond mining is considered to be a major contributor to the local economy and improved qual...

  13. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated implications of artisanal gold mining to sustainable development in the Chimanimani area. Data were collected in January 2010 and law enforcement records kept at CNP were examined to gather trends in ...

  14. Not only a man's world: Women's involvement in artisanal mining in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, M.R.; Cuvelier, J.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Haar, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal mining is a key source of livelihood in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, an area mostly known for its chronic instability and violent conflict. Although men make up the majority of the artisanal mining population, mining is also central in the livelihoods of many girls

  15. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated

  16. Artisanal and small scale mining in India: selected studies and an overview of the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihir Deb; Garima Tiwari; Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt [University of Delhi, Delhi (India). School of Environmental Studies

    2008-09-15

    In India, mining is one of the main economic activities since time immemorial, giving rise to a long historical tradition of artisanal mining. As modern mining rose during the colonial occupation, artisanal mining activities began to be overlooked and this great tradition became obscure. This invisibility, added with confusion with regard to legally accepted definitions has enhanced the negligence of the artisanal mining sector in India. This study draws attention to the contemporary artisanal mining practices in India - both traditional and non-traditional ones - with regard to four commodities, gold, tin, coal and lignite, and gemstones. It briefly discusses the occurrences of such mining, their salient features and concludes with four specific recommendations. Recommendations primarily deal with the need for creation of a broader information base, delineating a responsible body to deal with this kind of mining, legal reforms leading to definitional changes and finally, the recognition of the poverty alleviation potential of this sector in view of the Millennium Development Goals.

  17. Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Ovadje, Lauretta; Clarke, Edith; Basu, Niladri; Robins, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers...

  18. Artisanal

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Artisanal, a term used to describe production systems that are relatively small-scale and where hand-working and the skilled, intuitive judgment of the maker takes precedence over mechanized and automated methods. Common synonyms include: ‘craft’, ‘handmade’, and ‘traditional’. Artisanal cheese is often made on-farm with milk from the farmer’s own herd (in North America, these varieties are usually known as farmstead cheese).

  19. prospects and challenges of artisanal and small-scale mining in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    As in most countries, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) activities are recognised in ... The mining industry in South Africa is dominated by (large) transnational mining houses as opposed to local companies – 90 per cent of the mining houses are large- scale.2 Much as ... sub-sector. To date, it remains one of the critical ...

  20. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

    2006-08-01

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored.

  1. Identification of hazards in the workplaces of Artisanal mining in Katanga

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elenge, Myriam M; De Brouwer, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    While artisanal mining takes place in casual framework and with total ignorance of good practices, few studies have focused on the origin of hazards specific to each workplace constitutive of this exploitation facility...

  2. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, Kathleen [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A., E-mail: Oladele.Ogunseitan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox{sup ®} was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m{sup 3}/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m{sup 3}/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E

  3. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Golden girls: The hidden role of women in Africa's artisanal mines ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... The project's goal, said IDRC Senior Program Specialist Martha Melesse, is to increase the visibility of women's roles in the artisanal and small-scale mining sector and the barriers they face, so that mining reforms and regulations recognize their contribution and take appropriate measures to enhance their ...

  5. Institutional aspects of artisanal mining in forest landscapes, western Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Ndikumagenge, C.; Runge, J.; Shikwati, J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution examines the multiple impacts of artisanal mining in the high-biodiversity forest of the Congo Basin’s Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS), and proposes measures for improving livelihoods in the area. It was concluded from a literature review, interviews and site visits that:

  6. The economic logic of persistent informality: Artisanal and small-scale mining in the Southern Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    This article critically evaluates existing causal explanations for the persistence of informality in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). These explanations share a legalistic focus on entry barriers and political impediments that prevent or discourage the formalization of poverty-driven ASM

  7. Is the god of diamonds alone? The role of institutions in artisanal mining in forest landscapes, Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Ndikumagenge, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the institutional framework of artisanal mining in the forests of the Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS) in the Congo Basin. Artisanal miners in Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR) commonly make sacrifices to their god of diamonds, to improve fortunes. This study

  8. Mine Ventilation System Variable Resistance Regulate Air Quantity Economy and Its Impacts on Artisanal Mine in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouame Kouame Arthur Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The artisanal gold mining is one of the major illegal activities in Ivory Coast. Thousands of indigents and foreigners including men, women and children are involved in this dangerous activity. Contracting contagious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and multiple lung diseases are commonplace on the artisanal mining sites due to air pollution. For this reason, the differential analysis, research mine ventilation system by changing the working windage adjustment for air flow of the economy, identifies factors, obtained discriminant variable resistance air volume control economic quantitative criteria for underground actual situation of joint variable resistance method and economic variable resistance than the concept of the development of effective mine ventilation system to improve air quantity adjusting rheostat economical way. The findings of this study can help lead to better safety practices in mining in order to improve the health and safety of the miners who are involved in artisanal mining activities in Ivory Coast and other mining sites over the world.

  9. Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi

    2013-02-15

    This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

  10. Occupational accidents in artisanal mining in Katanga, D.R.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elenge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study focuses on accidents in artisanal mining, to support policies improving miners' employability. Materials and Methods: Based on a questionnaire administered in November 2009 to a sample of 180 miners from the artisanal mining of LUPOTO, in the Province of Katanga, we explored significant trends between the accidents and their consequences and behavioral or sociological variables. Results: During the 12 months preceding the study, 392 accidents occurred, affecting 72.2% of miners. Tools handling represents 51.5%, of the accidents' causes, followed by handling heavy loads (32.9%. Factors such as age, seniority or apprenticeship did not generate significant differences. Contusions were the most common injuries (50.2%, followed by wounds (44.4%. These injuries were located in upper limbs (50.5% and in lower limbs (29.3%. 80.5% of miners were cared for by their colleagues and 50% of them could not work for more than 3 days. Physical sequelae were reported by 19% of the injured miners. Discussion: Many surveys related to accidents in the area of artisanal mining report such high frequency. The unsuitability of tools to jobs to be done is usually raised as one of the major causes of accidents. The lack of differentiation of the tasks carried out in relation to age is another factor explaining the lack of protective effect of seniority as it minimizes the contribution of experience in the worker's safety. The apprenticeship reported is inadequate; it is rather a learning by doing than anything else. That is why it lacks protective effect. Low income combined with precariousness of artisanal mining are likely to explain the low level of work stoppages. Conclusion: Tools improvement associated with adequate training seem to be the basis of accident prevention. Availability of suitable medical care should improve artisanal miners' recovery after accidents.

  11. Knowledge and perceptions of health and environmental risks related to artisanal gold mining by the artisanal miners in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Adama; De Brouwer, Christophe; Hien, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining is an activity ensuring the survival of about 700,000 families in Burkina Faso with a considerable contribution to the national economy. Techniques and chemicals used in the operation, have adverse impacts on health and the environment. Our study aims to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of these different impacts among artisanal gold miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in artisanal gold mines Bouda and Nagsene in the region of the North of Burkina Faso. Two hundred miners over 18 years of age were interviewed. All the participants have recognized that gold mining has health impacts and 88.5% felt these impacts as important with a significantly higher proportion among those with more than 3 years' seniority (p = 0.001). The environmental impacts were perceived as important by 64.5% of miners, with a significant difference according to the position (p = 0.004). Sixty percent (60%) of respondents could identify at least 3 of the 5 health impacts of gold mining listed and 49.5% acknowledged at least 3 impacts on the environment. The diggers had significantly more knowledge about the symptoms (p environmental impacts of artisanal gold mining. Findings might be used to develop more effective awareness campaigns in the future. Communication with diggers must focus on the risk perception because it appears that raising risk perceptions from low to high would have a major effect on behavior.

  12. Initiatives to combat mercury use in artisanal small-scale gold mining: A review on issues and challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Malehase, Tshia; Daso, Adegbenro P

    The Minamata Convention on mercury has received a number of criticisms and challenges that potentially hinder its progress on reducing and controlling mercury use and release by artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASSGM...

  13. Certifying improvement, improving certification: An analysis based on the artisanal and small-scale mining sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bodenheimer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    There are a plethora of voluntary initiatives indirectly connected to artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), but until recently, none of these standards were explicitly concerned with ASM. It is only with the introduction of certification schemes specific to the ASM sector that guidelines are being designed and implemented that expressly address its unique dynamics. But implementing certification schemes remains costly and it is therefore important to analyze in detail to what degree problem...

  14. The economic logic of persistent informality: artisanal and small-scale mining in the southern Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Verbrugge, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This article critically evaluates existing causal explanations for the persistence of informality in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). These explanations share a legalistic focus on entry barriers and political impediments that prevent or discourage the formalization of poverty-driven ASM operators: however, they fail to fully explain cases such as that of the Philippines, where ASM is characterized by differentiation between a poverty-driven workforce and a dominant stratum of ASM entr...

  15. Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The main pathway of human exposure to this toxic metal is through the consumption of Hg contaminated fish as illustrated by the mass Hg poisoning in Minamata Bay and Agano River in Japan (D'Itri & D'Itri, 1977; Takizawa,1979) during the 1950s and 1960s. Gold mining with mercury. The mining sector has been identified ...

  16. Knowledge and perceptions of health and environmental risks related to artisanal gold mining by the artisanal miners in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Adama; De Brouwer, Christophe; Hien, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Artisanal gold mining is an activity ensuring the survival of about 700,000 families in Burkina Faso with a considerable contribution to the national economy. Techniques and chemicals used in the operation, have adverse impacts on health and the environment. Our study aims to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of these different impacts among artisanal gold miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in artisanal gold mines Bouda and Nagsene in the region of the North of Burkina Faso. Two hundred miners over 18 years of age were interviewed. Results All the participants have recognized that gold mining has health impacts and 88.5% felt these impacts as important with a significantly higher proportion among those with more than 3 years' seniority (p = 0.001). The environmental impacts were perceived as important by 64.5% of miners, with a significant difference according to the position (p = 0.004). Sixty percent (60%) of respondents could identify at least 3 of the 5 health impacts of gold mining listed and 49.5% acknowledged at least 3 impacts on the environment. The diggers had significantly more knowledge about the symptoms (p mining. Findings might be used to develop more effective awareness campaigns in the future. Communication with diggers must focus on the risk perception because it appears that raising risk perceptions from low to high would have a major effect on behavior. PMID:29187949

  17. Mining ‘From Below’: Taking Africa’s artisanal miners seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is of growing importance for the livelihoods of an increasing number of Africa’s rural population. Therefore, the sector is increasingly being recognized by African governments, donor institutions and researchers for its role in national development processes......) ASM in alternative trade regimes based on ethical standards. In conclusion, the paper stresses the need for a context-sensitive formalization and strengthening of ASM: Domestically led mining operations potentially constitute a necessary means for African states to better balance the co...

  18. [Human mercury exposure and irregular menstrual cycles in relation to artisanal gold mining in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Jaimes, Diana Carolina; Manquián-Tejos, Adelaida; Sánchez, Luz Helena

    2015-08-01

    Artisanal mining commonly extracts gold with an amalgamation process that uses mercury. The reproductive effects from exposure to elemental mercury used in gold mining have not been sufficiently studied. To evaluate the effect of the exposure to elemental mercury used in gold mining on menstrual cycle regularity and the occurrence of miscarriages in Colombia. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. The participants were female residents of gold mining districts, with a history of exposure to elemental mercury. Menstrual regularity and the occurrence of miscarriages were compared between these women and an unexposed group. Exposure and outcome variables were registered based on a questionnaire which was evaluated for its test-retest reproducibility. Prevalence rates were calculated using a binomial model and goodness-of-fit was evaluated. A total of 72 women exposed to mercury and 121 unexposed women participated. The average time of exposure to mercury among exposed women was 19.58 ± 9.53 years. The adjusted prevalence of irregular menstruation over the last six months was higher in the group of women chronically exposed to mercury vapors (PR=1.59, 95% CI 0.93-2.73), while there was no difference in the proportion of women with a history of miscarriages. Exposure to elemental mercury used in artisanal gold mining may be associated with a higher prevalence of irregular menstrual cycles but not with the occurrence of miscarriage.

  19. Health Impact of Artisanal Gold Mining in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nancy Long Sieber; Joseph Brain

    2014-01-01

    .... [...]the rise in gold prices, coupled with political and socio-economic instability in some areas in the 1970s, made gold mining appealing again to poor operators who could not afford more modern technology...

  20. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Basu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  1. Soil heavy metal contamination and health risks associated with artisanal gold mining in Tongguan, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Wang, Shuang; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-07-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals due to mining activities poses risks to ecological safety and human well-being. Limited studies have investigated heavy metal pollution due to artisanal mining. The present study focused on soil contamination and the health risk in villages in China with historical artisanal mining activities. Heavy metal levels in soils, tailings, cereal and vegetable crops were analyzed and health risk assessed. Additionally, a botany investigation was conducted to identify potential plants for further phytoremediation. The results showed that soils were highly contaminated by residual tailings and previous mining activities. Hg and Cd were the main pollutants in soils. The Hg and Pb concentrations in grains and some vegetables exceeded tolerance limits. Moreover, heavy metal contents in wheat grains were higher than those in maize grains, and leafy vegetables had high concentrations of metals. Ingestion of local grain-based food was the main sources of Hg, Cd, and Pb intake. Local residents had high chronic risks due to the intake of Hg and Pb, while their carcinogenic risk associated with Cd through inhalation was low. Three plants (Erigeron canadensis L., Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel., and Solanum nigrum L.) were identified as suitable species for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Internationalisation of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... located at Tarkwa affirmed that, “The arrival of the. Chinese has helped small scale mining. The major problem we have here is lower gold recovery rates in processing. The Chinese are helping to solve recovery problems. We wouldn't have got new technologies for milling and processing without the.

  3.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A series of murders of albinos in Tanzania’s north-west mining frontier has been shrouded in a discourse of primitivism by the international and national press, sidestepping the significance of the contextual circumstances of an artisanal mining boom firmly embedded in a global commodity chain...... and local profit maximisation. The murders are connected to gold and diamond miners’ efforts to secure lucky charms for finding minerals and protection against danger while mining. Through the concept of fetish creation, this article interrogates the agency of those involved in the murders : the miners who...... purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners’ ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation...

  4. Partnership on Reducing Mercury in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaudat L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining Partnership area is an initiative to reduce global mercury pollution through coordinated voluntary actions. This partnership area, co-led by Natural Resources Defense Council and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, gathers the major actors in the sector, including governments, academia and civil society. The ASGM sector remains the largest demand sector for mercury globally (best global estimates put mercury use by the sector in the range of 1400 tonne/year in 2011. Virtually all of the mercury introduced in the process is released to the environment. This sector involves an estimated 10-20 million miners, and the numbers are likely increasing as the rising price of gold attracts additional poverty-driven miners. Serious long-term environmental health hazards exist for populations associated with or living downstream/wind from mining operations, often including indigenous peoples. The objective of the ASGM Partnership area is to minimize and where possible eliminate mercury uses and releases in artisanal and small scale gold mining. The presentation will outline the key challenges associated with the ASGM sector and summarize the activities under the Partnership to address those challenges.

  5. Artisanal small-scale mining: Potential ecological disaster in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siduduziwe Ncube-Phiri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and extent to which the environment has been damaged by the ASM from a community perspective. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect qualitative data. Results indicated that the nature of the mining activities undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold panners in Mzingwane District is characterised by massive stripping of overburden and burning of bushes, leading to destruction of large tracts of land and river systems and general ecosystem disturbance. The research concluded that ASM in Mzingwane District is an ecological time bomb, stressing the need for appropriate modifications of the legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of natural resources and mining development in Zimbabwe. Government, through the Ministry of Small Scale and Medium Enterprises, need to regularise and formalise all gold mining activities through licensing, giving permanent claims and operating permits to panners in order to recoup some of the added costs in the form of taxes. At the local level, the Mzingwane Rural District Council (MRDC together with the Environmental Management Agency (EMA need to design appropriate environmental education and awareness programmes targeting the local community and gold panners.

  6. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  7. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A O; Mbuzukongira, P; Mangala, M J

    2007-06-01

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g(-1) are 10.75 +/- 5.11 for (238)U, 7.06 +/- 3.39 for (226)Ra, 1.75 +/- 0.85 for (232)Th, and 1.63 +/- 0.52 for (40)K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average.

  8. No effect of mercury exposure on kidney function during ongoing artisanal gold mining activities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luz Helena Sánchez; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Fiallo, Yolanda Vargas; Ordoñez, Álvaro; Gutiérrez, Myriam Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined whether people who are exposed to mercury (Hg) vapours in ongoing artisanal gold mining activities have alteration in kidney function monitoring parameters. The study enrolled 164 miners and 127 participant controls. The Hg concentrations for miners and control participants were measured in blood (B-Hg; median 7.0 vs. 2.5 µg/L), urine (U-Hg; median 3.9 vs. 1.5 µg/g creatinine) and hair (H-Hg; median 0.8 vs. 0.4 µg/g hair). The biomarkers of renal function were creatinine, albumin and excretion of β-2 microglobulin. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equation. Significant statistical differences were found in Hg concentrations and eGFR levels between the two study groups ( p exposure in ongoing artisanal gold mining, whose population has a level of Hg exposure from low to moderate (B-Hg from 3.4 to 11.0 µg/L and U-Hg from 1.3 to 9.6 µg/g creatinine).

  9. Mercury Exposure and Health Problems in Urban Artisanal Gold Mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasriwiani Habo Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban artisanal gold mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been run by a number of urban gold workers with gold jewelry manufacture as its core activity. The wastes generated from goldsmiths’ activities were further processed by the gold smelters to recover fine gold particles. Smelting gold doré, amalgamation, and burning out the amalgam were the mercury-based gold process usually applied in their work. While working the gold workers are, therefore, potentially exposed to a source of mercury pollution that may cause health problems because of working without proper protection. The aims of this research are to characterize the process of urban artisanal gold mining with the potential mercury exposures during the process, and to assess the health of the gold workers. The results showed that the gold workers had a low educational background, but a relatively high income. The total mercury concentration of gold workers was higher than the control group. They were exposed to intoxicatingly high levels of mercury with the average total mercury concentrations of 6.6 and 10.8 µg/g in the hair of indirect and direct exposed workers, respectively. The health assessment showed that 85% of the gold workers suffered neurological symptoms, such as tremors, and 44%–56% of them experienced restricted fields of vision, slow reflexes, sensory disturbances, unbalanced rigidity, and ataxia. The results also showed that the working years have reasonable correlation with the sum of the positive findings in the 10 neurological symptoms.

  10. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, A O [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mbuzukongira, P [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mangala, M J [Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2007-06-01

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g{sup -1} are 10.75 {+-} 5.11 for {sup 238}U, 7.06 {+-} 3.39 for {sup 226}Ra, 1.75 {+-} 0.85 for {sup 232}Th, and 1.63 {+-} 0.52 for {sup 40}K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average.

  11. Transparency in Revenues from Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining of Tin, Tantalum, Tungsten and Gold in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Burundi has a wide range of mineral deposits of which tin, tantalum and tungsten ores, along with gold, are its primary mineral exports. Burundi’s geological endowment also includes nickel, rare earths, vanadium, and construction materials. The majority of mineral extraction is carried out by artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) which is officially structured through cooperatives. Tin, t...

  12. Voices from below: Artisanal- and small-scale mining as a product and catalyst of rural transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2016-01-01

    Combining secondary evidence from a growing body of literature on artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) with primary oral history evidence from the Southern Philippines, this article zooms in on the relationship between ASM-expansion and wider processes of rural transformation. It is argued that a

  13. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  14. Linking geological and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Durant, James T; Morman, Suzette A; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E; Dooyema, Carrie A; Hageman, Philip L; Lowers, Heather A; Fernette, Gregory L; Meeker, Gregory P; Benzel, William M; Driscoll, Rhonda L; Berry, Cyrus J; Crock, James G; Goldstein, Harland L; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  15. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-09-01

    From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world's most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic due to artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Environ Health

  16. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  17. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  19. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-15

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  20. Characterization, mapping, and mitigation of mercury vapour emissions from artisanal mining gold shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello; Crawford, Ben; Garcia, Oseas; Gonzalez, Victor; Moraga, Daniel; Roeser, Monika; Wip, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Artisanal miners sell their gold to shops that are usually located in the urban core, where the mercury-gold amalgam is burned to evaporate the mercury that was added during ore processing. People living and working near these gold shops are exposed to intermittent and extreme concentrations of mercury vapour. In the urban centres of Segovia, Colombia, and Andacollo, Chile, the average concentrations measured by mobile mercury vapour analyzer transects taken repeatedly over several weeks were 1.26 and 0.338μgm(-3), respectively. By World Health Organization standards, these towns are exposed to significant health hazard, and globally, the millions of miners, as well as non-miners who live near gold shops, are at serious risk of neurological and renal deficits. Measurements taken in Suriname, Ecuador and Peru reveal this to be a widespread phenomenon with unique regional variations and myriad attempts at remediation. Maps of average mercury concentrations show the spatial distribution of the hazard in relation to residential buildings and schools. Measurements from towers show the temporal variability of mercury concentrations, and suggest that large quantities of mercury are available for long-range atmospheric transport. Mercury mapping in Segovia in 2011 suggest a 10% reduction in airborne mercury concentrations over 2010, despite a 30% increase in gold production. This is attributable to the adoption of retorts by miners and regulations banning new processing centres to the rural periphery. This is the first full description of artisanal mining gold shop practices and of the character, quantity, and remediation of mercury emissions within urban mining centres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and risk of exposure to elements from artisanal gold mining operations in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian; Grassman, Jean; Johnson, Glen; Diaz, Yilmael; Caravanos, Jack

    2017-04-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) offers low-skilled workers an opportunity to elevate themselves out of poverty. However, this industry operates with little to no pollution controls and the cost to the environment and human health can be large. The objectives of this study were to measure levels of arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in the environment and characterize health risks to miners and residents in an area with active ASGM operations. An exposure assessment was conducted at two different mining sites and a nearby village in the Bolivian Anders. The resulting measurements were then used to quantify cancerous and noncancerous health risks to children and adults working at and living near ASGM areas. Soil concentrations of As were well above background levels and showed great variations between the village and mining area. Mercury vapor levels at the two mining sites were approximately 30 times larger than the EPA reference concentration. The risk of developing non-cancerous health effects were primarily due to exposure to As and Hg. The probability of individuals developing cancer was considerably increased with adult miners having a probability of 1.3 out of 100. Cancer potential was driven by exposure to As, with de minimus cancer risk from all other elements. Based on the environmental characterization of elements in soils and Hg vapors, the risk of developing cancerous and non-cancerous health outcomes were above a level of concern based on EPA risk assessment guidance. Personal protective equipment was not worn by workers and Hg amalgam is commonly heated in workers' homes. Better education of the risks of ASGM is needed as well as simple controls to reduce exposure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shifting Formalization Policies and Re-Centralizing Power:The Case of Zimbabwe’s Artisanal Gold Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In the 1990s, government authorities in Zimbabwe introduced internationally praised policies to formalize the artisanal and small-scale mining sector, using a combination of district-administered and nationally administered licensing and capacity-building measures. While ‘‘decentralization’’ efforts in the 1990s and early 2000s were hampered by insufficient resource and power transfers, the model was seen by environmental scholars as a source of optimism. However, as economic crisis deepened ...

  4. Current Mercury Exposure from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia—Future Significant Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM industry in developing countries has marginalized the local communities in poverty, and resulted in occupational exposure to mercury via the gold extraction process. We investigated the mercury exposure of the mining workers lived inside and outside the mining area. Based on the occupations of the contributors, the hair samples were divided into three subgroups: directly exposed, indirectly exposed, and a control. A total of 81 hair samples were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry. The median mercury concentration was highest in the hair from the directly exposed group (12.82 μg/g hair (control group median: 4.8 μg/g hair, p < 0.05, and the concentrations in hair from 45 respondents exceeded the Human Biomonitoring I (HBM I threshold limit. Mercury concentrations were also elevated in the hair from the indirectly exposed group (median 7.64 μg/g hair, p < 0.05, and concentrations in hair from 24 respondents exceeded the HBM I threshold limits. Exposure to mercury during ASGM presents health risks and is harmful for the miners; mercury is also at hazardous levels for people who live in the mining area but who are not engaged in mercury-based gold extraction.

  5. The Mercury Problem in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esdaile, Louisa J; Chalker, Justin M

    2018-01-03

    Mercury-dependent artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest source of mercury pollution on Earth. In this practice, elemental mercury is used to extract gold from ore as an amalgam. The amalgam is typically isolated by hand and then heated-often with a torch or over a stove-to distill the mercury and isolate the gold. Mercury release from tailings and vaporized mercury exceed 1000 tonnes each year from ASGM. The health effects on the miners are dire, with inhaled mercury leading to neurological damage and other health issues. The communities near these mines are also affected due to mercury contamination of water and soil and subsequent accumulation in food staples, such as fish-a major source of dietary protein in many ASGM regions. The risks to children are also substantial, with mercury emissions from ASGM resulting in both physical and mental disabilities and compromised development. Between 10 and 19 million people use mercury to mine for gold in more than 70 countries, making mercury pollution from ASGM a global issue. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, there is political motivation to help overcome the problem of mercury in ASGM. In this effort, chemists can play a central role. Here, the problem of mercury in ASGM is reviewed with a discussion on how the chemistry community can contribute solutions. Introducing portable and low-cost mercury sensors, inexpensive and scalable remediation technologies, novel methods to prevent mercury uptake in fish and food crops, and efficient and easy-to-use mercury-free mining techniques are all ways in which the chemistry community can help. To meet these challenges, it is critical that new technologies or techniques are low-cost and adaptable to the remote and under-resourced areas in which ASGM is most common. The problem of mercury pollution in ASGM is inherently a chemistry problem. We therefore encourage the chemistry community to consider and address this issue that

  6. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state

  7. Mercury Contamination of Cattle in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial mining sector is one of the main contributors to environmental damage and toxic metal pollution, although some contamination originates from natural geological sources. Due to their position at the top of the food chain, cattle tend to bioaccumulate mercury (Hg in their bodies. We used analyses of cattle hair samples to investigate Hg contamination in cattle farmed within and outside of an artisanal and small-scale gold-mining area in Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. We also examined the factors that might have influenced the toxicity, such as the environmental conditions, sex, and age of the cattle. A total of 63 hair samples were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry. The mean Hg concentration was significantly higher in hair from cattle farmed within the artisanal and small-scale gold mining area (11.44 μg/g hair than in those farmed outside the area (2.89 μg/g hair, p < 0.05. A possible cause of this is contamination by mercury persistent in terrestrial food chain. The results indicates that the level of toxic metals such as Hg need to be controlled in food sources to protect human health, especially in Bombana, Indonesia.

  8. Proof of concept for a passive sampler for monitoring of gaseous elemental mercury in artisanal gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Santos, Elias; Moher, Paleah; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne Hélène; Mazali, Italo Odone; Telmer, Kevin; Brolo, Alexandre Guimarães

    2017-11-28

    Mercury emissions from artisanal gold mining operations occurring in roughly 80 developing countries are a major workplace health hazard for millions of people as well as the largest contributor to global mercury pollution. There are no portable, cheap, and rapid methods able to inform workers or health practitioners of mercury exposure on site in remote locations. In this work, a proof of concept for a miniaturized mercury sampler, prepared by the direct reduction of gold into the porous nanostructures of Vycor glass (PVG), is introduced. Mercury retention on the PVG/Au sampler induces significant color changes, due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam that affects the surface plasmon resonance characteristics of the material. The color change can potentially be quantified by the analysis of pictures obtained with a cell phone camera rapidly and onsite. Laboratory experiments showed the viability of using PVG/Au as passive sampler for monitoring of Hg°. PVG/Au samplers were then deployed in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations in Burkina Faso and it was able to indicate personal mercury exposures. The amount of mercury quantified in the samplers for all miners was higher than the current personal exposure limit set by the US Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA).

  9. Environmental management of small-scale and artisanal mining: the Portovelo-Zaruma goldmining area, southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N H

    2002-06-01

    This paper considers technical measures and policy initiatives needed to improve environmental management in the Portovelo-Zaruma mining district of southern Ecuador. In this area, gold is mined by a large number of small-scale and artisanal operators, and discharges of cyanide and metal-laden tailings have had a severe impact on the shared Ecuadorian-Peruvian Puyango river system. It is shown to be technically possible to confine mining waste and tailings at a reasonable cost. However, the complex topography of the mining district forces tailings management to be communal, where all operators are connected to one central tailings impoundment. This, in turn, implies two things: (i) that a large number of operators must agree to pool resources to bring such a facility into reality; and (ii) that miners must move away from rudimentary operations that survive on a day-to-day basis, towards bigger, mechanized and longer-term sustainable operations that are based on proven ore reserves. It is deemed unlikely that existing environmental regulations and the provision of technical solutions will be sufficient to resolve the environmental problems. Important impediments relate to the limited financial resources available to each individual miner and the problems of pooling these resources, and to the fact that the main impacts of pollution are suffered downstream of the mining district and, hence, do not affect the miners themselves. Three policy measures are therefore suggested. First, the enforcement of existing regulations must be improved, and this may be achieved by the strengthening of the central authority charged with supervision and control of mining activities. Second, local government involvement and local public participation in environmental management needs to be promoted. Third, a clear policy should be defined which promotes the reorganisation of small operations into larger units that are strong enough to sustain rational exploration and environmental

  10. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Elias; Thomas, Deborah SK; Dewey, Deborah; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E; Konje, Eveline

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objectiv...

  11. Heavy metal concentrations in shallow marine sediments affected by submarine tailings disposal and artisanal gold mining, Buyat-Ratototok district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Evan N.; Siregar, P. Raja; Blackwood, George M.

    2007-04-01

    Trace element concentrations in shallow marine sediments of the Buyat-Ratototok district of North Sulawesi, Indonesia, are affected by submarine disposal of industrial gold mine tailings and unregulated dumping of tailings and wastewater from small-scale gold mining using mercury amalgamation. Industrial mine tailings contained 590 690 ppm arsenic, 490 580 ppm antimony, and 0.8 5.8 ppm mercury. Tailings-affected sediment As and Sb concentrations were 20 30 times higher than in muddy sediments not contaminated with tailings, and 50 60 times higher than pre-mining average. Highest mercury concentrations were observed in sediments affected by small-scale mining using mercury amalgamation (5 29 ppm). Concentrations of most other trace elements were comparable in sediments affected by both types of mining and were slightly higher than regional averages for sediments collected before the onset of industrial mining. Elevated concentrations of both As and Sb in approximately equal proportions suggest tailings dispersal of at least 3.5 km. Mercury released from artisanal gold mining dispersed up to 4 km from river mouths. Slight increases in concentrations of non-mercury trace elements in areas affected by artisanal mining over pre-industrial mining concentrations were probably caused by increased rates of erosion.

  12. Mercury pollution from the artisanal mining in Yani gold district, Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Pura; Freixas, Anna; Bascompta, Marc; María Aranibar, Ana; Villegas, Karla; María García-Noguero, Eva; Higueras, Pablo; Cielito Saraiva, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Artisanal gold mining is the main economic activity in the Yani district, Northern Bolivia. In this area abundant orogenic gold deposits constituted by quartz veins hosted in paleozoic turbiditic series that contain either free gold or associated with pyrite. Gold is recovered in processing plants by gravimetric methods using shaking tables in several communities of this district. Previously, miners ground the mineral in ball mills together with mercury. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mercury used in the gold recovering process to the environment and human health in the Yani district. The assessment was based on the analysis of human hair, sediments and water from the river nearby the processing plant and drinking water from the fountain that supplies these communities. 47 samples of hair from miners and other people from the Yani and Señor de Mayo communities were obtained in 2014 and 52 samples in 2015. All were analysed to evaluate the mercury exposure in these places. The results from the 2014 sampling show a wide range of Hg concentration in hair, especially in Señor de Mayo, with values up to 136 μg/g THg. However, in 2015 among the 43 residents in Señor de Mayo, 29 (67%) exhibit concentrations higher than 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 5.36 μg/g THg. On the other hand, in Yani only 40% have concentrations above 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 2.34 μg/g THg. The content in Hg in most of the hair samples exhibit values above the tolerable limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1 μg/g Hg) and the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2 μg/g Hg). These high Hg concentrations are found not only in miners but also in the other members of the community, in spite of low fish consumption in this area. Part of the hair was analysed before and after cleaning. Usually in the second case the content of Hg is reduced, but still show high Hg levels, then probably the atmosphere is polluted with Hg and population is

  13. Evaluation of mercury levels in hair of children resident in artisanal gold mining area in the city of Chapada de Natividade-Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Seyna Ueno R., E-mail: seynaueno@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFTO), Palmas,TO (Brazil). Coordenação de Medicina; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Catharino, Marília Gabriela M., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CRPQ/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisa; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Held, Barbara, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Análises Toxicológicas

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the mercury exposure of children living in an artisanal gold mining area and in a control area, without mining. A cross-sectional study was conducted with children living in the municipalities of Chapada de Natividade and Porto Nacional, in the State of Tocantins, where hair samples were collected for laboratorial analysis of mercury concentrations, comparing between municipalities, gender, monthly fish consumption, profession of parents and the presence of amalgam in dental restorations. The hair samples were analyzed by the methods of neutron activation analysis and also by means of the DMA (Direct Mercury Analyzer) equipment, in the last case being a partnership with CETESB. There was no evidence of mercury-related diseases in the studied children. The mean concentration of mercury in children in Chapada de Natividade was significantly higher than in Porto Nacional. Children exposed to artisanal gold mining areas have higher concentrations of mercury than children living in non- artisanal gold mining areas. There was no significant relationship between mercury concentrations and gender, monthly fish consumption, parental profession and amalgam presence in dental restorations. The results suggest that the children living in an area exposed to mining experience greater environmental exposure to mercury, regardless of their eating habits or gender. (author)

  14. Economic features of the artisanal and small-scale gold mining industry in Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Ratnawati

    2017-06-01

    There is a consensus that the artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector contributes to trapping individuals in a cycle of poverty and financial insecurity with a low standard of living. The purpose of this study was to analyze the economic circumstances of miners in the Bombana ASGM area in Indonesia using a mixed methodology approach that involved collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study. Results show that the average and maximum monthly incomes of 201 miner households were Rp. 4,360,000 and Rp. 9,750,000, respectively. The average income in the ASGM area in Bombana was higher than that at similar sites on Java Island (∼Rp. 2,900,000) and was much higher than the average monthly income of the inhabitants of Bombana (∼Rp. 2,100,000). Because of the higher revenue generated in the ASGM sector, miners and their families depend long-term on the mining work, which makes it difficult to control the mining activity and the associated environmental degradation.

  15. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65 and 89.4% (n=143 not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9% than females (n=36, 22.5% with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, px2=22.82, p= Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of knowledge, combined with minimal environmental monitoring and controlled waste management practices, highlights the need for health education, surveillance, and policy

  16. Child Labour in Artisanal and Small Scale Mining: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at identifying the reasons for child involvement into North Mara Gold Mines conflicts. The concern of this study was that, children are used in mining activities while giving away their basic rights. Their propensity to intrude the large scale mines and steal rocks rich in gold was examined to establish the forces ...

  17. Human exposure to mercury in artisanal small-scale gold mining areas of Kedougou region, Senegal, as a function of occupational activity and fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Niane, B.; Guédron, Stéphane (ed.); Moritz, R.; Cosio, C.; Ngom, P.M.; Deverajan, N.; Pfeifer, H.R.; Pote, J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated mercury (Hg) exposure of food web and humans in the region of Kedougou, Senegal, where Hg is used for gold amalgamation in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM). For this purpose, total mercury (THg) concentration was determined in eight fish species and two shellfish species from Gambia River and in human hair from 111 volunteers of different age and sex, living in urban locations (Kedougou and Samekouta) or in ASGM areas (Tinkoto and Bantako). THg concentrations in fish s...

  18. Characterisation of artisanal mine waste on Buru Island, Indonesia and toxicity to the brittle star Amphipholis squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thomas, Bernard; Howe, Pelli L; Male, Yusthinus; Clark, Malcolm W

    2017-12-01

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation commenced on Buru Island, Indonesia, in 2012, but was halted in 2015 due to concerns of widespread Hg contamination. Much of the Hg used in the mining process is lost to trommel waste which is disposed of in settlement ponds that drain into adjacent waterways and into Kayeli Bay. Several thousand unmanaged trommel sites and associated tailing ponds exist on Buru Island. This study shows that waste from the Marloso trommel at the Gogrea site contained 203 mg/kg total Hg (THg), with a negligible proportion present as bioavailable methyl Hg (MeHg) and a low total organic carbon content. There are currently very few tools available for ecotoxicological risk assessment of mine tailings for tropical marine ecosystems, and we support the development of Tailings Toxicity Tests (TTTs) and describe laboratory toxicity test methods using the cosmopolitan benthic echinoderm Amphipholis squamata. Undiluted trommel waste caused 100% mortality of A. squamata within 48 h, and a 96-h LC50 of 6.7% w/w trommel waste (4 mg/kg THg) was estimated. Sub-lethal effects on the water vascular system of the brittle star were assessed by quantification of the Ability to Right Itself (ARI), and a 48-h EC50 of 7.3% w/w trommel waste (14.4 mg/kg THg) was estimated. The results show that trommel waste produced on Buru Island is highly contaminated with THg and is acutely toxic, raising serious concern for receiving ecosystems where Hg methylation to more toxic and bioavailable forms is likely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-07-31

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM.

  20. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 1: Human Health Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N.; Neitzel, Richard L.; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors’ recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  1. Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana--part 1: human health review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N; Neitzel, Richard L; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-05-13

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors' recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere.

  2. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 2: Natural Sciences Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  3. Multielemental analysis of Migori (Southwest, Kenya) artisanal gold mine ores and sediments by EDX-ray fluorescence technique: implications of occupational exposure and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumo, O B; Mustapha, A O; Patel, J P; Angeyo, H K

    2011-05-01

    The results of heavy element profiling of the gold ores and sediments associated with the artisanal gold mining activities of the Migori gold belt of Southwestern Nyanza, Kenya, were reported in this paper. The analysis was made to assess the occupational exposure of the miners as well as to investigate the environmental impact of toxic heavy metals. Gold ores and sediments from the artisanal gold processing were sampled in four artisanal gold mining areas: Osiri A, Osiri B, Mikei and Macalder (Makalda) and analyzed for heavy elemental content using (109)Cd radioisotope excited EDXRF spectrometry technique. Analysis consisted of direct irradiating of sample pellets. The concentrations of major elements detected were: titanium (711.41-10,766.67 mg/kg); cobalt (82.65-1,010.00 mg/kg); zinc (29.90-63,210 mg/kg); arsenic (29.30-8,246.59 mg/kg); gold (14.07-73.48 mg/kg); lead (16.31-14,999.40 mg/kg) and mercury (16.10-149.93 mg/kg). The average concentration of the heavy toxic metals i.e. arsenic, lead, titanium and zinc were found to be above 50 mg/Kg as recommended by World Health Organization. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  4. Mercury exposure and health impacts among individuals in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining community: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman; O'Leary, Keri Grace

    2014-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is used in gold mining to extract gold from ore by forming "amalgam"-a mixture composed of approximately equal parts mercury and gold. Approximately 15 million people, including approximately 3 million women and children, participate in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in developing countries. Thirty-seven percent of global air emissions of Hg are produced by ASGM. The recently adopted Minamata Convention calls for nations to gather health data, train health-care workers, and raise awareness in regard to ASGM activity. The purpose of our review was to evaluate the current literature regarding the health effects of Hg among those working and/or living in or near ASGM communities. We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies relating to health effects and biomarkers of Hg exposure in ASGM communities. Articles published from 1990 through December 2012 were evaluated for relevance. Studies reporting health assessments, kidney dysfunction, neurological disorders and symptoms, and immunotoxicity/autoimmune dysfunction in individuals living in or near an ASGM community were identified. More than 60 studies that measured biomarkers of Hg exposure in individuals living in or near ASGM communities were also identified. These studies, conducted in 19 different countries in South America, Asia, and Africa, demonstrated that hair and urine concentrations are well above World Health Organization health guidance values in ASGM communities. ASGM workers and their families are exposed to Hg vapor, and workers, workers' families, and residents of nearby and downstream communities are consuming fish heavily contaminated with methylmercury.

  5. Dietary human exposure to mercury in two artisanal small-scale gold mining communities of northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Camacho, Carlos; Salas-Moreno, Manuel; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-10-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest anthropogenic source of mercury pollution worldwide, posing a grave threat to human health. The present study identifies current levels of mercury in the human population from mining areas of the Chocó Department, Colombia, through total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) measurements in human hair. Mercury exposure of the local population was assessed in two towns affected by ASGM and was related to different variables of interest. Concentrations of THg in human hair ranged from 0.06 to 17.54ppm and the mean value for the subjects under study was 2.48ppm. Men had significantly higher levels than women in both towns (3.29ppm vs. 0.77ppm). Fish consumption was related to a marked increase of THg in hair, with mean values close to five times higher in frequent fish consumers (5-7 times/week) than in non-fish consumers (4.80ppm vs. 0.90ppm). A multiple linear regression model was fitted successfully (R=0.671) and reveals that gender, fish consumption and location of residence were significant indicators of Hg levels in hair, while no significant relationship was found for age. Approximately 60% of subjects tested had THg levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 1.0ppm, while 25% surpassed that of the World Health Organization (2.2ppm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Biomonitoring Data from Mercury Exposed Miners in Six Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Areas in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Baeuml

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM areas in many developing countries, mercury (Hg is used to extract gold from ore. Data of 1250 participants from Indonesia, Mongolia, Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe were combined to analyze the relation between exposure in ASGM areas and body burden. Methods: Four groups were selected relating to their intensity of contact with mercury: (i a non-exposed control group; (ii a low exposed group with participants only living in mining areas, but not working as miners; (iii a medium exposed group, miners living in exposed areas and working with mercury without smelting amalgam; and (iv a high exposed group, miners living in exposed areas and smelting amalgam. Results: Compared to the non-exposed control group, participants living and/ or miners working in highly exposed areas have significantly higher concentration of total mercury in urine, hair and blood (p-value < 0.001. The median mercury value in urine in the control group is < 0.2 µg/L. In the high exposed group of amalgam smelters, the median in urine is 12.0 µg/L. The median in blood in the control group is < 0.93 µg/L. The median level in blood of the high exposed group is 7.56 µg/L. The median for mercury in hair samples from the control group is 0.21 µg/g. In the high exposed group the median hair concentration is 2.4 µg/g hair. Mercury levels also differ considerably between the countries, reflecting a diverse background burden due to different fish eating habits and different work place methods. Conclusions: A high percentage of exposed individuals had levels above threshold values. These high levels of mercury are likely to be related with serious health problems.

  7. Socio economic impacts and policy of artisanal small-scale gold mining in relation to sustainable agriculture: a case study at Sekotong of West Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suhartini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small scale gold mining (ASGM activities at Sekotong Sub District, West Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara which use a traditional system have been operating since 2008. The objectives of this study were to analyze the socio-economic impacts of ASGM,  to know the policy on ASGM in West Lombok Regency, and to  formulate the policy recommendations of sustainable agricultural management which consider the ASGM activities. This study was conducted at Batu Putih and Pelangan villages of the Sekotong sub District which was chosen purposively. The research method was a case study with survey by interviewing 30 farmers with miners that were selected by a simple random sampling and field observation. A policy study was also used by interviewing key informants from many stakeholders. The results showed that ASGM activities at Sekotong improved the income of farmers/miners and created job opportunities. From the average, the ASGM mining contributed 76.01 % of farmers/miners income,  while the farming incomes was 23.99 % of total income. In 2011, West Lombok local government issued a regional regulation through a decree number 1102A/480A/Distamben/2011 about The Determination of the Artisanal Mining Area. But, after the Law of Republic Indonesia Number 23/2014 on Regional Government, the authority to give the artisanal mining permit is the Provincial Government. In terms of economics, the ASGM activities supported the agricultural sustainability. However, the environmental impact of it activities needs to be addressed with technologies which are economically viable and environtmentally sound such as phytoremediation

  8. Where artisanal mines and forest meet: socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Schure, J.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape

  9. Where artisanal mines and forest meet: Socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Schure, J.M.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape

  10. Artisanal cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  11. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Elias; Thomas, Deborah S K; Dewey, Deborah; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E; Konje, Eveline

    2013-01-25

    An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65) and 89.4% (n=143) not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9%) than females (n=36, 22.5%) with regard to mercury (x²=3.99, pmining (n=63, 73.2%) were more knowledgeable about the negative health effects of mercury than individuals in other occupations. Of the few individuals (n=17, 10.6%) who knew about arsenic toxicity, the majority (n=10, 58.8%) were miners. The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of

  12. Assessment of environmental mercury discharge at a four-year-old artisanal gold mining area on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnayanti, Baiq Dewi; Anderson, Christopher W N; Utomo, Wani Hadi; Feng, Xinbin; Handayanto, Eko; Mudarisna, Nurul; Ikram, Hadiman; Khususiah

    2012-10-26

    Indonesian artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities (ASGM) have been described for the islands of Borneo (Kalimantan) and Sulawesi. But the increased gold price over recent years has seen operations extend to the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa. For the current research, an environmental assessment was conducted across three new ASGM locations. Gold is recovered by miners through a two-stage process of whole-ore amalgamation and cyanidation. Waste (tailings) is discharged to land or sea with no concern for contaminants in the tailings. The gold grade of ore is up to 5000 mg kg(-1). The mean gold grade of the amalgamation tailings is 7 mg kg(-1), dropping to 1.2 mg kg(-1) for the cyanidation tailings. The mean mercury concentration of the amalgamation tailings is about 3000 mg kg(-1) and greater than 1600 mg kg(-1) for the cyanidation tailings. Samples of paddy rice grain collected adjacent to cyanidation tailings ponds showed methyl mercury concentrations greater than 100 ng g(-1). This is five times above the Chinese permissible level for total mercury in food crops. The mean total mercury concentration in hair of Lombok ASGM workers was greater than that in a non-exposed population; however there was no difference in methyl mercury concentration. This indicates the primary pathway of mercury exposure is inhalation of volatile mercury in the atmosphere. Future exposure may come from ingestion of methyl mercury contaminated rice where discharge of cyanide tailings to paddies continues. To protect the environment and to enhance the sustainability of ASGM, appropriate tailings management must be implemented. The gold grade of the tailings indicates that the residual value might be recoverable with appropriate technology. Ongoing research is investigating systems such as phytoextraction that might assist ASGM operators in Lombok and Sumbawa to improve their environmental performance.

  13. Testing a small UAS for mapping artisanal diamond mining sites in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing technology is advancing at an unprecedented rate. At the forefront of the new technological developments are unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The advent of small, lightweight, low-cost, and user-friendly UAS is greatly expanding the potential applications of remote sensing technology and improving the set of tools available to researchers seeking to map and monitor terrain from above. In this article, we explore the applications of a small UAS for mapping informal diamond mining sites in Africa. We found that this technology provides aerial imagery of unparalleled resolution in a data-sparse, difficult to access, and remote terrain.

  14. Outbreak of fatal childhood lead poisoning related to artisanal gold mining in northwestern Nigeria, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A; Neri, Antonio; Lo, Yi-Chun; Durant, James; Dargan, Paul I; Swarthout, Todd; Biya, Oladayo; Gidado, Saheed O; Haladu, Suleiman; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick M; Akpan, Henry; Idris, Sa'ad; Bashir, Abdullahi M; Brown, Mary Jean

    2012-04-01

    In May 2010, a team of national and international organizations was assembled to investigate children's deaths due to lead poisoning in villages in northwestern Nigeria. Our goal was to determine the cause of the childhood lead poisoning outbreak, investigate risk factors for child mortality, and identify children Gold ore was processed inside two-thirds of the family compounds surveyed. In multivariate modeling, significant risk factors for death in the previous year from suspected lead poisoning included the age of the child, the mother's work at ore-processing activities, community well as primary water source, and the soil lead concentration in the compound. The high levels of environmental contamination, percentage of children 45 µg/dL), and incidence of convulsions among children before death (82%) suggest that most of the recent childhood deaths in the two surveyed villages were caused by acute lead poisoning from gold ore-processing activities. Control measures included environmental remediation, chelation therapy, public health education, and control of mining activities.

  15. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Mattah, Memuna M.; Armah, Frederick A.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  16. Assessment of risk to human health from simultaneous exposure to multiple contaminants in an artisanal gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edna Santos; Texeira, Renato Alves; da Costa, Hercília Samara Cardoso; Oliveira, Fábio Júnior; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; Fernandes, Antonio Rodrigues

    2017-01-15

    Contamination of soil, water and plants caused by gold mining is of great societal concern because of the risk of environmental pollution and risk to human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk to human health from ingestion of As, Ba, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Ni present in soil, sterile and mineralized waste, and water and plants at a gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil. Samples of soil, sterile and mineralized waste, water and plants were collected around an artisanal gold mine located in Serra Pelada. The mean concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the soil were higher than the soil quality reference values as defined in the legislation, which may be attributeable to past mining activities. Water from the area close to the mine exhibited As, Ba and Pb concentrations exceeding the reference values established by the World Health Organization, deemed unfit for human consumption. Plants exhibited high Pb concentrations, representing a food safety risk to the population. The mean hazard index (HI) values were below the acceptable limit (1.0) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, although the highest HI values observed for adults and children were higher than the respective acceptable limits. Environmental contamination and risk to human health were heterogeneous in the surroundings of the mine. Mitigation strategies need to be adopted to decrease the risks of contamination to the environment and to the local population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted. This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities.

  18. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-01-26

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities.

  19. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  20. Engaging Business Students with Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The Economist calls it "a golden vein", and many business experts now say it is the new science of winning. Business and technologists have many names for this new science, "business intelligence" (BI), " data analytics," and "data mining" are among the most common. The job market for people skilled in this…

  1. Engaging plant anatomy and local knowledge on the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.: Arecaceae): the microscopic world meets the golden grass artisan's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Rebeca V. R.; Scatena, Vera L.; Eichemberg, Mayra T.; Sano, Paulo T.

    2016-11-01

    Considering that both Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems share a common ground—observations of the natural world—the dialogue between them should not only be possible, but fruitful. Local communities whose livelihoods depend on traditional uses of the local biodiversity not only develop knowledge about nature, making several uses of such knowledge, but, with that process, several inquiries about nature can be raised. Here we present our experience with the engagement of Western Science with golden grass artisan's knowledge about the buriti palm (M. flexuosa). We applied 25 semi-directive interviews, combined with field diary and participative observation, in two quilombola communities from Jalapão region (Central-Brazil). One of the inquiries that emerged from the artisan's perspectives was about the differences between male and female buriti palms' fiber. We then engaged both local and scientific perspectives regarding this issue using plant anatomy as a dialogue instrument. Here we describe this experience and resort to Paulo Freire's ideas on dialogue to argue that, to integrate Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems in a collaborative and contextualized perspective, the research should be faced as a mutual learning practice.

  2. Socio-economic and environmental impact of mining on women in Kasigau mining zone in Taita Taveta County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarifa Ali Mwakumanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kasigau ward is home to many gemstones with their mining contributing to the county's economic development. The mining sector is dominated by artisanal and small scale mining with 3–5% of women employed. A Participatory Action Research (PAR approach was used to involve women with the aim of establishing home-grown interventions. Seven villages and forty nine households participated in household interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and female feedback reflection meetings to generate and analyze data. Women worked as zururas (workers or employees, in deplorable environmental conditions, and were heavily impacted by mining activities. Women developed actionable strategies on productive engagement in the artisanal mining sector.

  3. Solid-phase partitioning of mercury in artisanal gold mine tailings from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines, and its implications for mercury detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiso, Einstine M; Aseneiro, John Paul J; Banda, Marybeth Hope T; Tabelin, Carlito B

    2018-01-01

    The solid-phase partitioning of mercury could provide necessary data in the identification of remediation techniques in contaminated artisanal gold mine tailings. This study was conducted to determine the total mercury content of mine wastes and identify its solid-phase partitioning through selective sequential extraction coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples from mine tailings and the carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process were obtained from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines. The results showed that mercury use is still prevalent among small-scale gold miners in the Philippines. Tailings after ball mill-gravity concentration (W-BM and Li-BM samples) from Mt Diwata and Libona contained high levels of mercury amounting to 25.024 and 6.5 mg kg-1, respectively. The most prevalent form of mercury in the mine tailings was elemental/amalgamated mercury, followed by water soluble, exchangeable, organic and strongly bound phases, respectively. In contrast, mercury content of carbon-in-pulp residues were significantly lower at only 0.3 and 0.06 mg kg-1 for P-CIP (Del Pilar) and W-CIP (Mt Diwata), respectively. The bulk of mercury in P-CIP samples was partitioned in residual fraction while in W-CIP samples, water soluble mercury predominated. Overall, this study has several important implications with regards to mercury detoxification of contaminated mine tailings from Mindanao, Philippines.

  4. The Strengthening of Geological Infrastructure, Research and Data Acquisition - Using Gis in Ivory Coast Gold Mines

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    Kouame Kouame Joseph Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The artisanal gold mining in Ivory Coast has become a key problem in the mining sector. A diverse group of people in Ivory Coast, including the young and the old, are all engaged in these activities that are reportedly better than agricultural inputs. However, it is still a high-risk activity that leads to pollution, environmental degradation and the loss of human life. About ten people die each year in the gold mines. This paper focuses on gold mine safety by using the Geographic Information System (GIS as a major solution to solve the artisanal gold mines problem, and also seeks to promote the mining industry in Ivory Coast.

  5. Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM on Environment and Human Health of Gorontalo Utara Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Indriati Arifin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in the environment (river sediments and fish and in the hair of artisanal gold miners and inhabitants of the Gorontalo Utara Regency were determined in order to understand the status of contamination, sources and their impacts on human health. Mercury concentrations in the sediments along the Wubudu and Anggrek rivers are already above the tolerable level declared safe by the World Health Organization (WHO. Meanwhile, commonly consumed fish, such as snapper, have mercury levels above the threshold limit (0.5 μg/g. The mean mercury concentrations in the hair of a group of inhabitants from Anggrek and Sumalata are higher than those in hair from control group (the inhabitants of Monano, Tolinggula and Kwandang. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of female inhabitants is higher than that in the hair of male inhabitants in each group. Neurological examinations were performed on 44 participants of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM miners and inhabitants of Anggrek and Sumalata. From the 12 investigated symptoms, four common symptoms were already observed among the participants, namely, bluish gums, Babinski reflex, labial reflex and tremor.

  6. Making mining work: Bringing poverty-stricken, small-scale miners ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Thousands of miners are reportedly digging for gold in the Las Cristinas mine in Venezuela's Bolivar State — but few of them actually work for mine owner, Toronto-based Crystallex. Instead, it is estimated that 87% of the workers are engaged in artisanal or small-scale mining (ASM). They scratch out a ...

  7. Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaha Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty soil samples were collected from North of Atbara (Dar-Mali locality,River Nile State, Sudan (17.82289 to 17.82389N and 33.99974 to 34.02127E inside and outside gold mining area in order to assess the influence of the gold mining on the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg in study area. The soil contamination by heavy metals of study area was studied using two parameters; (i Comparison of the heavy metals concentrations with mean concentrations in most world soils, (ii Enrichment Factor (EF. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals were varying in the study area, the highest concentrations were obtained at the center of mining area particularly inside the mining basins of gold extraction. The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, and Pb were ranged from (4.85 to 34.65 mg kg-1 soil, (6,355 to 14,635 mg kg-1 soil, (37.35 to 655 mg kg-1 soil, (11.85 to 42.7 mg kg-1 soil, (0 to 16.5 mg kg-1 soil, (2.5 to 47.3 mg kg-1 soil and (2.65 to 823.5 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. The results also indicated that the soil samples which collected from inside mining basins have a highest EF for most heavy metals particularly Pb, which showed EF value of (676.3, suggesting that the Pb may be derived from anthropogenic source. This study recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in the soils around the Artisanal gold Mining for conservation and protection from pollution.

  8. Understanding Women's Experiences in Artisanal and Small Scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Women's Experiences in Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Central and East Africa. This project will provide empirical evidence on the constraints and opportunities for women's economic empowerment in artisanal and small scale mining (ASM), and on the impact of regulatory reforms. ASM refers to ...

  9. River transport of mercury from artisanal and small-scale gold mining and risks for dietary mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diringer, Sarah E; Feingold, Beth J; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Gallis, John A; Araújo-Flores, Julio M; Berky, Axel; Pan, William K Y; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-02-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major contributor to deforestation and the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric mercury worldwide. Despite significant information on the direct health impacts of mercury to ASGM miners, the impact of mercury contamination on downstream communities has not been well characterized, particularly in Peru's Madre de Dios region. In this area, ASGM has increased significantly since 2000 and has led to substantial political and social controversy. This research examined the spatial distribution and transport of mercury through the Madre de Dios River with distance from ASGM activity. This study also characterized risks for dietary mercury exposure to local residents who depend on fish from the river. River sediment, suspended solids from the water column, and fish samples were collected in 2013 at 62 sites near 17 communities over a 560 km stretch of the Madre de Dios River and its major tributaries. In areas downstream of known ASGM activity, mercury concentrations in sediment, suspended solids, and fish within the Madre de Dios River were elevated relative to locations upstream of mining. Fish tissue mercury concentrations were observed at levels representing a public health threat, with greater than one-third of carnivorous fish exceeding the international health standard of 0.5 mg kg(-1). This study demonstrates that communities located hundreds of kilometers downstream of ASGM activity, including children and indigenous populations who may not be involved in mining, are at risk of dietary mercury exposure that exceed acceptable body burdens. This report represents the first systematic study of the region to aid policy decision-making related to ASGM activities in Peru.

  10. Mercury concentrations in water resources potentially impacted by coal-fired power stations and artisanal gold mining in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chavon R; Leaner, Joy J; Nel, Jaco M; Somerset, Vernon S

    2010-09-01

    Total mercury (TotHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in various environmental compartments collected from water resources of three Water Management Areas (WMAs) - viz. Olifants, Upper Vaal and Inkomati WMAs, potentially impacted by major anthropogenic mercury (Hg) sources (i.e coal-fired power stations and artisanal gold mining activities). Aqueous TotHg concentrations were found to be elevated above the global average (5.0 ng/L) in 38% of all aqueous samples, while aqueous MeHg concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.02 ng/L) to 2.73 +/- 0.10 ng/L. Total Hg concentrations in surface sediment (0-4 cm) ranged from 0.75 +/- 0.01 to 358.23 +/- 76.83 ng/g wet weight (ww). Methylmercury accounted for, on average, 24% of TotHg concentrations in sediment. Methylmercury concentrations were not correlated with TotHg concentrations or organic content in sediment. The concentration of MeHg in invertebrates and fish were highest in the Inkomati WMA and, furthermore, measured just below the US EPA guideline for MeHg in fish.

  11. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco ( Piaractus brachypomus ) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  12. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  14. Isotope tracing of Hg pollution from artisanal small scale gold mining in an aquatic ecosystem of Amapá, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler Miserendino, R.; Silbergeld, E. K.; Guimarães, J. D.; Ghosh, S.; Bergquist, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Artisinal small scale gold mining (ASGM) is a central economic activity throughout the developing world. It is both a poverty driven and poverty alleviating process; however, ASGM leads to extensive pollution of waterways through the use of Hg to extract gold from deposits. There have been many studies conducted in the Amazon showing elevated levels of Hg in fish and sediment downstream of ASGM sites; however, the debate continues about the contribution of Hg from ASGM versus other potential sources of Hg. In this study, we investigate whether Hg stable isotope analysis can be used to trace mercury pollution from an ASGM site through an aquatic ecosystem in Amapá, Brazil. We measured the Hg isotopic composition of sediment cores from two lakes, only one of which was heavily impacted by the use of elemental Hg in ASGM, as well as from grab samples at the AGSM site and upstream and downstream from the AGSM site along the river which connects the polluted lake to the ASGM site. Hg from all samples were trapped via combustion using the Leeman Labs Hydra-C mercury analyzer and analyzed for both mass-independent and mass-dependent signatures using cold vapor multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CV-MC-ICP-MS). Detectable variations in the Hg isotopic signatures were apparent across our field sites, suggesting stable isotopic analysis has great potential to trace contamination pathways in waterways. Preliminary data demonstrate Hg from the ASGM site has unique isotopic signatures that are seen downstream. However, the impacted lake sediments do not have the mining signature despite having three times more Hg than the non-impacted lake. Based on this data, it may be possible to trace Hg from ASGM and assess whether it is impacting local ecosystems and food webs. Hair and soil samples will also be discussed. This demonstration is essential for the broader application of these tools for understanding and applying Hg isotopic analysis in other

  15. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana via the Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Avik; Phipps, Sean; Long, Rachel; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2015-09-10

    The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people) and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation). The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention.

  16. Human exposure to mercury in artisanal small-scale gold mining areas of Kedougou region, Senegal, as a function of occupational activity and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niane, Birane; Guédron, Stéphane; Moritz, Robert; Cosio, Claudia; Ngom, Papa Malick; Deverajan, Naresh; Pfeifer, Hans Rudolf; Poté, John

    2015-05-01

    We investigated mercury (Hg) exposure of food web and humans in the region of Kedougou, Senegal, where Hg is used for gold amalgamation in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM). For this purpose, total mercury (THg) concentration was determined in eight fish species and two shellfish species from Gambia River and in human hair from 111 volunteers of different age and sex, living in urban locations (Kedougou and Samekouta) or in ASGM areas (Tinkoto and Bantako). THg concentrations in fish samples range from 0.03 to 0.51 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and 0.5 to 1.05 mg kg(-1) ww for shellfish. THg concentrations in fish are below the WHO guideline of 0.5 mg kg(-1) ww, whereas 100 % of shellfish are above this safety guideline. In the entire set of fish and shellfish samples, we documented a decrease of THg concentrations with increasing selenium to mercury (Se:Hg) ratio suggesting a protection of Se against Hg. However, local population consuming fish from the Gambia River in the two ASGM areas have higher THg concentrations (median = 1.45 and 1.5 mg kg(-1) at Bantako and Tinkoto) in hair than those from others localities (median = 0.42 and 0.32 mg kg(-1) at Kedougou town and Samekouta) who have diverse diets. At ASGM sites, about 30 % of the local population present Hg concentrations in hair exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), defined as the reference concentration of Hg in hair. We also evidence a higher exposure of women to Hg in the Tinkoto ASGM site due to the traditional distribution of daily tasks where women are more involved in the burning of amalgams. The discrepancy between the calculated moderate exposure through fish consumption and the high Hg concentrations measured in hair suggest that fish consumption is not the only source of Hg exposure and that further studies should focus on direct exposure to elemental Hg of population living at ASGM sites.

  17. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Wyatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12, where ASGM has increased 4–6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231 to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15–49 years, n = 46 over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual’s oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provisional level (1.2 µg/g that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8–10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana and grains (quinoa was significantly associated with 29–75% reductions in hair mercury

  18. Eliciting Drivers of Community Perceptions of Mining Projects through Effective Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining has received much attention in recent years as a consequence of the negative impacts of mining and public awareness. The aim of this paper is to provide mining companies guidance on improving the sustainability of their sites through effective community engagement based on recent advances in the literature. It begins with a review of the literature on sustainable development and its relationship to stakeholder engagement. It then uses the literature to determine the dominant factors that affect community perceptions of mining projects. These factors are classified into five categories: environmental, economic, social, governance and demographic factors. Then, we propose a new two-stage method based on discrete choice theory and the classification that can improve stakeholder engagement and be cost-effective. Further work is required to validate the proposed method, although it shows potential to overcome some of the challenges plaguing current approaches.

  19. Assessment of the Central African Republic Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents recommendations to assist the promotion of socially and environmentally responsible artisanal mining practices, discusses formalization of the artisanal mining sector, and advises organization into cooperatives in the Central African Republic. Best practices are outlined to improve the working, living, and community conditions of artisanal miners. The mining sector is...

  20. When policy is not enough: prospects and challenges of artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASM activities first became part of the socioeconomic development agenda of the country in 1994 after the change in government. ASM was identified as an ... a new thriving economy. Keywords: artisanal and small scale mining (ASM), timeline, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, South African mining policy ...

  1. Gender Dimensions of Rural Livelihoods in Artisanal and Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining activities contribute to livelihoods and welfare of rural households in communities that are endowed with mineral resources. Oyo State is one of the states in Nigeria where artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) livelihood activities are undertaken. ASM is an important driver of local economic development, while ...

  2. Distribution of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Tapajós River Basin (Brazilian Amazon over the Past 40 Years and Relationship with Water Siltation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Lucia Lobo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative remote sensing approach that combines land-use change and water quality information is proposed in order to investigate if Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM area extension is associated with water siltation in the Tapajós River Basin (Brazil, containing the largest small-scale gold mining district in the world. Taking advantage of a 40-year period of the multi-satellite imagery archive, the objective of this paper is to build a normalized time-series in order to evaluate the influence of temporal mining expansion on the water siltation data (TSS, Total Suspended Solids concentration derived from previous research. The methodological approach was set to deliver a full characterization of the ASGM expansion from its initial stages in the early 1970s to the present. First, based on IRS/LISSIII images acquired in 2012, the historical Landsat image database (1973–2001 was corrected for radiometric and atmospheric effects using dark vegetation as reference to create a normalized time-series. Next, a complete update of the mining areas distribution in 2012 derived from the TerraClass Project (an official land-use classification for the Brazilian Amazon was conducted having IRS/LISSIII as the base map with the support of auxiliary data and vector editing. Once the ASGM in 2012 was quantified (261.7 km2 and validated with photos, a reverse classification of ASGM in 2001 (171.7 km2, 1993 (166.3 km2, 1984 (47.5 km2, and 1973 (15.4 km2 with the use of Landsat archives was applied. This procedure relies on the assumption that ASGM changes in the land cover are severe and remain detectable from satellite sensors for decades. The mining expansion area over time was then combined with the (TSS data retrieved from the same atmospherically corrected satellite imagery based on the literature. In terms of gold mining expansion and water siltation effects, four main periods of ASGM activities were identified in the study area: (i 1958

  3. From Artisan to Partisan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    This article confronts the question of what a revitalized financial sector might look like if this were to be reconfigured so as to reproduce first an artisanal-like persona for the financial analyst and craft-like organizational structure for financial businesses, and second if this were to be re......-territorialized so that it acted like a partisan rather than, as at present, like a disembedded footloose structure of ‘global finance’. Initially the analysis is pitched at a rather abstract and theoretical level – pulling together artisans, nomads and partisans and tracing their intellectual lineages....... But the chapter ends with three very concrete illustrations of actual financial relations in practice that meet some of the criteria for being both artisanal and partisanal....

  4. From Artisan to Partisan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    This paper confronts the question of what a revitalized financial sector might look like if this were to be reconfigured so as to reproduce first an artisanal like persona for the financial analyst and craft like organizational structure for financial businesses, and secondly if this were to be re......-territorialized so that it acted like a partisan rather than, as at present, like a disembedded footloose structure of ‘global finance’. Initially the analysis is pitched at a rather abstract and theoretical level – pulling together artisans, nomads and partisans and tracing their intellectual lineages....... But the chapter ends with three very concrete illustrations of actual financial relations in practice that meet some of the criteria for being both artisanal and partisanal....

  5. Living with conflicts in Ghana's Prestea mining area: Is community engagement the answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Adonteng-Kissi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale mines acknowledge that their continuous existence in indigenous communities is threatened without the cooperation and support of local people. In recent times, large-scale mines have attempted to secure Social License to Operate (SLO and ensure sustainable development (SD by reconciling business interests with local needs and aspirations. Accomplishing local cooperation and support without threatening business interest remains a top priority for the large-scale mines. Community engagement forms part of the broader Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR policy initiatives which are often promoted as a way of enhancing sustainable development. This paper examines the local perceptions of the design and application of Golden Star Resources' (GSR community engagement program. This paper contends that this community engagement model has a positive impact on conflict management regardless of age, sex, education, marital status and occupation of participants. However, presently the model remains symbolic and has not yet attain the status of a real functional strategy since many of local grievances that result in clashes are unresolved. Furthermore, it is believed that GSR's community engagement program is not adequately developed, systematic or moulded to achieve the exact or intended community relation. This paper further contends that the dominant sources and causes of conflict in Prestea is land use conflicts and environmental impact issues.

  6. Bogotanian artisans and anti-liberalism 1832-1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Polo Buitrago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most historians interpret the political situation of the artisans in the XIX century in Colombia like that of a social group which was compelled to take part in politics, because the pressure of the economic policies of free trade tendency. This thesis has been sustained on the basis of the artisan societies that were created since 1838 on, against the policies of the government. In spite of this common thesis, I dare say that even though the artisans protested by brandishing arguments against the free trade, nevertheless their political activity took place without knowing the real implications of the free trade concerning their own production. I will demonstrate this thesis of mine by focusing my study on the situation of the artisans in Bogotá, particularly the period between 1832 and 1836; in this period the "rst riot against the free trade took place in the XIX century in Bogotá. My arguments shall sustain that the custom laws reforms were protectionist essentially, and despite that the artisans protested against the free trade. I will also put under evidence that the artisan¿s products for the home market did not compete with the foreign products.

  7. Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyanza, Elias C; Joseph, Mary; Premji, Shahirose S; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Mannion, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    ...). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements...

  8. The Strengthening of Geological Infrastructure, Research and Data Acquisition - Using Gis in Ivory Coast Gold Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Kouame Kouame Joseph Arthur; Jiang Fuxing; Feng Yu; Zhu Sitao

    2017-01-01

    The artisanal gold mining in Ivory Coast has become a key problem in the mining sector. A diverse group of people in Ivory Coast, including the young and the old, are all engaged in these activities that are reportedly better than agricultural inputs. However, it is still a high-risk activity that leads to pollution, environmental degradation and the loss of human life. About ten people die each year in the gold mines. This paper focuses on gold mine safety by using the Geographic Information...

  9. Understanding Women's Experiences in Artisanal and Small Scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will provide empirical evidence on the constraints and opportunities for women's economic empowerment in artisanal and small scale mining (ASM), and on the impact ... Genre, entrepreneuriat et croissance partagée : les institutions et la promotion des petites et moyennes entreprises à Maurice et au Botswana.

  10. Stakeholders' Engagement Methods for the Mining Social Responsibility Practice: Determination of Local Issues and Concerns Related to the Mines Operations in Northwest of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, all around the world, global environmental change affects the human habitat. This is effect enhanced by the mining operation, and creates new challenges in relationship between the mining and local community. The purpose of this project are developed the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan which is currently developed in University of Nevada, Reno for the Emigrant mining project, located in the central Nevada, USA, and belong to the Newmont Mining Corporation, one of the gold production leader worldwide. The needs for this project is to create the open dialog between Newmont mining company and all interested parties which have social or environmental impacts from the Emigrant mine. Identification of the stakeholders list is first and one of the most difficult steps in the developing of mine social responsibility. Stakeholders' engagement evaluation plan must be based on the timing and available resources of the mining company, understanding the goals for the engagement, and on analyzes of the possible risks from engagement. In conclusion, the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan includes: first, determinations of the stakeholders list, which must include any interested or effected by the mine projects groups, for example: state and local government representatives, people from local communities, business partners, environmental NGOs, indigenous people, and academic groups. The contacts and availability for communication is critical for Stakeholders engagement. Next, is to analyze characteristics of all these parties and determinate the level of interest and level of their influence on the project. The next step includes the Stakeholders matrix and mapping development, where all these information will be put together.After that, must be chosen the methods for stakeholders' engagement. The methods usually depends from the goals of engagement (create the dialog lines, collect the data, determinations of the local issues and concerns, or establish

  11. Study of geohazards in the artisanal exploitation sites and their impacts on their surrounding areas. Cases of Mufwa and Kalimbi mines in the South Kivu province (D.R. Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshokano, Jean-Robert

    2014-05-01

    Kivu region is located in the eastern part of DR Congo. This region is in western branch of the East African Rift. In this region there is a presence of several mineral resources. It is also a sismic zone with many cases of geohazards. Very often international NGO's (Human rights, Green Peace, etc.) consider the illegal mining exploitations as the causes of conflicts and war in that region. Those illegal mining exploitations are also responsible for the insecure and inconvenient situations in the region. The DR Congo is a country with great mining vocation and remarkable geological diversity, its people has the need and the right to understand the different challenges related to geological resources. So it's up to raise the question: "What about the unsubstitutable links which put the life beings and their physical environment, what about the interest of soil and subsoil in the human subsistence and comfort?" In undertaking natural resource exploitation, extreme comfort and ultra capitalism should not blind people. They are called to preserve a nature for all and a nature for future generations. We have a common earth where we exploit all the mineral resources. It's up to everyone as human being to be aware of our responsibility regarding to the irreversible decrease of mineral resources and the constant danger of geohazards. The project'"Earth and life" essentially aims for the strengthening of efforts in geoeducation and mass geocommunication (information and sensitization) about the challenges of oil and mineral resources on one hand, and on the other hand the natural hazards in the perspective to encourage much more a sustainable development. Through fieldwork investigations (geological survey), we are going to map the artisanal exploitation sites targeted by the project. We will proceed by sensitization and mass information about different topics of geology and mineral resources issues in the region. The fieldworks will allow us to make an inventory of

  12. Job crafting and its impact on work engagement and job satisfaction in mining and manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T de Beer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate job crafting and its relationship with work engagement and job satisfaction within the South African context. This research is important as job crafting has been shown to have a positive influence on employee motivation. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect primary data from organisations in the mining and manufacturing industries of South Africa (N = 470. The results of multi-group structural equation modelling showed that the original four-factor structure of the job crafting scale was supported by the data, but that a three-factor structure was necessary due to a discriminant validity concern regarding two job crafting dimensions. Regression results revealed that increasing structural job resources with challenging job demands, and increasing social job resources were significant predictors of work engagement in both groups. Contrary to expectations decreasing hindering job demands was a negative predictor of job satisfaction in the mining group. Furthermore, increasing social job resources was also a significant predictor of job satisfaction in both groups. This study indicates the importance of job crafting for work engagement and job satisfaction in organisations.

  13. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to a tailings dam project for artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Zaruma-Portovelo, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Velásquez-López, Patricio C.; Roqué, Carles; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Thanks to advances in geoelectrical resistivity method over the past two decades, researchers can now gather massive geophysical data sets encompassing long distances and depths, at reasonable cost. The enhanced resolution and spatial coverage of these techniques make them, now, very attractive for use in geological engineering applications, an area for which they were previously charged to be unsuitable. The study shows the capability of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to identify key subsoil features that might affect a future tailings dam slated for construction at the Zaruma-Portovelo Mining District, Ecuador. The ERI profiles were gathered and processed with the aim of obtaining resistivity images of a sufficiently resolution for geotechnical use. A geophysical model was created based on these images. The resistivity images were calibrated according to geomorphological, hydrogeological and geotechnical data in order to translate geophysical information into rational geological information. The ERI results, supported by the geomorphological and geotechnical work, suggested that the rock massif is composed of weathering horizons of different rock qualities, slopes are affected by sliding surfaces and these features exert a control on the groundwater flow. These results indicated that the original site selected to construct the dam dike was susceptible to land sliding and an alternative construction site was suggested. Based on the same results, a geomorphological-hydrogeological conceptual model for layered weathered granitic massif in mountainous areas was also proposed.

  16. How a masculine work ethic and economic circumstances affect uptake of HIV treatment: experiences of men from an artisanal gold mining community in rural eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Godfrey E; Wight, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background Current data from Uganda indicate that, compared to women, men are under-represented in HIV treatment, seek treatment later and have a higher mortality while on antiretroviral therapy (ART). By focusing on a masculine work ethic as one of the most predominant expressions of masculinity, this study explores why for some men HIV treatment enhances their masculinity while for others it undermines masculine work identity, leading them to discontinue the treatment. Methods Participant observation and 26 in-depth interviews with men were conducted in a gold mining village in Eastern Uganda between August 2009 and August 2010. Interviewees included men who were taking HIV treatment, who had discontinued treatment, who suspected HIV infection but had not sought testing, or who had other symptoms unrelated to HIV infection. Results Many participants reported spending large proportions of their income, alleviating symptoms prior to confirming their HIV infection. This seriously undermined their sense of masculinity gained from providing for their families. Disclosing HIV diagnosis and treatment to employers and work colleagues could reduce job offers and/or collaborative work, as colleagues feared working with “ill” people. Drug side-effects affected work, leading some men to discontinue the treatment. Despite being on ART, some men believed their health remained fragile, leading them to opt out of hard work, contradicting their reputation as hard workers. However, some men on treatment talked about “resurrecting” due to ART and linked their current abilities to work again to good adherence. For some men, it was work colleagues who suggested testing and treatment-seeking following symptoms. Conclusions The central role of a work ethic in expressing masculinity can both encourage and discourage men's treatment-seeking for AIDS. HIV testing and treatment may be sought in order to improve health and get back to work, thereby in the process regaining one

  17. How a masculine work ethic and economic circumstances affect uptake of HIV treatment: experiences of men from an artisanal gold mining community in rural eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Seeley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current data from Uganda indicate that, compared to women, men are under-represented in HIV treatment, seek treatment later and have a higher mortality while on antiretroviral therapy (ART. By focusing on a masculine work ethic as one of the most predominant expressions of masculinity, this study explores why for some men HIV treatment enhances their masculinity while for others it undermines masculine work identity, leading them to discontinue the treatment. Methods: Participant observation and 26 in-depth interviews with men were conducted in a gold mining village in Eastern Uganda between August 2009 and August 2010. Interviewees included men who were taking HIV treatment, who had discontinued treatment, who suspected HIV infection but had not sought testing, or who had other symptoms unrelated to HIV infection. Results: Many participants reported spending large proportions of their income, alleviating symptoms prior to confirming their HIV infection. This seriously undermined their sense of masculinity gained from providing for their families. Disclosing HIV diagnosis and treatment to employers and work colleagues could reduce job offers and/or collaborative work, as colleagues feared working with “ill” people. Drug side-effects affected work, leading some men to discontinue the treatment. Despite being on ART, some men believed their health remained fragile, leading them to opt out of hard work, contradicting their reputation as hard workers. However, some men on treatment talked about “resurrecting” due to ART and linked their current abilities to work again to good adherence. For some men, it was work colleagues who suggested testing and treatment-seeking following symptoms. Conclusions: The central role of a work ethic in expressing masculinity can both encourage and discourage men's treatment-seeking for AIDS. HIV testing and treatment may be sought in order to improve health and get back to work, thereby in the

  18. How a masculine work ethic and economic circumstances affect uptake of HIV treatment: experiences of men from an artisanal gold mining community in rural eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Godfrey E; Wight, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2012-06-14

    Current data from Uganda indicate that, compared to women, men are under-represented in HIV treatment, seek treatment later and have a higher mortality while on antiretroviral therapy (ART). By focusing on a masculine work ethic as one of the most predominant expressions of masculinity, this study explores why for some men HIV treatment enhances their masculinity while for others it undermines masculine work identity, leading them to discontinue the treatment. Participant observation and 26 in-depth interviews with men were conducted in a gold mining village in Eastern Uganda between August 2009 and August 2010. Interviewees included men who were taking HIV treatment, who had discontinued treatment, who suspected HIV infection but had not sought testing, or who had other symptoms unrelated to HIV infection. Many participants reported spending large proportions of their income, alleviating symptoms prior to confirming their HIV infection. This seriously undermined their sense of masculinity gained from providing for their families. Disclosing HIV diagnosis and treatment to employers and work colleagues could reduce job offers and/or collaborative work, as colleagues feared working with "ill" people. Drug side-effects affected work, leading some men to discontinue the treatment. Despite being on ART, some men believed their health remained fragile, leading them to opt out of hard work, contradicting their reputation as hard workers. However, some men on treatment talked about "resurrecting" due to ART and linked their current abilities to work again to good adherence. For some men, it was work colleagues who suggested testing and treatment-seeking following symptoms. The central role of a work ethic in expressing masculinity can both encourage and discourage men's treatment-seeking for AIDS. HIV testing and treatment may be sought in order to improve health and get back to work, thereby in the process regaining one's masculine reputation as a hard worker and provider

  19. Female Engagement Teams: Making the Case for Institutionalization Based on U.S. Security Objectives in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Collier cited how the presence of natural resources, particularly in countries with few, if any other developed industries, increases competition and...based on a competition for resources, this constraint made it difficult for FETs to maintain a consistent presence and engage the local populations...however, human rights groups have noted the harsh working conditions and social costs associated with artisanal mining – a phenomenon that would likely be

  20. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sartono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Minnesota JobSatisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. The results of the study indicate positive relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and intrinsic motivation among the workers. Age and marital status were found to be significant contributors to workers’ job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and work engagement. Implications of these results are that human resource interventions are required in order to deal with enhancing work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation and work engagement can enhance job satisfaction. The current study adds to the research pointing at job satisfaction as a promising underlying mechanism for employees’ to be internally motivated and engaged at work. Keywords: Work engagement, Intrinsic motivation, Job satisfaction

  1. Training Artisans On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this principle hinges on the collaborative effort of the key project stakeholders. The client should be willing to absorb extra cost and delays in the project; the design and contract documentation should facilitate on-site training, and  the consultant actively guide the contractor and the construction processes to achieve the training objectives. The exploratory research method was adopted in this study and research revealed that this principle was used in a project in the UK and in the development of infrastructure in the tourism industry of South Africa .It is being recommended that the principle be adapted by the public sector for the development of small size infrastructures that can be repeated in many places. This will boost the quality and quantity of artisans, enhance employability, reduce rural urban migration and alleviate poverty.Keywords: Skilled artisans, on-site training, progressive construction processes, project stakeholders, contract documentation. 

  2. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sartono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. The results of the study indicate positive relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and intrinsic motivation among the workers. Age and marital status were found to be significant contributors to workers’ job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and work engagement. Implications of these results are that human resource interventions are required in order to deal with enhancing work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation and work engagement can enhance job satisfaction. The current study adds to the research pointing at job satisfaction as a promising underlying mechanism for employees’ to be internally motivated and engaged at work.

  3. Water quality analysis of rivers used as drinking sources in artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial pattern of water quality of rivers affected by artisanal gold mining but used as drinking sources in Akyem Abuakwa, was evaluated based on thirteen variables. At nine of the fifteen sampling stations, concentrations of arsenic, mercury, total dissolved solids, turbidity, water colour, nitrate-nitrogen and ...

  4. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high...... levels of mercury and suffer from toxic effects from mercury exposure. The objective of this review was to provide an outline of the studies available on elemental mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners....

  5. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  6. Patterns of User Engagement With the Mobile App, Manage My Pain: Results of a Data Mining Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Quazi Abidur; Janmohamed, Tahir; Pirbaglou, Meysam; Ritvo, Paul; Heffernan, Jane M; Clarke, Hance; Katz, Joel

    2017-07-12

    Pain is one of the most prevalent health-related concerns and is among the top 3 most common reasons for seeking medical help. Scientific publications of data collected from pain tracking and monitoring apps are important to help consumers and healthcare professionals select the right app for their use. The main objectives of this paper were to (1) discover user engagement patterns of the pain management app, Manage My Pain, using data mining methods; and (2) identify the association between several attributes characterizing individual users and their levels of engagement. User engagement was defined by 2 key features of the app: longevity (number of days between the first and last pain record) and number of records. Users were divided into 5 user engagement clusters employing the k-means clustering algorithm. Each cluster was characterized by 6 attributes: gender, age, number of pain conditions, number of medications, pain severity, and opioid use. Z tests and chi-square tests were used for analyzing categorical attributes. Effects of gender and cluster on numerical attributes were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variances (ANOVAs) followed up by pairwise comparisons using Tukey honest significant difference (HSD). The clustering process produced 5 clusters representing different levels of user engagement. The proportion of males and females was significantly different in 4 of the 5 clusters (all P ≤.03). The proportion of males was higher than females in users with relatively high longevity. Mean ages of users in 2 clusters with high longevity were higher than users from other 3 clusters (all P <.001). Overall, males were significantly older than females (P <.001). Across clusters, females reported more pain conditions than males (all P <.001). Users from highly engaged clusters reported taking more medication than less engaged users (all P <.001). Females reported taking a greater number of medications than males (P =.04). In 4 of 5 clusters, the percentage

  7. Job crafting and its impact on work engagement and job satisfaction in mining and manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Beer, L.T. (Leon T.); M. Tims (Maria); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate job crafting and its relationship with work engagement and job satisfaction within the South African context. This research is important as job crafting has been shown to have a positive influence on employee motivation. A cross-sectional

  8. Mercury exposure among artisanal gold miners in Madre de Dios, Peru: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Horton, Jane; Schier, Joshua G; Caldwell, Kathleen; Sanchez, Carlos; Lewis, Lauren; Gastaňaga, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to mercury, a toxic metal, occurs primarily from inhaling mercury vapors or consuming methylmercury-contaminated fish. One third of all anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide are from artisanal gold mining, which uses mercury to extract gold. Although recent reports suggest that the Madre de Dios region in Peru (with >30,000 artisanal miners) has extensive mercury contamination, residents had never been assessed for mercury exposure. Thus, our objective was to quantify mercury exposure among residents of an artisanal mining town in Madre de Dios and to assess risk factors for exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of 103 residents of an artisanal gold mining town in July 2010. Each participant provided a urine and blood sample and completed a questionnaire assessing potential exposures and health outcomes. We calculated geometric mean (GM) urine total mercury and blood methylmercury concentrations and compared log-transformed concentrations between subgroups using linear regression. One third (34.0 %) of participants were gold miners. All participants had detectable urine total mercury (GM, 5.5 μg/g creatinine; range, 0.7-151 μg/g creatinine) and 91 % had detectable blood methylmercury (GM, 2.7 μg/L; range, 0.6-10 μg/L); 13 participants (13 %) reported having kidney dysfunction or a neurological disorder. Urine total mercury concentrations were higher among people who heated gold-mercury amalgams compared with people who never heated amalgams (p mercury exposure may be widespread in Huaypetue.

  9. MITIGATING THE ACTIVITIES OF ARTISANAL AND SMALL-SCALE MINERS IN AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Mallo

    2012-01-01

    The concept of appropriate social contract for artisanal and small-scale mining(ASM) emerged amid calls for more humane working conditions for this cadre of miners, whose contribution to the alleviation of poverty especially in the developed nations of the world has been recognized by the United Nations. The sector which is a form of subsistence mining provides a direct or indirect livelihood for over 100 million people in the developing world out of which about 5 million are from Africa. Of ...

  10. Artisans, Architects, and Apprentices: Valuing the Craft of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd Potter, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Boyd Potter describes teacher education faculty as both artisans and architects. As artisans, it is not only their products that enrich us; it is the art of the craft itself that shapes their work. An artisan is valued for the creative endeavor, and not solely the masterpiece. Preparing a quality teacher is not easy work, while…

  11. Fishing input requirements of artisanal fishers in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts towards increase in fish production through artisanal fishery can be achieved by making needed inputs available. Fishing requirements of artisanal fishers in coastal communities of Ondo State, Nigeria were studied. Data were obtained from two hundred and sixteen artisans using multistage random sampling ...

  12. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-08-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high levels of mercury and suffer from toxic effects from mercury exposure. The objective of this review was to provide an outline of the studies available on elemental mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners. Searching the PubMed and Embase databases, 26 studies with a total of 3,005 exposed subjects and 442 controls across 14 different developing countries were found. Urine mercury levels were used as biomarkers of exposure. In general, the urine mercury levels were elevated and a considerable proportion of workers had urine mercury levels above existing guidelines. Exposed subjects were stratified into residents, miners, millers, smelters, and refiners, who by work task content were expected to be increasingly exposed to mercury. This group order did show a clear trend of increasing mercury levels. Mercury levels differed substantially between studies. Possible explanations include dissimilarities in gold extraction methods, use of protective devices, and selection of participants. This review provides evidence that artisanal gold miners and residents of the mining sites are exposed to mercury vapour to an extent where acute and long-term toxic effects of mercury are likely. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure and emission of mercury from ASGM are needed.

  13. Emergency or Durable Solution? Coltan Mining and Cooperatives in Northern Katanga (DRC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.I. Wakenge (Claude Iguma); D.J.M. Hilhorst (Thea)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractReforming artisanal mining has a pivotal role in breaking the linkages between mining and conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo. One specific measure has been the creation of mining cooperatives meant to represent mineworkers in their interaction with mining companies. This

  14. A comparison of licensed and un-licensed artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM) in terms of socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates

    OpenAIRE

    Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N. L.; Clarke, Edith; Robins, Thomas; Basu, Niladri

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) represents one of the most hazardous work environments. While formalization of this sector has been suggested (e.g., Minamata Convention) as a means to improve working conditions, we are unaware of empirical evidence that supports this notion. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic profiles, work profiles, and injury rates among miners working in licensed versus un-licensed ASGM sites. Methods In the Tarkwa mining region o...

  15. Mining and Exploitation of Rare Earth Elements in Africa as an Engagement Strategy in US Africa Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    beginning to have an impact. Villagers from the southern Chinese province of Guangdong are feeling the effect: Illegal mining for the lucrative...Namibia, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Chile, and Peru to try to source rare earths.111 Catalog of Current Rare Earth Mining and Production in...13909 (accessed October 17, 2010). Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold. "DRC Government & Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc Announce Successful

  16. farmers' perceptions of mining in the Maningory watershed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. An increasing share of Madagascar's population is dependent on artisanal and small-scale mining (AMS) as a source of livelihood. However, this unregulated activity has numerous repercussions on the miners themselves and on neighboring communities. This study explores the perception of mining of those ...

  17. vegetation structure and heavy metal uptake by plants in the mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    mining-impacted and non mining-impacted areas of the southern Lake Victoria basin. The vegetation of the wetlands was stratified into riverine ... mercury released from artisanal gold mining operations in the LVGF is of environmental ..... U and Wittman GTW 1979 Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Springer, Berlin.

  18. Artisanal mining of gold with mercury in Ghana | Donkor | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  19. Characteristics And Role Of Women In Artisanal Fishery In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics And Role Of Women In Artisanal Fishery In Selected Riverine Communities In Southwestern Nigeria. ... Dissemination of improved processing methods, provision of electricity and upgrading existing road network were l recommended. Keywords: Women, artisanal fishery. Global Approaches to Extension ...

  20. Aquatic biodiversity and the implication in artisanal fishery production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal fisheries in coastal marine and brackish water areas and the inland freshwater ecosystems evaluated revealed their fisheries resources and potentials for valuable protein supply in Nigeria. The characteristics small scale fishing activities of the artisanal fisherfolks are prominent in inshore coastal, riverine, reservoir ...

  1. Crafting culture : artisan cooperatives in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meghan E.

    2009-01-01

    As the cultural tourism industry expands in Mexico, the implications for Oaxacan artisans and their crafts are far -reaching. The economic crises of the 1980s and early 1990s led to a renewed push by the government to promote tourism and a state-sponsored idea of mexicanidad, which has resulted in the increased commercialization of crafts. This project focuses on artesanías within the framework of cultural tourism in order to examine the ways in which lo mexicano is packaged for tourist consu...

  2. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilmar C Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  3. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  4. Shelf life of artisanal demi-glace sauce

    OpenAIRE

    HOLANDA, Natálya Vidal de; GOMES, Joyciane da Silva; SANTOS, Sandra Maria Lopes dos; DAMACENO, Marlene Nunes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to elaborate and evaluate the shelf life of the liquid artisanal demi-glace sauce considering sensory, microbiological and lipid oxidation characteristics during 75 days of storage compared to commercial hydrated demi-glace sauce. Sensory aspects (visual and olfactory), counts of coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, determination of Salmonella sp. and lipid oxidation were evaluated every 15 days. The artisanal demi-glace sauce was homogenous, without se...

  5. Two sides to every coin: farmers' perceptions of mining in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing share of Madagascar's population is dependent on artisanal and small-scale mining (AMS) as a source of livelihood. However, this unregulated activity has numerous repercussions on the miners themselves and on neighboring communities. This study explores the perception of mining of those indirectly ...

  6. Towards a negotiated solution to conflicts between large-scale and small-scale miners? The Acupan contract mining project in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a simultaneous expansion of large-scale mining and artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). In an increasing number of instances, ASM-operators and mining companies are competing or even clashing over access to mineral deposits. A growing number of experts are now

  7. Exploring External Validity of Common Pool Resource Experiments: Insights from Artisanal Benthic Fisheries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gelcich

    2013-09-01

    This study provided insight on the experimental analysis of cooperation in artisanal fisheries and suggested that the capacity to internalize norms is important to the sustainable exploitation of artisanal fisheries common pool resources.

  8. CASE STUDY: Ecuador — Mining, contamination, and health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... In 1984, poverty-stricken miners invaded the old Sadco pits and small-scale and artisanal mining has been going on in the area ever since. There are .... Toward this end, a new municipal environmental group has been formed — a joint effort between the communities of Zaruma and Portovelo. Given the ...

  9. Policy forum on women and mining | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-28

    Sep 28, 2017 ... Participants will review evidence and discuss options for removing the barriers that prevent women from fully participating in, and benefiting from, extractive industries and economic development in ... Understanding Women's Experiences in Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Central and East Africa.

  10. Energy Modeling for the Artisan Food Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Artisan Food Center is a 6912 sq.ft food processing plant located in Dayton, Washington. PNNL was contacted by Strecker Engineering to assist with the building’s energy analysis as a part of the project’s U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) submittal requirements. The project is aiming for LEED Silver certification, one of the prerequisites to which is a whole building energy model to demonstrate compliance with American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 2007 Appendix G, Performance Rating Method. The building incorporates a number of energy efficiency measures as part of its design and the energy analysis aimed at providing Strecker Engineering with the know-how of developing an energy model for the project as well as an estimate of energy savings of the proposed design over the baseline design, which could be used to document points in the LEED documentation. This report documents the ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline model design, the proposed model design, the modeling assumptions and procedures as well as the energy savings results in order to inform the Strecker Engineering team on a possible whole building energy model.

  11. Shelf life of artisanal demi-glace sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natálya Vidal de HOLANDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to elaborate and evaluate the shelf life of the liquid artisanal demi-glace sauce considering sensory, microbiological and lipid oxidation characteristics during 75 days of storage compared to commercial hydrated demi-glace sauce. Sensory aspects (visual and olfactory, counts of coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, determination of Salmonella sp. and lipid oxidation were evaluated every 15 days. The artisanal demi-glace sauce was homogenous, without sensory alteration during the storage period, with olfactory alteration only at the end. The commercial demi-glace sauce remained unchanged until t3 (30 days, from t4 (45 days presented turbid appearance, followed by phase separation and with unpleasant odor in t6 (75 days. The lipid oxidation showed an increased concentration of malonaldehyde at every evaluated time. The artisanal and commercial demi-glace sauces showed a significant difference at t1, t2, t4 and t5, when the artisanal sauce had lower contents of malonaldehyde (18, 23, 36 and 11%, respectively, only at the 30th and 75th days of storage there was significant similarity. The sauces were within the microbiological standards required by the law. Although the artisanal demi-glace sauce does not contain conservatives, its shelf life was similar to the hydrated commercial product.

  12. Good manufacturing practices of artisanal products in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros, J.M.S.D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the importance of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of artisanal products, aiming to generate a discussion about this subject. The elaboration of artisanal food has been gaining prominence in several countries of the world since these products carry the identity and culture of a place. The traditional and artisanal way of manufacturing provides the food with a variation in its characteristics, which makes it peculiar in comparison to its similar, pleasing the most diverse demands of consumers. In addition, they are considered healthier and natural foods. In the Northeast of Brazil, these products are highlighted by the significant commercialization, being sources of income generation for the region. Among the most prominent products are the coalho and butter types cheeses, bottled butter and carne de sol. Despite the economic and cultural importance of these products, the traditional way of manufacturing, without proper hygiene care, can be a limiting factor for the formal commercialization of these products. Therefore, adopting good manufacturing practices at artisanal food processing places may be the first step towards the production of higher quality products that meet the requirements of the legislation but retain their artisanal manufacturing characteristics.

  13. The Artisan Teaching Model for Instructional Leadership: Working Together to Transform Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Kenneth; Krulwich, David

    2016-01-01

    The Artisan Teaching Model merges the idea of "teamwork" with the concept of an "artisan-apprentice relationship." As in any apprenticeship, newer members of the profession work alongside experts ("artisans"). As apprentices become more skilled, they take on larger and more substantial roles and continue to work…

  14. Mapping informal small-scale mining features in a data-sparse tropical environment with a small UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Dewitt, Jessica D.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) to collect imagery over artisanal mining sites in West Africa. The purpose of this study is to consider how very high-resolution imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques from a small UAS can fill the gap in geospatial data collection between satellite imagery and data gathered during field work to map and monitor informal mining sites in tropical environments. The study compares both wide-angle and narrow field of view camera systems in the collection and analysis of high-resolution orthoimages and DSMs of artisanal mining pits. The results of the study indicate that UAS imagery and SfM photogrammetric techniques permit DSMs to be produced with a high degree of precision and relative accuracy, but highlight the challenges of mapping small artisanal mining pits in remote and data sparse terrain.

  15. Explaining fragmented and fluid mobilization in gold mining concessions in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Geenen, Sara; Verweijen, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The expansion of industrial mining in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo has sparked social mobilization in gold mining concessions, most of which are important sites for artisanal mining. Congruent with observations on the nature of social movements in Africa, such mobilization is hyper-fragmented and fluid. We ascribe this high degree of fluidity and fragmentation both to factors internal to the social mobilization effort, including limited organizational potential and t...

  16. Fish Catch Composition of Artisanal and Bottom Trawl Fisheries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa; 4Gent University, Marine Biology Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 – S8, 9000,. Gent, Belgium; 5Technical University of Mombasa, Department of Environment and Health. Sciences, Marine Sciences Section, PO Box 90420, 80100 Mombasa, Kenya. Keywords: Trawl bycatch, artisanal catch, catch composition, ...

  17. Lumber recovery efficiency in the Artisanal sector in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five commercial timber species selected for the study were milicia excelsa, Pterocarpus osun, Nauclea diderichii, Terminalia ivorensis and Gosswellondedron spp. The study showed that log conversion in the artisanal sector result in a high degree (57%) of wastage of total tree volume while the mean recovery ratio for the ...

  18. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers in the city of Maroua, ...

  19. Sustainability of artisanal fishers livelihoods in the Jebba Lake Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined sustainability of artisanal fishers' livelihoods in the Jebba Lake Basin, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 402 respondents for the study. Semi-structured interview schedule was employed for data collection. Data were analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation, ...

  20. Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal fermentation of mezcal in Oaxaca, Mexico. ... ethyl acetate, and acetic acid production, and this practice is more convenient in fall than in spring. Key words: Fermentation, ammonium sulfate, volatile compounds, higher alcohol, gas chromatography, mezcal.

  1. Mercury Watch Portal: Charting the Improvement of Artisanal and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AGC

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... which time he focused his thesis on ASGM. • Delivery of “A Practical Guide: Reducing Mercury Use in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining” in the communities of Tomboronkoto, Senegal; Bantaco, Senegal (Error! Reference source not found.4); Gombeledougou, Burkina Faso; and Hiré, Ivory Coast.

  2. Evaluation of fish handling techniques employed by artisanal fishers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In artisanal fishery, traditional handling methods such as tossing fish onto the boat bottom or into woven mat baskets and gunny bags after capture are commonly employed. These practices accelerate fish spoilage due to cross contamination and exposure to high ambient temperature. This study aimed at investigating the ...

  3. Artisanal and modern processing of palm oil in Ghana | Mensah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indices to compare the quality and stability of the oils. Results showed that the modern industrial process produced significantly (p = 0.05) better quality palm oil than the artisanal method, especially with regard to moisture content and susceptibility to oxidation. (Journal of the Ghana Science Association: 2001 3(3): 85-90) ...

  4. Can protected areas work in artisanal fisheries of Uganda? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management agitates for provision of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) which seem to be effective in developed countries. However, efforts to control artisanal fisheries through protection have not been adequately assessed. The Uganda portion of Lake Edward, Kazinga channel and ...

  5. Can protected areas work in artisanal fisheries of Uganda? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management agitates for provision of Marine Protected. Areas (MPAs) which seem to be effective in developed countries. However, efforts to control artisanal fisheries through protection have not been adequately assessed. The Uganda portion of. Lake Edward, Kazinga channel and ...

  6. Between Tradition and Tourism: Educational Strategies of a Zapotec Artisan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Melanie G.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the teaching and learning strategies employed by a Zapotec weaver in Oaxaca, Mexico, to draw attention to the personal agency of indigenous artisans participating in the tourist economy, and to examine ways in which non-formal and informal education in skills and understandings related to art can function in the lives of…

  7. Fish Catch Composition of Artisanal and Bottom Trawl Fisheries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sampled to compare fish species composition and abundance according to area. (inshore; offshore) and season (northeast monsoon - NEM, southeast monsoon -. SEM) and identify the species contributing most to catch overlap. The diversity of fish catches was greater in trawl (223 species) than artisanal samples (177) in ...

  8. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of lunch consumed by corporate workers and artisans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lunch is one meal often eaten away from home because it is eaten during official working hours. Foods eaten away from home have been reported to have high sodium, saturated fat and refined sugar content. Objective: This study compared the lunch choices of Ghanaian corporate workers and artisans and ...

  10. Strategies to enhance the information seeking behaviour of artisans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the strategies to enhance the information seeking behaviour of Artisans in Nsukka Metropolis of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study was guided by three specific objectives and descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study consider of two thousand, two hundred and eighty ...

  11. Economic Analysis Of Artisanal Fishing At River Niger Onitsha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the economics of artisanal fishing along River Niger in Onitsha North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 80 fishermen were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected by the use of structured set of questionnaires. Four research questions guided the study. Results ...

  12. Sustainability of Artisanal Fishers Livelihoods in the Jebba Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Sustainability of Artisanal Fishers Livelihoods in the Jebba Lake Basin, Nigeria. Http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v20i1.6. Nwabeze, G.O.. Extension Programme, National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR),. P.M.B. 6006, New Bussa, Niger State. Email: onyegodfrey@yahoo.com. Phone: 08052923218. Abstract.

  13. IIIrd international women and mining conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Bhanumathi; Niki N. Kalpa; G.V.S. Ravi Shankar; Sarada Vanka; B. Gunavathi

    2005-05-15

    The 3rd conference attracted participants from 21 countries of Africa, North and South America, Europe, the Pacific, and Asia, including women from all regions of India. The conference presentations ranged from issues of displacement of tribal communities in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, India and Australia; the health impacts of mining due to the cyanide spill in the gold mines of Kyrgyztan; the problems of radiation from the uranium mines; stories of the conflict diamonds of Sierra Leone; the struggles of the mining trade unions of South Africa, Canada and Zimbabwe; the child and women labourers involved in gold-panning and artisanal mining in Nicaragua, and Peru; the pollution of rivers in Ghana. The report contains summaries of all the papers presented at the conference together with the conference statement, declaration and five resolutions. Annexes contain four papers submitted at the conference.

  14. [Effect of vibration, noise, physical exertion and unfavorable microclimate on carbohydrate metabolism in workers engaged into mining industry and machine building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapko, I V; Kir'iakov, V A; Antoshina, L I; Pavlovskaia, N A; Kondratovich, S V

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied influence of vibration, noise, physical overexertion and microclimate on carbohydrates metabolism and insulin resistance in metal mining industry workers. Findings are that vibration disease appeared to have maximal effect on insulin resistance test results and insulin level. The authors suggested biomarkers for early diagnosis of insulin resistance disorders in metal mining industry workers.

  15. Artisanal Fisheries in Zimbabwe: Options for Effective Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mhlanga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The small-scale (artisanal fisheries in Zimbabwe play an important role in income-generation and food security at the household level. This sector has the potential to significantly increase its contribution to household income and food security if more effective fisheries management strategies are put in place. Historically, fisheries management has adopted a centralised “Top-down” approach. This approach has had very limited effectiveness. Over the last decade, efforts have been made to implement co-management in the fisheries sector. Several factors have hampered the success of fisheries co-management in the artisanal fishery. These factors have been institutional, ecological, human and financial. This paper discusses these factors and proposes possible solutions. A more innovative and effective fisheries management approach is also proposed.

  16. Distal impacts of aquarium trade: Exploring the emerging sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata) artisanal shore gathering fishery in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Lewin, Sebastián; Vergara, Karina; De La Barra, Christian; Godoy, Natalio; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Gelcich, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Artisanal fishery activities support the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Within these fisheries, distal global drivers can promote switching between alternative target resources. These drivers can promote the rapid development of new, unregulated and previously unexploited fisheries that pose a threat to the sustainability of ecosystems. In this paper, we describe a new artisanal shore gathering activity that targets a previously unexploited resource: the sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata). The activity is driven by aquarium trade demand for food. We used mixed methods to describe the activity, assessed basic socio-economic incentives, and estimated Catches per Unit Effort. Results show that the sandhopper plays an important role for the livelihoods of shore gatherers engaged in the activity. Gatherers have adapted and developed two main extraction methods with different degrees of investment and extraction rates. Furthermore, gatherers have developed local knowledge regarding the ecology and management of the resource. Results show that economic incentives can motivate a rapid expansion of this unregulated activity. Future research gaps and management options to address the development of this fishery are discussed in light of these findings.

  17. Educational Research in Latin America: From the Artisan to the Industrial Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes Latin American educational research phases--the artisan and industrial. During the artisan phase (1950s-early 1970s), university scholars conducted isolated projects with limited access to information. Research centers, government supports, and information networks characterize the industrial period (post-mid 1970s). Argues information…

  18. Socio-economic analysis of artisanal fisher folks in arid zone of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic analysis of artisanal fisher folks in arid zone of Nigeria: a case study of Katsina State. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... This study was undertaken to establish the socio-economic characteristics of artisanal fisher folks in the arid zone of Nigeria to provide a much-needed base-line of information ...

  19. Cost And Returns Analysis Of Artisanal Fishing In Oguta Lga, Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper determined the cost and returns analysis in Artisanal fishing in Oguta local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. ... to impede artisanal fishing include the following among others', high cost of fishing gears, irregular water pulse, and vegetative cover by water hyacinth and use of toxic chemical and dynamites.

  20. Gender-Role Stereotyping among Auto-Artisans in Ghana | Edjah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is for this reason that the researchers examined the factors that contribute towards the choice of auto-work by male and female auto-artisans. It is also to find out the appropriateness of the choice of auto-work to their sex. Data was obtained from 350 auto-artisans in three major workshops in Ghana, namely: Siwudu(Cape ...

  1. Oxidative stress and repetitive element methylation changes in artisanal gold miners occupationally exposed to mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Narváez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg exposure is a public health concern due to its persistence in the environment and its high toxicity. Such toxicity has been associated with the generation of oxidative stress in occupationally exposed subjects, such as artisanal gold miners. In this study, we characterize occupational exposure to Hg by measuring blood, urine and hair levels, and investigate oxidative stress and DNA methylation associated with gold mining. To do this, samples from 53 miners and 36 controls were assessed. We show higher levels of oxidative stress marker 8-OHdG in the miners. Differences in LINE1 and Alu(Yb8 DNA methylation between gold miners and control group are present in peripheral blood leukocytes. LINE1 methylation is positively correlated with 8-OHdG levels, while XRCC1 and LINE1 methylation are positively correlated with Hg levels. These results suggest an effect of Hg on oxidative stress and DNA methylation in gold miners that may have an impact on miners’ health.

  2. Prevalence and pattern of ocular disorders seen among artisans in Owerri, Imo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chukwuma Eziechila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern and prevalence of ocular disorders among artisans with a view to make recommendations to the appropriate ministries for the formulation of necessary policies to preserve the ocular health status of these artisans.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which the sample population was selected using the proportion to size technique and simple random sampling.RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of degenerative conjunctival disorders among the artisans with pingueculum topping the list at 30.1%. Automobile mechanics had the highest prevalence for conjunctival disorders, corneal opacities, and allergic conjunctivitis. Superficial foreign bodies(74.4%were the most common work related injury observed while 13.6% of the artisans developed cataract from work related injuries.CONCLUSION: Governmental policies targeted at preserving and maintaining the ocular health of the artisans is needed to reduce the prevalence of ocular disorders noted in this study.

  3. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marcela Meneghetti; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coelho-de-Souza, Gabriela; Ritter, Mara Rejane

    2013-07-30

    This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district's insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

  4. Artisan toric lens implantation for correction of postkeratoplasty astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijts, Rudy M M A; Abhilakh Missier, Kiran A; Nabar, Vaisjali A; Japing, Wouter J

    2004-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of Artisan toric iris-fixated lens implantation after penetrating keratoplasty to correct high ametropia and astigmatism. Prospective, noncomparative case series. Artisan toric lens implantation was performed in 16 eyes of 16 patients who were contact lens intolerant or were unable to wear glasses because of anisometropia, high astigmatism, or both. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients received Artisan toric lenses for postkeratoplasty astigmatism, anisometropia, or both. Manifest refraction, uncorrected and spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and corneal topography were performed before surgery and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after surgery. Efficacy, percent reduction of refractive astigmatism, topographical astigmatism, anisometropia of defocus, and the astigmatism correction index were determined. A patient satisfaction questionnaire and specular microscopy results were assessed. The mean +/- standard deviation of the preoperative refractive cylinder was -6.66+/-1.93 diopters (D; range, -4.0 to -10.0 D), which was reduced to -2.08+/-1.33 D, -2.14+/-1.76 D, -1.98+/-1.65 D, -1.84+/-0.77 D, and -1.42+/-0.78 D at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and the final follow-up examination (8.4+/-4.9 months), respectively. Spherical equivalent was reduced from -4.90+/-5.50 D before surgery to -0.96+/-0.86 D at the final follow-up. The uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuities were >/=20/40 in 42% and 100% of eyes, respectively. There was no loss of best-corrected visual acuity and a gain of at least 2 lines in 50% of eyes. The percent reduction in refractive astigmatism, topographical astigmatism, and anisometropia of defocus were 78.0+/-11.5%, 20.3+/-34.9%, and 77.0+/-12.0%, respectively. The astigmatism correction index was 102.8+/-18.6%. Satisfaction increased from 3.2 to 8.3 after implantation. The endothelial cell loss was 7.6+/-18.9% at 3 months and 16.6+/-20.4% at the last follow-up. In 1 patient, a reversible graft rejection occurred

  5. Rapid detection of methanol in artisanal alcoholic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goes, R. E.; Muller, M.; Fabris, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    In the industry of artisanal beverages, uncontrolled production processes may result in contaminated products with methanol, leading to risks for consumers. Owing to the similar odor of methanol and ethanol, as well as their common transparency, the distinction between them is a difficult task. Contamination may also occur deliberately due to the lower price of methanol when compared to ethanol. This paper describes a spectroscopic method for methanol detection in beverages based on Raman scattering and Principal Component Analysis. Associated with a refractometric assessment of the alcohol content, the method may be applied in field for a rapid detection of methanol presence.

  6. POWER GENERATION IN AN ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN ARTISAN PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Figueroa-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous women artisans from Puebla state, facing poverty of their domestic groups through craft production as a breeding strategies that ensure their survival; for this reason a group of women leaders representing local groups, has formed a regional organization, "SIUAMEJ, AC", to address the lack of income. This research focuses on the study of the organization in question, in order to meet changes in gender relations and the effects of the participation of women artisans in this organization, the formation of democratic leadership and the construction of individual and collective empowerment. In the research were used theoretical and methodological from a gender perspective tools, Participatory Research and Popular Education. The techniques used were group workshops, questionnaires, interviews and participant observation. Was applied a questionnaire for women leaders of local organizations of the organization, both as participant observation group workshops were conducted with 14 local organizations covering just over 437 members applied. Among the identified results highlight the participation in collective decision-making through consensus, administrative management and access to training content that has allowed the individual and collective development of both leaders and women members of the local groups.

  7. Engaging Stakeholder Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhite, Ryan; Pyrz, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization is setting the bar for effective public and stakeholder engagement with its current update of the Long Range Transportation Plan. MPO staff are soliciting feedback at each step of the planning process— from development of goals, objectives, and performance measures to scenario planning. In this session we share strategies and lessons learned for effective engagement throughout the planning process.

  8. Mercury Pollution from Small-Scale Gold Mining Can Be Stopped by Implementing the Gravity-Borax Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Westergaard, Maria L; Brasholt, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is used globally to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The mercury-free gravity-borax method for gold extraction was introduced in two mining communities using mercury in the provinces Kalinga and Camarines Norte. This article describes project activities...... gathered on mining practices and knowledge about mercury toxicology. Most miners in Kalinga converted to the gravity-borax method, whereas only a few did so in Camarines Norte. Differences in the nature of the social systems impacted the success of the implementation, and involvement of the tribal...... organization facilitated the shift in Kalinga. In conclusion, the gravity-borax method is a doable alternative to mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining, but support from the civil society is needed....

  9. Multicenter study of the Artisan phakic intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budo, C; Hessloehl, J C; Izak, M; Luyten, G P; Menezo, J L; Sener, B A; Tassignon, M J; Termote, H; Worst, J G

    2000-08-01

    To assess the Artisan intraocular lens to correct myopia in phakic eyes. European multicenter study sponsored by Ophtec BV, Groningen, The Netherlands. In this prospective multicenter clinical study, the Artisan lens was implanted in 518 eyes between September 1991 and October 1999. The power of the lenses ranged from -5.0 to -20.0 diopters (D). Follow-up examinations were performed at 6 months and 1, 2, and 3 years. Follow-up ranged from 6 months (n = 454) to 3 years (n = 249). The preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was not recorded but was estimated to be worse than 0.1. The preoperative mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.67 +/- 0.26 (SD). Endothelial cell counts were done at 6 months and 1, 2, and 3 years in a subgroup of 129 eyes. A UCVA of 20/40 or better was observed in 76.8% of eyes regardless of the postoperative goal. A BSCVA of 20/40 or better was observed in 93.9% of eyes and remained stable throughout the follow-up. Of the eyes with extremely high myopia (>-15.0 D), 63.3% gained 2 or more lines of BSCVA; of those with moderate myopia (-5.0 to -10.0 D), 23.5% gained 2 or more lines. The mean endothelial cell density change was 4.8% at 6 months, 2.4% at 1 year, 1.7% at 2 years, and 0.7% at 3 years. The incidence of persistent adverse events at 3 years was relatively low. Secondary surgical interventions included repositioning of the lens because of poor initial placement and lens exchange because of preoperative power calculation errors. Glare and halo effects during night driving were noted and were related to large pupils in young patients. The Artisan lens is a safe, stable, efficacious, and predictable method to correct -5.0 to -20.0 D of myopia. This study suggests that the corneal endothelial cell loss is stabilized to the physiologically normal level after 3 years.

  10. Mapping the expansion of galamsey gold mines in the cocoa growing area of Ghana using optical remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Snapir, Boris; Simms, Daniel M.; Waine, Toby W.

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining (galamsey) and cocoa farming are essential sources of income for local populations in Ghana. Unfortunately the former poses serious threats to the environment and human health, and conflicts with cocoa farming and other livelihoods. Timely and spatially referenced information on the extent of galamsey is needed to understand and limit the negative impacts of mining. To address this, we use multi-date UK-DMC2 satellite images to map the extent and expansion of galamsey fr...

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in artisanal cheese in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata D. S Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study highlight the need for improving sanitary measures during the production of artisanal cheese to prevent zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with M. bovis.

  12. Fishing strategies and spatial dynamics of artisanal fisheries in the Uruguayan Atlantic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ligrone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries in Uruguay involve directly or indirectly more than 5000 people and constitute the main source of income in several coastal communities. However, and despite its economic and environmental importance, this activity is poorly documented. As such, this scarcity of information constrains the understanding and effective management of artisanal fisheries. This study aims to characterize different strategies of marine artisanal fisheries on the Uruguayan Atlantic coast and describe the spatial distribution of fishing effort. Based on a Principal Components Analysis we identified four fishing strategies targeting different species (mainly whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furniert, narrownose smooth-hound shark Mustelus spp., angel shark Squatina spp. and Brazilian codling Urophycis brasiliensis, exhibiting different seasonal patterns and fishing gear usage. Finally, the above outlined strategies showed differences in spatial utilization of the fishing area. Our results provide a spatially explicit framework for the management of Uruguayan marine artisanal fisheries.

  13. WOMEN’S WORK IN THE ARTISANAL FISHING PRODUCTIVE CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Morenna A. Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis here developed is based on studies focusing on women’s participation in artisanal fishing, conducted in communities of the county of Canavieiras – BA. Women’s achievements regarding their insertion in the labor market have raised new issues and questions as to the production process in fishing communities, where women’s work is still marked by its invisibility and lack of recognition within the fishing category. Quite often, women’s work is regarded merely as an extension of their roles as mothers/wives/housewives which are superimposed upon their fishing activities. In many cases, for instance, the preparation of the fish by the women, for marketing purposes, even when adding value to the product, is regarded by both fishermen and fisherwomen as an extension of domestic tasks, precisely because is undertaken within the realms of their own homes.

  14. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MANUEL OSPINA DÍAZ

    2010-06-01

    trabalho e estado de saúde numa amostra de mineiros informais do carvão em Paipa, Boyacá. Materiais e métodos: levantamento observacional, descritivo de corte transversal. Cento e noventa e seis mineiros foram avaliados através de um instrumento previamente desenhado. Explorou-se ambiente de trabalho e estado de saúde e se verificaram algumas histórias clínicas. A informação foi sistematizada e analisada na Epi-Info2002®. Consideraram-se medidas de tendência central e dispersão para as variáveis incluídas. Resultados: idade média 30 anos; 16,3% menores de idade; características sociodemográficas compatíveis com pobreza extrema; 34,7% não afiliados ao SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado ao regime contributivo e 0,5% coberto por ARP; renda média mensal $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consome álcool semanalmente; jornada média 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabalha sob superfície; 16,8% apresenta alguma doença na valoração; 15,65% refere-se no mínimo a um acidente de trabalho; 64,8% considera que seu trabalho é monótono e repetitivo; transtornos oculares, respiratórios e osteomusculares ocorrem com freqüência. Conclusões: alto risco ocupacional, população vulnerável, mal remunerada, sem proteção trabalhista. Baixo nível educativo, trabalho infantil, dieta inadequada, consumo de álcool e ambiente inapropriado são alguns dos fatores de risco encontrados, expressados, nomeadamente, em doenças como traumatismos, lesões oculares, doenças respiratórias e perturbações do sistema osteomuscular.Context: There is a direct relation between coal mining techniques and work related hazards with health conditions and the likelihood of getting ill, mainly due to pneumoconiosis, trauma and alterations of bones and of muscles. Objective: describe work related conditions and health conditions in a sample of informal coal miners in Paipa, Province of Boyacá. Materials and methods: observational, cross-sectional descriptive study. 196 miners were assessed through a

  15. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá, Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guío GARZÓN JOSÉ Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ambiente laboral y estado de salud. Además se revisaron algunas historias clínicas. La información se sistematizó y analizó en Epi-Info2002®. Se estimaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables incluidas. Resultados: edad promedio 30 años; 16,3% menores de edad; características sociodemográficas compatibles con pobreza extrema; 34,7% no afiliados al SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado al régimen contributivo y 0,5% cubierto por ARP; ingreso promedio mensual $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consume alcohol semanalmente; promedio jornada 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabaja bajo superficie; 16,8% presentaba alguna enfermedad en la valoración; 15,65% refiere al menos un accidente de trabajo; 64,8% encuentra su labor monótona o repetitiva; trastornos oculares, respiratorios y osteomusculares se autorreportan frecuentemente. Conclusiones: alto riesgo ocupacional, población vulnerable, mal remunerada, sin protección laboral. Bajo nivel educativo, trabajo infantil, dieta inadecuada, consumo de alcohol y ambiente inapropiado son factores de riesgo encontrados, que se expresan principalmente como traumatismos, lesiones oculares, enfermedades respiratorias y alteraciones del sistema osteomuscular.Context: There is a direct relation between coal mining techniques and work related hazards with health conditions and the likelihood of getting ill, mainly due to pneumoconiosis, trauma and alterations of bones and of muscles. Objective: describe work

  16. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  17. Chronic subclinical inflammation after phakic intraocular lenses implantation: Comparison between Artisan and Artiflex models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hedayatfar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare chronic subclinical inflammation induced after implantation of Artisan vs. Artiflex phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs. Methods: This prospective, comparative, non-randomized study included consecutive patients with moderate to high myopia who underwent Artisan or Artiflex pIOL implantation with standard surgery and postoperative care. Anterior chamber flare was assessed quantitatively using laser flare photometry (LFP at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 2 years after surgery. Results: PIOLs were implanted in 72 eyes (40 patients; Artisan pIOLs in 16 eyes (Artisan group and Artiflex pIOLs in 56 eyes (Artiflex group. The mean preoperative anterior chamber flare was 6.5 ± 2.3 (range, 4.2–9.5 photons per millisecond (ph/ms and 4.2 ± 0.9 (range, 2.5–11.7 ph/ms in Artisan and Artiflex groups, respectively (P = 0.400. In spite of early postoperative rise, the flare value returned to preoperative levels 6 months after pIOL implantation and remained stable up to 2 years. The amount of flare was not statistically different between Artisan and Artiflex groups in any postoperative follow-up (all P > 0.05. The trend in flare changes was not different between the studied groups (ANCOVA, P = 0.815. Conclusion: The inflammatory response induced by implantation of either type of Artisan and Artiflex pIOLs is short-lived without statistically significant difference between the two models. Keywords: Subclinical inflammation, Flare, Phakic intraocular lens, Artisan, Artiflex

  18. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  19. Charting the Improvement of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AGC

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... Project Implementation and Management: . ... mercury inventory methodology and National Action Plan training programs were carried out in the Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso, and ... Burkina Faso, Senegal, and the Ivory Coast on ASGM mercury inventories, and governments and other stakeholders have ...

  20. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Eligia E-mail: bebeng@up.edu.ph; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S. E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability.

  1. Reducing Mercury Pollution from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    To reduce airborne mercury emissions from these Gold Shops, EPA and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have partnered to design a low cost, easily constructible technology called the Gold Shop Mercury Capture System (MCS).

  2. Total rewards: A study of artisan attraction and retention within a South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Schlechter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The shortage of artisan skills remains a serious challenge in South Africa andis forcing employers to investigate which total reward factors contribute to the attractionand retention of this critical skills segment, as undifferentiated retention strategies are nolonger useful or even appropriate.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to further develop understanding of the total rewardfactors and the ideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retainartisans, including artisans from various race groups and age cohorts, using a novel approach.Motivation for the study: Limited research is available on the total reward factors and theideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retain artisans. Furtherknowledge in this area will allow organisations to develop reward models that better attractand retain artisans.Method: The study followed both a quantitative and qualitative research approach,whilst adopting a descriptive research design. Using this mixed method, primary datawere collected from individuals by means of two focus groups discussions: (1 a groupof human resource and remuneration managers (n = 4 and (2 a group of artisans (n = 7.These results were used to develop two questionnaires that were distributed to artisans (n = 143. Data from Questionnaire 1 were analysed using descriptive statistics and factoranalysis. Conjoint analysis was employed to identify an ideal total rewards compositionbased on responses from Questionnaire 2.Main findings: The results of the choice-based modelling (conjoint analysis revealed thatthree total rewards attributes were consistently deemed to be important in the retention ofartisans. These were (in order of priority: environment (work-life balance, compensation(level and compensation (variable. Environment (work-life balance was considered14.64% more important than compensation (level within the overall sample as well aswithin the race

  3. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  4. Attractors and soak times in artisanal fi shing with traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Figueiredo Sebastiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are used by artisanal fishers as fishing gear in places where other fishing modalities are impeded or limited. The advantage of this type of fishing modality is the possibility of keeping fish alive and in the case of capturing species of low commercial value or size below the permitted minimum this fishing gear allows the release of such specimens back to nature, resulting in a sustainability aspect to the use of this fishing gear. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different attractors and times of submersion on the efficiency of the traps used. Sardines, shrimps and trash fish were employed as attractors. To evaluate the soak time, two periods were tested: 24 and 96 hours. The sardines, used as the attractor, resulted in a production of 1,296.4 ± 397.4g, significantly superior (p <0.05 to other attractors. In relation to the soak time, the period of 24 hours resulted in an average production of 1,719.2 ± 866.0g, significantly (p <0.05 superior to the period of 96 hours. The results led to the conclusion that to optimize this capture by fishing gear, sardines should be used as the attractor, together with a soak time of 24 hours.

  5. Fish resources management in Brazil and overview of artisanal fisheries in Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Raposo da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight the sociocultural and environmental importance of artisanal fisheries for the city of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, providing information about the main artisanal fisheries methods applied by the fishers, a brief history of public policy for fishing in Brazil, and an overview of the economy working relations and fish marketing in that city. Once the definitions of artisanal and industrial fishing are modified according to the State or region, we are consider artisanal fishing, for the purpose of this work, as that practiced by professional fisherman directly, independently, or as family economy, with production means of their own, or through partnership contract, landed, allowing the use of small ships. Five main artisanal fishing methods were detected in Macaé: (i the line method, (ii the method of surface longline; (iii the driftnet method; (iv the drag; and (v the method of network seines, or pair. In this analysis, we focused on four major public policy processes which led to setting up a model of fishery management, in which crisis is evident, with an overcoming not yet fully delineated. Since the fishing activity is important for the region, the development of studies able to define the supply chain structuring programs, expansion of investments, creation of a framework for its own staff and, especially aimed at management concepts that can coordinate all activity from production, through processing to marketing, are significant steps to strengthen the fisheries policy in the city of Macaé.

  6. The current status of artisanal cannabis for the treatment of epilepsy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Dustin; Saneto, Russell; Goldstein, Bonni

    2017-05-01

    The widespread patient use of artisanal cannabis preparations has preceded quality validation of cannabis use for epilepsy. Neurologists and cannabinoid specialists are increasingly in a position to monitor and guide the use of herbal cannabis in epilepsy patients. We report the retrospective data on efficacy and adverse effects of artisanal cannabis in Patients with medically refractory epilepsy with mixed etiologies in Washington State, California, and Maine. Clinical considerations, including potential risks and benefits, challenges related to artisanal preparations, and cannabinoid dosing, are discussed. Of 272 combined patients from Washington State and California, 37 (14%) found cannabis ineffective at reducing seizures, 29 (15%) experienced a 1-25% reduction in seizures, 60 (18%) experienced a 26-50% reduction in seizures, 45 (17%) experienced a 51-75% reduction in seizures, 75 (28%) experienced a 76-99% reduction in seizures, and 26 (10%) experienced a complete clinical response. Overall, adverse effects were mild and infrequent, and beneficial side effects such as increased alertness were reported. The majority of patients used cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched artisanal formulas, some with the addition of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). Four case reports are included that illustrate clinical responses at doses <0.1mg/kg/day, biphasic dose-response effects, the use of THCA for seizure prevention, the use of THC for seizure rescue, and the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenoids in artisanal preparations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A century of hands : work, communities, and identities among the Ayt Khebbash fossil artisans in a Moroccan Oasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanabe, Mayuka

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the everyday practices and the multiplicious identification processes in Amazigh mineral and fossil artisan communities, focusing on the Ayt Khebbash group in Rissani and Tafraoute of southeastern Morocco. I address the following questions: how do the Ayt Khebbash artisans

  8. Reasons to keep making crafts in México: Similarities and differences between current artisanal Chiapas and Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Shiomara del Carpio Ovando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To present and to discuss two research communities of artisans in Mexico is the goal in this document. The work is the result of a large study with an indigenous artisans Tzotil of Chiapas and potters artisans of Tonalá, Jalisco. The aim was to find some elements that allowed the permanence of traditional craft in both contexts. For this reason, we will discuss in this article what we understand for handicrafts and the development of the artisan work in the Mexicancontext. Also, we present the case studies we conducted and some of the findings results. For example, some of the reasons for artisan people to continue making handicrafts such as the cultural need lived by these communities and the interiorized discourse about the commitment to continue with the tradition of doing this work.

  9. To the Question of Organizing the Career Guidence in Artisan Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yefanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the institutional and functional features of the artisan activities, and vocational training of future artisans- entrepreneurs; the specificity of career guidance in related training profiles is discussed. In the course of successful socio-economic development, the given specialists can form a considerable part of the Russian middle class strata. However, there exist the two opposite trends: on the one hand, the specialists realize the modern day requirements for vocational training and enrollee selection, while, on the other hand, the majority of the society regards the artisan occupations as common and primitive. This controversy signals the urgent need for vocational guidance addressed to the school leavers. The authors suggest using acmeology – the studies of the highest professional achievements – along with psychological facilitation and visual grounds for career guidance development. The paper is recommended to the secondary school teachers, vocational training teachers and sociologists analyzing and predicting the labor market demands. 

  10. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  11. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  12. Student Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conduit, Jodie; Karpen, Ingo; Farrelly, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Universities are seeking to actively and strategically manage student engagement through providing opportunities for students to interact and engage with the institution on a range of levels and in different ways. However, this increasingly complex and multi-layered nature of student engagement...... focal objects (or levels) embedded within the university structure; the lecturer, course and the institution itself. Hence, this paper contributes to the literature by providing a multi-layered consideration of student engagement and demonstrating the nested nature of engagement across the broad service...... system (the university), the narrow service system (the course), and the individual dyadic level of engagement (the student-lecturer interaction). These findings could be further considered and empirically tested in other engagement contexts (e.g. employee engagement, customer engagement)....

  13. Bacterial ecology of artisanal Minas cheeses assessed by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Savo Sardaro, Maria Luisa; Nero, Luís Augusto; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2017-08-01

    Artisanal Minas cheese is produced in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and its varieties are named according to their geographical origin (Serro, Canastra, Serra do Salitre, Araxá and Campo das Vertentes). The cheese is produced with raw cow's milk and the whey from the previous cheese production ("pingo"). The high economic and cultural importance of artisanal cheese in Brazil justifies the efforts to ensure its safety, quality and provenance. This study aimed to characterize the microbial diversity composition, and geographical distribution of artisanal Minas cheese, focusing on the characterization of its autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota. Artisanal Minas cheese varieties from Serro, Canastra, Serra do Salitre, Araxá and Campo das Vertentes were analyzed by culture-dependent (culturing and LAB sequencing) and -independent (repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) and length heterogeneity-PCR, LH-PCR) methods to characterize the microbiota. The microbial counts were variable between cheese samples, and some samples presented high number of coagulase positive bacteria and coliforms that may be associated with hygienic issues. In all samples was observed a prevalence of LAB. 16S rRNA sequencing and rep-PCR of the LAB strains identified four genus (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella), ten species and more than one strain per species. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genera in all the cheeses. LH-PCR revealed a further six genera and ten species that were not identified by culturing, highlighting the importance of combining both culture-dependent and -independent methods to fully characterize microbiota diversity. Principal component analysis of the LH-PCR data and cluster analysis of rep-PCR data revealed that the artisanal Minas cheese microbiota was influenced not only by their geographical origin but also by the cheese farm. The lack of standardization in the milking and cheese manufacturing procedures between

  14. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  15. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from uruguayan artisan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Fraga Cotelo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uruguayan artisan cheese is elaborated with raw milk and non-commercial starters. The associated native microbiota may include lactic acid bacteria and also potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisan cheese, raw milk, and non-commercial starter cultures, and their potential bacteriocin production was assessed. A culture collection of 509 isolates was obtained, and five isolates were bacteriocin-producers and were identified as Enterococcus durans,Lactobacillus casei, and Lactococcus lactis. No evidence of potential virulence factors were found in E. durans strains. These are promising results in terms of using these native strains for cheese manufacture and to obtain safe products.

  16. Sustainable Decommissioning of Oil Fields and Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Environmental Resources Management

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of the decommissioning of oil fields and mines initiative (the 'Initiative') is, in keeping with World Bank policy, to promote sustainable development by assisting governments to undertake and engage in earlier and more systematic, comprehensive, and responsive planning of the decommissioning and closure of mining and oil and gas production operations, as well as more effe...

  17. Application of ICT tools in communicating information and knowledge to artisanal fishermen communities in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Benard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the application of ICT tools in communicating information and knowledge to artisanal fishermen communities in Zanzibar. The study was carried out in four purposefully selected wards in Unguja District in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The study involved a sample size of 80 respondents. Data were collected by using document reviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions and personal observations. Results showed that artisanal fishermen need information and knowledge on weather condition, modern fish capturing methods, market and marketing, fish preservation and processing. The study also found that mobile phones and radio are the most ICTs tools used by the artisanal fishermen. The findings also revealed that communicating information and knowledge through ICT tools was limited by lack of funds, poor network connectivity, lack of training and seminars on the use of ICTs in accessing information and poor coverage on radio and television transmission. It is therefore recommended that the government should support artisanal fishermen in acquiring some of the fishing gears and ICTs tools such as GPS and sonar through subsidizing them.

  18. Traumatic pediatric cataract: a decade of follow-up after Artisan aphakia intraocular lens implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, Marije L.; Odenthal, Monica Th P.; Wenniger-Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; Gortzak-Moorstein, Nitza; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the long-term clinical outcome of Artisan((R)) aphakia intraocular lens (IOL; Ophtec, Groningen, The Netherlands) implantation in five aphakic eyes of five children, without capsular support, after cataract extraction following penetrating ocular trauma. METHODS: The charts of

  19. 25 CFR 309.25 - How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 309.25 Section 309.25 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.25 How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? (a) In... provided in section 107 of the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, Public Law 101-644, a tribe may not...

  20. The impact of artisanal fishery on a tropical intertidal benthic fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, WF; van Schie, AMP; Jocene, DF; Mabote, ABP; Guissamulo, A

    2001-01-01

    We examined the benthic fishes and artisanal fishery in the intertidal flats of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Results of a questionnaire indicated that catches had decreased, and that piscivorous fish have disappeared. Results of a catch sampling study indicated that current catch rates are low, <2 kg

  1. The impact of artisanal fishery on a tropical intertidal benthic fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Schie, van A.M.P.; Jocene, D.F.; Mabote, A.B.P.; Guissamulo, A.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the benthic fishes and artisanal fishery in the intertidal flats of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Results of a questionnaire indicated that catches had decreased, and that piscivorous fish have disappeared. Results of a catch sampling study indicated that current catch rates are low, < 2

  2. A multi-skilling model to supplement artisan training | van der Wal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important that the appropriate training and assessing approaches should be used in the training and development of the multi-skilled artisan. The time ratio for training compared to development could be 70% to 30%. What is multi-skilling? Each and every person will have his/her own perception of this concept.

  3. The design of Artisans' hand tools: Users' perceived comfort and discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Is artisans' comfort in using hand tools a necessity or a luxury? Ergonomically well-designed hand tools, which provide comfort to the user, decrease the risk of occupational health problems and increase the job performance. Therefore, it is not a luxury, but rather a necessity that hand tools be

  4. A first description of the artisanal shark fishery in northern Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past two decades, small, targeted artisanal shark fisheries have developed in the extreme north of Madagascar, largely in response to the shark fin trade. Few studies have been undertaken to assess the biological characteristics and impact of these fisheries. Here, we developed a profile of the fishery in the region of ...

  5. Social mobilisation and violence at the mining frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Nick; Morales, Carlos; Haar, van der Gemma

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents opposition to mining in Honduras, a country at the verge of an attempted ‘mining boom’ since the ratification of a new mining law in April 2013. It analyses how a broad movement – involving NGOs, social movements and local communities – engages in opposition to the extractive

  6. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

  7. Sentinel Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten

    into geography dimension) combined with a decrease in the money invested in customer support for laptop computers (drilldown into product dimension) is observed. The work leading to this thesis progressed from algorithms for regular sentinel mining with only one source and one target measure, into algorithms...... progression in the efficiency of sentinel mining, where the latest bitmap-based algorithms, that also take advantage of modern CPUs, are 3–4 orders of magnitude faster than the first SQL-based sentinel mining algorithm. This work also led to the industrial implementation of sentinel mining in the commercial...

  8. Screening and prioritisation of chemical risks from metal mining operations, identifying exposure media of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jilang; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    Metals have been central to the development of human civilisation from the Bronze Age to modern times, although in the past, metal mining and smelting have been the cause of serious environmental pollution with the potential to harm human health. Despite problems from artisanal mining in some developing countries, modern mining to Western standards now uses the best available mining technology combined with environmental monitoring, mitigation and remediation measures to limit emissions to the environment. This paper develops risk screening and prioritisation methods previously used for contaminated land on military and civilian sites and engineering systems for the analysis and prioritisation of chemical risks from modern metal mining operations. It uses hierarchical holographic modelling and multi-criteria decision making to analyse and prioritise the risks from potentially hazardous inorganic chemical substances released by mining operations. A case study of an active platinum group metals mine in South Africa is used to demonstrate the potential of the method. This risk-based methodology for identifying, filtering and ranking mining-related environmental and human health risks can be used to identify exposure media of greatest concern to inform risk management. It also provides a practical decision-making tool for mine acquisition and helps to communicate risk to all members of mining operation teams.

  9. Women in mining still exploited and sexually harassed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doret Botha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment.Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions.Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry.Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews.Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion.Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts.Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.

  10. The modernisation of mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ritchken, E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the modernisation of mining. The presentation focuses on the mining clusters, Mining Challenges, Compliance versus Collaboration, The Phakisa, The Mining Precinct & the Mining Hub also Win-Win Beneficiation: Iron...

  11. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Martínez-Ortiz

    Full Text Available The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt (about 15.5 million fish were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips. The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  12. Crowd-funded micro-grants for genomics and "big data": an actionable idea connecting small (artisan) science, infrastructure science, and citizen philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical science in the 21(st) century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and "Big Data" created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., "the lone genius" or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21(st) century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists-only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the "bottom one billion"-the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while sharing similar disease

  13. Propulsion-gear-based characterisation of artisanal fisheries in the Malindi-Ungwana Bay, Kenya and its use for fisheries management

    OpenAIRE

    Munga, C.N.; Omukoto, O.; Kimani, E.N.; Vanreusel, A

    2014-01-01

    In Kenya, like other tropical countries, coastal artisanal fishery is multispecies, multigear and multifleet in nature with many management challenges. The Malindi-Ungwana Bay in particular, supports both the artisanal fishery and the semi-industrial bottom trawl shrimp fishery presenting a management challenge. Recent stock assessment surveys have identified catch composition of the semi-industrial bottom trawl fishery in the bay but artisanal catches remain barely described. This study desc...

  14. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  15. Land Use Change Driven by Gold Mining; Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, J. J.; Carter, C. E.; domec, J.; Delgado, C. I.

    2011-12-01

    Many factors such as poverty, ineffective institutions and environmental regulations may prevent developing countries from managing how natural resources are extracted to meet a strong market demand. Extraction for some resources has reached such proportions that evidence is measurable from space. We present recent evidence of the global demand for a single commodity and the ecosystem destruction resulting from commodity extraction, recorded by satellites for one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. We find that since 2003, recent mining deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru is increasing nonlinearly alongside a constant annual rate of increase in international gold price (~18%/yr). We detect that the new pattern of mining deforestation (1915 ha/year, 2006-2009) is outpacing that of nearby settlement deforestation. We show that gold price is linked with exponential increases in Peruvian national mercury imports over time (R2 = 0.93, p = 0.04, 2003- 2009). Given the past rates of increase we predict that mercury imports may more than double for 2011 (~500 t/year). Virtually all of Peru's mercury imports are used in artisanal gold mining. Much of the mining increase is unregulated/ artisanal in nature, lacking environmental impact analysis or miner education. As a result, large quantities of mercury are being released into the atmosphere, sediments and waterways. Other developing countries endowed with gold deposits are likely experiencing similar environmental destruction in response to recent record high gold prices. The increasing availability of satellite imagery ought to evoke further studies linking economic variables with land use and cover changes on the ground.

  16. [Aflatoxin contamination level in artisanal and industrial peanut butter food in Dakar (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Y M; Ndiaye, B; Fall, M; Diouf, A; Sall, A; Ciss, M; Ba, D

    2000-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by some strains of fungus (Aspergillus) which develop in peanut seeds. Peanut oil and past are very used up in Senegal, then the aflatoxin poisoning risk is very actual. The aim of this study was to determinate the aflatoxin level in artisanal and industrial peanut pastry food from Dakar (Sénégal). High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the different samples showed that the most contaminated by aflatoxins are artisanal pastry sold in different market of Dakar (Sénégal). Indeed, 40% of these samples contained mean values of aflatoxin B1 (the most dangerous) widely over allowable EEC specifications (5ppb). Furthermore, most of industrial and domestic peanut pastry were cleaned and could be consumed without risk.

  17. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    everyday lives and the spaces we inhabit. Where email and the telephone have broken down barriers of geography, the relationship of technology with physical locations in people’s lives strengthens. From Occupy to the London riots and the Arab Spring, situated technologies offer new ways through which we......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... a plethora of different means for citizens to engage with planning issues within a plethora of different contexts and situations. The dissertation makes contributions of two kinds. Conceptually, it offers a richer understanding of what is implicated in the design of technologies for situated engagement...

  18. A review and analysis of Easter Island's traditional and artisan fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of published and unpublished reports we analyzed Rapa Nui's (Easter Island traditional and artisan fisheries. We include information from 2000-2009 on landings, species, fishing grounds, fleet and number of fisherfolks according to the Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA and personal communication with SERNAPESCA officials. Presently, 29 species of fishes and two invertebrates are fished (along with a group of species reported as "non-identified", primarily from the 10 main fishing grounds within 5 nm from the shore. Sporadic fishing trips reach areas up to 25 nm offshore. Statistics about the artisan fleet and number of operative fishers is spotty and unreliable. In 2011 SERNAPESCA reported 123 artisan fishers and 31 boats for the island. Landings occur in five coves, of which Hanga Piko and Hanga Roa are the most important. Between 2000-2009 the mean annual landing ranged between 109-171 ton. The main exploited resources during this period were yellowfin tuna, snoek, Pacific rudderfin, rainbow runner, glasseye, oilfish, deep-water jack and swordfish. We highlight the urgent need to improve fisheries statistics (catch, effort, fishing grounds in order to develop a science-fishery management and conservation plan, particularly linked with artisan fishery activities. Globally, we identify the need to integrate across fields (i.e., ecology, conservation, fisheries, education, outreach more broadly in the national research system, to improve the management and conservation of Easter Island's unique marine environment. Within this framework, we identify an urgent need to create a research marine station on the island with permanent personnel, which can focus on this fragile oligotrophic ecosystem.

  19. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  20. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Artisan cheese: a potential source of wild lactic acid bacteria to obtain new starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Maria Luiza Barros; Departamento de Biologia/ Universidade Federal de Rural de Pernambuco; Lima, Meire dos Santos Falcão de; Laboratório de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami/ Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; Fernandes, Gabriela Alves de Araújo; Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal/ Universidade Federal de Rural de Pernambuco; Costa, Eduardo Felipe da; Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal/ Universidade Federal de Rural de Pernambuco; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal/ Universidade Federal de Rural de Pernambuco; Cavalcanti, Maria Taciana Holanda; Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal/ Universidade Federal de Rural de Pernambuco

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate technological aspects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisan coalho cheese, for obtaining a new starter culture. For this purpose, different bacterial genera were isolated, identified and determined as their acidifying capacity (pH and lactic acid), antagonist activity and proteolytic activity. The results showed that the bacterial population consisted mostly of cocci, among which are Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus and Streptococcus, in addition to L...

  2. FROM DATA MINING TO BEHAVIOR MINING

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENGXIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge economy requires data mining be more goal-oriented so that more tangible results can be produced. This requirement implies that the semantics of the data should be incorporated into the mining process. Data mining is ready to deal with this challenge because recent developments in data mining have shown an increasing interest on mining of complex data (as exemplified by graph mining, text mining, etc.). By incorporating the relationships of the data along with the data itself (rathe...

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-18

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  4. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As, 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd, 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg, respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE and reasonable maximum exposure (RME parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd, 1.45 (Pb, 4.60 (Hg and 1.98 (As; while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  5. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  6. The artisanal elasmobranch fishery of the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Ramirez-Amaro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries in Mexico account for approximately 40% of the total national catch. In 2009, Baja California Sur (BCS had the second largest catch of elasmobranchs on the Mexican Pacific coast. This paper characterizes and describes the artisanal elasmobranch fishery of Pacific coast of BCS from 2000 to 2010. Sixty artisanal camps were documented, of which 45 targeted elasmobranchs, using primarily gillnets and longlines. We identified 52 elasmobranch species. Gillnetting accounted for 73.5% of the fishing effort and most frequently captured Rhinobatos productus, Mustelus henlei and Myliobatis californica. Longline fishing accounted for 26.5% of effort, most frequently capturing Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus. The prevalence of juveniles of several species (e.g., Cephaloscyllium ventriosum, Galeorhinus galeus, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Myliobatis californica within landings suggests that fishing effort may be opportunistically directed at breeding or nursery areas. Despite the dominance of species with wide distributions, we observed a significant biogeographic pattern in the abundance of some species relative to Bahia Magdalena. Results of the present study will be useful to detect changes in the structure of commercially exploited elasmobranch populations, and to provide useful indications for management purposes.

  7. Social reproduction and artisans. Tailors, tanners, and joiners of Madrid in the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Zofío Llorente

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rules were a part of the collection of social, economic and legal means and resources that artisans used to successfully face different historic junctures with more versatility and success than was once thought. The study of the different guilds that were present in 17th century Madrid through the comparative analysis of tailors, tanners and joiners focuses on three main aspects which determine the strategies used by artisans in order to adapt to historical context and to respond to social change: economic conditions of trades, their social behaviour and the internal dynamics followed by each one. In fact, many trades had a remarkable regulatory framework used to apply a restrictive policy for obtaining mastership. Nevertheless, the thorough study of their internal dynamics −renewal and continuity of members and families, social practices and mobility− proved that trades made moderate use of corporative measures −exams, apprenticeship, production limitations and, exclusion of women− to make it difficult for outsiders to join. The trajectories that were followed by the three trades prove that artisans were not a particularly homogenous group and question the commonly accepted thesis that guilds were an inbred professional collective.

  8. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Jimmy; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre M.; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Maunder, Mark N.

    2015-01-01

    The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the “oceanic-artisanal” fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  9. The mine and the furnace: Francis Bacon, Thomas Russell, and early Stuart mining culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding Francis Bacon's praise for the philosophical role of the mechanical arts, historians have often downplayed Bacon's connections with actual artisans and entrepreneurs. Addressing the specific context of mining culture, this study proposes a rather different picture. The analysis of a famous mining metaphor in The Advancement of Learning shows us how Bacon's project of reform of knowledge could find an apt correspondence in civic and entrepreneurial values of his time. Also, Bacon had interesting and so far unexplored links with the early modern English mining enterprises, like the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, ofwhich he was a shareholder. Moreover, Bacon's notes in a private notebook, Commentarius Solutus, and records of patents of invention, allow us to start grasping Bacon's connections with the metallurgist and entrepreneur Thomas Russell. Lastly, this paper argues that, to fully understand Bacon's links with the world of Stuart technicians and entrepreneurs, it is necessary to consider a different and insufficiently studied aspect of Bacon's interests, namely his work as patents referee while a Commissioner of Suits.

  10. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  11. Influence of artisan bakery- or laboratory-propagated sourdoughs on the diversity of lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas.

  12. Engaging Siblingships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Palludan, Charlotte; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    and young people in contemporary Denmark engage emotionally in sibling relationships. It emerges that siblingships inevitably involve frictions in various forms. In the article, we analyse the impact frictions have on social relations and discuss how such dynamics in sibling relationships both reflect...... and influence family constitutions and dynamics....

  13. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  14. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  15. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2012-11-01

    At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  16. Implantation of Artisan toric phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of astigmatism and spherical errors in patients with keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budo, Camille; Bartels, Marjolijn C; van Rij, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the correction of astigmatism and spherical ametropia in patients with keratoconus through implantation of an Artisan toric phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) (Ophtec, Groningen, The Netherlands). Artisan toric PIOLs were implanted uneventfully in both eyes of three patients with keratoconus with clear central corneas and contact lens intolerance. Best spectacle-corrected subjective visual acuity after lens implantation was unchanged in one eye and improved in five eyes. Spherical equivalent refraction was significantly reduced in all eyes (P=.03). The safety index was 1.49. The implantation of an Artisan toric PIOL may be an alternative for treating astigmatism and myopia in contact lens intolerant patients with keratoconus with clear central corneas. Especially in patients with associated myopia, this procedure is worth considering before planning a penetrating keratoplasty.

  17. mining activities.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eichhornia crassipes) is patchy. L2: Nyikonga, 02°48' 45.0"S,. 007.6"E. (M). Nyikonga area receives discharge from. Nyikonga River that drains Nyarugusu and other mining areas in Geita District. Shoreline vegetation includes Typha capensis ...

  18. Heavy Metal Presence in Two Different Types of Ice Cream: Artisanal Ice Cream (Italian Gelato) and Industrial Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, D; Alberghini, L; Bissacco, E; Ferioli, M; Giaccone, V

    2017-03-01

    Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food. Ice cream sampling was performed between October 2010 and February 2011 in the northeast of Italy. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from different sources: 50 industrial samples produced by 19 different brands were collected in coffee bars and supermarkets; 50 artisanal ice cream samples were gathered at nine different artisanal ice cream shops. Ten wooden sticks of industrial ice cream were analyzed in parallel to the ice cream. All samples were negative for arsenic and mercury. None of the artisanal ice cream samples were positive for lead and tin; 18% of the industrial ice cream samples were positive. All positive lead samples were higher than the legal limit stated for milk (0.02 mg/kg). All industrial ice cream samples were negative for cadmium, but cadmium was present in 10% of the artisanal ice cream samples. Chromium was found in 26% of the artisanal and in 58% of the industrial ice cream samples. The heavy metals found in the wooden sticks were different from the corresponding ice cream, pointing out the lack of cross-contamination between the products. Considering the results and the amount of ice cream consumed during the year, contamination through ice cream is a low risk for the Italian population, even though there is need for further analysis.

  19. Mercury Pollution from Small-Scale Gold Mining Can Be Stopped by Implementing the Gravity-Borax Method--A Two-Year Follow-Up Study from Two Mining Communities in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Westergaard, Maria L; Brasholt, Marie; Gutierrez, Richard; Jørs, Erik; Thomsen, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is used globally to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The mercury-free gravity-borax method for gold extraction was introduced in two mining communities using mercury in the provinces Kalinga and Camarines Norte. This article describes project activities and quantitative changes in mercury consumption and analyzes the implementation with diffusion of innovations theory. Activities included miner-to-miner training; seminars for health-care workers, school teachers, and children; and involvement of community leaders. Baseline (2011) and follow-up (2013) data were gathered on mining practices and knowledge about mercury toxicology. Most miners in Kalinga converted to the gravity-borax method, whereas only a few did so in Camarines Norte. Differences in the nature of the social systems impacted the success of the implementation, and involvement of the tribal organization facilitated the shift in Kalinga. In conclusion, the gravity-borax method is a doable alternative to mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining, but support from the civil society is needed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savo Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy. Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories. In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody, or habitat (e.g., riverine, etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42% and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research

  1. Optimum Fisheries Management under Climate Variability: Evidence from Artisanal Marine Fishing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom Akpalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In most developing coastal countries, the artisanal fisheries sector is managed as a common pool resource. As a result, such fisheries are overcapitalized and overfished. In Ghana, in addition to anthropogenic factors, there is evidence of rising coastal temperature and its variance, which could impact the environmental carrying capacity of the fish stock. This study investigates the effect of climate variation on biophysical parameters and yields. Our results indicate that the rising temperature is decreasing the carrying capacity. As a result, an optimum tax on harvest must reflect climate variability, as well as the congestion externality.

  2. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the large number of technical interactions between various fishing activities, the English Channel (ICES divisions VIId and VIIe) fisheries may be regarded as one large and diverse multi-country, multi-gear and multi-species artisanal fishery, although rarely studied as such. A whole......-scale bioeconomic model has been constructed. It does not take into account biological interactions, but focuses on competition among fleets. A large amount of biological and economic data have been preliminarily gathered, leading to a substantial increase of the quantitative knowledge available. The main purpose...

  3. Unexpected Consequences: Gold Mining in Peru and Trace Metal Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. Z.; Pinedo-Gonzalez, P.; Clark, K. E.; West, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal miners in the Peruvian Amazon, especially in the Madre de Dios region, are targeting fluvial deposits along riverbanks as part of a modern-day gold rush. These miners often use mercury, causing Hg pollution and ecological damage. Research on the environmental consequences of these mines has focused primarily on the fate of Hg, and to date little work has considered whether mining river sediments affects the release and cycling of other trace metals. This project measures trace metal concentrations in soil and vegetation samples developed on fluvial sediments at one mine site and two non-mine (control) sites across gradients in natural plant succession and riverbank composition. Some metals, including Pb and Mo, showed leachable metal concentrations (determined using EPA Method 2050B and ICP-MS analysis) that were lower in mine site soils than control site soils, but higher in mine site vegetation than control site vegetation. These results held across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. This suggests that metals may be preferentially mobilized from the soil and taken up by surrounding vegetation as a result of mining activities. Soils were also treated with a sequential leach to separate metals that are exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe and Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and in the residual phase. Initial data shows that trace metal concentrations are generally lower in all phases from mine soils vs. control soils, across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. Trace metal mobilization due to mining is facilitated by changing pH or redox conditions - e.g., by exposing buried minerals to water and oxygen. Fluvial sediments at these studied sites were already exposed during their erosion and transport, but anoxic conditions following deposition may allow a build-up of metals that are mobilized once sediments are re-worked by mining. It is also possible that Hg affects the mobility of other

  4. DISASTROUS/HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE EXPLOITATION: MASS LEAD-POISONING AND MORTALITY OF CHRONICALLY-POOR ARTISANAL GOLD MINERS’ CHILDREN IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Disastrous/hazardous environmental resource exploitation: mass lead-poisoning and mortality of chronically-poor artisanal gold miners’ children in northern Nigeria.The claim that poverty is one of three motivations of the nearly half a decade-long terrorist war waged by Northern Nigeria’s Islamic-sectarians, Boko Haram, call to question the extent to which sociological aspects of the critical social theory -emphasizing participation of various strata of the population in the rational society have been fulfilled in the sub-national region. The presentation of over 90 percent of Nigeria’s population (total: about 170 million classified as poor (earning/spending less than US$2 a day, vulnerable to socio-economic hazards, -with poverty in northern Nigeria reportedly surpassing levels in the rest of Nigeria’s federation makes questioning of geographers’ political-economic perspectives of critical social theoretical equally urgent. One of many dimensions of this challenge is its indication of Northern Nigeria’s leadership’s failure to seriously apply public resources towards resolving social welfare problems at both central and sub-national regional scales since the attainment of independence in 1960. The recent resort to insurgency represents mistakes of political gladiators during the post-independence era (over 50 years to properly manage natural resources –including solid minerals in northern Nigeria and the rest of the country. Here, we undertake a discourse of hazards (risks and vulnerabilities and disasters associated with recent resort of northern Nigeria’s poor to artisanal/unregulated mining of gold in northern Nigerian communities: cases of deleterious consequences (deaths, illnesses, etc., of this alternative “livelihood” of coping with socio-economic challenges posed by chronic poverty, unemployment, under-employment, among other adversities in the sub-national region were also highlighted. Government’s failure to

  5. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    products affecting mining performance, usage rate above plan, etc.), people (e.g. skill deficiencies of key personnel, poor safety and environmental awareness), cost estimation (using incorrect unit costs in calculations, escalation of costs higher than revenue increases, changes in interest rates, change in exchange rates), ...

  6. Qualitative modelling of gold mine impacts on Lihir Island's socioeconomic system and reef-edge fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Brewer, David T; Dennis, Darren M; Macintyre, Martha; Foale, Simon

    2007-01-15

    Inhabitants of Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, have traditionally relied on reef fishing and rotational farming of slash-burn forest plots for a subsistence diet. However, a new gold mine has introduced a cash economy to the island's socioeconomic system and impacted the fringing coral reef through sedimentation from the near-shore dumping of mine wastes. Studies of the Lihirian people have documented changes in population size, local customs, health, education, and land use; studies of the reef have documented impacts to fish populations in mine affected sites. Indirect effects from these impacts are complex and indecipherable when viewed only from isolated studies. Here, we use qualitative modelling to synthesize the social and biological research programs in order to understand the interaction of the human and ecological systems. Initial modelling results appear to be consistent with differences in fish and macroalgae populations in sites with and without coral degradation due to sedimentation. A greater cash flow from mine expansion is predicted to increase the human population, the intensity of the artisanal fishery, and the rate of sewage production and land clearing. Modelling results are being used to guide ongoing research projects, such as monitoring fish populations and artisanal catch and patterns and intensity of land clearing.

  7. The minerals industry of Colombia. Mining of coal; Die Rohstoffwirtschaft Kolumbiens. Der Bergbau auf Kohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benthaus, F.C. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft (LMBV), Berlin (Germany); Hermann, J. [DMT-Montan Consulting GmbH, Essen (Germany); Schmidt-Thome, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Colombia's topography in the Northwest of Latin America is characterised by the Andes-Cordillera. At the slopes of these mountains, coal deposits formed during the Cretaceous and Tertiary which were tectonically stressed as a result of the Andean orogeny. Colombia's hard coal reserves coming to approximately 22 billion t SKE (hard coal equivalent) are the largest in Latin America. More than 6.5 billion t of it are proven mineral reserves. In 2000, 38 Mt of steam and pulverised injection coal with low sulphur and ash content were extracted, 34 Mt of were predominantly exported to Europe. Since 1985, large opencast mines with shovel and truck are operated at the Caribbean coast as well as underground mines with room and pillar are operated by national and international consortia. The transportation to the ports is hereby the bottleneck and increases the extraction costs strongly. Small- and medium-scale mines in the inland produce for the local markets (power generation, industrial heating). The low technical equipment and simple safety standards enable an economic mining mostly in drift mines. Difficult topographic conditions badly influencing the road transportation and the neglected railway system raise the prices of minerals considerably. Small-scale operations (for example family type or artisanal) for mining minerals near to the surface are out of state influence and control. Apart from several safety problems caused by Guerrilla groups, Colombia meets all requirements to become one of the important mining countries in the world. (orig.)

  8. Mining revival

    OpenAIRE

    Lusty, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In relation to its size the United Kingdom (UK) is remarkably well-endowed with mineral resources as a result of its complex geological history. Their extraction and use have played an important role in the development of the UK economy over many years and minerals are currently worked at some 2100 mine and quarry sites. Production is now largely confined to construction minerals, primarily aggregates, energy minerals and industrial minerals including salt, potash, kaolin and fluorspar, altho...

  9. Socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fishing system on Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fisheries system on Easter Island (27°07'S, 109°22'W through the identification and interaction of stakeholders. It also comprises a structural analysis of the system aiming to identify any key issues and then propose research and development programs for multiple fisheries that will contribute to their sustainable development. The methodology is divided into four stages: i identification of issues with stakeholder (fishers, government workers and expert scientists participation, ii analysis of a structural matrix consisting of a direct causality study of the symmetric, structural and binary matrix based on socio-ecological issues allowing the calculation of the level of influence and dependence of each issue, iii identification of key issues with an influence/dependency diagram, and iv proposal of research and development programs according to the needs and opportunities identified in the previous stages. The Easter Island artisanal fishing system is used as a case study for this methodological approach. Thus, the fishers identified 108 issues, which were then grouped by similarity, reducing the number to 27 global issues, of which seven were identified as key. Surveyed local and central government workers and expert scientists identified 7, 2 and 5 issues, respectively. Finally, research and development programs are proposed that will encourage a series of changes to the fisheries situation on the island, in order to resolve issues and promote their sustainable development.

  10. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  11. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg-1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg-1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P cheese. Salmonella spp. were not found during the production process, and both Listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were absent in the final cheeses. This study provides more information on one of the most popular artisanal cheeses with high cultural value and economic impact in northwestern Mexico. In view of the foregoing, good manufacturing practices need to be implemented for the manufacture of Cocido cheese. Also, it is of utmost importance to make sure that the heat treatment applied for cooking the curd ensures a phosphatase-negative test, otherwise it would be necessary to pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The Legal Regulation of Artisan and Trade Corporations in the Cities of Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine G. Medvedev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features an analysis of the legal regulation of the formation and activity of artisan and trade corporations in the cities of medieval Europe. Based on the findings of an analysis of existing scientific theories, as well as a study of legal and regulatory acts, the author aims to explore the issue of the emergence of cities and workshop organizations in them and reveal their legal essence and content. The relevance of this paper is due to the fact that up until now a sufficiently definitive opinion is yet to be propounded in historical and historical/legal science as to the origin and development of such specific urban institutions as workshops and workshop corporations, with their special legal regulation. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of cities and workshop organizations reflected the evolution of the economic and social development of medieval society, which was associated with social division of labor. The paper’s major focus is not on the statutory regulation of the work of masters and not on the regulation of workshop craft methods, which can be explained quite logically by the economic need for adapting medieval artisan production to the limited needs and capacity of the local market, and which is the subject of study for the majority of present-day scholars, but issues related to the very organization of the workshop, its position in the system of urban establishments, as well as the legal status of its members.

  13. Use of ichthyofauna by artisanal fishermen at two protected areas along the coast of Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Freire; Mourão, José Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2015-03-06

    Fishing is one of the oldest human activities and constitutes a source of income and livelihood for millions of people, particularly in coastal regions. This study aimed to characterize the types of fish use and test whether there is a relationship between uses of fish in the communities studied. This study was conducted during the months of January to October 2013, on the beaches of Tamandaré and Batoque, both located in Northeast Brazil. Information was collected through interviews with 75 artisanal marine fishermen on the fishes they knew and their forms of use. The fishermen interviewed were male, between 22 and 84 years old, and they had been fishing for over 10 years and had a low educational level. Fishermen from Tamandaré mentioned 339 popular fish names, representing 222 taxa, while Batoque fishermen mentioned 305 popular fish names, representing 215 taxa. Six types of uses of fish were characterized: food, commercial, medicinal, handicrafts, spiritual-religious purposes and aquarium. It was found that there were multiple uses for fish and that there was a relationship between these different uses, reinforcing the importance that fish have on the culture and economic activities of fishing communities. Artisanal fishing should be understood as a cultural activity, because the different and multiple uses fish make up the dynamics of fishing communities. Just as in the areas of this study, some of these communities are included in protected areas and, therefore, fishermen must be involved in the development and implementation of management plans of these units.

  14. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  15. Application of molecular approaches to study lactic acid bacteria in artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Caggia, C; Neviani, E

    2009-07-01

    The present review focuses on the application of the most common molecular approaches for the investigation of the diversity of LAB in the artisanal cheese environment, and for their tracking within this complex ecosystem. Historically the detection and identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has largely been hampered by the incomplete knowledge of their optimal in vitro culture conditions. Recent years have seen an explosion in the application of molecular tools for elucidating both qualitatively and quantitatively on the abundance of LAB species and how their presence interacts with the environment. Many of these approaches, predominantly rooted in the use of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and its encoding genes, are successfully applied to describe the relationship between LAB and their individual identity. In the present work emphasis is given to the methodologies to determine the complex communities as well as to the detection of individual groups of LAB of several artisanal cheeses. Moreover, analyses of viability of LAB during the manufacture and ripening, through culture-independent approaches is also discussed. The potential of novel advances in molecular technologies such as metagenomic for analysis of the cheese ecosystem is also provided.

  16. Geographical Indication Re-signifying Artisanal Production of Curd Cheese in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Lira Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fierce market competition and growing consumer demand for quality have spurred organizations to seek certification as a way of differentiating their products and services from those of competitors. Geographical Indication (GI is a type of certification that has received attention from agribusiness. The significance as a cultural artifact (e.g., locally-produced curd cheese does not lie in the product itself, but in the relationships that are established between those who produce it and those who consume it, thereby highlighting the interrelationships of these symbolic production practices. This study seeks to understand how the process of GI certification has conferred new meaning on (re-signified artisanal production of curd cheese in rural parts of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. GI adds value to the product, making it competitive. Discourse analysis enabled comparison of the cheese’s original cultural meanings with those outlined by Curd Cheese Certification Association (CCCA member-producers. Certification-driven innovations have helped CCCA member-producers to re-signify their artisanal production, while providing a clear understanding of both the material and symbolic dimensions of improvements perceived to have occurred in the production process.

  17. The production of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese : the force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour

  18. The Utilisation of Skilled Artisans as Vocational Instructors in Secondary Schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whawo, D. Duwovwiji

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the feasibility of hiring skilled craftspeople to teach practical workshop skills in secondary-level prevocational courses in Nigeria. Presents results of a survey of 200 artisans to determine their willingness to teach full- or part-time and minimum salary requirements. Indicates that 85.6% were willing to teach. Discusses…

  19. Interaction between Monk Seals, Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779), and artisanal fisheries in the Foca Pilot Monk Seal conservation area, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines some aspects of the interaction between critically endangered Monk Seals Monachus monachus and artisanal fisheries in the Foc¿a Pilot Monk Seal Conservation Area, Turkey, between 1994 and 2002. One to four permanent researchers collected the data on this interaction during

  20. Damage by monk seals to gear of the artisanal fishery in the Foca Monk Seal Pilot Conservation Area, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the operational interaction between critically endangered monk seals Monachus monachus and artisanal fisheries in the Foc¿a Pilot Monk Seal Conservation Area, Turkey between 1994 and 2002. One to four permanent researchers collected the data on this interaction during the

  1. Navigating obstacles, opportunities and reforms: women’s lives and livelihoods in artisanal mining communities in eastern DRC

    OpenAIRE

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie Rose

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, the exploitation and trade of minerals has fuelled armed conflict and fostered a climate of insecurity that has led to the deaths of thousands of people in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Katanga, Ituri, Maniema, North and South Kivu). This has been seen as a consequence of prolonged socioeconomic and political instability since the late 1980s and 1990s, when a civil war led to the collapse of the Zairian state and there were civil wars in neighbouri...

  2. Navigating obstacles, opportunities and reforms: women’s lives and livelihoods in artisanal mining communities in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie Rose

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, the exploitation and trade of minerals has fuelled armed conflict and fostered a climate of insecurity that has led to the deaths of thousands of people in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Katanga, Ituri, Maniema, North and South Kivu). This has been seen as

  3. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  4. Northern Trust Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  5. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  6. Ghana Mining Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management Policies, Mineral Economics, Environmental Aspects, Computer Applications and Mining Education.

  7. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  8. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S.; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K.; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists—only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the “bottom one billion”—the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while

  9. Quality and safety of artisan cheese produced in the serrana region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane Helenita Pontarolo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The serrano artisan cheese produced from raw milk of dairy cattle is a typical product of high-altitude farms in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. However, marketing of the cheeses occurs illegally because they lack the minimum maturation period required for cheese produced from raw milk. The production of artisan cheeses is required to follow strict hygiene standards. This study aimed to test the quality and safety of cheeses that were produced in 31 farms of the Serrana region in Santa Catarina after 14 and 28 days of maturation. Coliform count was measured at 35 °C, and presence of other microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were also tested. Fat and protein percentages, acidity, salt content, and humidity were also evaluated. Data were subjected to statistical analyses using the SAS® software. After 14 and 28 days of maturation, 74.19% (23/31 and 64.52% (20/31 of samples, respectively, showed higher numbers of coliforms at 35 °C than those permissible by law. Higher than permissible numbers of E. coli were observed in 45.16% (14/31 and 48.39% (15/31 of the samples analyzed after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Coagulase-positive staphylococci values above 103 CFU/g were observed in 54.84% (17/31 and 51.61% (16/31 of cheese samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Contamination with Salmonella spp. was not detected. However, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b was isolated in 3.23% (1/31 and 6.45% (2/31 of samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. The results of humidity tests classified the cheese samples into three categories: low, medium, and high humidity. Semi fat cheeses were predominant in both maturation periods, although the samples were classified in thin, semi fat, and fat cheeses. The main variations in the compositions of analyzed samples occurred for salt and acidity levels. The maturation process has not proven

  10. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  11. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA...

  12. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately.

  13. Biogenic amine formation and oxidation by Staphylococcus xylosus strains from artisanal fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, M; Crudele, M A; Gardini, F; Suzzi, G

    2000-09-01

    Fifty strains of Staph. xylosus, isolated from artisanal fermented sausages in Southern Italy (Lucania region) were tested to verify their potential to produce or degrade biogenic amines. Twenty-six strains analysed were not able to form amines, but seven had the potential to produce spermine and/or spermidine and, at lower levels, tryptamine and tyramine. By contrast, about 80% of the strains that did not possess amino acid decarboxylase activity, exhibited an ability to degrade histamine. The greatest histamine-oxidase activity was present in the strains S81 (100% degradation), S206 (93%), S79 (68%) and S90 (53%). The strain S142 exhibited a remarkably high potential to oxidase tyramine and histamine, reducing the initial concentrations by 63 and 47%, respectively.

  14. Dolphin interactions with the mullet artisanal fishing on Southern Brazil: a qualitative and quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the interactions between Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 and the artisanal fishing of mullets (Mugil spp. is presented at two localities in the south of Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina and Inibé/Tramandaí (Rio Grande do Sul. Its behavioral strategies and the advantages of their association are re-described and quantified based on the success of the capture and on the selectivity of the prey sizes. The mullets are the main resource involved (92% to 75% both at numerical level and as biomass. Twenty individuals of Tursiops truncatus participated in the interactions in Laguna and 9 in Imbé/Tramandaí. The participation and learning of calves is also reported.

  15. The situation of rural women in Spain: the case of small-scale artisan food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Escurriol Martinez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural women's discrimination and the lack of effective implementation of the legislation on gender equality is a phenomenon found around the world. Women have been traditionally the responsible of family care and feeding, thus they have developed productive tasks that allow combining productive and reproductive activities in the farm. Food processing is one of these activities and it allows women to have a paid work or to complement agrarian rents in a context where most of agricultural works are vetoed to them. Nevertheless, women are usually linked to small-scale agricultural projects which prioritize quality and local food production, and the expansion of industrial food systems has worsened the situation of artisan women. In the present research we aimed, through the use of qualitative methodologies, at conducting a diagnosis of the situation of women leading small-scale food transformation projects in Spain while eliciting their main difficulties, needs and claims.

  16. Traditional knowledge and artisanal fishing technology on the Xingu River in Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMC. Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract In artisanal fishing, the techniques used by a community reflect the characteristics of the natural environment, in particular the distribution and availability of resources, as well as local traditions and customs. However, economic development may result in the loss of these traditions. The present study documents the fishing techniques used by the communities on the Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará (Maribel, Altamira, Belo Monte, Vitória do Xingu, Vila Nova, Senador José Porfírio, Porto de Moz, and Gurupá. Interviews were used to investigate traditional local knowledge and the distribution of the different fishing methods within the study area. The local fishers described the use of 12 different types of net, 10 hook and line techniques, and eight kinds of spearfishing. Free diving and scuba diving are also used for the capture of ornamental fish.

  17. Ecological interactions of sea sponges (Animalia, Porifera according to artisanal fishermen from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyana Docio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the first ethnospongiological study in Brazil, and it aimed at recording artisanal fishermen’s knowledge about sea sponges and their ecological interactions. The study was carried out in the Ilha do Contrato community at Camamu Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. The data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews and projective tests, and followed the usual techniques of ethnographic surveys. The interviewees had knowledge regarding ecological interactions among fish, sea sponges and sponge endofaunal composition. According to the results, there is some congruence between folk wisdom and scientific knowledge. The importance of integrating local knowledge into management and conservation plans designed for the Camamu Bay region, as well as the set of data on ecology of reef communities, should be considered.

  18. Buying intoformalization? State institutions and interlocked markets in African small-scale gold mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Yankson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in Africa has increased tremendously. An unknown but significant part is constituted by activities that are not based on legally registered mining licenses. The division of formal and informal ASM is, however, dissolved in the marketing...... chain where trading channels are intertwined: traders buy from miners with and without a license. So far state institutions and civil society organizations have endeavoured to ‘formalize’ the informal sector by focusing on relatively isolated entry points in the ASM chain from production to consumption...... dependency relations, barriers for poverty eradication and agricultural development. The paper outlines the previous debate on formalization and maps out the territorial and organizational configuration of the present ASM gold chain in Tanzania and Ghana. On this basis we maintain that state action...

  19. Hearing loss and heavy metal toxicity in a Nicaraguan mining community: audiological results and case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J E; Jastrzembski, B G; Buckey, J C; Enriquez, D; MacKenzie, T A; Karagas, M R

    2013-01-01

    We measured fingernail metal levels, Békésy-type pure-tone thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in 59 subjects residing in the gold mining community of Bonanza, Nicaragua. Auditory testing revealed widespread hearing loss in the cohort. Nail metal concentrations (mercury, lead, aluminum, manganese and arsenic) far exceeded reference levels. No relationship was found between metal levels and auditory test results for the group as a whole. Statistically significant relationships were found between DPOAE response amplitudes and metal concentrations in a subgroup with less than 40 h per week of significant noise exposure; however, conclusions regarding these relationships should be tempered by the large number of analyses performed. Several young individuals with high metal levels reported neurological symptoms and had poor hearing. The data suggest that metal levels in artisanal mining communities present a significant public health problem and may affect hearing. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Mining ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPhee, B.

    2007-02-15

    Changes in work practices and a drive for greater productivity have introduced a range of emerging issues in ergonomics in mining. Some of the practices appear to be at odds with the need to improve general occupational health and safety. Longer shift lengths and fatigue, mental overload and underload, intermittent heavy physical work, reduced task variation, sedentary work in fixed postures and whole-body vibration all have risks for health and safety. The increasing age of some of the workforce is of concern. There appears to be a need to recognise these as potential causes of health problems. The article gives a review of these problems are reports on research findings. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  2. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri C. Coetzee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the status of artisanal fisheries in the lower Phongolo River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used that included the development of a questionnaire and a systematic survey among the five villages bordering the Ndumo Game Reserve. Data were collected over a 5-day period by a group of 16 fieldworkers and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. The results revealed that fish was the third most consumed protein in the area, that people consumed fish on average twice a week, that at least six fish species (and one recently introduced crayfish species were consumed regularly, and that most fish were obtained from local vendors, who in turn bought it from local fishermen and -women. Fishing activities also appeared to occur predominantly along the river system and targeted mainly red-breasted tilapia (Tilapia rendalli and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and, to a slightly lesser extent, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus and brown squeaker (Synodontis zambezensis.Conservation implications: Given that Ndumo residents predominantly catch fish by means of non-commercial methods, that they do so for reasons of personal consumption and subsistence, and that they mostly target rivers and dams rather than the ecologically sensitive pans in the region, it would seem likely that fishing in the region might be sustainable for the moment. However, it is recommended that studies on the local fish populations and their reproductive rates be conducted so that the actual impact on local fish populations can be determined more accurately. This study serves to provide the necessary baseline data on fish utilisation in the region, which would enable the impact of artisanal fishing on fish reserves in the Ndumo region to be determined once population studies have been completed.

  3. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Socioeconomic and environmental profile of artisanal fishing in Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Raposo da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it still has great social and economic importance, accounting for a large number of jobs in coastal communities, fishing has received few government incentives in Brazil,. In the city of Macaé, State of Rio de Janeiro, the situation is no different. Until the late 70s, fishing was considered the main socio-economic activity in the region. However, with the installation of the regional headquarters of Petrobras for oil exploration in 1978,, this scenario changed radically. Based on the hypothesis that the traditional means of use and ownership of fisheries resources in the region has been changed by the economic growth provided by the oil economy, the purpose of this work is to show socio-cultural and environmental importance of artisanal fishing for Macaé. We interviewed twenty-seven fishermen who landed in the warehouse of Macaé. Therefore, the semi-structured questionnaire was used along with bibliographic and documentary analysis. Participant observation as a methodological option was also carried out. Results provide information about the main fishing practices in the city, the environmental profile of fishermen, labor relations, and fish marketing. The profile of the artisanal fishermen of Macaé was established as follows: male; 30-40 years of age; most with uncompleted primary school; 89% are married; 56%  from Macaé; average of 27 years of work in fishing; gillnetting is the most common fishing practice; 82% commercialize production through intermediaries; average monthly income is R$900 deriving exclusively from fishing. Our conclusion is that the district is based on only one economic activity. The fishery supply chain gave way to the oil industry, and economic growth generated by this has not been used to consolidate a multi-pillar, stable, strong local economy. Therefore, it becomes necessary to create effective public policies and devices to maintain environmental quality and provide social improvements for the

  5. National health insurance scheme: Are the artisans benefitting in Lagos state, Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princess C Campbell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health insurance (HI can serve as a vital risk protection for families and small businesses and also increase access to priority health services. This study determined the knowledge, attitude of artisans toward HI as well as their health-seeking pattern and willingness to join the HI scheme. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a multistage sampling technique to recruit 260 participants, using self-designed, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Epi-info version 7.0. Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and logistic regression were used for associations; the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The respondents were predominantly male, i.e., 195 (75.0%, with a mean age of 32.36 + 6.20 years and mean income of N 29,000 + 5798.5 ($1 ~ N 161. Majority of the respondents, i.e., 226 (86.9% were not aware of HI. The overall knowledge was poor (6.5% and the main source of information was through radio/television (41.2%. Nearly, half of the respondents (33 out of 67 identified the concept of HI as a pool of contributors′ fund for only healthcare service. A high proportion of the respondents (27 out of 34 were aware of the benefits of HI, although majority, i.e., 27 (79.4% identified access to medication as the benefit. The majority of the respondents, i.e., 228 (87.7% expressed negative attitude toward the scheme; however, 76.5% were willing to join the HI scheme. Conclusion: The artisans had low awareness/poor knowledge of HI which translated to a negative attitude toward the scheme. There is need for an aggressive stakeholders′ enlightenment campaign for increasing coverage.

  6. A generic mine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, J. van; Riet, M.W.G. van; Dol, H.S.; Mohamoud, A.A.; Keus, D.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of mine laying and of mine countermeasures, understanding of the actuation behaviour of influence mines is of vital importance. Modelling can enhance such understanding. In this paper, a flexible generic mine model is presented that allows the user to easily generate different computer

  7. South African mining experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.D. (British Coal Corporation (UK). North Selby Mine)

    1992-09-01

    The article details the author's visit to South Africa on the 1990 Institution of Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineers Travelling Scholarship. The author undertook to visit to six coal mines (including two opencast mines and one rail loading terminal), four local engineering manufacturers, three power stations, three gold mines, two diamond mines (both in Botswana), a steel and vanadium works, the 1990 Mining Electra exhibition and the head offices of the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Socially responsible investment engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort

  9. Artisanal Vlasina Raw Goat's Milk Cheese: Evaluation and Selection of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Tolinacki; Milica Nikolic; Katarina Veljovic; Snezana Jovanovic; Ognjen Macej; Ljubisa Topisirovic; Amarela Terzic-Vidojevic

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is the isolation, characterization and identification of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from artisanal Vlasina raw goat's milk cheese for the selection of potential starter cultures. Soft white Vlasina cheese was manufactured at a household on the Stara Planina Mountain using traditional techniques without starter cultures. One hundred and forty nine LAB isolates were collected from two samples of Vlasina cheese, designated as BGVL2 (5 days old) and BGVL2a (15 ...

  10. Estimating Profit Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing in the Pru District of the Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinam Dope Setsoafia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the profit efficiency of artisanal fishing in the Pru District of Ghana by explicitly computing profit efficiency level, identifying the sources of profit inefficiency, and examining the constraints of artisanal fisheries. Cross-sectional data was obtained from 120 small-scale fishing households using semistructured questionnaire. The stochastic profit frontier model was used to compute profit efficiency level and identify the determinants of profit inefficiency while Garrett ranking technique was used to rank the constraints. The average profit efficiency level was 81.66% which implies that about 82% of the prospective maximum profit was gained due to production efficiency. That is, only 18% of the potential profit was lost due to the fishers’ inefficiency. Also, the age of the household head and household size increase the inefficiency level while experience in artisanal fishing tends to decrease the inefficiency level. From the Garrett ranking, access to credit facility to fully operate the small-scale fishing business was ranked as the most pressing issue followed by unstable prices while perishability was ranked last among the constraints. The study, therefore, recommends that group formation should be encouraged to enable easy access to loans and contract sales to boost profitability.

  11. Evaluation of impact of artificial reefs on artisanal fisheries: need for complementary approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Koeck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a general context of fisheries decline due to overfishing and to other phenomena such as climate change, it appears to be crucial to implement a sustainable management of natural resources by finding a balance between conservation and exploitation purposes. Artificial reefs (ARs have recently become one of the existing management tools, often in combination with fishing quotas or marine protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of the studied ARs, different methods have been used: (i visual census by SCUBA diving (AR scale, (ii fisheries landings survey (local scale and (iii external fish tagging (regional scale. Underwater visual census (UVC showed a significantly higher species richness and density in ARs than in the control site. Abundance, biomass and LPUE data (Landings Per Unit Effort issued from artisanal fisheries landings survey were not significantly different around the AR system from other fishing grounds of the French Catalan coast. The tagging experiments on Diplodus sargus suggested that the connectivity of demersal fish populations must be taken into account to evaluate the influence area of ARs and thus their indirect impacts on artisanal fisheries. The present study highlights the interest of combining methods covering different spatial scales in order to evaluate direct and indirect impacts of ARs on artisanal fisheries. Methods for the evaluation of AR efficiency are discussed.Dentro do atual contexto de redução nos estoques de peixes ligados à sobrepesca, e também à outros fenômenos tais como as mudanças climáticas, é indispensável implementar um plano de gestão durável para os recursos pesqueiros, conciliando sua exploração e conservação. Os recifes artificiais (RAs tem surgido nos dias atuais como uma importante ferramenta de gestão, freqüentemente combinada à cotas de pesca ou áreas marinhas protegidas. Com a finalidade de avaliar a eficiência dos recifes artificiais, utilizou-se os seguintes

  12. Text mining resources for the life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable—those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. PMID:27888231

  13. Text mining resources for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyła, Piotr; Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable-those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Bacterial microbiota of Kazakhstan cheese revealed by single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing and its comparison with Belgian, Kalmykian and Italian artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Haiyan; Xi, Xiaoxia; Hou, Qiangchuan; Feng, Shuzhen; Wuri, Laga; Bian, Yanfei; Yu, Zhongjie; Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong

    2017-01-09

    In Kazakhstan, traditional artisanal cheeses have a long history and are widely consumed. The unique characteristics of local artisanal cheeses are almost completely preserved. However, their microbial communities have rarely been reported. The current study firstly generated the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing bacterial diversity profiles of 6 traditional artisanal cheese samples of Kazakhstan origin, followed by comparatively analyzed the microbiota composition between the current dataset and those from cheeses originated from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy. Across the Kazakhstan cheese samples, a total of 238 bacterial species belonging to 14 phyla and 140 genera were identified. Lactococcus lactis (28.93%), Lactobacillus helveticus (26.43%), Streptococcus thermophilus (12.18%) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (12.15%) were the dominant bacterial species for these samples. To further evaluate the cheese bacterial diversity of Kazakhstan cheeses in comparison with those from other geographic origins, 16S rRNA datasets of 36 artisanal cheeses from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy were retrieved from public databases. The cheese bacterial microbiota communities were largely different across sample origins. By principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), the structure of the Kazakhstan artisanal cheese samples was found to be different from those of the other geographic origins. Furthermore, the redundancy analysis (RDA) identified 16 bacterial OTUs as the key variables responsible for such microbiota structural difference. Our results together suggest that the diversity of bacterial communities in different groups is stratified by geographic region. This study does not only provide novel information on the bacterial microbiota of traditional artisanal cheese of Kazakhstan at species level, but also interesting insights into the bacterial diversity of artisanal

  15. Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan – long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallenberg M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Schallenberg,1,2 Dirk Dekowski,1 Angela Hahn,1 Thomas Laube,1,3 Klaus-Peter Steuhl,1 Daniel Meller11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 3Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study.Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications.Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months. The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10 and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and

  16. Characterization of an artisanal fishery in Argentina using the social-ecological systems framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia London

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD studies how institutions (the rules of the game of a society determine the performance of a social-economic system. Elinor Ostrom extends the institutional analysis to the collective action for a particular case, the study of the social-ecological systems (SESs. Any group that attempts to manage a common resource (e.g. aquifers, pastures for optimal sustainable production must solve a set of problems in order to create institutions to facilitate collective action. Some evidences show that following a set of design principles in creating institutions can lead to overcome these problems. The aim of the paper is to apply the SES framework to an artisanal fishery community in Argentina in order to: 1 describe the principal features, key variables and relations of the small-scale fishery system; 2 detect the principal drivers of a potential common-management and the leading detractors from the current communal performance; and 3 analyze the possibility that a self-governing for sustainable fishery may appear. Several drivers for potential common-management and some detractors from the current common performance are summarized. Artisanal fishery SES is currently at a bifurcation point. A common historical and cultural root, the presence of leaderships, the relevance of local knowledge, the dependence on the resource to sustainable livelihoods and the threat of big-scale fisheries area have generated incentives to collective-action. But, simultaneously, internal conflicts are the most important barrier for an integrated community-based management. The heterogeneity among actors and the relevant external conditions have resulted in two groups diverging in their self-organization. The work is framed by the project COMET-LA (COmmunity-based Management of Environmental challenges in Latin America; European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme of Research and Development, which aims to identify sustainable

  17. Shrimp farming as an alternative to artisanal fishermen communities: the Case of Patos Lagoon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Olivera Cavalli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis is considered a suitable species for culture in the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil, where its catch has been decreasing in the last few years. Considering the potential of estuarine areas for shrimp farming, the application of low-cost structures to culture shrimp, such as the pen enclosures, is being proposed as an alternative source of income for artisanal fishermen and farmers living near Patos Lagoon. From an economical standpoint, these alternative systems present several advantages over the traditional pond-based culture systems since land, water pumping and artificial aerations are not required, high natural productivity is available and inexpensive materials are employed in the construction of grow-out structures. This paper reviews the farming of F. paulensis in the pen enclosures as an alternative to the artisanal fishing communities of the Patos Lagoon estuary. Particular emphases are placed on the development of culture systems, social and environmental impacts, constraints and perspectives.O camarão-rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis é considerado uma espécie com potencial para criação no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS, onde o volume desembarcado deste recurso vem decrescendo nos últimos anos. A criação deste camarão em cercados está sendo proposta como uma fonte de renda alternativa para os pescadores artesanais e agricultores que habitam o entorno deste estuário. Do ponto de vista econômico, estes sistemas alternativos de criação apresentam vantagens sobre os sistemas tradicionais em viveiros de terra: não se necessita ter posse da terra, nem equipamentos de bombeamento d'água ou aeração. Além disso, materiais relativamente baratos são utilizados na construção das estruturas de engorda e há uma grande disponibilidade de alimento natural. Esta revisão apresenta alguns aspectos da criação de F. paulensis em cercados como uma alternativa às comunidades de pescadores

  18. APCOM 87. Volume 1 - mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, L.; Kersten, R.W.O.; Cutland, J.R. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    35 papers are presented in this volume under the following session headings: rock mechanics; shafts; mine planning theory; expert systems in mining; mine planning case studies; ventilation; computer applications in education; and control of mining operations.

  19. The future of European mining: What should our mining industry learn from the Skouries and Rosia Montana community gold conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Stefanaki, Anna; Economidou, Romina; Savin, Irina; Hood, Leo; Conway, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The popular image of mining portrayed by media and by a majority of public opinion is a dominantly negative one. From worker's rights to environmental damages, disasters such as the Copiapó mine collapse (Chile), the acid mine drainage at Lousal (Portugal) and the Pb contamination of waters around the Tyndrum mines (Scotland) overshadow initiatives like the ICMM. Some companies receive little praise despite creating active community education and investment projects, while others simply build higher barbed wire fences and attempt to weather the protests, budgeting them into mine life assessments. This image problem, combined with the decentralised political segregation of Europe and the increased power of grass-roots protest initiatives (such as Antigold in Greece), has resulted in mining companies joining a long list of industries effected by the 'auto-protest' reaction in face of development, regardless of potential regional and national benefits, there is a pre-existing lack of trust in corporate and government powers to protect community interests. The poor management of existing licences is thus becoming a significant danger to future operations and the wider industry. Here we report on the Rosia Montana dispute (Romania) and the ongoing Skouries conflict (Greece). We then discuss how the European mining industry may need to significantly adapt its exploration and community engagement strategies to avoid future conflicts and, present a recent example of how effective suitably organised community engagement projects can be for local mining initiatives from Southern Portugal.

  20. Breaking new ground: mining, minerals and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Society's continuing need for minerals is clear. However, the way in which minerals are extracted, processed, used and recycled - in the context of sustainable development - is less than clear and often bitterly controversial. This publication presents the principal conclusions of the IIED/WBCSD project Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) - the most ambitious study yet undertaken on the role of minerals in sustainable development carried out by the IIED and World Bank Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Drawing on the project's two-year process of consultation and research, Breaking New Ground describes the minerals sector and its relationship with concepts of sustainable development, and offers an 'Agenda for Change' for immediate and future actions. The report is based on four regional processes, activities in 16 countries and over 200 pieces of commissioned research contained in an accompanying CD-ROM. The report calls for elaboration of an industry protocol for sustainable development; a commitment to address the negative legacy of the past; support for legalization of artisanal and small-scale mining; integrated management of the full mineral chain (exploration, extraction, smelting, refining, fabrication, manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling and disposal); more effective government management of mineral investment; and a more equitable international trade regime for minerals.

  1. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available causes of fatalities in underground narrow reef mining. Data are gathered and processed from multiple underground mine sources, and techniques such as surfel modeling and synthetic view generation are explored towards creating visualisations of the data...

  2. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available causes of fatalities in underground narrow reef mining. Data are gathered and processed from multiple underground mine sources, and techniques such as surfel modeling and synthetic view generation are explored towards creating visualisations of the data...

  3. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  4. Human exposure to lead and other potentially harmful elements associated with galena mining at New Zurak, central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lar, U. A.; Ngozi-Chika, C. S.; Ashano, E. C.

    2013-08-01

    Galena mining in New Zurak, central Nigeria is currently increasing in intensity, with widespread artisanal mining taking place alongside mechanised mining. These activities are causing immeasurable damage to the environment. The prolonged human exposure and ingestion of Pb and other potentially harmful elements (PHEs) such as U, Cd, Se, Zn and As that are released from ores during these (mining) activities is a cause of great concern to populations that live in the vicinity of these mine fields. Many of the communities make their living from subsistence farming, growing food from the surroundings, and obtaining drinking water from nearby surface and sub-surface water resources. An overall assessment of the degree of contamination or toxicity of Pb and other PHEs was carried out using the indices of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and contamination factors (CFs), in the different media sampled - farmland soils, uncultivated lands, mine tailings/dumps, natural waters and vegetables. Results reveal that the mine tailings and dumps are highly contaminated with Pb and other PHEs followed in decreasing degree of contamination by the uncultivated lands, farmlands and natural waters. These findings suggest that release of Pb and other PHEs from the galena mining activity has contributed significantly to the enrichment of these elements in the surrounding environment, including the natural water bodies, and are disposed to subsequent entry into the human body through the food chain. As such these PHE accumulations pose significant risks to the environment and human health, especially of children and pregnant women who are the most vulnerable groups in the area. In order to forestall a reoccurrence of the Zamfara Pb poisoning episode in northwestern Nigeria in 2010, where more than 400 children died, the authorities concerned should ensure that mining in New Zurak is done in a more environmentally friendly manner, ensuring the maintenance of an environmental quality adequate for

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic pollution in watersheds influenced by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Ferreira, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate total arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water (main pathway of human exposure) and its hydrogeochemical controls in the "Morro do Ouro" gold mine region, which is the largest gold mine in Brazil, characterized by gold-arsenopyrite association. Arsenic concentration was generally below the detection limit (LOD 20°, being readily covered by thick phyllites that are poor in As some hundreds of meters away from the mine. Thirty-five percent of As levels in superficial waters (10 μg L(-1), which is the maximum permissible value for human ingestion. The highest concentrations were found nearby mine facilities and old artisanal mining areas surrounding the mine, decreasing downstream. Undisturbed watersheds showed As concentrations close to LOD. Hydrogeochemical data stress the sorption (adsorption and co-precipitation) of As role, mainly by Fe oxyhydroxides, as a geochemical filter that retains As, attenuating its concentration in both superficial and groundwater. Such minerals are abundant in the region oxisols, sediments, and phyllites and may form stable mineral complexes with As under the pH (mostly neutral) and Eh (reduced environment) conditions found in the field. It has been demonstrated that As(III) (more toxic) and As(V) co-exist in the analyzed waters and that As(V) predominates in superficial water.

  6. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  7. Uranium mining: Saskatchewan status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives the status of uranium mining by Areva in Saskatchewan. Uranium production now meets 85% of world demand for power generation. 80% of world production of uranium comes from top 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and Namibia. Saskatchewan is currently the only Canadian province with active uranium mines and mills and the largest exploration programs. Several mine projects are going through the environmental assessment process. Public opinion is in favour of mining activities in Saskatchewan.

  8. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  9. Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Puga, Claudia Delgadillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats' milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended.

  10. Development of a structured sensory honey analysis: application to artisanal Madrid honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M M; de Lorenzo, C; Pérez, R A

    2010-02-01

    In this work a methodology to evaluate the sensory properties of honeys has been developed. The sensory analysis was carried out by means of a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method, based on several reference scales, for the coverage of the designed range for each descriptor. The peculiarity of this sensory analysis is that the reference scales have been constituted by common foodstuffs agreed upon by consensus of the panel. The main sensory attributes evaluated in the analyses were: adhesiveness, viscosity, bitterness, aroma, sweetness, acidity, color and granularity. Both the intensity and persistence of honey aromas have also been estimated, together with the classification of the identified aromatic attributes into different groups. The method was applied to 55 artisanal honeys from Madrid (Spain) with the following results: (i) the developed sensory profile sheet allowed a satisfactory description of Madrid honeys; (ii) correlations between sensory attributes of three broad groups of Madrid honeys were obtained and (iii) aroma persistence, sweetness, bitterness, color and granularity appeared as the main sensorial characteristics of honey with discrimination power between floral and honeydew honeys.

  11. Incidental catch of marine turtles by the artisanal fisheries on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hanazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The five species of sea turtles, which inhabit the Brazilian shore, have a wordwide distribution and are threatened with extinction. The south of Brazil is characterized as a feeding and breeding area of at least three of these species. The presence of turtles close to the shore and their incidental catch are occurrences reported by artisan fishermen of the Island of Santa Catarina in this work. The study was based on a questionnaire, applied to fishermen and fishfarmers at selected spots on the island. Scientific and popular names were matched using illustrations. The spots with the highest number of events and captures were close to the islands, rocky coasts and stony grounds, i.e. areas related with the foraging habits of the most abundant species, Chelonia mydas. The place, depth and size of the net are characteristics, which influence the capture. The time the net remains in the water is a factor which is fundamental to the survival of the captured turtles. The flesh of the turtle is used as an occasional feeding resource. Capacitation programs and training applied to the communities involved are recommended.

  12. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Z. Palavecino Prpich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and coagulase negative cocci (CNC were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS were designed: (i SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2 and (ii SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8. Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages.

  13. Participatory Boat Tracking Reveals Spatial Fishing Patterns in an Indonesian Artisanal Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Navarrete Forero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Spermonde Archipelago holds one of the largest artisanal fisheries in Indonesia, providing livelihoods for local communities and many other people involved in international trade networks of seafood. High demand and a lack of enforcement of existing fisheries regulations turn into high pressure for the coral reef ecosystem, contributing to its overall degradation. Estimations on the ecological impacts of different levels of fishing pressure, as well as fisheries stock assessments and marine resource management require precise information of the spatial distribution of fishing effort, which involves great uncertainty when only anecdotal information is considered. We explored the feasibility of applying participatory boat tracking to complement fisheries data during the NW monsoon season 2014–2015. We conducted interviews, measured catch landings, and distributed GPS data loggers among hook and line fishermen to identify fishing grounds by gear-dependent patterns of boat movement. Most of the fishing activities involved two gears (octopus bait and trolling line for live groupers and three fishing grounds. The mass of catch landings was dominated by Octopoda (CPUE = 10.1 kg boatday−1 while the most diverse group was the fish family Serranidae, with Plectropomus leopardus being the main target species. In conclusion, boat tracking combined with interviews and catch surveys has proven a useful tool to reduce uncertainty in information on spatial resource use, while allowing a high level of participation by fishermen.

  14. The Artisanal Production of Pulque, a Traditional Beverage of the Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Bravo-Villa, Griselda; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Velasco-Almendarez, Sandra I; Montville, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Pulque is a traditional fermented alcoholic, acidic, viscous drink of the Mexican central highlands. Its production from the "aguamiel" (sap) of agave plants dates back ~1,500 years and continues to be made by artisanal methods. However, the variability of pulque's quality and its instability hamper its widespread distribution and consumption. Microbiological surveys of pulque from three ranches revealed tremendous variability in the types and quantity of the indigenous microbiota. The population of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 6 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(11) CFU/mL. This variability might be attributed to the conditions on the ranches where the pulque was made. In an attempt to identify these sources of variability, the microbial populations of aguamiel and pulque from a single agave plant were determined. Surprisingly, the population size of the "unfermented" aguamiel and the pulque converged by the end of 3 weeks. The potential use of bacteriocinogenic LAB and known starter cultures to improve pulque properties are discussed.

  15. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm(2) for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm(2) for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement.

  16. Microbiological characterization of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese: analysis of its indigenous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Paola; Alessandria, Valentina; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this research was to study the bacterial populations involved in the production of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese (Italian Maritime Alps, northwest Italy) in order to collect preliminary knowledge on indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 21 samples of Raschera PDO cheese, collected from six dairy farms located in the production area, were submitted to microbiological analysis. LAB were randomly isolated from M17 agar, MRS agar and KAA plates and identified by combining PCR 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer analysis, species-specific primers and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolates was investigated by RAPD-PCR. LAB microflora showed the highest count values among all microbial groups targeted. They reached counts of 10(9) colony forming unit (cfu)/g in cheese samples after 3 days of salting and 15 days of ripening. Yeast population also showed considerable count values, while enterococci and coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) did not overcome 10(7)cfu/g. L. lactis subsp. lactis was the species most frequently isolated from Raschera PDO samples at all different production stages while in aged cheeses Lactobacillus paracasei was frequently isolated. RAPD-PCR highlighted that isolates of L. lactis subsp. lactis isolated from Raschera PDO were highly homogeneous.

  17. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow’s milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm2 for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm2 for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  18. Analysis of Production and Consumption in Hair Artisans at Karangbanjar Village, Bojongsari District, Purbalingga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arifin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair craft product is selected as a specialized one in Karangbanjar village,  Purbalingga Regency. This product has comparative advantage among other regions such as in Demak, Sragen, Karanganyar, and Brebes. It is also the second best product in the world after Guangzhou, China. This hair craft creative industry can employ many workers and generate income for the artisans in fulfilling their basic needs. The purpose of this study is to identify internal and external factors and analyze production activity and consumption behaviour of entrepreneurs of hair creative industry in Karangbanjar, Purbalingga. This study used primary and secondary data. The primary one was collected from respondents—68 entrepreneurs of hair production industry, and the secondary one was from relevant government institutions. Some measurements were applied in this study. Internal and External factors were identified by using SWOT analysis, while production activity was measured by profit analysis and economic efficiency analysis, and the consumption was measured by average propensity to consume (APC analysis. The result shows that: 1 Hair creative industry has strenghts over weaknesses and opportunities over threats; (2 Hair creative industry offers high profit; 2 The entrepreneur profit coming from this industry can fulfill most of the consumption.

  19. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Verstraete, Tine; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-10-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to study the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses. In parallel, conventional culturing was performed. Isolates were identified using (GTG)(5)-PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and pheS genes. Discriminant analysis revealed some differences in overall LAB diversity between the two batches and between the two cheeses. Within each batch, the diversity of 8- and 12-week-old cheeses was relatively similar. Conventional isolation mainly revealed the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of three species of which no isolates were recovered, i.e. Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus gallinarum. Conversely, not all isolated bacteria were detected by PCR-DGGE. We recommend the integrated use of culture-dependent and -independent approaches to maximally encompass the taxonomic spectrum of LAB occurring in Gouda-type and other cheeses.

  20. Yeast species composition differs between artisan bakery and spontaneous laboratory sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Van der Meulen, Roel; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Daniel, Heide-Marie

    2010-06-01

    Sourdough fermentations are characterized by the combined activity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. An investigation of the microbial composition of 21 artisan sourdoughs from 11 different Belgian bakeries yielded 127 yeast isolates. Also, 12 spontaneous 10-day laboratory sourdough fermentations with daily backslopping were performed with rye, wheat, and spelt flour, resulting in the isolation of 217 yeast colonies. The isolates were grouped according to PCR-fingerprints obtained with the primer M13. Representative isolates of each M13 fingerprint group were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences, and partial actin gene sequences, leading to the detection of six species. The dominant species in the bakery sourdoughs were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala), while the dominant species in the laboratory sourdough fermentations were W. anomalus and Candida glabrata. The presence of S. cerevisiae in the bakery sourdoughs might be due to contamination of the bakery environment with commercial bakers yeast, while the yeasts in the laboratory sourdoughs, which were carried out under aseptic conditions with flour as the only nonsterile component, could only have come from the flour used.

  1. Population genetic structure of an estuarine and a reef fish species exploited by Brazilian artisanal fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina H.G. Priolli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic structures of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 and Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 populations collected from artisanal fishing sites along a stretch of coastline in southeastern Brazil. Based on F-statistics, there was no significant genetic differentiation evident in any C. undecimalis samples (FST=0.012. However, Bayesian clustering, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC results suggested that there were most likely two clusters, with no relation to geographic areas. The bottleneck results showed no significant values and the effective population sizes (Ne for the two genetically differentiated groups were large and similar. In contrast, for E. marginatus populations, the microsatellite loci showed no population subdivisions. The FST value was low and non-significant (FST=0.008, a Bayesian analysis indicated one cluster, and a PCA showed that all samples from different geographical sites shared the same genetic structure. The bottleneck results exhibited significant differences, and a low Ne was observed. The results of the genetic study of these two species along the southeastern Brazilian coast suggest that the distinct genetic structure of each species should be taken into account as management units for the conservation of their genetic diversities.

  2. Soldiers, Artisans, Cultivators and Revolutionaries: The Movement of Sikhs in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Gera Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The geography of Punjab, a land-locked region divided between India and Pakistan, makes it an unlikely player in oceanic sojourns. But imperial interventions in Punjab in the middle of the 19th century triggered movements from Punjab that inserted this region in the littoral narrative of the Indian Ocean. Unlike the movements of lascars and traders, who have been central to the revisionist histories of the Indian Ocean, those from Punjab have not featured in oceanic dialogues. The absence of Sikhs in Indian Ocean studies is largely due to the silence of Sikh soldiers, skilled craftsmen and cultivators with largely rural roots who were uprooted to strange lands. The confusion of Sikhs with Hindus, Muslims and, even Afghans, in the colonial era, as well as the classification of Punjabi Muslims as Pakistani in the post-colonial, further problematizes the Sikh migration narrative. Drawing on a wide range of official and unofficial historical sources, this essay argues that twin developments in Punjab, namely the construction of Sikhs as ‘a martial race’ and their integration into the imperial capitalist economy, connects the movements of soldiers and policemen to Shanghai, Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements and Kenya with those of skilled artisans to Mombasa and Uganda. Keywords: Sikhs, Indian Ocean, labour migration, cultural identity

  3. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z.; Castro, Marcela P.; Cayré, María E.; Garro, Oscar A.; Vignolo, Graciela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages. PMID:26955636

  4. Training Plan in the Artisanal Processing of Banana as a Productive Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Esther Valencia Navas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is centered in the application of a training plan in the artisan processing of the raw material of the cambur like productive activity directed to the farmers of the community El Cobalongo, Altamira Parish of Cáceres Municipio Bolivar, Barinas State. In this sense, the research is oriented under the feasible project modality and will be developed in the following phases: Phase I: Diagnosis, Phase II: Elaboration of the program, Phase III: Feasibility Assessment, Phase IV: Phase V: Evaluation of program impact. The design is field descriptive type so the method to be used is descriptive. The sample will be made up of eighteen (18 producers of cambur of the community mentioned above, to be applied a questionnaire of twenty (20 items, with four alternatives of answer (always, almost always, sometimes and never. The one that will be validated through expert judgment and its reliability will be calculated by calculating the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The data processing will be done as indicated by the criteria to be used for the coding, tabulation and analysis of the information.

  5. Physicochemical, microbiological and microscopic evaluation of artisanal rapaduras produced in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luciane Kreutz Braun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the physicochemical, microbiological and microscopic evaluation of artisanal rapaduras produced in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The determination of the proximal composition, pH and the microscopic analyses were made according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC. The concentrations of minerals and toxic metals were quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Coliforms at 45°C and Salmonella sp. were determined according to the American Public Health Association (APHA. The results obtained were: moisture (6.09 to 16.34%, ash (0.07 to 1.88%, insoluble solids (0.11 to 11.3%, pH (4.73 to 5.61, proteins (0.21 to 0.47%, sucrose (13.15 to 43.89%, and reducing sugars (10.96 to 26.28%. Significant differences were found between the samples (p £ 0.05 as well as nonconformities in relation to national regulations. The mineral contents showed significant differences between lots of samples (p £ 0.05 and some lots presented Cd and Pb concentrations above the maximum values allowed by Brazilian legislation. High quantities of unwanted materials were detected and none of the samples presented microbiological contamination. The results suggest the creation of technical standards for quality control for the production of rapaduras to ensure food safety.

  6. Mountaintop mining consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Palmer; E.S. Bernhardt; W.H. Schlesinger; K.N. Eshleman; E. Foufoula-Georgiou; M.S. Hendryx; A.D. Lemly; G.E. Likens; O.L. Loucks; M.E. Power; P.S. White; P.R. Wilcock

    2010-01-01

    There has been a global, 30-year increase in surface mining (1), which is now the dominant driver of land-use change in the central Appalachian ecoregion of the United States (2). One major form of such mining, mountaintop mining with valley fills (MTM/VF) (3), is widespread throughout eastern Kentucky, West Virginia (WV), and southwestern Virginia. Upper elevation...

  7. Mined Acid Forest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. The quality of degraded mined soils can be restored through effective reclamation practices. In this study, we evaluated the impact of varying duration of land reclamation on soil quality at AngloGold Ashanti, Iduapriem mine. Ltd., Tarkwa, Ghana. Soil samples were taken from mined sites of the Company at various ...

  8. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  9. Data Mining for CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  10. Uranium, mining and hydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Hasche-Berger, Andrea (eds.) [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-07-01

    Subject of the book is Uranium and its migration in aquatic environments. The following subjects are emphasised: Uranium mining, Phosphate mining, mine closure and remediation, Uranium in groundwater and in bedrock, biogeochemistry of Uranium, environmental behavior, and modeling. Particular results from the leading edge of international research are presented. (orig.)

  11. Exceptional model mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivesteijn, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Finding subsets of a dataset that somehow deviate from the norm, i.e. where something interesting is going on, is a classical Data Mining task. In traditional local pattern mining methods, such deviations are measured in terms of a relatively high occurrence (frequent itemset mining), or an unusual

  12. High contamination in the areas surrounding abandoned mines and mining activities: An impact assessment of the Dilala, Luilu and Mpingiri Rivers, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atibu, Emmanuel K; Lacroix, Pierre; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ray, Nicolas; Giuliani, Gregory; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Slaveykova, Vera I; Poté, John

    2018-01-01

    Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg-1, respectively. In soil, the values of 175,859, 21,134 and 1164 mg kg-1 were found for Cu, Co and Pb, respectively. These values are much higher than the sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and international soil clean-up standards. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index results indicated important contribution of mining activities to the study sites pollution in addition to natural background. Highest metal accumulation in leaves of Phalaris arundinacea L., was observed, reaching values of 34,061, 5050 and 230 mg kg-1 for Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The ∑REE concentration reached values of 2306, 733, 2796 mg kg-1 in sediment, soil and plant samples, respectively. The above results were combined with geographical information including satellite imagery, hydrography and mining concessions. Maps were produced to present the results in a comprehensive and compelling visual format. The results will be disseminated through an innovative mapping online platform to simplify access to data and to facilitate dialogue between stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental assessment of mercury pollution in urban tailings from gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Manuel A G; Morales, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    It is well-known that small-scale artisanal mining is a source of mercury emissions into the environment, mainly from the use of rudimentary technologies that use mercury amalgamation in the extraction process. Mines near Andacollo, which is located in the Coquimbo region of Chile, use primitive methods to mine gold and copper. In this study, we determined the mercury content of gold mining wastes from Andacollo. At each site, we randomly sampled the soil at the surface and at a depth of 2 m following the ISO 10381 guidelines. Mercury analysis was performed with a direct mercury analyzer. At least one site was contaminated at a mercury concentration of 13.6±1.4 mg kg(-1), which was above the international recommendations that were set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment's soil quality guidelines (CA-SQG) and the Dutch guidelines (NL-RIVM). At least four of the fourteen sites in this study were within the control and tolerance levels of these recommendations. Better characterization of these sites is required to establish whether they represent a risk to the local community. Based on the US-EPA recommendations, which have a higher tolerance limit, none of the fourteen sites should pose a risk to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Data mining in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  15. Health survey in gypsum mines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Subroto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mining is a hazardous occupation in which workers are exposed to adverse conditions. In India, gypsum mining is mainly carried out in the state of Rajasthan, which contributes about 99% of the total production. Objective: The present study was carried out in 12 different gypsum mines in Rajasthan state to determine the health status of the miners. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty workers engaged in mining activities were included in the study and their health status was compared with that of 83 office staff of the same mines. The health status of the employees was evaluated using a standardized medical questionnaire and pulmonary function testing. Statistical Analysis: The unpaired ′t′ test was used to determine whether there was any significant difference between the miners and the controls and the chi-square test to compare the prevalences of various respiratory impairments in workers with that in controls; we also examined the differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Results: Our findings show that the literacy rate is low (42% among the miners. Pulmonary restrictive impairment was significantly higher amongst smokers as compared to nonsmokers in both miners and controls. Hypertension (22.6%, diabetes (8.8%, and musculoskeletal morbidity (8% were the common diseases in miners. Conclusion: This study shows that there is high morbidity amongst miners, thus indicating the need for regular health checkups, health education, use of personal protective devices, and engineering measures for control of the workplace environment.

  16. Application Of Forecasting In Determining Efficiency Of Fisheries Management Strategies Of Artisanal Labeo Mesops Fishery Of Lake Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulumpwa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Labeo mesops together with its family members the cyprinids have been reported declining in population. The exploitation levels are not matching the species carrying capacity for the populations to rejuvenate. As such several management strategies including restocking were put in place to restore the fishery. There is a need to quantify the efficiency of these strategies in managing and restoring the species fishery. The study aimed at modelling and forecasting Labeo mesops Ntchira yield from artisanal fishery on Lake Malawi in Mangochi district based on time series data on catches of the species during the years of 1976 to 2012 collected from the Department of Fisheries in Malawi. The study considered Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average ARIMA processes to select an appropriate stochastic model for forecasting the species yield. The appropriate model was chosen based on ARIMA p d q. The Autocorrelation function ACF Partial autocorrelation PACF Akaike Information Criteria AIC BoxLjung statistics correlogram and distribution of residual errors were estimated. The selected modelwas ARIMA 0 1 1 for forecasting the artisanal landings of Labeo mesops from Lake Malawi in Mangochi District from the year 2013 to 2022. The forecast showed that the species could have already collapsed since the forecast were in negatives meaning that the stock of Labeo mesopsmay no longer be available by the year 2022 in the landings holding other factors constant. The study showed that the current fisheries management strategies are failing to manage the artisanal Labeo mesops fishery in the region as it is succumbing to the theory of Tragedy of Commons.

  17. Mathematical Engagement Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the mathematical engagement of Colin and Robyn is compared. Through this comparison, and informed by longitudinal research into the mathematical journeys of a group of students in New Zealand, a set of engagement skills emerged. Both students had high levels of engagement in mathematics. However, Colin was a thriving mathematics…

  18. Engaging With Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    to engage us with reality. Engaging with Reality investigates some of the major global themes as they are reflected in documentaries from the USA, UK and Denmark. Engaging with Reality is a contribution to comparative, transnational studies of documentary in contemporary media culture. By comparing...

  19. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  20. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  1. Transformational leadership as a mediator in the relationship between satisfaction with remuneration and the retention of artisans in the military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamokuhle W. Shabane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The field of leadership has been extensively researched over the last couple of decades, with a particular emphasis on the different types of leadership styles. The most valuable resource that any manager works with is human resources. Studies have indicated that the way in which people are managed is influenced by the leadership styles of managers. This, in turn, influences employee behavioural intention, including intention to quit. Retention is, in turn, influenced by a number of factors, including remuneration. This study considers the relationship between satisfaction with remuneration and retention and the mediating role that a transformational leadership style may play in this regard.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were twofold. Firstly, to determine whether transformational leadership played a mediating role in the relationship between satisfaction with remuneration and intention to stay amongst artisans employed in the military. Secondly, to determine whether there were demographic differences for these findings.Motivation for the study: This study was conducted to determine whether a perceived lack or presence of transformational leadership influences the intention to quit amongst employees in relation to their level of satisfaction with their remuneration. In this way, the study may assist in determining strategies to improve artisan retention levels.Research methodology: The study was quantitative in nature. A survey research design was applied to collect data, using a questionnaire as the survey instrument, from artisans (N = 108 employed at a military unit in Pretoria.Main findings: The results revealed that the participants, regardless of gender or race, were generally unsatisfied with their remuneration. Transformational leadership was found to play a mediating role in the relationship between satisfaction with remuneration and intention to stay.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should

  2. Artisan iris-fixated toric phakic intraocular lens for the correction of high astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dreihi, Madonna G; Louka, Bachar I; Anbari, Anas A

    2013-01-01

    We report the refractive correction of high astigmatism in one eye of a 23-year-old woman following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using an Artisan iris-fixated, toric, phakic intraocular lens (IOL). One year after implantation, uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were both 20/25, refraction was -1.00 D cylinder, and the endothelial cell count was 1827 cells/mm(2). Iris-fixated phakic IOLs are not recommended for every postkeratoplasty patient with high refractive error; however, this procedure can offer good outcomes in carefully selected cases of previous DALK.

  3. Les artisans de la paix au sein des sociétés en transition | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les artisans de la paix au sein des sociétés en transition. Malgré plusieurs décennies de croissance économique impressionnante, la région de l'Asie du Sud et du Sud-Est est toujours en proie à des conflits ethniques, à de la violence sectaire et à l'impunité endémique des forces de sécurité pour des crimes de guerre et ...

  4. Abundance and potential contribution of Gram-negative cheese rind bacteria from Austrian artisanal hard cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Dzieciol, Monika; Nischler, Eva; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Bereuter, Othmar; Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin

    2018-02-02

    Many different Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to be present on cheese rinds. Their contribution to cheese ripening is however, only partially understood until now. Here, cheese rind samples were taken from Vorarlberger Bergkäse (VB), an artisanal hard washed-rind cheese from Austria. Ripening cellars of two cheese production facilities in Austria were sampled at the day of production and after 14, 30, 90 and 160days of ripening. To obtain insights into the possible contribution of Advenella, Psychrobacter, and Psychroflexus to cheese ripening, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of one strain of each genus isolated from VB cheese rinds. Additionally, quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) were performed to follow the abundance of Advenella, Psychrobacter, and Psychroflexus on VB rinds during ripening in both facilities. qPCR results showed that Psychrobacter was most abundant on cheese rinds and the abundance of Advenella decreased throughout the first month of ripening and increased significantly after 30days of ripening (p<0.01). Psychrobacter and Psychroflexus increased significantly during the first 30 ripening days (p<0.01), and decreased to their initial abundance during the rest of the ripening time (p<0.05). Genome sequencing resulted in 17 to 27 contigs with assembly sizes of 2.7 Mbp for Psychroflexus, 3 Mbp for Psychrobacter, and 4.3 Mbp for Advenella. Our results reveal that each genome harbors enzymes shown to be important for cheese ripening in other bacteria such as: Cystathionine/Methionine beta or gamma-lyases, many proteases and peptidases (including proline iminopeptidases), aminotransferases, and lipases. Thus, all three isolates have the potential to contribute positively to cheese ripening. In conclusion, the three species quantified were stable community members throughout the ripening process and their abundance on cheese rinds together with the results from genome sequencing suggest an important contribution of these bacteria to cheese

  5. Short communication: Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus survival and growth in artisanal and industrial ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Losio, M N; Daminelli, P; Cosciani-Cunico, E; Dalzini, E; Serraino, A

    2015-10-01

    Ricotta cheese is a ready-to-eat product with properties (pH >6.0, aw >0.98-0.99) and moisture content (75-80%) that may pose a risk to public health due to postprocess contamination by several bacterial pathogens, including Arcobacters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in ricotta cheese during its shelf life assuming postprocessing contamination. Two types of ricotta cheese, artisanal water buffalo (WB) and industrial cow milk ricotta cheese, were experimentally contaminated with A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus and the count was monitored at 2 different temperatures (6°C and 12°C) during shelf life of 5 d for WB cheese and 22 d for industrial ricotta cheese. In WB ricotta cheese the A. butzleri count remained stable during the 5 d of storage at 6°C, whereas a moderate but significant decrease was observed in A. cryaerophilus count. The counts of both species increased when WB ricotta cheese was stored at 12°C. In industrial ricotta cheese stored at 6°C, a significant reduction was observed both in A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus counts during the 22-d storage period; at 12°C storage, a count increase was observed for both Arcobacter species up to d 14 of storage after which the log cfu/g count resulted constant until d 22 of storage. The ability of A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus to survive at 6°C and to grow at 12°C in ricotta cheese has significant food safety implications. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity, safety and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal Pico cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos-Lopes, M F P; Stanton, C; Ross, P R; Dapkevicius, M L E; Silva, C C G

    2017-05-01

    A total of 114 lactic acid bacteria were isolated at one and 21 days of ripening from a traditional raw cow's milk cheese without the addition of starter culture, produced by three artisanal cheese-makers in Azores Island (Pico, Portugal). Identification to species and strain level was accomplished by16S rRNA gene and PFGE analysis. Carbohydrate utilization profiles were obtained with the relevant API kits. Isolates were evaluated according to safety and technological criteria. The most frequently observed genus identified by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis was Enterococcus, whereas API system mostly identified Lactobacillus. The highest percentages of antibiotic resistance were to nalidixic acid (95%), and aminoglycosides (64-87%). All isolates were sensitive to several beta-lactam antibiotics and negative for histamine and DNase production. Gelatinase activity was detected in 49.1% of isolates, 43% were able to degrade casein and 93% were α-hemolytic. Most enterococci presented virulence genes, such as gelE, asaI, ace. Diacetyl production was found to be species dependent and one strain (Leu. citreum) produced exopolysaccharides. Selected strains were further studied for technological application and were found to be slow acid producers in milk and experimental cheeses, a desirable trait for adjunct cultures. Two strains were selected on the basis of technological and safety application as adjunct cultures in cheese production and presented the best cheese aroma and flavor in consumer preference tests. This is the first effort to characterize Pico cheese LAB isolates for potential application as adjunct cultures; the results suggest the potential of two strains to improve the quality of this traditional raw milk product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The main aims of this study are to describe the characteristics of the meat pie, a typical product of the regional gastronomy of Murcia and to determine its nutritional and energy values, fatty acid profile and fat quality. There were studied 24 samples of Murcia's meat pie from the six best-selling retail establishments in this Region (four units per establishment).The moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre and minerals, contents and the energy value, fatty acid profile and fat quality were analyzed using the Official Analysis Methods of Foods. All analyses were performed by triplicate. The average weight of this product was 192.3 ± 11.8 g, with three differentiated parts (base, filling and pastry lid). All ingredients were natural raw materials: wheat flour, lard, ground beef, sliced boiled egg and chorizo, water and spices (salt, pepper, garlic, paprika and nutmeg). Most of its organoleptic attributes are due to the type and amount of fat or lard. The combination of the other ingredients and the particular formulation of the spices are also responsible of other attributes. Due to its protein content (11.0%), this meat pie can replace other meat dishes, and be incorporated into a balanced diet. However, it is necessary to take into account its fat and energy contents (17.3 g and 317 kcal/100 g, respectively). Unlike many common pastry products, it contains no trans fatty acids. The results of the research show that the studied product remains, at present, an artisan food, and offer reliable information that it is representative of the energy and nutritional values of the Murcia's meat pie, a typical product of the gastronomy of the Region of Murcia. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulnerability of artisanal fisheries to climate change in the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranovi, F; Caccin, A; Franzoi, P; Malavasi, S; Zucchetta, M; Torricelli, P

    2013-10-01

    Within the context of global warming, the western coast of the northern Adriatic Sea can be regarded as an extremely vulnerable area. Owing to the local geographic features, this area has been described as the Venetian lacuna, where Mediterranean Sea climatic conditions are replaced by Atlantic Ocean ones, supporting the presence of glacial relicts, such as sprat Sprattus sprattus, flounder Platichthys flesus and brown shrimp Crangon crangon. Nektonic assemblage therefore represents a good candidate in terms of an early proxy for thermal regime alterations. It represents a dynamic component of the lagoon ecosystem, changing in space and time, actively moving through the entire system, and dynamically exchanging with the open sea. Here, the first signals of the change have been already detected, such as the presence of alien thermophilic species. Within this context, since the beginning of the century, sampling of the nektonic assemblage has been carried out, integrating them with landings data from the fish market. Vulnerabilities to thermal regime changes have been tested by (1) categorizing species according to the mean distribution area in terms of latitudinal range (over 45°, 30°-45° and below 30°), and (2) analysing both spatial and temporal variations within fishing grounds. Results indicated a high potential vulnerability of the artisanal fishery to climate change, as the commercial catch is entirely composed of species from cold (>45° N) and temperate (between 45° and 30° N) latitudes. At present no alien thermophilic species have been recorded within the lagoon, which is possibly a sign of good resilience of the assemblage. Finally, abundance of species from cold latitudes has decreased during the past decade. All of this has been discussed in the context of the mean annual temperature trend. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers, especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2-2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate

  10. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W; Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2-2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on other

  11. Characterization of the bacterial biodiversity in Pico cheese (an artisanal Azorean food).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Câmara, Sandra; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N Enes; Vinuesa, Pablo; da Silva, Célia Costa Gomes; Malcata, F Xavier; Rego, Oldemiro A

    2015-01-02

    This work presents the first study on the bacterial communities in Pico cheese, a traditional cheese of the Azores (Portugal), made from raw cow's milk. Pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rDNA and Operational Taxonomic Unit-based (OTU-based) analysis were applied to obtain an overall idea of the microbiota in Pico cheese and to elucidate possible differences between cheese-makers (A, B and C) and maturation times. Pyrosequencing revealed a high bacterial diversity in Pico cheese. Four phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and 54 genera were identified. The predominant genus was Lactococcus (77% of the sequences). Sequences belonging to major cheese-borne pathogens were not found. Staphylococcus accounted for 0.5% of the sequences. Significant differences in bacterial community composition were observed between cheese-maker B and the other two units that participated in the study. However, OTU analysis identified a set of taxa (Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Rothia, Pantoea and unclassified genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family) that would represent the core components of artisanal Pico cheese microbiota. A diverse bacterial community was present at early maturation, with an increase in the number of phylotypes up to 2 weeks, followed by a decrease at the end of ripening. The most remarkable trend in abundance patterns throughout ripening was an increase in the number of sequences belonging to the Lactobacillus genus, with a concomitant decrease in Acinetobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. Microbial rank abundance curves showed that Pico cheese's bacterial communities are characterized by a few dominant taxa and many low-abundance, highly diverse taxa that integrate the so-called "rare biosphere". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Mariana G; Machado, Gustavo R; Silva, Paulo José de Azevedo; Floeter, Sergio R; Monteiro-Netto, Cassiano; Luiz, Osmar J; Ferreira, Carlos E L

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness.

  13. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G Bender

    Full Text Available In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness.

  14. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  15. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  16. DATA MINING TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titrade Cristina-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge discovery and data mining software (Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining - KDD) as an interdisciplinary field emersion have been in rapid growth to merge databases, statistics, industries closely related to the desire to extract valuable information and knowledge in a volume as possible.There is a difference in understanding of "knowledge discovery" and "data mining." Discovery information (Knowledge Discovery) in the database is a process to identify patterns / templates of valid da...

  17. Mining local process models

    OpenAIRE

    Tax, Niek; Sidorova, Natalia; Haakma, Reinder; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method to discover frequent behavioral patterns in event logs. We express these patterns as \\emph{local process models}. Local process model mining can be positioned in-between process discovery and episode / sequential pattern mining. The technique presented in this paper is able to learn behavioral patterns involving sequential composition, concurrency, choice and loop, like in process mining. However, we do not look at start-to-end models, which distinguishes ou...

  18. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  19. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  20. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  1. Floristic indicators of tropical landuse systems: Evidence from mining areas in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehinde Akinbiola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most forests in the tropics have not only been reduced in size but have also experienced forest degradation. The delicate balance of the components of the forest ecosystem has been altered largely by the landuse systems which have resulted in the disappearance of some species and the introduction of new ones. In order to understand the influence of human disturbance caused by artisanal mining on plant biodiversity and the physical environment, this study assessed changes in vegetation characteristics using plant functional groups, such as invasive, pioneer and understory species. The study was conducted at two sites in two Southwestern states of Nigeria, Itagunmodi in Atakumosa West Local Government Area of Osun State and Olode in Oluyole Local Government Area of Oyo State. Complete enumerations of woody, non-woody and herbaceous plant species were carried out in 20 m by 20 m plots selected using stratified random sampling as representative of landuse classes: freshly mined (6 months and a control plot (secondary forest. The results showed that the control plot in Itagunmodi had undergone degradation as indicated by the presence of Alchornea laxiflora, Geophilia obvallata, Musa sapientum,Elaeis guineensis and Keetia hispida. However, if left undisturbed, it has the potential of regeneration back to its original state because of its woody tree species composition and lianas (Triclisia gilletii. In addition the forest soils in the mines had been exposed to direct insolation for a long period, and the soil structure and texture have been affected, consequently altering the viability of the seed bank. Poaceae and Papilionoideae were the most common in the freshly mined plots while invasive species were the most common in abandoned mined plots. In conclusion, the floristic composition in the mining sites has been altered and there was no clear evidence that regrowth would bring restoration of the lost ecosystem services.

  2. Loggerhead sea turtle bycatch data in artisanal fisheries within a marine protected area: fishermen surveys versus scientific observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead sea turtles can be incidentally captured by artisanal gears but information about the impact of this fishing is inconsistent and scarce. Recent studies have observed that the bycatch, or incidental catch rate, in fishermen surveys is irregular. The aim of this study was to compare direct data (onboard observers concerning the incidental catch of loggerhead sea turtles by the artisanal vessels versus data from fishermen surveys. The study area was the Cabo de Gata-Níjar marine protected area, situated in the western Mediterranean (southeast of the Iberian peninsula. We observed two loggerhead turtles that were incidentally caught in a total of 165 fishing operations. According to fishermen surveys, a total of nine loggerheads were incidentally caught in 861 fishing operations. The differences between the loggerhead sea turtle bycatch reported by fishermen surveys and scientific observations versus random distribution (x2 = 0.3146, P = 0.575, df = 1 were not significant. We conclude that the surveys are useful but that findings should be interpreted with caution.

  3. RIPENING OF ARTISANAL MINAS CHEESE FROM THE "CAMPO DAS VERTENTES" REGION AND THE EFFECTS OF DRY AND WET PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gonçalves Costa Júnior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an expressive artisanal cheeses production in Brazil, manufactured from raw milk, and within this context, the state of Minas Gerais has a highlight in this activity with its five micro regions officially recognized. Within these, “Campo das Vertentes” was the last to have recognition. Evaluating the effect of dry and wet periods during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese of the micro region above mentioned was the main objective of this study, which also related aspects of physicochemical composition of 10 to 30 days of ripening. Four registered dairies were selected and who attended legal requirements and good manufacturing practice to compose the experiment. The analysis of moisture content, moisture to the non fat substance (MNFS and pH showed that these values varied greatly among cheeses and were highest in the dry season. Indexes of proteolysis behaved with variation between samples and advanced in the period of ripening, however, they were higher in the wet season. Even aware that the moisture content of the cheeses exerts strong influence on proteolysis, as well as other factors such as dosage of coagulant and “drop”, the room temperature observed in two periods of ripening was also very important for the advancement of proteolysis.

  4. Assessing the ecosystem-level consequences of a small-scale artisanal kelp fishery within the context of climate-change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Kira A; Bergman, Jordanna N; Salomon, Anne K

    2017-04-01

    Coastal communities worldwide rely on small-scale artisanal fisheries as a means of increasing food security and alleviating poverty. Even small-scale fishing activities, however, are prone to resource depletion and environmental degradation, which can erode livelihoods in the long run. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify viable and resilient artisanal fisheries, and generate knowledge to support management within the context of a rapidly changing climate. We examined the ecosystem-level consequences of an artisanal kelp fishery (Macrocystis pyrifera), finding small-scale harvest of this highly productive species poses minimal impacts on kelp recovery rates, survival, and biomass dynamics, and abundances of associated commercial and culturally important fish species. These results suggest that small-scale harvest poses minimal trade-offs for the other economic benefits provided by these ecosystems, and their inherent, spiritual, and cultural value to humans. However, we detected a negative impact of warmer seawater temperatures on kelp recovery rates following harvest, indicating that the viability of harvest, even at small scales, may be threatened by future increases in global ocean temperature. This suggests that negative impacts of artisanal fisheries may be more likely to arise in the context of a warming climate, further highlighting the widespread effects of global climate change on coastal fisheries and livelihoods. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Diversity, Dynamics and Activity of Bacterial Communities during Production of an Artisanal Sicilian Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Torriani, S.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de W.M.; Vaughan, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus C106, a Dairy Isolate from an Artisanal Cheese Produced in the Countryside of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wels, Michiel; Serrano, L Mariela; Eibrink, Beerd-Jan; Backus, Lennart; Bongers, Roger S; Vriesendorp, Bastienne; Siezen, Roland J; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Meijer, Wilco C

    2015-11-25

    The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used for the fermentation of dairy products. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of S. thermophilus C106 isolated from an artisanal cheese produced in the countryside of Ireland. Copyright © 2015 Wels et al.

  7. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  8. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-582 Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Information Program Name Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) DoD Component Navy Joint Participants United States Marine Corps; United...dated June 16, 2004 CEC December 2015 SAR March 17, 2016 12:13:59 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Mission The Cooperative Engagement Capability

  9. Constituting Public Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael

    2013-01-01

    understanding of science to those of public engagement with science and technology (PEST), and the histories, or genealogies, of such models. Data from two qualitative studies-a case study of one of the United Kingdom'ssix Beacons for Public Engagement and a study of contract research staff-are used...... backgrounds, suggesting that multiple and overlapping meanings around PEST are derived from particular histories that have been brought together, through the rubric of public engagement, in assemblages such as the Beacons....

  10. Mining and the Environment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In addition to CODELCO, a second state-owned mining company is La Empresa Nacional de Minería (ENAMI, national mining company). ...... The department came up with the Urgent Plan for Environmental Hygiene, which was intended to solve environmental problems in ENAMI's works relatively quickly and at a low cost ...

  11. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence o...

  12. pubmed.mineR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... meaningful information from the text, and, thus makes the information contained in the text accessible to various data-mining algorithms. It is roughly equivalent to text analytics. An important facet of text- mining is extraction of patterns and trends, and R with its rich repertoire of statistical tools is well suited for this purpose.

  13. Mine reclamation in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd Durham; James G. Barnum

    1980-01-01

    Open cut mine land reclamation laws have only been effective since 1971 in Arkansas. Since that time all land affected by mining had to be reclaimed. To guarantee reclamation, the first law required a $500 per acre surety bond be posted with the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology. The Arkansas Open Cut Land Reclamation Act of 1977 changed the bonding...

  14. Mining Glossary and Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  15. Data mining for service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all nontrivial and modern service related problems and systems involve data volumes and types that clearly fall into what is presently meant as "big data", that is, are huge, heterogeneous, complex, distributed, etc. Data mining is a series of processes which include collecting and accumulating data, modeling phenomena, and discovering new information, and it is one of the most important steps to scientific analysis of the processes of services.  Data mining application in services requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics of each service and knowledge of the compatibility of data mining technology within each particular service, rather than knowledge only in calculation speed and prediction accuracy. Varied examples of services provided in this book will help readers understand the relation between services and data mining technology. This book is intended to stimulate interest among researchers and practitioners in the relation between data mining technology and its application to ...

  16. Opencast mining 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The latest issue of this annual publication contains the following items on the United Kingdom`s opencast mining industry: `Challenging times for the Coal Authority`; `Coal - to be or not to be`; `Profits and progress: the major producers`; `Miller`s Tale` (about Miller Mining); `New Labour, New limits on opencast mining`; `On the right track`; `Coal exploration for the Millennium`; `A cleaner future for Houghton Main`; `Auger mining - an update`; `The application of virtual reality to risk management`; `Single suction submersible pumps for dewatering in mines`; and `Woodland - a natural after use`. It also contains a listing and map (insert) of UK opencast coal sites in production as at 1 November 1997, details of site operators, industry news, equipment news, a suppliers directory, site news, and site profiles (on Brynhenllys, East Balbeggie Farm, Herrington Colliery and Pegswood Moor Farm).

  17. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining – The Way Forward | Suglo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining involves many operations such as rock breakage, materials handling, equipment maintenance, mine design, scheduling and budgeting. At one stage or the other mine managements often have to decide whether to undertake a major mining operation using their own equipment and personnel or to contract the ...

  18. Community-Engaged Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester; Parker, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to offer this special issue on community-engaged scholarship. As scholar-activists working for social justice alongside youth of color (Pat) and critical arts activists engaging with stigmatized communities (Ester), we began this project with the intent of gathering a collection...

  19. Engagement Means Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  20. Experiments in Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia; Rawlings, Kelly Campbell; Ridder-Vignone, Kathryn de

    2017-01-01

    Public engagement with science and technology is now widely used in science policy and communication. Touted as a means of enhancing democratic discussion of science and technology, analysis of public engagement with science and technology has shown that it is often weakly tied to scientific gove...

  1. The Engagement Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartari, Valentina; Salter, Ammon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, debate on women in academic science has been extended to academics' engagement with industry. We suggest that women tend to engage less in industry collaboration than their male colleagues of similar status. We argue that differences are mitigated by the presence of other women and by s...

  2. On making engagement tangible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Spink, A.J.; Grieco, F; Krips, O.E.; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the complexity of the construct engagement and three theories on this topic are discussed. Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow is taken as starting point for the measurement of engagement. The measurement of each of its eight aspects is discussed, including its pros and cons.

  3. Efectividad de los lentes fáquicos Artisan en la corrección de la alta miopía Effectiveness of Artisan phakic lenses in the correction of high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanele Ruiz Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la efectividad de los lentes intraoculares fáquicos Artisan en la corrección de la alta miopía en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" en el período de enero del 2006 a enero del 2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo. El universo estuvo constituido por el total de ojos (120 a los cuales se les implantó estos lentes. RESULTADOS: Se encontró un componente esférico de 0,5, no astigmatismo inducido y una mejoría de la agudeza visual corregida de 0,9. No se presentaron complicaciones transoperatorias y entre las posoperatorias mediatas predominó la iritis o uveítis (3,4 % así como la atrofia iridiana (5 % entre las tardías. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados refractivos fueron favorables. Predominaron los pacientes sin complicaciones.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of Artisan phakic intraocular lenses in correcting high myopia at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in January 2006 to January 2009 period. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study was made in which the universe of study was 120 eyes implanted with this type of lenses. RESULTS: Spheral component of 0.5; the induced astigmatism was not found and the corrected visual acuity improvement was 0.9. There were no transoperative complications; the predominant postoperative mediate complications were iritis or uveitis (3.4 % and iridic atrophy (5 % prevailed in the late ones. CONCLUSIONS: The refractive results were favourable. The uncomplicated patients predominated.

  4. The distribution of mercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki river, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kono, Yuriko; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury in the soil, sediment and river water around the artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia, was investigated. The total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in the forest soil ranged from 0.11 to 7.0mgkg(-1), and the highest value was observed at the ASGM village. In the vertical T-Hg profile around the villages, the highest value was observed at the soil surface, and the concentration decreased with depth. This result suggested that the mercury released by mining activity was dispersed through the atmosphere and deposited on the surface. The total organic carbon content (TOC) showed a similar vertical profile as the T-Hg, and a linear relationship was found between T-Hg and TOC. Mercury deposited on the surface can be absorbed by organic matter. The slope of the line was larger near the ASGM village, implying a higher rate of deposition of mercury. The T-Hg in the sediment ranged from 10 to 70mgkg(-1), decreasing gradually toward the lower reaches of the river. Mining waste can be transported with the river flow and deposited along the river. The distribution of the mining waste can be determined using the mineralogical composition measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid assessment of environmental health risks posed by mining operations in low- and middle-income countries: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny; Hanrahan, David; Block, Meredith; Susilorini, Budi; Fuller, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated associated health risks and human exposure pathways at mining sites. Others have provided estimates of the scale of the issue based in part on surveys. However, a global census of mining-related hazardous waste sites has been lacking. The Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) implemented by Blacksmith Institute (New York, NY, USA) since 2009 is an ongoing effort to catalogue a wide range of chemically contaminated sites with a potential human health risk (Ericson et al., Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s 10661-012-2665-2, 2012). The TSIP utilizes a rapid assessment instrument, the Initial Site Screening (ISS), to quickly and affordably identify key site criteria including human exposure pathways, estimated populations at risk, and sampling information. The resulting ISS allows for comparison between sites exhibiting different contaminants and pollution sources. This paper explores the results of a subset of ISSs completed at 131 artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas and 275 industrial mining and ore processing sites in 45 countries. The authors show that the ISS captures key data points, allowing for prioritization of sites for further investigation or remedial activity.

  6. Small-scale opencast mining: an important research field for anthropogenic geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byizigiro, R. Vaillant

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale mining (A&SM is a growing economic sector in many third-world countries. This review focuses on anthropo-geomorphic factors and processes associated with small-scale opencast mining (SSOM, a form of A&SM in which near-surface ores are extracted by removing relatively thin covers of soil, bedrock or sediments. Being widespread and commonly conducted without proper planning and beyond the control of local authorities, this form of mining has potentially large impacts on landforms and landscape dynamics, often resulting in drastic consequences for the local environment and agriculture. SSOM should be regarded as a component of anthropogenic geomorphology because it involves the role of humans in creating landforms and modifying the operation of natural geomorphological processes, such as weathering, erosion, transport and deposition. By initiating new and modifying natural geomorphic processes, SSOM causes and/or accelerates geomorphic processes, resulting in various forms of land degradation. While the direct geomorphic impact of SSOM is in general easily discernible and leads to characteristic features, such as excavated pits and overburden spoil heaps, many secondary impacts are attributed to geomorphic processes triggered in the wake of the primary mining-induced landscape alterations. The magnitude of such secondary implications may well extend beyond the actual mining areas, but these effects have not been thoroughly addressed in the research so far. This review summarizes the known studies on the geomorphic impacts of SSOM operations and highlights common geomorphic processes and landforms associated with this type of anthropogenic activity, thus establishing a starting point for further in-depth research.

  7. Distribution and mobility of mercury in soils of a gold mining region, Cuyuni river basin, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Francés, F; García-Sánchez, A; Alonso-Rojo, P; Contreras, F; Adams, M

    2011-04-01

    An extensive and remote gold mining region located in the East of Venezuela has been studied with the aim of assessing the distribution and mobility of mercury in soil and the level of Hg pollution at artisanal gold mining sites. To do so, soils and pond sediments were sampled at sites not subject to anthropological influence, as well as in areas affected by gold mining activities. Total Hg in regionally distributed soils ranged between 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.40 mg kg(-1), with a median value of 0.11 mg kg(-1), which is slightly higher than soil Hg worldwide, possibly indicating long-term atmospheric input or more recent local atmospheric input, in addition to minor lithogenic sources. A reference Hg concentration of 0.33 mg kg(-1) is proposed for the detection of mining affected soils in this region. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the surrounding soils of pollutant sources, such as milling-amalgamation sites, where soil Hg contents ranged from 0.16 mg kg(-1) to 542 mg kg(-1) with an average of 26.89 mg kg(-1), which also showed high levels of elemental Hg, but quite low soluble+exchangeable Hg fraction (0.02-4.90 mg kg(-1)), suggesting low Hg soil mobility and bioavailability, as confirmed by soil column leaching tests. The vertical distribution of Hg through the soil profiles, as well as variations in soil Hg contents with distance from the pollution source, and Hg in pond mining sediments were also analysed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  9. Resultados preliminares do implante de lente intra-ocular fácica artisan para correção de miopia Preliminary results of artisan phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Akaishi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os resultados preliminares quanto à eficácia, estabilidade e segurança da lente intra-ocular de câmara anterior Artisan em olhos fácicos para correção de miopia. MÉTODOS: Foi analisado retrospectivamente o resultado de 34 olhos fácicos que receberam o implante de lente intra-ocular Artisan para correção de miopia. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: contagem endotelial pré e pós-operatória, acuidade visual sem correção pré e pós-operatória, melhor acuidade visual com correção pré e pós-operatória, equivalente esférico pré e pós-operatório, ganho e perda de linhas de visão e complicações. RESULTADOS: Dezoito pacientes (34 olhos foram incluídos neste estudo. Quatorze eram do sexo feminino (77,8% e 4 do sexo masculino. A idade média dos pacientes era de 30 anos (DP ± 7,3, variando de 21 a 46 anos. O período médio de seguimento foi de 8,5 meses (DP ± 3,6. A média de perda endotelial foi de 4,75% em 6 meses. A acuidade visual sem correção pré-operatória era de 0,02 (20/800 variando de 0,01 a 0,13. O equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório na refração dinâmica era de -13,25 D, variando de -5,75 D a -19,75 D. No último seguimento a acuidade visual sem correção era de 0,64 (20/32 variando de 0,33 a 1,00. O equivalente esférico médio na refração dinâmica era de -1,18 D (DP ± 0,92 variando de + 0,25 a -3,0. Entre as complicações observadas em nosso estudo 1 (3,4% paciente apresentou deslocamento da lente por trauma necessitando de uma segunda intervenção para reposicionamento. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de lente fácica de câmara anterior Artisan para correção de miopia no presente estudo se mostrou seguro, eficaz e com boa previsibilidade. No entanto, estudo prospectivo com maior número de casos e maior seguimento é necessário para determinar a segurança do procedimento a longo prazo.PURPOSE: To observe the preliminary results based on the efficacy, stability and safety of

  10. Mine-Detecting Canines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    affliction known as hip dysplasia which disables a majority of German Shepherds after age 5 to 7 years. b. Minimize the aggressive tendencies which cause...Sheet 33-34 7 Density of Dog Alerts As a Function of "Sit" Distance from Center of Mines 40 8 Detection Performance of Dogs 41 9 Detection Performance...by Time of Day 43 10 Detection Performance of Dog Groups 44 11 Mines Detected by Type of Mine 45 12 Detection Performance, Grouped by Handlers 46 13

  11. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  12. Methods for Mining and Summarizing Text Conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Carenini, Giuseppe; Murray, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the Internet Revolution, human conversational data -- in written forms -- are accumulating at a phenomenal rate. At the same time, improvements in speech technology enable many spoken conversations to be transcribed. Individuals and organizations engage in email exchanges, face-to-face meetings, blogging, texting and other social media activities. The advances in natural language processing provide ample opportunities for these "informal documents" to be analyzed and mined, thus creating numerous new and valuable applications. This book presents a set of computational methods

  13. Artisanal Vlasina Raw Goat's Milk Cheese: Evaluation and Selection of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tolinacki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the isolation, characterization and identification of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from artisanal Vlasina raw goat's milk cheese for the selection of potential starter cultures. Soft white Vlasina cheese was manufactured at a household on the Stara Planina Mountain using traditional techniques without starter cultures. One hundred and forty nine LAB isolates were collected from two samples of Vlasina cheese, designated as BGVL2 (5 days old and BGVL2a (15 days old. The population of LAB in the cheese samples was characterized by phenotype-based assays and presumptively identified using repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with the primer (GTG5. Results were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Among the BGVL2 isolates (56, the most numerous LAB species were Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (27 and Lactococcus lactis (26. In 15-day-old BGVL2a (93 isolates, Lactobacillus plantarum (33, Enterococcus durans (26 and Pediococcus pentosaceus (14 were predominant. Lc. lactis ssp. lactis BGVL2-8 showed good acidification ability and the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds, Lb. plantarum BGVL2a-18 had good proteolytic ability and produced exopolysaccharides, while BGVL2-29 and BGVL2-63, which belonged to the species Ln. pseudomesenteroides, utilized citrate and produced diacetyl and acetoin. They appeared to be suitable candidates for inclusion in the starter culture. This study contributed to the understanding of the role of autochthonous LAB in the quality of artisanal cheese and the possibility of using the selected LAB as potential starter cultures for cheese making under controlled conditions.

  14. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  15. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs. Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implem...

  16. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  17. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  18. Closing the RN engagement gap: which drivers of engagement matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Reynaldo R; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Boyle, Suzanne M

    2011-06-01

    This study focused on the relationship between RNs' perceptions of drivers of engagement and their workplace engagement. In multiple studies, mostly not in healthcare, researchers found that employees engaged in their work are in the minority. This phenomenon is referred to as the engagement gap. Drivers of engagement and levels of nurse engagement were measured among 510 RNs from a large urban academic university center. The greatest difference between engaged and not-engaged nurses was in the manager action index; the smallest difference was in the salary and benefits index. The passion-for-nursing index was the only significant driver related to RN levels of engagement when controlling for all the other drivers. Nurse managers play a critical role in promoting employee engagement. The nurses' passion for nursing is an important dimension of engagement. Salary and benefits were not primary drivers in employee engagement. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  19. Mining the Moon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitt, Harrison H

    2004-01-01

    The author, a geologist who collected rocks on the Moon during the Apollo 19 mission, argues that the time is now ripe to return there, to mine the quantities of the isotope helium-3 found on the Moon...

  20. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  1. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  2. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  3. Protecting mine hoisting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenko, V.A.; Shatilo, A.N.

    1982-10-01

    The paper discusses problems associated with coal and rock hoisting in underground coal mines in the USSR. Design of standardized safety systems used in Soviet coal mines is described. Failures of control systems which determine hoisting speed are analyzed. When a cage approaches a loading level or ground level at excessive speed the bumping beams accept cage energy. Cage deformation, damage and hoisting rope damage are the result. Correcting cage position in relation to loading levels is a relatively complicated process. The electronic system for automatic control of cage speed and automatic braking when cage speed exceeds the maximum permissible speed in a mine shaft section is evaluated. System design is shown in a scheme. Its specifications are given. It consists of speed sensors, a system activating safety brakes and a system for cage positioning after safety braking. Use of the safety system in some coal mines is discussed.

  4. SME mining engineering handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ...) 948-4200 / (800) 763-3132 www.smenet.org SME advances the worldwide mining and minerals community through information exchange and professional development. With members in more than 70 countrie...

  5. Data Stream Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Zaslavsky, Arkady; Krishnaswamy, Shonali

    Data mining is concerned with the process of computationally extracting hidden knowledge structures represented in models and patterns from large data repositories. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that has its roots in databases, statistics, machine learning, and data visualization. Data mining has emerged as a direct outcome of the data explosion that resulted from the success in database and data warehousing technologies over the past two decades (Fayyad, 1997,Fayyad, 1998,Kantardzic, 2003).

  6. Mining water governance

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Landeo, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand w...

  7. Applied data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guandong

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has witnessed substantial advances in recent decades. New research questions and practical challenges have arisen from emerging areas and applications within the various fields closely related to human daily life, e.g. social media and social networking. This book aims to bridge the gap between traditional data mining and the latest advances in newly emerging information services. It explores the extension of well-studied algorithms and approaches into these new research arenas.

  8. Data Mining with Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Klímek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    One of the oppotunities in data mining is a use of clustering analysis. Clustering analysis belongs to unsupervised methods of data mining. We put here a focus on this method. Some basic principles are described in the second part of this paper. This method is examined on two examples from the marketing field. In the first example is used software Statgraphics 5.0Plus to solve clustering problem (nearest neighbour algorithm and Eucleidian distance); and in the second example is used Statistic...

  9. Development and Control of Mine Detection Robot COMET-II and COMET-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonami, Kenzo; Huang, Qingjiu; Komizo, Daisuke; Fukao, Yoichiro; Asai, Yoshitomo; Shiraishi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Masaki; Ikedo, Yosuke

    In this paper, we elucidate the development and the multitask cooperative control of humanitarian demining assistance robots. In particular, the aim in this paper is to propose the first platform robots for humanitarian demining as a global pioneering project. Here we propose two kinds of mine detection robots which consists of six-legged walking robots with two manipulators for added stability, mobility, and functionality. One of the proposed mine detection robots is the COMET-II which is a 120kg class robot driven by electric power. The other robot is the full autonomous mine detection robot the COMET-III which is a 1 ton class robot driven by hydraulic power with a gasoline engine. The COMET-III has a crawler and six legs and it can continue a mine detection operation for four hours. An improved version of this kind of robot will be engaged for mine detection operation in actual mine fields in the near future.

  10. Theoretical approaches to creation of robotic coal mines based on the synthesis of simulation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryanov, V. N.; Pavlova, L. D.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Methodological approaches to theoretical substantiation of the structure and parameters of robotic coal mines are outlined. The results of mathematical and numerical modeling revealed the features of manifestation of geomechanical and gas dynamic processes in the conditions of robotic mines. Technological solutions for the design and manufacture of technical means for robotic mine are adopted using the method of economic and mathematical modeling and in accordance with the current regulatory documents. For a comparative performance evaluation of technological schemes of traditional and robotic mines, methods of cognitive modeling and matrix search for subsystem elements in the synthesis of a complex geotechnological system are applied. It is substantiated that the process of technical re-equipment of a traditional mine with a phased transition to a robotic mine will reduce unit costs by almost 1.5 times with a significant social effect due to a reduction in the number of personnel engaged in hazardous work.

  11. WEB STRUCTURE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA DINUCĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web became one of the most valuable resources for information retrievals and knowledge discoveries due to the permanent increasing of the amount of data available online. Taking into consideration the web dimension, the users get easily lost in the web’s rich hyper structure. Application of data mining methods is the right solution for knowledge discovery on the Web. The knowledge extracted from the Web can be used to raise the performances for Web information retrievals, question answering and Web based data warehousing. In this paper, I provide an introduction of Web mining categories and I focus on one of these categories: the Web structure mining. Web structure mining, one of three categories of web mining for data, is a tool used to identify the relationship between Web pages linked by information or direct link connection. It offers information about how different pages are linked together to form this huge web. Web Structure Mining finds hidden basic structures and uses hyperlinks for more web applications such as web search.

  12. Mine Waste at The Kherzet Youcef Mine : Environmental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaad, Mouloud; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Kolli, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Mining activity in Algeria has existed since antiquity. But it was very important since the 20th century. This activity has virtually ceased since the beginning of the 1990s, leaving many mine sites abandoned (so-called orphan mines). The abandonment of mining today poses many environmental problems (soil pollution, contamination of surface water, mining collapses...). The mining wastes often occupy large volumes that can be hazardous to the environment and human health, often neglected in the past: Faulting geotechnical implementation, acid mine drainage (AMD), alkalinity, presence of pollutants and toxic substances (heavy metals, cyanide...). The study started already six years ago and it covers all mines located in NE Algeria, almost are stopped for more than thirty years. So the most important is to have an overview of all the study area. After the inventory job of the abandoned mines, the rock drainage prediction will help us to classify sites according to their acid generating potential.

  13. Cohabitation and social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M. Schimmele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, nonmarital cohabitation has become a normative life experience, but there are uncertainties regarding its contribution to social cohesion. This article compares and contrasts cohabitation with marriage (and other marital statuses on two dimensions of social engagement:social networks and prosocial behaviour. The study employs GSS-17 microdata and logistic regression analysis. The findings illustrate that social engagement is similar among cohabitors and the married.

  14. Cohabitation and social engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph M. Schimmele; Zheng Wu

    2012-01-01

    In Canada, nonmarital cohabitation has become a normative life experience, but there are uncertainties regarding its contribution to social cohesion. This article compares and contrasts cohabitation with marriage (and other marital statuses) on two dimensions of social engagement:social networks and prosocial behaviour. The study employs GSS-17 microdata and logistic regression analysis. The findings illustrate that social engagement is similar among cohabitors and the married.

  15. Cohabitation and social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M. Schimmele

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, nonmarital cohabitation has become a normative life experience, but there are uncertainties regarding its contribution to social cohesion. This article compares and contrasts cohabitation with marriage (and other marital statuses on two dimensions of social engagement:social networks and prosocial behaviour. The study employs GSS-17 microdata and logistic regression analysis. The findings illustrate that social engagement is similar among cohabitors and the married.

  16. The rules of engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael

    2013-01-01

    this framework I argue that we can understand public engagement events as hallmarked by conflict, but that this conflict emerges not in differing assessments of the value of different forms of knowledge but around the very form of a dialogue event; similarly, I suggest that the content of talk indicates...... that imposed hierarchies are continually re-negotiated. In concluding I reflect on some implications of using power in the analysis of engagement....

  17. THE MINING LAW NOW AND THEN IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously with the development of mining, a mining law has been developed as well. At first, ores belonged to those owning the land, while later on, the state, without any regard to its system, has been and is, in general, the owner of ore deposits so that the land owner has never been able to prevent their exploration and exploitation. It is necessary to point out that during the development of mining significantly greater changes were effectuated especially in the last century, while the financial liabilities towards the governmental authorities have remained the same and have varied from a half, one fifth, one tenth to one thirtieth and one fiftieth of the value of mineral resources, A similar situation is with the concessions granted on 50 (+50 years _or 99 years, while certain differences exist in the size od the investigated area and the ore field. While at an earlier stage the mining law was based on regalia and decrees as well as on autonomous mining courts, by the abolition of servitude and privileges the mining law has been made to mining legislation. Due to the fact that during the socialist system the private enterprise was abolished, the Mining Law and the Law on Concessions should be, first of all, amended. By new changes of the Law, the conditions in mining should be established, under which foreign legal and physical entities could be engaged in exploration and exploitation of mineral resources with us, then the provisions relating to the exploitation of gravel and sand in the areas of interest for water resources management should be more thoroughly stipulated, etc (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Exploiting Stable Mercury Isotopic Analysis to Differentiate between Mercury Sources: Gold Mining vs. Land-Use Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, B. A.; Adler Miserendino, R. A.; Guimarães, J. R.; Veiga, M.; Velasquez-López, P.; Lees, P. S.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Fernandez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    In parts of the developing world, mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold by amalgamation during artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and this can lead to contamination of downstream aquatic ecosystems. Differentiation between Hg from ASGM and from other sources of Hg, such as increased erosion from land cover and land use change (LCLUC), is challenging and has lead to heated debates over the dominant sources of elevated Hg in some ecosystems. Here, stable Hg isotopic analysis was applied in two aquatic ecosystems in South America: (1) the Amazonian aquatic ecosystem of Amapá, Brazil downstream of artisanal gold mining (AGM) and (2) the Puyango-Tumbes River ecosystem downstream of Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador, a large mining area where both AGM and small-scale gold mining (SGM) are in operation. The Hg isotopic analyses from Amapá, Brazil, do not support AGM as the source of elevated Hg in the downstream aquatic ecosystem. Instead, Hg isotopes are most consistent with the elevated Hg being from preferential migration of Hg from soil erosion, which is likely associated with land use change. Although soils are regarded as Hg sinks in the global Hg cycle, this work suggests that LCLUC can disrupt Hg stores with significant ecological consequences. In contrast in the Southwestern Andean region of Ecuador and Peru, analysis of Hg isotopes and other toxic metals (i.e., Pb, Zn, Cu), which are associated with the larger scale mining and cyanide used during SGM, demonstrate Hg used during gold mining is the predominant source of Hg downstream and can be traced far from the dominant mining area. Although it has been speculated that Hg from SGM in Ecuador was not that mobile or that Hg far downstream of SGM processing plants was from erosion due to LCLUC or from AGM taking place downstream, the isotopically heavy signature of Hg used during gold mining and elevated other metal concentrations were observed ~120 km downstream of Portovelo-Zaruma. Mercury isotopes appear

  19. Medarbejderinvolvering og engagement i arbejdspladsvurdering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Thoft, Eva

    2000-01-01

    En vurdering af betingelserne for at udvikle medarbejder involvering og engagement i arbejdspladsvurdering.......En vurdering af betingelserne for at udvikle medarbejder involvering og engagement i arbejdspladsvurdering....

  20. Oil & Community Welfare: A Case Study on People Oil Mining in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Trisnu Brata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually in the oil mining area was exploited by oil company that under licensed from the state. Nevertheless on an oil mining field in East Java Province in Indonesia there is people oil mining that exploited and distributed by the people. They are working on the people oil mining area. Working is a phenomenon inherent to adults in satisfying their needs. People work for a multitude of motivation. Working may lead a particular worker to occupy certain social status within the society. This paper aims to examine the phenomenon of people working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining  to consumer. More specifically, this study aims to describe the impacts of working in the oil mining on the miners’ social and economic life. The method used in this research is ethnography. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews, note taking, and recording. The location of research is in a petroleum artisanal mining area in East Java Province. The results showed that the impact of working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining to consumer is the generation of income used to meet the basic needs, to purchase personal means of transportation, to purchase some piece of land, and to pay for the children’s education.Biasanya ladang minyak dieksploitasi perusahaan yang memperolehy ijin dari negara. Akan tetapi ada ladang minyak di Jawa Timur yang dieksploitasi oleh masyarakat. Mereka bekerja pada ladang seperti  itu. Pekerja memiliki motivasi bermacam-macam dalam pekerjaanya. Bekerja membantu seseorang memperoleh status tertentu dalam masyarakat. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menelaah fenomena pekerja ladang minyak. Pertanyaan yang ingin dijawab dalam penelitian ini adalah: (1 mengapa orang bekerja di ladang minyak?; (2 bagaimana kesejahteraan mereka?; dan (3 bagaimana pengaruh bekerja di ladang minyak pada kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi para pekerja?. Penelitian menggunakan metode etnografi. Penelitian dilakukan di Jawa

  1. Heavy metal pollution in soil associated with a large-scale cyanidation gold mining region in southeast of Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Different gold mining and smelting processes can lead to distinctive heavy metal contamination patterns and results. This work examined heavy metal pollution from a large-scale cyanidation gold mining operation, which is distinguished from artisanal and small-scale amalgamation gold mining, in Jilin Province, China. A total of 20 samples including one background sample were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings pond in June 2013. These samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and degree of pollution as well as sources of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, and Hg. The mean concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cu (819.67, 0.12, and 46.92 mg kg-1, respectively) in soil samples from the gold mine area exceeded local background values. The mean Hg content was less than the first-class standard of the Environmental Quality for Soils, which suggested that the cyanidation method is helpful for reducing Hg pollution. The geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor results indicated clear signs that enrichment was present for Pb, Cu, and Hg, with the presence of serious Pb pollution and moderate presence to none of Hg and Cu pollution. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there were three metal sources: (1) Pb, Cd, Cu, and As came from anthropogenic sources; (2) Cr and Zn were naturally occurring; whereas (3) Hg and Ni had a mix of anthropogenic and natural sources. Moreover, the tailings dam plays an important role in intercepting the tailings. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk assessment results showed that the study area poses a potentially strong risk to the ecological health. Furthermore, Pb and Hg (due to high concentration and high toxicity, respectively) are major pollutants on the risk index, and both Pb and Hg pollution should be of great concern at the Haigou gold mines in Jilin, China.

  2. The impact of an oil spill on artisanal fishermen in Baía de Guanabara and possibilities for a sustainable future

    OpenAIRE

    Peipke, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Brazil is a country with enormous social differences and, alongside the advancements of the industrialdevelopment and the creation of a modern society, a large part of the Brazilian population lives under fairly poor conditions, providing their subsistence by the practice of traditional knowledge; employing primitive tools and methods. One example is the sector of artisanal fishery, which at present accounts for about half of the active fishermen in Brazil (Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, 2...

  3. Exploitation rates of two benthic resources across management regimes in central Chile: Evidence of illegal fishing in artisanal fisheries operating in open access areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Subida, Maria Dulce; Fernandez, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify the impacts of artisanal fisheries and define management practices that allow for the recovery and conservation of exploited stocks. The extent of illegal catch is particularly critical as a driver of overexploitation in artisanal fisheries. However, the lack of data at proper spatial scales limits the evaluation of illegal fishing and effectiveness of management practices. We used a catch curve analysis to estimate total instantaneous mortality as a proxy of fishing pressure in the artisanal benthic fishery in central Chile. We compared the patterns of total mortality in fishing grounds under the well-studied territorial use rights for fisheries system (TURF) immersed in a landscape of open access areas (OAA; no access restriction), and from these patterns determined the extent of illegal fishing in open access areas focusing on the two most frequently extracted resources: locos (Concholepas concholepas) and keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.). The beauty of this seascape is the presence of the no-take (NT) area of Las Cruces as control (no fishing), allowing us to estimate natural mortality. Loco exploitation is banned in OAAs. However, loco mortality in OAAs was 92% higher than in the NT, and 42% higher than in TURFs. Keyhole limpet mortality was similar between TURFs and the NT, but doubled in OAAs. We also found strong differences in mortality among fishing grounds with the same level of protection (i.e. TURFs), and over time. Our results highlight (a) the high level of illegal fishing that may occur in artisanal fisheries under traditional management regimes, and (b) that TURFs can be effective to reduce fishing mortality. However, large variability among TURFs suggests the need for a deeper understanding of the drivers of success of TURFs. PMID:28666013

  4. Exploitation rates of two benthic resources across management regimes in central Chile: Evidence of illegal fishing in artisanal fisheries operating in open access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Subida, Maria Dulce; Fernandez, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify the impacts of artisanal fisheries and define management practices that allow for the recovery and conservation of exploited stocks. The extent of illegal catch is particularly critical as a driver of overexploitation in artisanal fisheries. However, the lack of data at proper spatial scales limits the evaluation of illegal fishing and effectiveness of management practices. We used a catch curve analysis to estimate total instantaneous mortality as a proxy of fishing pressure in the artisanal benthic fishery in central Chile. We compared the patterns of total mortality in fishing grounds under the well-studied territorial use rights for fisheries system (TURF) immersed in a landscape of open access areas (OAA; no access restriction), and from these patterns determined the extent of illegal fishing in open access areas focusing on the two most frequently extracted resources: locos (Concholepas concholepas) and keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.). The beauty of this seascape is the presence of the no-take (NT) area of Las Cruces as control (no fishing), allowing us to estimate natural mortality. Loco exploitation is banned in OAAs. However, loco mortality in OAAs was 92% higher than in the NT, and 42% higher than in TURFs. Keyhole limpet mortality was similar between TURFs and the NT, but doubled in OAAs. We also found strong differences in mortality among fishing grounds with the same level of protection (i.e. TURFs), and over time. Our results highlight (a) the high level of illegal fishing that may occur in artisanal fisheries under traditional management regimes, and (b) that TURFs can be effective to reduce fishing mortality. However, large variability among TURFs suggests the need for a deeper understanding of the drivers of success of TURFs.

  5. From artisans to “factories”: the interpenetration of craft and industry in English cheese-making, c1650-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard; Tregear, Angela

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the uneven development of English cheese-making, from its early commercialization to the eventual triumph of the “cheese factory.” The narrative shows how contemporary actors initiated and adapted to changes in technology, distribution, consumption, and regulation. It indicates that artisanal practices have both borrowed from, and become integrated with, industrial logics and strategies, exemplifying a process that Charles F. Sabel and Jonathan Zeitlin termed the “recombin...

  6. The Asian Development Model and Mining Reforms in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McLaren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide accounting, marketing, management, finance and legal professionals who are engaged with emerging economies with an introduction to the ‘Asian Development Model’ and to use the mining reforms in Indonesia as an example of the Model in operation. This will assist those professionals in recognising the challenges faced by businesses in Australia and New Zealand when governments in South East Asian countries attempt to ‘catch up’ to the developed world and at the same time attempt to spread the benefits of the development to their people. The paper argues that there is an Asian Development Model and that the Indonesian mining reforms, in particular the requirement over time for 51 percent Indonesian Government ownership and the ban on the export of unprocessed resources, represent an attempt by the Indonesian State to speed up industrialisation in their country and to spread more of the benefits from mining to ordinary citizens in the recently democratised and politically decentralised country. In attempting to show strength however, the Indonesian state is exposing some weakness. The impact on jobs, revenue and production has been adverse although Foreign Direct Investment has increased. This latter may be because it is foreign multinational mining companies who are better placed than local mining enterprises to build smelters. The success of developing mining might be at the expense of local capital. In other words state intervention does not always produce all of the desired outcomes. It is not a panacea.

  7. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  8. Evaluation of the spoilage lactic acid bacteria in modified-atmosphere-packaged artisan-type cooked ham using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, C; Ravyts, F; De Maere, H; De Mey, E; Paelinck, H; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2008-05-01

    To investigate microbial diversity and population dynamics of spoilage-sensitive modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) artisan-type cooked ham in relation to storage temperature. Modified-atmosphere-packaged cooked ham samples were stored at different temperatures (4, 7, 12 and 26 degrees C). Traditional methods were combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques, i.e. a culture-dependent, repetitive DNA sequence-based method (rep-PCR) and a culture-independent approach (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments; PCR-DGGE). rep-PCR on DNA extracted from MRS isolates indicated that Leuconostoc carnosum and Enterococcus faecalis prevailed at all temperatures, with the latter becoming more important above 7 degrees C. PCR-DGGE indicated the additional presence of Carnobacterium divergens and Brochothrix thermosphacta at all temperatures. Discriminant analysis related variation within the Leuc. carnosum cluster to the storage temperature. High performance liquid chromatography revealed that lactic acid was the main metabolite because of glucose consumption. Leuconostoc carnosum, C. divergens, E. faecalis and Br. thermosphacta are the main spoilage bacteria of artisan-type MAP cooked ham. Their population dynamics are affected by storage temperature. Temperature can condition the development of spoilage in artisan-type MAP cooked ham, acting at both species and biotype level.

  9. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an

  10. The Engagement Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartari, Valentina; Salter, Ammon

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the debate about the marginality of women in academic science has been extended to academics’ engagement with industry and their commercial efforts. Analyzing multi-source data for a large sample of UK physical and engineering scientists and employing a matching technique......, this study suggests women academics to engage less and in different ways than their male colleagues of similar status in collaboration activities with industry. We then argue – and empirical assess – these differences can be mitigated by the social context in which women scientists operate, including...... the presence of women in the local work setting and their wider discipline, and the institutional support for women’s careers in their organization. We explore the implications of these findings for policies to support women’s scientific and technical careers and engagement with industry....

  11. Engagement beyond critique?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.; Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2018-01-01

    on anthropological engagement: policy-oriented activist research, feminist inspired collaborative research, and what we have chosen to call research for alterity and alternatives. Each of these approaches engage with the concepts of community and participation, two terms which require cautiousness and critical......In response to academic ideals of neutrality, complexity and cultural relativism promoted in postmodern cultural critique, different attempts have been made to make anthropology more “engaged” in the promotion of social change. In this article, we discuss three contemporary positions...... scrutiny, we argue. While each approach to anthropological engagement is valuable in its own right, their application requires careful consideration and knowledge about the contemporary political climate, which in many places is characterized by growing segregation and antagonism between different groups...

  12. Data mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattamvelli, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  13. Journey from Data Mining to Web Mining to Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Richa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the journey of big data starting from data mining to web mining to big data. It discusses each of this method in brief and also provides their applications. It states the importance of mining big data today using fast and novel approaches.

  14. Mercury concentrations in water resources potentially impacted by coal-fired power stations and artisanal gold mining in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Total mercury (TotHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in various environmental compartments collected from water resources of three Water Management Areas (WMAs) - viz. Olifants, Upper Vaal and Inkomati WMAs, potentially...

  15. Analysis of the Socio-Economic Factors That Contribute to Children School Dropout in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Dora Harrison; Ting, Zuo; Pesha, John Chrisostom

    2017-01-01

    In Tanzania, education has been earmarked as a priority area to stimulate socioeconomic development, however; the increasing number of school dropout cases is posing a huge hindrance to achieving this goal. To establish the major causes of school dropouts, this paper investigated different factors that explain the phenomena with special focus on…

  16. Engagement and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Pritish K.; Hick, John L.; Hanfling, Dan; Geiling, James; Reed, Mary Jane; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Shah, Umair A.; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Skippen, Peter; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Engagement and education of ICU clinicians in disaster preparedness is fragmented by time constraints and institutional barriers and frequently occurs during a disaster. We reviewed the existing literature from 2007 to April 2013 and expert opinions about clinician engagement and education for critical care during a pandemic or disaster and offer suggestions for integrating ICU clinicians into planning and response. The suggestions in this article are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or large-scale disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed and suggestions formulated according to the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Consensus Statement development methodology. We assessed articles, documents, reports, and gray literature reported since 2007. Following expert-informed sorting and review of the literature, key priority areas and questions were developed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Twenty-three suggestions were formulated based on literature-informed consensus opinion. These suggestions are grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) situational awareness, (2) clinician roles and responsibilities, (3) education, and (4) community engagement. Together, these four elements are considered to form the basis for effective ICU clinician engagement for mass critical care. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal engagement of the ICU clinical team in caring for large numbers of critically ill patients due to a pandemic or disaster will require a departure from the routine independent systems operating in hospitals. An effective response will require robust information systems; coordination

  17. Integrated mining and land reclamation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The course was designed to explore: mine land development and start-up operations; impact of changes in mining laws and land use; successful mine planning and reclamation operations; opportunities for financing mining and reclamation projects; cost-effective water pollution control in mining; developing successful integrated mining and land reclamation; achieving a balance between mining reclamation and land use planning; and reclamation and land re-use opportunities - benefits to local communities and mining companies.

  18. Public Engagement with Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    not problematising ‘the public’, taking values seriously and instead educating ‘the experts’, and recognising both the ‘legitimacy of wider concerns’ and the ‘democratic imperative’. Public Engagement with Science as strategy is building upon a normative commitment to the idea of democratic science policy...... for dialogue exercises look microscopic against the backdrop of global science and its governance. Maybe it has been over-promised what such public engagement exercises can deliver. We can safely conclude that, despite all the ‘from deficit to democracy’ talk, no such easy shift has been made. At best, partial...

  19. Science, Public Engagement with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2015-01-01

    regarding their definition in institutional practice. Science and technology studies scholars have been especially active in challenging prevailing policy assumptions in this area and in considering how science–public relations might be reinterpreted and reconstructed. This article presents some of the key......‘Public engagement with science’ evokes a series of long-standing issues concerning the relationship between members of the public (or citizens) and matters of technical expertise. However, each of the terms ‘public,’ ‘engagement,’ and ‘science’ is open to question, and to empirical investigation...

  20. Mining and the African Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Weng, Lingfei; Dirks, Paul; Sayer, Jeffrey; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Africa is on the verge of a mining boom. We review the environmental threats from African mining development, including habitat alteration, infrastructure expansion, human migration, bushmeat hunting, corruption, and weak governance...

  1. Databases for Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    LANGOF, LADO

    2015-01-01

    This work is about looking for synergies between data mining tools and databa\\-se management systems (DBMS). Imagine a situation where we need to solve an analytical problem using data that are too large to be processed solely inside the main physical memory and at the same time too small to put data warehouse or distributed analytical system in place. The target area is therefore a single personal computer that is used to solve data mining problems. We are looking for tools that allows us to...

  2. Data mining for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Meta S

    2014-01-01

    Delve into your data for the key to success Data mining is quickly becoming integral to creating value and business momentum. The ability to detect unseen patterns hidden in the numbers exhaustively generated by day-to-day operations allows savvy decision-makers to exploit every tool at their disposal in the pursuit of better business. By creating models and testing whether patterns hold up, it is possible to discover new intelligence that could change your business''s entire paradigm for a more successful outcome. Data Mining for Dummies shows you why it doesn''t take a data scientist to gain

  3. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  4. Cardiovascular diagnostics mining on Borneo island: from labour-intensive to prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Then H H; Fong, A Y Y; Sebastian, Y; Raman, V; Wong, Y H Colin; Sim, K H

    2009-01-01

    Mining for medical data poses different challenges compared with mining other types of data. The wide range of imaging modalities of medical data leads to data integration and compatibility issues. The analysis of imaging modalities is further complicated by the different format and attributes used by the different imaging equipment by different vendors. Human factors such as interest of adapting data mining into diagnosis and planning process raised the difficulty of engaging the users into the development of a practical and useful data miner. Requirement engineering technique prototyping further enhanced the engagement of users towards the data-miner. Data from different equipment and different vendors are also merged for efficient data analysis and subsequently charting and reporting. We have also successfully engaged the medical doctors into believing the data miner's capability after they reviewed and walkthrough the prototype.

  5. A STUDY OF TEXT MINING METHODS, APPLICATIONS,AND TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajamani*1 & S. Saranya2

    2017-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract useful information from the large amount of data. It is used to implement and solve different types of research problems. The research related areas in data mining are text mining, web mining, image mining, sequential pattern mining, spatial mining, medical mining, multimedia mining, structure mining and graph mining. Text mining also referred to text of data mining, it is also called knowledge discovery in text (KDT) or knowledge of intelligent text analysis. T...

  6. Comparative Opinion Mining: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Varathan, Kasturi Dewi; Giachanou, Anastasia; Crestani, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Opinion mining refers to the use of natural language processing, text analysis and computational linguistics to identify and extract subjective information in textual material. Opinion mining, also known as sentiment analysis, has received a lot of attention in recent times, as it provides a number of tools to analyse the public opinion on a number of different topics. Comparative opinion mining is a subfield of opinion mining that deals with identifying and extracting information that is exp...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall have...) Mines above or below; (j) Water pools above; and (k) Either producing or abandoned oil and gas wells...

  8. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is abandoned...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) Either producing or abandoned oil and gas wells located on the mine property; (f) The location and...

  10. Analysis of artisanal fisheries in two reservoirs of the upper Paraná River basin (Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Costa Novaes

    Full Text Available We compared the artisanal fisheries, in terms of catch strategies, productivity, and gross per capita income, at two reservoirs: the Barra Bonita (an eutrophic reservoir with some introduced species, and the Jurumirim (an oligotrophic reservoir, with no introduced species. Published data and structured interviews with fishers were used to evaluate fishing activity, fish biomass, and the financial performance of the fisheries. In the Barra Bonita Reservoir we analysed data from 745 fishing trips, from which 86,691.9 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 62.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was tilapia (71,513.5 kg; CPUE of 51.5 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 82.5% of the biomass caught. In the Jurumirim Reservoir, we analysed data from 2,401 fishing trips, from which 25,093.6 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 10.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was "traíra" (6,158.6 kg; CPUE of 2.6 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 24.5% of the biomass caught. Ordination analysis (PCA indicated that there was a difference in composition between the fishing reservoirs and ANCOVA showed that there was a significant difference in fish production between the reservoirs. A Student's t-test showed that fishers in the Barra Bonita Reservoir had a significantly higher gross per capita income than those from the Jurumirim Reservoir. Although the Barra Bonita Reservoir has a higher fish production and the fishers earn a higher gross per capita income, we recommend the Jurumirim Reservoir as a model for artisanal fishery management because fishing activity in this reservoir is viable in the long term and such a model would promote conservation and sustainability. This contrasts with the Barra Bonita Reservoir, in which the fishery is not viable in the long term, due to environmental problems caused by artificial eutrophication and the introduction of alien species. It is also noted that in many countries, management

  11. Liver and Renal Function Tests in Artisans Occupationally Exposed to Lead in Mechanic Village in Nnewi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Meludu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Additives in petroleum solvents have been reported to have adverse health implications. An evaluation study on some toxicological effects of occupational exposure to petroleum products (especially petrol which contains tetraethyl lead amongst twenty five occupationally exposed artisans and twenty five graduate students of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria as controls, was carried out using the following biochemical markers: electrolytes, urea, uric acid, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, zinc and blood lead, as well as the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase. The results showed that occupational exposure of human subjects to lead in petrol increases the concentrations of uric acid (357 ± 123μ mol/L and phosphate (1.5 ± 0.5m mol/L in exposed subjects compared with unexposed subjects (uric acid 228 ± 105μ mol/L, phosphate 1.2 ± 0.41m mol/L; p < 0.01 in both cases. Significantly lower activities were observed for alkaline phosphatase (66 ± 18.9 iu/L. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (11.4 ± 4.0 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (15.8 ± 4.4 iu/L in occupationally exposed artisans were higher compared with unexposed subjects (alkaline phosphatase = 78 ± 22.4 iu/L alanine aminotranferase = 6.8 ± 2.7 iu/L, aspartate aminotranferase = 9.6 ± 3.5i u/L; p < 0.01 in all cases. Occupational exposure of human subjects to lead significantly increased blood lead (59.6 ± 15.9 μg/dL and decreased plasma zinc (71.3 ± 14.4 μg/L in exposed compared with unexposed subjects (blood lead = 35 ± 7 μg/dL, zinc = 108.4 ± 16.9 μg/dL; p < 0.01. The results indicate that occupational exposure to lead in petrol may compromise liver and renal function.

  12. Contraceptive preferences and use among auto artisanal workers in the informal sector of Kumasi, Ghana: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Boahemaa, Mary Yaa; Addy, Ernestine A

    2015-04-12

    Contraceptive uptake in Ghana, especially in the Ashanti region remains low. This may be partly due to products' characteristics and choice which are influenced by attribute utility trade-offs by consumers in determining which method offers the optimal combinations, given the needs and desires of the individuals making the choice. The study sought to determine how specific attributes of contraceptives influence artisanal auto mechanics' stated preferences for a hypothetical contraceptive use in the Tafo-Suame industrial area of Kumasi, Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was conducted with artisanal auto mechanics in the study area from May to September 2011. Based on the summary of the attributes from the focus group discussion and in-depth interviews preceded administration of structured questionnaire, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was created. The attributes used were; side effects, reversibility, ease of use, ability to prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI's), price and privacy in acquiring and attractiveness of the method. A total of 340 consented respondents aged 15 to 49 years participated in the study. Data were entered in Access and Sawtooth software SSI Web CAPi module and then exported to Stata for analysis. The study showed a universal (99.4%) knowledge on contraception, ever used 87% and currently using a method, 58%. The study revealed that methods' reversibility (β = 21.74; 95% CI: 20.17, 23.3), minimal allergic reaction (β = 13.93; 95% CI: 12.8, 15.05) and no effect on blood pressure (β = 12.71; 95% CI: 11.62, 13.79), were strongly associated with contraceptive preference and use. While contraceptives' ability to prevent "only pregnancy", (β = -15.13: 95% CI: -16.2, -14.02; "only STI's") (β = -11.65; 95% CI: -11.84, -11.46); and interrupt during sexual activity (β = -4.26; 95% CI: -5.19, -3.34), had large negative influence on contraceptive preference and use. The study has documented the

  13. Work engagement: drivers and effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Schelvis, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of work engagement fits into the tradition of positive psychology, a recent paradigm shift in psychology which focuses on mental health rather than mental illness. This article gives an introduction to the concept of work engagement. Different definitions and viewpoints of the work engagement concept are discussed. This article will discuss the drivers of work engagement, as well as the associated effects that work engagement has on the health and wellbeing of workers and organisa...

  14. Studies in Frequent Tree Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knijf, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483551X

    2008-01-01

    Employing Data mining techniques for structured data is particularly challenging, because it is commonly assumed that the structure of the data encodes part of its semantics. As a result are classical data mining techniques insufficient to analyze and mine these data. In this thesis we develop

  15. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    throughout scientific and technical development. The International Cooperative Programs Office (ICPO) oversees S&T’s international activities, which...vulnerability assessments, RDT&E methodologies , and analyses of system interdependencies for more effective communication and collaboration between...engagement activities. OBJECTIVE 3: Monitor scientific research relevant to existing and emerging homeland security challenges. 10 OBJECTIVE 1: Identify

  16. Engage, enhance and empower

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Engagement. What evidence is there that different categories of women are participating in project activities and benefiting from participation? • New technologies and practices. Are women testing and adapting new and improved agricultural technologies and/or farming systems and practices that increase food production?

  17. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  18. Unges politiske engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberkind, Jonas; Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    2015-01-01

    I denne artikel undersøges danske unges politiske engagement. Vi vil se på, hvilke tilgange og forudsætninger danske unge har til politik, om deres politiske engagement kommer til udtryk på nye og anderledes måder, og hvorvidt deres politiske deltagelse er i konflikt med andre aktiviteter, der også...... kræver opmærksomhed og engagement. Vi vil argumentere for, at de unges syn på politik i disse år ændrer karakter, og at deres politiske deltagelse er viklet ind i og udfordret af et generelt og stigende krav fra de unge selv og omverdenen om at kunne navigere mellem stadigt flere interessesfærer: ’sig...... selv’, det sociale liv, jobs, uddannelse, karriere og fællesskabets generelle interesser (Illeris et al. 2009). Politisk deltagelse og engagement er i dette lys ikke et konkret og forudsigeligt anliggende, sådan som vi har for vane at diskutere det. For de unge fremstår det snarere som en diffus og...

  19. Mellem engagement og afmagt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen; Schmidt, Camilla

    Bogen præsenterer resultaterne fra udviklings- og forskningsprojektet "BUPL-tillidsrepræsentanten. Nye udfordringer - nye svar". Den giver et fyldigt indblik i tillidsrepræsentanternes arbejde, deres engagement, vanskeligheder og forhåbninger. På baggrund af et større værkstedsarbejde fremlægges...

  20. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…