Sample records for enfermos nsrr nutritional

  1. La nutrición enteral precoz en el enfermo grave Early enteral nutrition in the critically-ill patient


    B. García Vila; T. Grau


    La nutrición enteral se ha demostrado como un método eficaz y seguro de nutrir a los enfermos graves ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Aunque se desconoce cuánto tiempo puede estar un enfermo grave sin nutrición, el catabolismo acelerado y el ayuno pueden ser deletéreos en el enfermo grave y la recomendación más frecuente es la de empezar la nutrición artificial cuando se prevea un período de ayuno superior a los siete días. Las ventajas de la nutrición enteral sobre la nutrici...

  2. Start-up tests of NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Start up tests of the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) were carried out from June 25 to August 15, 1975. The course of tests is in three stage, i.e. critical approach and zero power, power-up and pulse operation. Performance of the reactor was shown to be in good agreement with the design specifications in both steady-state and pulse operations. Test procedures and the results are presented in four parts: (I) general, (II) zero-power tests, (III) power-up tests, and (IV) pulse operation tests. (auth.)

  3. Proceedings of the 24th NSRR technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others


    The 24th NSRR Technical Review Meeting was held at Tranomon Pastoral, Tokyo, on November 13 and 14, 2000. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss the recent progress of the NSRR program and other LWR fuel safety researches at JAERI. Twenty-one papers, including five by foreign institutes, were presented and discussed regarding fuel behavior during normal operation, reactivity initiated accident (RIA) and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and FP release behavior during severe accident. The meeting was a great help in planning future research and promoting research cooperation. This proceeding contains the papers presented in the meeting. (author)

  4. Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) program in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Hoshi, T.; Ohnishi, N.; Fujishiro, T.; Inabe, T.


    An experimental research program, named Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) Program, has been progressing in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) using a modified TRIGA-ACPR. This paper is prepared to describe the outline of the NSRR program. The purpose of the NSRR program is to examine the behaviors of fuel rods under various accidental conditions of power reactors so as to establish realistic safety criteria and to develop analytical models for prediction of fuel failures. We expect to contribute finally to the improvement of reactor design and fuel fabrication techniques based on these experimental results. The NSRR experiments will be performed in the large central experimental tube, which is one of the most excellent features of this reactor, using specially designed capsules or loops which can accommodate up to 49 BWR type test fuels. Many types of test fuels in various conditions will be examined by the NSRR program, such as BWR, PWR and FBR type fuels from the beginning of life to the end of life with and without simulated reactor internal structures. The experiments will be continued for more than 10 years divided into three phases. The first phase of the program will be devoted to the experiments pertaining to reactivity initiated accidents (RIA). In these experiments we will make use of the excellent pulsing capability of ACPR, which is expected to generate 100 MW-sec prompt energy release with 1.3 msec of minimum reactor period by 4.7 dollar reactivity insertion and to yield more than 280 cal/g-UO 2 heat deposit even in an approximately 10% enriched BWR type test fuel. (280 cal/g-UO 2 is believed enough heat deposit to cause fuel failure.) In general, heat flow behaviors from fuel meat to clad and from clad to coolant are very complex phenomena, but they are the key point in analyzing transient response of fuels. In the sudden heat transient conditions brought by pulsing, however, it will be possible to examine each phenomenon separately

  5. Annual progress report on the NSRR experiments, 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Fuel behavior studies in simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions have been performed by utilizing Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) since October 1975. This report describes the results obtained from experiments performed from January 1988 through March 1989. Those include 12 fuel parameter tests, 5 cooling condition parameter tests, 7 high energy deposition tests, 4 special measurement tests, 5 fuel damage tests, and 2 pre-irradiated fuel preparation tests. The status of code development and application is also reported. (author) 200 refs

  6. Evaluation of burnup characteristics and energy deposition during NSRR pulse irradiation tests on irradiated BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio


    Pulse irradiation tests of irradiated fuel are performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate the fuel behavior under Reactivity Initiated Accident Conditions (RIA). The severity of the RIA is represented by energy deposition or peak fuel enthalpy during the power excursion. In case of the irradiated fuel tests, the energy deposition varies depending both on the amounts and distribution of residual fissile and neutron absorbing fission products generated during the base irradiation. Thus, proper fuel burnup characterization, especially for low enriched commercial fuels, is important, because plutonium (Pu) takes a large part of fissile and its generation depends on the neutron spectrum during the base irradiation. Fuel burnup calculations were conducted with ORIGEN2, RODBURN and SWAT codes for the BWR fuels tested in the NSRR. The calculation results were compared with the measured isotope concentrations and used for the NSRR neutron calculations to evaluate energy depositions of the test fuel. The comparison of the code calculations and the measurements revealed that the neutron spectrum change due to difference in void fraction altered Pu generation and energy deposition in the NSRR tests considerably. With the properly evaluated neutron spectrum, the combined burnup and NSRR neutron calculation gave reasonably good evaluation of the energy deposition. The calculations provided radial distributions of the fission product accumulation during the base irradiation and power distribution during the NSRR pulse irradiation, which were important for the evaluation of both burnup characteristics and fission gas release behavior. (author)

  7. Application of digital process controller for automatic pulse operation in the NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishijima, K.; Ueda, T.; Saigo, M.


    The NSRR at JAERI is a modified TRIGA Reactor. It was built for investigating reactor fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. Recently, there has been a need to improve the flexibility of pulsing operations in the NSRR to cover a wide range of accidental situations, including RIA events at elevated power levels, and various abnormal power transients. To satisfy this need, we developed a new reactor control system which allows us to perform 'Shaped Pulse Operation: SP' and 'Combined Pulse Operation: CP'. Quick, accurate and complicated manipulation of control rods was required to realize these operations. Therefore we installed a new reactor control system, which we call an automatic pulse control system. This control system is composed of digital processing controllers and other digital equipments, and is fully automated and highly accurate. (author)

  8. Improvement of pulsing operation performance in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayasi, S.; Ishijima, K.; Tanzawa, S.; Fujishiro, T.; Horiki, O.


    The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) is one of the TRIGA-type research reactors widely used in the world, and has mainly been used for studying reactor fuel behaviour during postulated reactivity-initiated accidents (RIAs). Its limited pulsing operation capability, however, could produce only a power burst from low power level simulating an RIA event from essentially zero power level. A computerized automatic reactor control system was developed and installed in the NSRR to simulate a wide range of abnormal events in nuclear power plants. This digitalized reactor control system requires no manipulation of the control rods by reactor operators during the course of the pulsing operation. Using this fully automated operation system, a variety of power transients such as power ramping, power bursts from high power level, and so on were made possible with excellent stability and safety. The present modification work in the NSRR and its fruitful results indicate new possibilities in the utilization of the TRIGA type research reactor

  9. Simulation of Irradiated BWR fuel rod (TS) test in NSRR using FRAP-T6 and NSR-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Murofushi, Akira; Hosoyamada, Ryuji.


    Series of pulse irradiation tests have been performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate irradiated fuel rod performance under the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) conditions. Five tests, called Tests TS-1 through TS-5, were conducted in a period from 1989 to 1993 with irradiated 7x7 type BWR fuel rods provided from a commercial power plant. Simulation calculations of the TS tests were carried out with the FRAP-T6 code, which is widely used in the world to estimate fuel performance under various accident conditions, and with the NSR77 code, which describes fresh fuel rod performance well in the NSRR tests. Results of the calculation are compiled in this report and applicability of the codes to the irradiated BWR fuel rod tests is discussed. (author)

  10. Post irradiation examination of 14 x 14 PWR type fuel rod prior to pulse irradiation in NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Sasajima, Hideo; Katanishi, Shoji


    A 14 x 14 PWR type fuel rod which was used in commercial power reactor Mihama Unit 2 was provided for post irradiation examination (PIE) at Department of Hot Laboratories, JAERI prior to pulse irradiation in Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The main object of the examination was to characterize the initial conditions for the test fuel rods. This rod was segmented after PIE and provided for pulse irradiation at the NSRR, for the study of fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. Obtained data from non-destructive and destructive examination are summarized and reported here and will be useful for further study on failure mechanism of pre-irradiated PWR fuel during RIA. (author)

  11. Safety evaluation of the NSRR facility relevant to the modification for improved pulse operation and preirradiated fuel experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inabe, Teruo; Terakado, Yoshibumi; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo


    The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) is a pulse reactor for the inpile experiments to study the fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions. The present operation modes of the NSRR consist of the steady state operation up to 300 kW and the natural pulse operation in which a sharp pulsed power is generated from substantially zero power level. In addition to these, two new modes of shaped pulse operation and combined pulse operation will be conducted in the near future as the improved pulse operations. A transient power up to 10 MW will be generated in the shaped pulse operation, and a combination of a transient power up to 10 MW and a sharp pulsed power will be generated in the combined pulse operation. Furthermore, preirradiated fuel rods will be employed in the future experiments whereas the present experiments are confined to the test specimens of unirradiated fuel rods. To provide for these programs, the fundamental design works relevant to the modification of the reactor facility including the reactor instrumentation and control systems and experimental provision were developed. The reactor safety evaluation is prerequisite for confirming the propriety of the fundamental design of the reactor facility from the safety point of view. The safety evaluation was therefore conducted postulating such events that would bring about abnormal conditions in the reactor facility. As a result of the safety evaluation, it has been confirmed as to the NSRR facility after modification that the anticipated transients, the postulated accidents, the major accident and the hypothetical accident do not result respectively in any serious safety problem and that the fundamental design principles and the reactor siting are adequate and acceptable. (author)

  12. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.


    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  13. Soporte residencial de enfermos mentales crónicos


    Perona Garcelán, Salvador Félix; Cuevas Yust, Carlos; Martínez López, Manuel Jesús


    La atención de los enfermos mentales crónicos incluye el uso de técnicas y recursos tanto sanitarios como sociales. Entre estos se incluye el soporte residencial. En este artícu - lo se revisan distintos aspectos de dicho soporte, tales como: su fundamento técnico; su desarrollo histórico; diversas áreas que han sido objeto de estudio en la literatura científi - ca, relativas a los pacientes, los alojamientos, los profesionales y el vecindario; y las carac - terísticas específi...

  14. Influence of plutonium contents in MOX fuel on destructive forces at fuel failure in the NSRR experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Jinichi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takehiko; Kanazawa, Toru; Sasajima, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    In order to confirm safety margins of the Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel use in LWRs, pulse irradiation tests are planned in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) with the MOX fuel with plutonium content up to 12.8%. Impacts of the higher plutonium contents on safety of the reactivity-initiated-accident (RIA) tests are examined in terms of generation of destructive forces to threat the integrity of test capsules. Pressure pulses would be generated at fuel rod failure by releases of high pressure gases. The strength of the pressure pulses, therefore, depends on rod internal - external pressure difference, which is independent to plutonium content of the fuel. The other destructive forces, water hammer, would be generated by thermal interaction between fuel fragments and coolant water. Heat flux from the fragments to the water was calculated taking account of changes in thermal properties of MOX fuels at higher plutonium contents. The results showed that the heat transfer from the MOX fuel would be slightly smaller than that from UO{sub 2} fuel fragments at similar size in a short period to cause the water hammer. Therefore, the destructive forces were not expected to increase in the new tests with higher plutonium content MOX fuels. (author)

  15. El sentido cultural del cuidado en casa del enfermo

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    Marina Sánches-Sanabria


    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene un diseño cualitativo descriptivo, transversal para comprender las diferencias existentes en los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas influidas por la percepción o sentido cultural de cuidar del cuidador primario, como elemento básico para caracterizar elementos culturales presentes en el ambiente de cuidado al enfermo o discapacitado que está en casa a través de la indagación profunda de la percepción y sentimientos que tiene tanto el cuidador primario como el ser cuidado en casa. Se realizó con los usuarios inscritos del Programa de Promoción y Prevención de la indagación profunda de la percepción y sentimientos Universidad Popular del Cesar (IPS-UPC de los enfermos crónicos y discapacitados a nivel comunitario del grupo extramural de la comuna cinco y del Hospital Eduardo Arredondo Daza de la ciudad de Valledupar, Colombia. El valor de realizar este proyecto, está en desocultar los múltiples significados que en la realidad vivida por los seres cuidadores primarios y en los seres cuidados; son esas distintas formas de percibir la existencia, influido por el conocimiento de lo ancestral, los sentimientos y la sabiduría de la cultura que cada uno posee para expresarse en las múltiples formas que el cuidado lo acontece y lo requiere para dar el sentido cultural característico y diferenciado que se percibe en el modo de cuidar y la satisfacción de quien lo recibe y lo ofrece. Este aspecto fue valioso para la comunidad académica del programa de enfermería, porque ubicó epistémicamente la transculturalidad del cuidado como una mirada y forma de enseñar transdisciplinariamente, enseñando y ofreciendo el cuidado desde la cultura, sentimientos y pensamientos del ser cuidado para el mantenimiento de la vida y la salud, en la que estudiantes de enfermeria desde sus primeras experiencias formativas deben incursionar en la intervención holística que se requiere en el cuidado de la salud y de la vida.

  16. Nutrition. (United States)

    Durnin, J V


    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  17. NSRR experiment with un-irradiated uranium-zirconium hydride fuel. Design, fabrication process and inspection data of test fuel rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Hideo; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kuroha, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Aizawa, Keiichi


    An experiment plan is progressing in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to perform pulse-irradiation with uranium-zirconium hydride (U-ZrH{sub x}) fuel. This fuel is widely used in the training research and isotope production reactor of GA (TRIGA). The objectives of the experiment are to determine the fuel rod failure threshold and to investigate fuel behavior under simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. This report summarizes design, fabrication process and inspection data of the test fuel rods before pulse-irradiation. The experiment with U-ZrH{sub x} fuel will realize precise safety evaluation, and improve the TRIGA reactor performance. The data to be obtained in this program will also contribute development of next-generation TRIGA reactor and its safety evaluation. (author)

  18. Desarrollo de un programa psicoeducativo en inteligencia emocional para cuidadores principales de enfermos de Alzheimer

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    Esther Sitges Maciá


    Full Text Available A comienzos del año 2000 se dieron los primeros pasos en la constatación empírica de los efectos beneficiosos de la Inteligencia Emocional (IE sobre las personas. Sin embargo, y a pesar de estudiarse los beneficios de este constructo en diversos ámbitos como el educativo, el laboral o el de la salud, no existen demasiados trabajos centrados en el estudio que la IE pude tener sobre las habilidades sociales de los Cuidadores de Enfermos de Alzheimer. En el presente trabajo se evalúan las Habilidades Sociales y la IE de los cuidadores de enfermos de Alzheimer. Se realiza una intervención psicoeducativa a 21 cuidadores informales de enfermos de Alzheimer con un grupo experimental y un grupo control de las asociaciones de enfermos de Alzheimer de Alicante y Elche. Tras la intervención, se observa que los niveles de IE emocional en el grupo experimental se han mantenido. Los cuidadores verbalizaban una mejora tras la intervención. Creemos que los resultados son buenos como estudio preliminar y que sería interesante ampliar tanto el número de horas del taller como el de sujetos para poder generalizar los resultadosobtenidos.

  19. Experimental data report for test TS-3 Reactivity Initiated Accident test in the NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Fujishiro, Toshio; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sukegawa, Tomohide; Kikuchi, Teruo; Sobajima, Makoto.


    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-3 which was the third test in a series of Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) tests using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in September, 1990. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-3 was a short-sized BWR (7 x 7) type rod which was re-fabricated from a commercial rod irradiated in the Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor of Japan Atomic Power Co. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79 % and a burnup of 26 Gwd/tU. A pulse irradiation of the test fuel rod was performed under a cooling condition of stagnant water at atmospheric pressure and at ambient temperature which simulated a BWR's cold start-up RIA event. The energy deposition of the fuel rod in this test was evaluated to be 94 ± 4 cal/g · fuel (88 ± 4 cal/g · fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, transient behavior of the test rod during the pulse irradiation, and results of pre-pulse and post-pulse irradiation examinations are described in this report. (author)

  20. Asociación de familiares de enfermos de Alzheimer cubriendo un vacío

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    María de Perosanz Calleja

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Introducción: Existe una alta prevalencia de adultos mayores diagnosticados de demencia que generan una importante demanda de cuidados y recursos sociosanitarios. Los centros de día atienden a las personas en situaciones de dependencia y facilitan la integración familiar. Nuestras preguntas iniciales son acerca de las asociaciones de enfermos y familiares. ¿Cómo surgen y se organizan? ¿Qué servicios ofrecen? ¿Qué competencias desarrollan los profesionales de enfermería? Objetivo: Analizar la percepción que tienen los miembros del equipo de una asociación de familiares de enfermos de Alzheimer y otras demencias sobre el funcionamiento y el servicio que ofrecen a la sociedad. Material y métodos: Estudio cualitativo descriptivo, realizado en una asociación de familiares de enfermos de Alzheimer. Se realizan tres entrevistas semiestructuradas respetando las consideraciones éticas establecidas para los trabajos de investigación con personas. Resultados: Surgen tres categorías en el análisis de los relatos, la historia de la asociación, la estructura y organización del equipo interdisciplinar, destacando las competencias del profesional de enfermería y la oferta de servicios que ha desarrollado. Conclusiones: La asociación surge ante las necesidades de atención sentidas por parte de las familias y que no obtienen respuesta en otras instituciones. Se ha consolidado como un recurso imprescindible cuyo objetivo es mantener a la persona dependiente en su medio habitual y proporcionar apoyo a sus cuidadores. Atiende desde un equipo interdisciplinar que contribuye al desarrollo de unos fines comunes, donde la enfermería desarrolla las competencias propias de la profesión.

  1. NsrR, GadE, and GadX interplay in repressing expression of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 LEE pathogenicity island in response to nitric oxide.

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    Priscilla Branchu


    Full Text Available Expression of genes of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE is essential for adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC to intestinal epithelial cells. Gut factors that may modulate LEE gene expression may therefore influence the outcome of the infection. Because nitric oxide (NO is a critical effector of the intestinal immune response that may induce transcriptional regulation in enterobacteria, we investigated its influence on LEE expression in EHEC O157:H7. We demonstrate that NO inhibits the expression of genes belonging to LEE1, LEE4, and LEE5 operons, and that the NO sensor nitrite-sensitive repressor (NsrR is a positive regulator of these operons by interacting directly with the RNA polymerase complex. In the presence of NO, NsrR detaches from the LEE1/4/5 promoter regions and does not activate transcription. In parallel, two regulators of the acid resistance pathway, GadE and GadX, are induced by NO through an indirect NsrR-dependent mechanism. In this context, we show that the NO-dependent LEE1 down-regulation is due to absence of NsrR-mediated activation and to the repressor effect of GadX. Moreover, the inhibition of expression of LEE4 and LEE5 by NO is due to loss of NsrR-mediated activation, to LEE1 down-regulation and to GadE up-regulation. Lastly, we establish that chemical or cellular sources of NO inhibit the adherence of EHEC to human intestinal epithelial cells. These results highlight the critical effect of NsrR in the regulation of the LEE pathogenicity island and the potential role of NO in the limitation of colonization by EHEC.

  2. Plan de cuidados de enfermería al enfermo con insuficiencia renal


    Vélez Peláez, Margarita María


    El proceso de enfermería, como método científico, fundamenta la práctica de enfermería y permite diferenciar el diagnóstico de enfermería DdE, de los problemas interdependientes y de las complicaciones, resultado de la situación fisiopatológica o del tratamiento del enfermo con insuficiencia renal. El objetivo de este artículo es definir el plan de cuidados de enfermería después de conceptualizar en forma general sobre la filosofía renal.

  3. Espacio, afecto y subjetividad femenina en Arboleda de los enfermos de Teresa de Cartagena

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    Juan E. Villegas-Restrepo


    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el tratado de consuelo espiritual Arboleda de los enfermos de Teresa de Cartagena (c. 1415-1420a partir del desglose dialéctico entre las dinámicas espaciales (textuales, públicas, privadas, simbólicas que figuran en el texto y las cogniciones afectivas que dichas dinámicas propician. De manera más específica, el trabajo muestra cómo esta cognición afectiva, aunada a una serie de estrategias lingüísticas, le permiten a su autora ensamblar todo un espacio retórico femenino dentro del rígido andamiaje patriarcal de la época y, con ello, forjarse nuevas y más complejas maneras de pensarse a sí misma como sujeto femenino. This work analyzes Teresa de Cartagena’s treatise on spiritual counseling Arboleda de los enfermos based on a dialectical breakdown between the spatial dynamics (be them textual, public, private or symbolic that appear in the text and the affective cognitions that said dynamics elicit. More specifically, the work shows how this affective cognition, when coupled with a series of linguistic strategies, allow its author to assemble a female rhetorical space amidst the rigid patriarchal framework of the time and, with it, to forge new and more complex ways of imagining herself as a female subject.

  4. Estar críticamente enfermo significa no ser capaz y no poder decidir

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    Oscar Beltrán Salazar

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el significado para los pacientes críticamente enfermos hospitalizados en UCI de la experiencia de ser dependientes de los enfermeros para la satisfacción de las necesidades. Metodología: Investigación con enfoque fenomenológico realizada en Medellín en 2006; incluyó a nueve personas adultas entre 24 y 80 años que estuvieron críticamente enfermos y hospitalizados en UCI. La entrevista en profundidad se utilizó para la recolección de información. Los datos se analizaron según el esquema propuesto por Cohen, Kahan y Steeves. Resultados: Depender de otras personas para actuar y para decidir, el sufrimiento y el dolor influyen en la dureza de la experiencia de padecer una enfermedad grave. Discusión: No ser capaz de autosatisfacer las necesidades propias y no poder tomar decisiones contribuyen para que la experiencia de padecer una enfermedad grave sea "dura y difícil". Conclusión: la dependencia de los pacientes que padecen una enfermedad grave no debe ser asumida por los enfermeros sino que debe evaluarse en cada caso, lo mismo que las respuestas a dicha dependencia para asegurar el respeto por los derechos de las personas enfermas.

  5. Una mirada hacia las emociones que experimentan los trabajadores sociales que atienden enfermos terminales

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    Elisa Cerros Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Desde sus orígenes el trabajo social se ha enfrentado a un común denominador: el dolor humano en todas sus manifestaciones. Para hacer frente a estas situaciones, el trabajador social requiere de un conjunto de conocimientos y herramientas para atender de manera profesional al sujeto que demanda sus servicios profesionales. Pero, ¿qué pasa cuando hablamos del dolor físico y emocional que experimentan pacientes en etapa terminal? Donde el trabajador social atiende y acompaña de manera prolongada a éstos ¿qué emociones experimentan estos profesionales?, ¿sufren de agotamiento emocional? El presente trabajo documenta los resultados preliminares obtenidos en la investigación cualitativa realizada para explorar las emociones experimentadas por trabajadores sociales que intervienen profesionalmente con enfermos terminales. Se soporta teóricamente a partir de la teoría cognitiva de las emociones de Richard Lazarus. Se realizaron 25 entrevistas en profundidad a trabajadores sociales que laboran en tres instituciones públicas y una privada especializadas en atender a enfermos en etapa terminal, ubicadas en la ciudad de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México: el Instituto Jalisciense de Alivio al Dolor y Cuidados Paliativos (PALIA, el Hospital de Especialidades del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, el Hospital Regional Valentín Gómez Farías y el Albergue Fray Antonio Alcalde A.C. Entre las principales emociones experimentadas por los profesionales del trabajo social destacan la tristeza, el orgullo y la depresión. 

  6. Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes


    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: La demencia tipo Alzheimer es una de las causas más frecuentes de dependencia en población mayor, a lo que se une, la considerable demanda de cuidados. Además, cuando el cuidador es un familiar o una persona sin formación especializada, el cuidado tiene un impacto sobre su salud. Para conocer las necesidades de estos cuidadores y evaluar el nivel de sobrecarga o malestar del cuidador, se realiza la propuesta del Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer (IPSO-CA24. Método: En base a las respuestas de 255 cuidadores, se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mediante análisis de fiabilidad, análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios. Resultados: Los análisis factoriales informan de una estructura de seis factores relacionados (Reacción ante el diagnóstico, Salud física, Sintomatología psicológica (cuidador, Sintomatología conductual (enfermo, Conocimientos de la enfermedad y Nivel de dependencia, con una fiabilidad entre 0,75 y 0,93, que explican el 66,52% de la varianza total. También se obtiene apoyo para su validez convergente. Conclusiones: El IPSO-CA24 viene a dar respuesta a la necesidad de un instrumento que permita una valoración multidimensional de la sobrecarga del cuidador familiar sin formación especializada. © 2017 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY−NC−ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by−nc−nd/4.0/.

  7. Aspectos psicológicos de los enfermos con dermatitis atópica: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se realiza una revisión de las investigaciones publicadas sobre las características psicológicas de los enfermos con dermatitis atópica. Esta revisión permite constatar la ausencia de investigación básica sobre este tema. Las investigaciones han girado fundamentalmente en torno a las siguientes características psicosociales de estos enfermos: personalidad, ansiedad y depresión, relaciones materno-filiales, estrés y calidad de vida. Las impresiones clínicas parecen conceder un papel importante a los aspectos psicológicos en el desarrollo de este trastorno, pero las conclusiones de la literatura son poco consistentes.

  8. Asistencia al enfermo terminal en la atención primaria de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Espinosa Roca


    Full Text Available Los cuidados paliativos son una modalidad de la medicina en la que el ejercicio profesional se centra en la atención integral, activa y continuada del paciente y sus familiares, realizada por un equipo multidisciplinario cuando la expectativa no es la curación, sino proporcionar calidad de vida sin alargar la supervivencia. Deberá cubrir aspectos físicos, psicológicos, sociales y espirituales, si es necesario se extenderá al período de duelo. La siguiente revisión sienta las pautas a seguir con los enfermos terminales en la atención primaria de salud, así como la interdisciplinariedad que exige la atención a estos pacientes.Palliative care is a form of medicine in which professional practice focuses on general, active and continuous care both, to patient and their families, by a multidisciplinary team The expectation is not to heal the patient, but to provide a better life quality without prolonging survival. Palliative cares should cover physical, psychological, social and spiritual aspects and, if necessary, they will be extended to the mourning period. The following review provides the guidelines to be followed when dealing with terminal patients and the interdisciplinary approach that involves the care provided to these patients.  

  9. Análisis de las prestaciones sociosanitarias en los cuidadores familiares de enfermos de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Ruiz Fernández


    Full Text Available La demencia tipo Alzheimer constituye uno de los principales problemas de salud, debido a la discapacidad y dependencia que produce. Con la implementación de la ley 39/2006, se intenta dar respuesta a las necesidades, mediante un catálogo de servicios y recursos sociosanitarios de apoyo a los enfermos y a sus familiares. Para conocer el perfil de los beneficiarios de esas ayudas, teniendo en cuenta el conocimiento de los cuidadores, la fase y el nivel de dependencia, se realizó un estudio con 255 cuidadores/as familiares de personas diagnosticadas con demencia tipo Alzheimer. Los resultados muestran que, los cuidadores con conocimiento de la enfermedad y las personas que se encuentran en una fase más avanzada, son los que más recursos utilizan. En concreto, los cuidadores con conocimientos, utilizaron en mayor medida el respiro familiar, y los cuidadores en fase leve de la enfermedad son los que disfrutan mayoritariamente de los servicios de voluntariado y de ayuda a domicilio, mientras que en fases más avanzadas son beneficiarios del centro de día y de la prestación económica a cargo del familiar. Finalmente, destacar que el servicio de voluntariado se utiliza por los sujetos con menor nivel de dependencia, mientras que los más dependientes son los que más usan la prestación económica

  10. Acogida de la familia del paciente críticamente enfermo hospitalizado en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva


    María Teresa Uribe-Escalante


    Los Familiares generan valores y estilos de vida, son los más próximos al enfermo por compartir su intimidad. A la Familia hay que cuidarla para evitar su desintegración, indiferencia y crisis. Su abordaje requiere conocimiento de su estructura familiar. El alfabetismo emocional incluye el aprendizaje del control de las emociones y el reconocimiento de los sentimientos en situaciones de crisis

  11. Acogida de la familia del paciente críticamente enfermo hospitalizado en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Uribe-Escalante


    Full Text Available Los Familiares generan valores y estilos de vida, son los más próximos al enfermo por compartir su intimidad. A la Familia hay que cuidarla para evitar su desintegración, indiferencia y crisis. Su abordaje requiere conocimiento de su estructura familiar. El alfabetismo emocional incluye el aprendizaje del control de las emociones y el reconocimiento de los sentimientos en situaciones de crisis

  12. Perfil de cuidadores de enfermos en cuidados paliativos Caregivers of palliative care home patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Luxardo


    Full Text Available Diversos estudios coinciden en señalar que el hogar es el ámbito que pacientes y familiares prefieren para el cuidado del enfermo terminal y donde transcurre la mayor parte del último año de vida. Los cuidadores informales se han convertido en un importante componente de los cuidados paliativos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1 identificar y describir aspectos relevantes relativos a las tareas del cuidado de pacientes con enfermedades terminales en el hogar, desde la perspectiva de los propios cuidadores y 2 proponer una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de cuidados provistos, elaborando perfiles de cuidadores. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa mediante un cuestionario auto-administrado, con un diseño flexible de alcance exploratorio-descriptivo que incorporó técnicas cuantitativas para medir determinados aspectos analizados con el paquete estadístico SPSS (12.01. La unidad de análisis estuvo constituida por 50 cuidadores de pacientes con enfermedades terminales atendidos en el Servicio de Cuidados Paliativos del Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas A. Lanari (Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante los años 2007 y 2008. Tres aspectos fueron evaluados: a el cuidado cotidiano del paciente, b las percepciones sobre los deseos del enfermo y c las reflexiones sobre el propio papel del cuidador. Fueron identificados cuatro perfiles de cuidadores: 1 los satisfechos con la provisión de la atención dada, con soporte en una red organizada de amigos y familiares involucrados, 2 los potencialmente vulnerables, con aparente control de la situación pero con factores de riesgo de deterioro, 3 los que se sentían desbordados en estas tareas y que explícitamente expresaban las dificultades de cuidar y 4 los aislados en su rol, compuesto por esposas solas que preferían no molestar ni pedir ayuda.Research suggests that patients spend most of the last year of their life at home and that this is the place where they often choose to stay

  13. Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo


    Rocha,Paulo Novis


    A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1) analisa...

  14. Repercusiones bio-psico-sociales en cuidadores informales de enfermos de alzheimer en la ciudad de Salamanca


    Grueso Pérez, Aida


    [ES]A través de este estudio pretendemos conocer detalladamente los aspectos de la salud integral del cuidador que se ven afectados por el cuidado de un familiar enfermo de Alzheimer. Identificar y analizar los problemas bio-psico-sociales que se producen en los cuidadores informales. Describir y analizar las repercusiones que tiene el cuidado de un familiar con Enfermedad de Alzheimer en la salud tanto física, psicológica como social de los cuidadores informales. La colaboración ...

  15. Historial oral y memoria de los enfermos de Hansen en dos lazaretos de Colombia: trayectorias de vida, conflictos y resistencias


    Botero-Jaramillo, Natalia; Mora-Blanco, Jessica; Quesada-Jiménez, Nelson Daniel


    Resumen Investiga la historia oral de la enfermedad de Hansen en dos comunidades de Colombia que fueron hasta 1961 lazaretos. La historia oral en torno de la enfermedad ha permitido conjugar la memoria individual con la memoria colectiva. Esta historia ha quedado en la oralidad y pocos trabajos académicos la han recopilado. Utilizamos la historia oral como método de investigación cualitativo, para analizar cómo enfermos y convivientes se posicionan ante la enfermedad y cómo atraviesa toda su ...

  16. Historial oral y memoria de los enfermos de Hansen en dos lazaretos de Colombia: trayectorias de vida, conflictos y resistencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Botero-Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Resumen Investiga la historia oral de la enfermedad de Hansen en dos comunidades de Colombia que fueron hasta 1961 lazaretos. La historia oral en torno de la enfermedad ha permitido conjugar la memoria individual con la memoria colectiva. Esta historia ha quedado en la oralidad y pocos trabajos académicos la han recopilado. Utilizamos la historia oral como método de investigación cualitativo, para analizar cómo enfermos y convivientes se posicionan ante la enfermedad y cómo atraviesa toda su existencia, resignificando los conceptos de salud y enfermedad, de normalidad y anormalidad, y cómo en sus trayectorias de vida emprendieron estrategias de resistencia que les permitiera aproximarse a la normalidad, desde sus propias significaciones socioculturales.

  17. Enfermos renales hispanoamericanos en la época de las redes sociales virtuales: análisis de contenido de sus publicaciones, 2010 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Mercado-Martínez


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la utilización de las redes sociales virtuales (RSV por parte de personas con enfermedad renal crónica, sus cuidadores y familiares, residentes en países hispanoamericanos e identificar los temas y subtemas más frecuentes en sus publicaciones. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo de las publicaciones de los enfermos renales crónicos, sus cuidadores y familiares, residentes en Hispanoamérica en cinco redes sociales: Blogger, Facebook, Twitter, Wordpress y YouTube, entre 2010 y 2012. Se utilizaron los motores internos de cada red con términos médicos y legos: enfermedad renal crónica, insuficiencia renal, diálisis peritoneal, hemodiálisis, trasplante renal, enfermo renal, paciente renal, nefrópata y asociación de enfermos renales. Se realizó el análisis de contenido temático de 1 846 publicaciones de Facebook, Blogger y Wordpress. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 162 cuentas (97 individuales y 65 colectivas; la mayoría se localizó en México (46 y en Argentina, Chile, Colombia y Perú (44 cuentas. Los temas más frecuentes fueron el intercambio de información (46,0%, el relato de vivencias como enfermo (17,9%, el apoyo (15,6%, los relatos sobre experiencias con los servicios de salud (8,5%, la interacción con pares (3,5% y la promoción de cambios de conducta (3,4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los enfermos renales crónicos residentes en Hispanoamerica utilizan las RSV para informar e informarse, relatar sus vivencias con la enfermedad y los servicios de salud, y como mecanismo de apoyo. Esto genera conocimientos diferentes y complementarios a los aportados por los profesionales de la salud. Urge fomentar estudios sobre las posibilidades que brindan estas tecnologías en las Américas, región caracterizada por una enorme desigualdad social.

  18. Subjective versus objective stress in noncritically ill hospitalized and outpatient adult men Estresse subjetivo versus objetivo em homens não criticamente enfermos ambulatoriais e hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Karkow


    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of 120 subjects was performed with the purpose of evaluating stress hormones and emotional stress (anxiety in outpatient and hospitalized subjects. The aims were to determine the degree of objective stress, as well as to correlate this finding with subjective findings, estimated using Beck's Anxiety Inventory.. METHOD: Three populations were investigated, namely outpatient clinical cases (Group I, n = 30, hospitalized clinical individuals (Group II, n = 30, and hospitalized surgical candidates (Group III, n = 30. Controls (Group IV, n = 30 were healthy volunteers who were health-care professionals and students. To avoid hormone interactions, only men were enrolled in all groups. All hospitalized subjects were tested on admission and before therapeutic interventions. Fasting epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were measured in the morning, and Beck's Anxiety Inventory was adminstered by a trained psychologist. RESULTS: The 3 patient groups displayed higher anxiety levels than the controls. Hormone concentrations did not present remarkable changes and did not correlate with subjective stress (anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Subjective disorders (as determined with Beck's Anxiety Inventory were a common finding in both outpatient and hospitalized populations, without differences between the various groups; 2 Objective stress (as determined by elevated hormone levels was more difficult to confirm-findings rarely exceeded the reference range; 3 Correlation between the two variables could not be demonstrated; 4 Further studies are necessary to define stress quantification and interpretation in patient populations, especially in relationship with nutritional diagnosis and dietetic prescription.Um estudo transversal de 120 indivíduos foi executado visando avaliar hormônios do estresse e estresse subjetivo (ansiedade em casos ambulatoriais e hospitalizados. O objetivo era determinar o grau de estresse objetivo, bem como

  19. Percepción del apoyo social funcional en cuidadores familiares de enfermos crónicos

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    Olga Marina Vega-Angarita


    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la percepción del apoyo social funcional en cuidadores familiares de enfermos crónicos en San José de Cúcuta, Colombia. Método: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo de corte transversal, con aplicación de dos instrumentos: caracterización de los cuidadores y el Cuestionario de Apoyo Social Funcional de Duke-Unc. Participaron 179 cuidadores de personas con enfermedades crónicas, no institucionalizados. Resultados: la mayoría de los cuidadores (54,7% tienen una percepción inadecuada frente al apoyo social funcional global brindado por su entorno más cercano; el 45,3% expresa lo contrario. Sobre la dimensión del apoyo confidencial el mayor porcentaje de los participantes (53,6% tiene una percepción inad cuada, mientras que el 46,4% considera que es la mejor; con un comportamiento similar en la dimensión afectiva se encontró que el 51,4% de los cuidadores tiene una percepción inadecuada, y el 48,6% la describen como adecuada. Conclusiones: los resultados reportados en las dimensiones sugieren la necesidad de que enfermería fortalezca la integración de los cuidadores en los sistemas formales e informales para que, a través de ellos, los sujetos perciban mayor apoyo de su ambiente social, facilitando así los procesos de afrontamiento y adaptación a las demandas que le plantea su nueva realidad.

  20. La enfermedad de Alzheimer como factor de riesgo posicosomático para el familiar cuidador de enfermos crónicos discapacitados


    Muñoz-Cruzado y Barba, Miguel


    El compendio de distresores a que está sometida la persona encargada de l cuidado de un familiar enfermo crónico discapacitado, supone la presentación de gran cantidad de dolencias de orden biopsicosocial, encuadradas en la disciplina Enfermedades Psicosomáticas. El presente estudio trató de identificar si la Enfermedad de Alzheimer EA del receptor de los cuidados añade riesgos de dolencias psicosomáticas en el cuidador. HIPÓTESIS La EA del receptor de cuidados supone un factor de riesgo psic...

  1. Estudio económico del tiempo de cuidado informal como factor de producción de salud en el enfermo de Alzheimer no institucionalizado


    Berta Rivera; Bruno Casal; Luis Currais


    La enfermedad de Alzheimer representa una carga importante en términos de tiempo para el cuidador del enfermo no institucionalizado. El objetivo de este artículo es estimar el coste del tiempo del cuidado informal según el tipo de discapacidad y estudiar los factores determinantes de su variabilidad. El análisis empírico se ha realizado a partir de los datos obtenidos de un cuestionario retrospectivo administrado por el cuidador, utilizando un modelo de estimación probabilístico. Los resultad...

  2. Tratamiento nutricional de los enfermos con pancreatitis aguda: cuando el pasado es presente Nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis: when the past is present


    A. García Almansa; P. García Peris


    Los pacientes con pancreatitis aguda sufren con frecuencia un acusado deterioro de su estado nutricional. En algunos éste es ya anterior a su ingreso hospitalario, como ocurre en muchos casos de etiología alcohólica. En otras ocasiones la desnutrición se manifiesta posteriormente en el seno de una pancreatitis de larga evolución o complicada, que impide una correcta alimentación por un tiempo prolongado. A todo ello hay que sumar el hipercatabolismo proteico y el estrés que presentan estos en...

  3. Estudio a 2 años para medir la eficacia del fentanilo intranasal en pectina en el dolor irruptivo en enfermos con dolor no oncológico de edad avanzada


    R. Salazar Vecino


    Los enfermos con dolor de moderado a intenso en patologías no oncológicas reciben habitualmente opioides para el control de su dolor. Muchos de ellos también padecen dolor irruptivo de las mismas características que el oncológico, sobre todo incidental a la deambulación, que en este estudio tratamos con fentanilo nasal en pectina. Se trata de 22 enfermos en la visita basal -20 mujeres (M) y 2 varones (V)- con dolor crónico no oncológico, de edad avanzada 74,7 (60-88), en un seguimiento de 24 ...

  4. Patología, escritura y género en el fin de siglo: Alma contemporánea y Manual del perfecto enfermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba del Pozo García


    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda dos ensayos españoles sobre la enfermedad publicados en el cambio de siglo XIX-XX, de José María Llanas Aguilaniedo (Alma contemporánea, 1899 y de Rafael Urbano (Manual del perfecto enfermo, 1911. Se examina el modo en el que asumen la neurosis masculina como una manifestación positiva e inevitable de la vida moderna, en línea con el ambiente cultural de un fin de siglo marcado por los discursos médicos y la correlación que establecen entre el genio, la producción artística y las patologías psiquiátricas. Ambos textos se identifican con la retórica clínica y plantean un propósito curativo explícito. Sin embargo, en lugar de limitarse a reproducir el binomio enfermo/sano, lo van a problematizar, puesto que la categoría de enfermedad que desarrollan se va a desligar del modelo médico para desplazarse al terreno de la subjetividad, la escritura y la identidad. This paper analyses two Spanish essays on illness published during the fin de siècle: José María Llanas Aguilaniedo’s 1899 Alma contemporánea and Rafael Urbano’s 1911 Manual del perfecto enfermo. The focus lies on how masculine neurosis is read as a sign of modern struggles in a fin de siècle culture characterized by the hegemony of medical discourses and the relationship between genius, artistic production, and psychiatric pathologies. Both texts are associated to medical discourses and suggest healing strategies. In this scope, the typical ill/health opposition undergoes a critical turn. In fact, these texts depict a notion of illness that undermines medical rhetoric, placing illness in the field of subjectivity, writing and identity.

  5. Caracterización de las necesidades psicosociales del enfermo oncológico terminal Characterization of the psychosocial needs of oncological terminal patients

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    María de los Angeles Garrido Pérez


    Full Text Available Introducción: a pesar del desarrollo alcanzado en la medicina, se han incrementado las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas y malignas y con ellas el aumento de los enfermos terminales. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo principal la identificación de las necesidades psicosociales de los enfermos oncológicos en situación terminal del policlínico José Martí del municipio de Camagüey que se encontraban ingresados en el hogar durante el año 2011. Material y métodos: se les aplicó una encuesta a 50 pacientes para valorar comportamiento de la comunicación sobre la enfermedad tanto con el médico como con sus familiares, así como la satisfacción ante el tratamiento médico, acompañamiento familiar y atención recibida por el equipo de salud. Los datos obtenidos fueron procesados de forma computarizada mediante el empleo de métodos de estadística descriptiva, los mismos se expresaron en forma de tablas. Resultados y Discusión: el análisis de los resultados indicó que el 90 % de los enfermos habla poco del tema con el médico que lo atiende; asimismo, el 84 % de los pacientes terminales conversa poco con la familia acerca de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones. El 100 % de los pacientes mostraron satisfacción con la atención recibida. La relación con los integrantes del equipo de cuidados paliativos, el 100 % de los encuestados lo calificó como bueno. Conclusiones: aunque hay aspectos del bienestar psicosocial de estos enfermos que pueden considerarse de nivel satisfactorio existen otros que requieren un mejor enfoque tanto por los pacientes, como por el personal médico.Introduction: Despite the development reached in the field of medicine, degenerative and malignant chronic diseases have increased, and with them, the number of terminal patients. The main objective of this work was to identify the psychosocial needs of the oncological terminal patients that had been hospitalized in 2011, at José Martí polyclinic in the

  6. Nutrition Basics (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  7. Nutrition Research. (United States)


    Athletic Performance 71% Nutrition and Coronary Heart Disease 68% Weight Control 67% Nutrition and Cancer 61% Sugar and Fiber in the Diet 46% Vegetarianism ...interested 4 0 .9% D. Not interested E. Don’t know 20. Diet , Nutrition and Athletic Performance 20 .9%A. Fairly interested 29 .3% B. Moderately interested...identify by block number) The objectives of this research centered in two major areas. A computerized nutritional analysis of the diet offered to USAFA

  8. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G


    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arturo Sánchez Parra


    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los espacios tales como los Comités de Lucha, Casas del Estudiante Universitario como lugares de sociabilidad estudiantil donde se gestó la radicalidad y legitimación del uso de la violencia como estrategia para la toma del poder en México por parte de un grupo estudiantil de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa denominados como "Enfermos". Asimismo, se estudian las producciones textuales, periódicos, volantes, poesía o las prácticas de lectura que en estos ámbitos de despliegue de dinámicas relacionales se llevaron a cabo como parte de un conjunto de estrategias empleadas para promover una educación política que concientizara a sus miembros en la necesidad de tomar las armas contra el Estado Mexicano, destruirlo e instaurar la dictadura del proletariado. Este proceso de politización adquirido previo a la movilización y el combate armado les dio un cariz especial a los "estudiantes revolucionarios" en la entidad sinaloense, ubicada en el noroeste mexicano entre los años de 1972a 1978. Se trabaja con la metodología de la historia política y cultural sustentado en fuentes primarias, orales y bibliográficas.

  10. Raíces culturales del radicalismo político universitario. El caso de los enfermos de la UAS: 1972-1978

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    Sergio Arturo Sánchez Parra


    Full Text Available El trabajo pretende analizar la importancia que tuvieron los factores de orden cultural e ideo - lógico que imperaron en la Universidad Autó - noma de Sinaloa (UAS, para que un grupo de estudiantes conocidos como Los Enfermos de la UAS radicalizaran sus posturas políticas y deci - dieran adoptar la lucha armada como estrategia política para la toma del poder en México en los años setenta del siglo XX. Entre esos elementos que provocaron lo que denominamos como mutación cultural, destacamos la pedagogía política de la prensa universitaria, la difusión de una cultura revolucionaria sustentadas en un cúmulo de producciones discursivas por medio de instancias de la propia institución, como Radio UAS, Librería Universitaria, Edi - torial y los cambios a planes y programas de estudio que coadyuvaron a politizar los espíri - tus de decenas de jóvenes que asumieron que la violencia guerrillera era la vía para transformar a la sociedad.

  11. Nutritional epigenetics (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  12. Sports Nutrition. (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  13. Estudio cualitativo sobre la atención médica a los enfermos crónicos en el Seguro Popular A qualitative study on health care to chronically ill people in Popular Health Insurance program

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    Luis Eduardo Hernández-Ibarra


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar la atención médica que brinda el Seguro Popular a los enfermos crónicos en México, desde la perspectiva de quienes padecen las enfermedades y también de los profesionales de la salud. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo en la ciudad de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, donde se entrevistó a 40 enfermos crónicos y a 14 profesionales sanitarios de primer nivel; posteriormente, se realizó un análisis crítico del discurso. RESULTADOS: El Seguro Popular ha significado ganancias y pérdidas para los participantes. Los enfermos lo valoran positivamente al considerarlo un regalo, mas no un derecho social. Sus carencias económicas y de recursos les impiden acceder a la atención médica, obtener medicamentos y realizarse estudios de laboratorio, también generándose relaciones conflictivas con los profesionales. CONCLUSIÓN: Los propósitos del Seguro Popular distan de lograrse en la atención a los enfermos crónicos. El Seguro tendría que ser objeto de análisis, y otorgar prioridad a la perspectiva de los enfermos y del personal de salud operativo.OBJECTIVE: To examine health care provided to chronically ill people in the Popular Health Insurance (Seguro Popular from the perspective of patients and health professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. 40 chronically ill people, and 14 health professionals of primary health centers participated in the study. Information was gathered using semi-structured interviews; critical discourse analysis was carried out. RESULTS: Seguro Popular has meant gains and losses to participants. Cronically ill people value it positively since it is perceived as a gift, not a social right. Some obstacles impede participants accessing health care, obtaining medications and analysis. Conflictive relations also cause tensions between patients and health professionals. CONCLUSION: The initial goals of Seguro Popular are


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    Danny Kurniawan Darianto


    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  15. Incremento da depuração renal em pacientes gravemente enfermos: incidência, fatores associados e efeitos no tratamento com vancomicina

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    María Luz Campassi


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Foi descrito um incremento da depuração renal em alguns grupos de pacientes gravemente enfermos, o qual pode induzir à eliminação de concentrações de fármacos por filtração glomerular aquém do ideal, principalmente no caso de antibióticos. Sua ocorrência e os fatores determinantes têm sido pouco estudados. Nossos objetivos foram determinar a incidência e os fatores associados ao incremento da depuração renal, bem como seus efeitos nas concentrações e na posologia de vancomicina em uma série de pacientes em unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Estudamos, de forma prospectiva, 363 pacientes admitidos durante 1 ano em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínico-cirúrgica. Foram excluídos pacientes que tivessem nível de creatinina sérica >1,3mg/dL. A depuração de creatinina foi calculada a partir da coleta de urina de 24 horas. Os pacientes foram agrupados segundo a presença de incremento da depuração renal (depuração de creatinina >120mL/min/1,73m2, e os possíveis fatores de risco foram analisados por meio de análise bivariada e logística. Em pacientes tratados com vancomicina, foram registradas a posologia e as concentrações plasmáticas. Resultados: O incremento da depuração renal esteve presente em 103 pacientes (28%, os quais eram mais jovens (48±15 versus 65±17 anos; p<0,0001, tinham mais frequentemente admissões obstétricas (16 versus 7%; p=0,0006 e por trauma (10 versus 3%; p=0,016, e menos comorbidades. Os únicos determinantes independentes para o desenvolvimento de incremento da depuração renal foram idade (OR=0,95; IC95%=0,93-0,96; p<0,0001; e ausência de diabetes (OR 0,34; IC95% 0,12-0,92; p=0,03. Doze dos 46 pacientes que receberam vancomicina tinham incremento da depuração renal e, apesar das doses elevadas, tinham concentrações plasmáticas de vancomicina mais baixas. Conclusões: Nessa coorte de pacientes gravemente enfermos, foi frequente o achado de incremento da depura

  16. Sobrecarga, psicopatologías y relación con el farmacéutico comunitario en cuidadores informales de enfermos de Alzheimer

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    Vérez Cotelo N


    Full Text Available Introducción: El cuidado diario de un familiar enfermo de Alzheimer (EA supondrá un estrés emocional y físico importante para el cuidador. El resultado puede desembocar en un intenso sentimiento de sobrecarga y conducir a diversas psicopatologías como depresión, ansiedad, agresividad, astenia psicofísica, etc. El aumento en la incidencia de la enfermedad está provocando escasez de cuidadores y falta de apoyo social e institucional a las familias que se encargan de cuidar a un EA. Objetivos: Revisar las características del apoyo que las estructuras sociales y sanitarias prestan a los cuidadores informales (CI de EA, conocer su perfil, la percepción que tienen de su situación y su estado de ánimo, detectar posibles psicopatologías que les afecten, cuantificar el nivel de sobrecarga, evaluar el apoyo social percibido, el grado de satisfacción familiar y la relación con su farmacia habitual. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal en el que participan CI de EA no institucionalizados, reclutados en las asociaciones de familiares de EA de Galicia, mayores de 18 años y que den su consentimiento informado. Variable principal: puntuación del test de Zarit de sobrecarga del cuidador. Otras: socio-demográficas, ansiedad (STAI, depresión (Beck y apoyo social (Duke-UNC y familiar (APGAR percibido. Discusión: Los resultados de la metodología implementada en este estudio pueden servir para desarrollar programas similares en la farmacia comunitaria, en la que los farmacéuticos comunitarios colaboren en la detección de posibles psicopatologías, y contribuir, mediante la prestación de servicios profesionales, a conseguir una mejora en la calidad de vida y estado de salud de los cuidadores.

  17. Redes y apoyo social en ancianos enfermos de escasos recursos en Guadalajara, México Social network and social support among poor elderly ill in Guadalajara, Mexico

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    Leticia Robles


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la composición de las redes y el apoyo social de ancianos enfermos de escasos recursos en Guadalajara, México. Se entrevistaron a 40 ancianos durante su hospitalización con un cuestionario de preguntas abiertas. Las redes sociales de estos ancianos están compuestas por 7,5 integrantes en promedio, principalmente mujeres, son redes multigeneracionales e incluyen a la familia extensa. Las redes en su mayoría proporcionan apoyo emocional. Las ancianas tienen redes más grandes y reciben más apoyo social en comparación a los ancianos varones; los ancianos casados y viudos, a su vez, tienen redes más grandes y reciben más apoyo social que los solteros. No hay diferencias por la edad y con quien vive en la unidad doméstica. Se requieren futuros estudios sobre los aspectos culturales y sociales sobre el tema.This paper examines social networks and social support among poor elderly ill in Guadalajara, Mexico. We interviewed 40 hospitalized elderly patients. The mean size of social networks was 7.5, basically involving women, multiple generations, and members of the extended family. Emotional support was more frequent than other types of social support. Elderly women had larger social networks and received more social support than men. Married elderly also had larger social networks and more social support than single patients. There were no differences between age and living arrangements with social networks and social support. Future studies are needed on the social and cultural environment of social support for the elderly.

  18. Control de Calidad de una intervención enfermera en Prevención de Caídas de los enfermos postquirúrgicos.

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    Elena Ramos Hernández


    Full Text Available Durante la hospitalización el paciente se enfrenta a una serie de riesgos que ponen en juego su integridad y seguridad, dentro de ellos están las caídas.Objetivo: evaluar la intervención enfermera durante la fase postquirúrgica de la estancia hospitalaria, aplicando un protocolo encaminado a reducir el riesgo de sufrir una caída.Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal, con una muestra de 48 pacientes ingresados en fase postquirúrgica.Conclusiones: Los datos encontrados después del análisis demuestran el alto nivel de implantación del protocolo. Valoramos realizar un protocolo específico para aplicar en enfermos que se encuentran solos en la fase postquirúrgica.AbstractQuality control of an intervention nurse in Prevention of Falls of the postsurgical patientsDuring the hospitalization the patients is facing a number of risks that put at stake theirs integrity and security, within them are falls.Objective: To determine an intervention of nursing during his/her stay at the post-surgical Therapy with one protocol for to reduce the risk of undergoing a fallMethodology: It was performed a observational study, transversal with 48 patients from the post-surgical therapy.Conclusions: The data found after the analysis demonstrate the high level of implantation of the protocol. We value to realise a specific protocol to apply in patients who are single in the postsurgical phase.

  19. Duelo y muerte en cuidadores familiares y profesionales de enfermos de Alzheimer Mourning and death in informal and professional caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients

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    Enrique Pérez-Godoy Díaz


    Full Text Available Como en cualquier proceso crónico y degenerativo abocado a la muerte, la enfermedad de Alzheimer y las demencias provocan en sus cuidadores familiares y profesionales diversos sentimientos, procesos y duelos tanto ante la muerte real como la muerte psíquica. Utilizando una metodología cualitativa analizamos diversos casos de cuidadores de enfermos de Alzheimer institucionalizados en un centro sociosanitario de donde concluimos que no sólo la muerte real puede provocar un duelo en los cuidadores sino también la pérdida inexorable de capacidades, y en último término su muerte psíquica. Esta muerte afecta también a cuidadores profesionales posiblemente porque les muestra su propia vulnerabilidad como seres humanos, recordándoles su propia muerte y lo que podría percibirse como más cruel: la posibilidad de una muerte en vida.Alzheimer's disease and other dementias can cause in caregivers diverse feelings, processes and mournings, which are lived in different ways. This occurs both in psychological and actual death. By using a methodology of a qualitative research, we look through some different cases of caregivers whose relatives are living in an institution. We conclude that not only the actual death can cause a sense of mourning in caregivers of dementia patients, but also the inexorable loss of capacities and eventually their "psychological" death. This death also possibly affects the professional caregivers because it shows them their vulnerability as human beings. This type of death makes them to think about the possibility of a death in life.

  20. Un enfoque cualitativo a las barreras de adherencia terapéutica en enfermos crónicos de Guanajuato, México

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    Grever María Ávila-Sansores


    Full Text Available El perfil epidemiológico en México está dominado por enfermedades crónico-degenerativas y lesiones, estas a su vez están asociadas a las condiciones de vida actual. La OPS y la OMS aconsejan el estudio de barreras que impiden la atención de calidad. Objetivo: explorar la percepción de las barreras personales y sociales hacia el tratamiento de personas con estados crónicos: diabetes e hipertensión. Materiales y métodos: estudio cualitativo, con un componente descriptivo. La muestra estuvo conformada por diabéticos e hipertensos de colonias marginales. Muestreo de tipo intencional. La recolección de la información se realizó por medio de en trevistas semiestructuradas y audio-grabadas. Se trabajó con 3 grupos focales de 3 personas por grupo. Un 77 % casado, 77 % analfabeta, 77 % labores del hogar, 56 % diabéticos tipo 2,22 % hipertensos, 22 % diabéticos con hipertensión. Las barreras percibidas encontradas fueron: creencias relacionadas con el tratamiento, falta de conocimientos y habilidades para la dieta, descontento con la dieta, falta de apoyo familiar, dificultades económicas, falta de conocimientos sobre la medicación, indiferencia hacia el ejercicio, desconfianza y temor a los estudios de laboratorio. Discusión y conclusión: para Rosentock, en tanto que las claves para la acción incitan a las actividades preventivas para la salud, las barreras percibidas indican los caminos para la acción. Es necesario superar barreras y ayudar al enfermo crónico a convivir con la enfermedad.

  1. Space Nutrition (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.


    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  2. Nutritional surveillance. (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T


    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  3. Modelo pedagógico terapéutico asistencial: un recurso didáctico aplicado a enfermos con insuficiencia renal

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    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente estudio se enmarca dentro de una línea de acción centrada en las necesidades educativas y asistenciales especiales de personas afectadas por una insuficiencia renal. Con este trabajo hemos pretendido mejorar la comprensión del paciente respecto al tratamiento así como el aprendizaje básico de su cuidado personal, proporcionándole una información objetiva mediante el empleo adecuado de recursos didácticos específicos. A tal fin, elaboramos un modelo pedagógico terapéutico asistencial para su aplicación a los enfermos renales, en el que incluimos un CD informativo, objeto de evaluación del mismo.ABSTRACT: The present study is framed inside an action line centered in the special educational and assistance necessities of people affected by a kidney failure. With this work we have sought to improve the patient's understanding regarding the treatment as well as the basic learning of their personal care, providing him an objective information by means of the appropriate employment of specific didactic resources. To such an end, we elabórate an assistance therapeutic pedagogic model for their application to people with renal disease, in which we include an informative CD, object of evaluation of the same one.RÉSUMÉ: Cet étude se trouve dans une ligne d'action basée sur les besoins d'une education et d'une assistance spéciales des persones touchées d'une insuffisance rénale. Avec ce travail nous voulons améliorer la comprehénsion du patient par rapport au traitement et par rapport a l'apprentissage basique de son soin personnel, en lui offrant une information objective de l'emploi adéquat des recours didactiques spécifiques. Pour cela, nous avons elaboré un modele pédagogique thérapeutique assistential destinée aux malades renales, avec lequel nous avons inclu un CD informatif, qui servirá a évaluer ce modele.

  4. Atividade basal de acetilcolinesterase e níveis plasmáticos de serotonina não se associam ao delirium em pacientes gravemente enfermos

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    Cristiane Damiani Tomasi


    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar se os níveis plasmáticos de serotonina e atividade de acetilcolinesterase determinados por ocasião da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva preveem a ocorrência de disfunção cerebral aguda em pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Foi conduzido no período entre maio de 2009 e setembro de 2010 um estudo prospectivo de coorte em uma amostra com 77 pacientes não consecutivos. A ocorrência de delirium foi determinada utilizando a ferramenta Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit, tendo sido determinadas as avaliações de acetilcolinesterase e serotonina em amostras de sangue coletadas até um máximo de 24 horas após admissão do paciente à unidade de terapia intensiva. Resultados: No presente estudo, 38 pacientes (49,6% desenvolveram delirium durante sua permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva. Nem os níveis de atividade de acetilcolinesterase nem os de serotonina tiveram associação independente com delirium. Não se observaram correlações significantes entre atividade de acetilcolinesterase e níveis de serotonina com o número de dias livres de delirium/coma, porém, em pacientes que desenvolveram delirium, ocorreu uma forte correlação negativa entre níveis de acetilcolinesterase e número de dias livres de delirium/coma, demonstrando que níveis mais elevados de acetilcolinesterase se associaram com menos dias de vida sem delirium e coma. Nenhuma associação foi identificada entre os biomarcadores e mortalidade. Conclusão: Nem a atividade de acetilcolinesterase nem os níveis séricos de serotonina se associaram com delirium ou disfunção cerebral aguda em pacientes gravemente enfermos. A ocorrência de sepse não modificou esse relacionamento.

  5. Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis

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    Paulo Novis Rocha


    Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1 analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2 avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3 analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4 fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação.Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1 analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2 comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3 critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized

  6. Estudio comparativo entre enfermos trasplantados de páncreas-riñón simultáneo en diálisis peritoneal frente a hemodiálisis


    Marcacuzco Quinto, Alberto Alejandro


    La Diabetes Mellitus es una enfermedad crónica que agrupa a un conjunto de enfermedades metabólicas caracterizadas por la hiperglucemia y aparece cuando el organismo no puede producir suficiente insulina o no puede usar la insulina eficazmente. Esta enfermedad se asocia con graves complicaciones que aumentan la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los enfermos que la sufren. El riesgo de desarrollar una nefropatía aumenta con los años de evolución de la enfermedad. La progresión de esta complicación...

  7. Análisis de las actitudes ante la muerte y el enfermo al final de la vida en estudiantes de enfermería de Andalucía y Cataluña


    Colell Brunet, Ramon


    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Trabajar en un contexto de pérdida como es en el proceso de morir, implica vivir día a día con las emociones generando un fuerte impacto en el personal asistencial. Emociones que en su mayoría, serán negativas como la pena, la culpa, la tristeza y el miedo entre otras. El colectivo de Enfermería es de los más afectados al estar muy cerca y trabajar durante muchas horas, con el enfermo al final de su vida. El principal ob...

  8. Análisis de las actitudes ante la muerte y el enfermo al final de la vida en estudiantes de enfermería de Andalucía y Cataluña


    Colell Brunet, Ramon


    Trabajar en un contexto de pérdida como es en el proceso de morir, implica vivir día a día con las emociones generando un fuerte impacto en el personal asistencial. Emociones que en su mayoría, serán negativas como la pena, la culpa, la tristeza y el miedo entre otras. El colectivo de Enfermería es de los más afectados al estar muy cerca y trabajar durante muchas horas, con el enfermo al final de su vida. El principal objetivo de esta tesis es averiguar el interés que tiene el futuro profesio...

  9. La pedagogía hospitalaria: clave en la atención al niño enfermo y hospitalizado y su derecho a la educación


    Calvo Álvarez, M.ª Isabel


    Changes throughout the history of education have facilitated attention to the ill child. In the following lines, we approach Hospital Pedagogy, its origins, objectives, present and future. Hospital Pedagogy is crossing the pediatric zone to give an integral response to the patient, improving their quality of life. Los cambios a lo largo de la historia de la educación han favorecido la atención al niño enfermo. En las siguientes líneas nos acercamos a la Pedagogía Hospitalaria, sus orígenes...


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    Yolanda Agra Varela


    Full Text Available Fundamentos: En este trabajo se evalúa la efectividad de los cuidados paliativos a domicilio con el objetivo de determinar si los enfermos con cáncer terminal tratados por Equipos de Soporte de Atención Domiciliaria presentan mejor calidad de vida que los tratados por Equipos de Atención Primaria. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo cuasi experimental realizado en el Área 4 del Imsalud de Madrid con enfermos referidos desde el hospital a Equipos de Soporte de Atención Domiciliaria o a Equipos de Atención Primaria. La variable estudiada fue la calidad de vida medida a través del Rotterdam Symptom Check List y el Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó MANOVA, ANOVA de medidas repetidas y el test de Friedman. Resultados: 165 enfermos fueron tratados por Equipos de Soporte de Atención Domiciliaria y 56 por Equipos de Atención Primaria. Los primeros presentaron mejor puntuación en las escalas global (diferencia de medias: 9,5; IC 95%: 2,3-16,67 y dolor (diferencia de medias: 6,4; IC 9%: 1,14-11,43 del Rotterdam Symptom Check List en la primera semana del estudio. El tamaño del efecto fue mayor en el grupo Equipos de Soporte de Atención Domiciliaria. La prescripción de fármacos y el lugar de la muerte fue diferente en ambos grupos. Conclusiones:Al principio del estudio los enfermos tratados por Equipos de Soporte de Atención Domiciliaria presentaron una mejor percepción del estado de salud que los tratados por Equipos de Atención Primaria. No obstante, el importante número de pérdidas a lo largo del mismo hace que haya que mirar estos resultados con precaución.

  11. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine...... strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...... handling, this thesis also deals with biological interpretation of postprandial metabolism and trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. Two nutritional issues were objects of investigation: 1) metabolic states as a function of time since the last meal and 2) markers related to intakes of cis- and trans-fat. Plasma...

  12. Nutritional Therapy. (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie


    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical Issues: Nutrition (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  14. [Nutrition genomics]. (United States)

    Sedová, L; Seda, O


    The importance of nutrition for human health and its influence on the onset and course of many diseases are nowadays considered as proven. Only the recent development of molecular biology and biochemical methods allows the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of diet constituent actions and their subsequent effect on homeostatic mechanisms in health and disease states. The availability of the draft human genome sequence as well as the genome sequences of model organisms, combined with the functional and integrative genomics approaches of systems biology, bring about the possibility to identify alleles and haplotypes responsible for specific reaction to the dietary challenge in susceptible individuals. Such complex interactions are studied within the newly conceived field, the nutrition genomics (nutrigenomics). Using the tools of highly parallel analyses of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, the nutrition genomics pursues its ultimate goal, i.e. the individualized diet, respecting not only quantitative and qualitative nutritional needs and the actual health status, but also the genetic predispositions of an individual. This approach should lead to prevention of the onset of such diseases as obesity, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, or enhance the efficiency of their therapy.

  15. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...

  16. La atención de los enfermos y discapacitados en el hogar: Retos para el sistema de salud mexicano Household care for ill and disabled persons: challenges for the Mexican health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nigenda


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar el patrón de dedicación de tiempo y analizar los mecanismos de atención que utilizan los miembros de familias con enfermos y discapacitados en el hogar. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para cumplir con el primer objetivo se analizó la base de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Uso de Tiempo 2002. Para cumplir con el segundo objetivo se levantó información a través de entrevistas en profundidad y grupos focales en Coahuila, Sinaloa, Zacatecas, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Yucatán y el Distrito Federal de junio a diciembre de 2004. RESULTADOS: Se estima que 1 738 756 personas dedicaron tiempo a cuidar enfermos y que 1 496 616 se encargaron de cuidar discapacitados, la semana anterior al levantamiento de la encuesta. Existen diferencias importantes por género y nivel de escolaridad en la dedicación de horas a estas actividades. Por otra parte, los hogares tienden a reorganizarse para ofrecer atención a enfermos y discapacitados. En el hogar, son las mujeres quienes asumen la mayor responsabilidad en el cuidado. Existen diferencias importantes en la atención a enfermos y discapacitados en términos del desgaste físico y emocional que sufre el cuidador. CONCLUSIONES: Las implicaciones de los resultados en la atención a enfermos y discapacitados son enormes para un futuro cercano. El envejecimiento de la población y el aumento de las enfermedades crónicas requieren de una mayor articulación entre el ámbito institucional de atención y el ámbito del hogar, a fin de que ambos puedan complementar sus capacidades.OBJECTIVE: To identify the pattern of time devoted by members of Mexican households to providing care to ill and disabled family members. To analyze the mechanisms used by families to provide care to an ill or disabled member. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The database of the 2002 National Survey of Time Use was explored to accomplish the first objective. The second objective was accomplished by collecting primary data through in

  17. O percurso do "doente oncológico": a (reconceptualização do acto informativo El recorrido del "enfermo oncologico": el (reconceptualismo del acto informativo The experience of the "oncologic patient": (reconceptualizing the informative act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos António Laranjeira


    Full Text Available A adaptação do doente às condições de cronicidade configura a informação prestada ao doente como uma das estratégias mais poderosas, susceptível de contribuir para a mudança da representação social do doente, de mero caso clínico à condição de ser holístico. O objectivo deste estudo foi investigar a produção científica em periódicos indexados nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs, sobre o acto informativo e as modalidades de que se reveste a informação prestada ao doente oncológico, no período de 1990-2006. A análise da literatura, permite constatar um incremento nas publicações, sublinhando o papel do doente oncológico enquanto potenciador da emergência de estratégias de ajustamento psicossocial revelando o seu protagonismo no estatuto de "doente profissional".La adaptación del enfermo a las condiciones de cronicidad configura la información prestada al mismo, como siendo una de las estrategias más poderosas, susceptible de contribuir para el cambio de la representación social del enfermo, pasando de ser un mero caso clínico a la condición de ser holístico. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de investigar la producción científica en periódicos indexados en las bases de datos Medline, Lilacs, sobre el acto informativo y las modalidades de que se reviste la información prestada al enfermo oncológico, en el período de 1990-2006. El análisis de la literatura permite constatar un incremento en las publicaciones, subrayando el papel del enfermo oncológico como elemento reforzador de la emergencia de estrategias de ajuste psico-social, revelando su protagonismo en el estatuto de "enfermo profesional".The adaptation of the patient to the conditions of chronic illness makes the information given to the patient one of the most powerful strategies, capable of contributing to a change in the social representation of the patient, from that of a mere clinical case to that of a holistic being. The objective of this

  18. Efectividad de un programa educativo en el control del enfermo con diabetes Effectiveness of an educational program in the control of diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Tejada Tayabas


    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de un programa de intervención educativa dirigido a personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar de San Luis Potosí, México. Metodología: es un estudio de intervención, longitudinal, comparativo; se utilizó muestreo probabilístico de tipo sistemático con asignación aleatoria. Las variables de estudio fueron: el nivel de conocimientos respecto a la enfermedad y el autocuidado y el control metabólico del enfermo. Al grupo de estudio se le aplicó un programa de intervención educativa durante nueve meses y el grupo control recibió la asistencia convencional establecida en la unidad de atención; a ambos grupos se les realizaron mediciones de hemoglobina glucosilada y del nivel de conocimientos antes y después de la intervención. Los datos se procesaron y analizaron mediante el paquete SPSS 8.0. Se aplicaron medidas de estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados y Discusión: los resultados mostraron evidencia estadística de la efectividad del programa educativo ya que mejoró el nivel de conocimientos y porque a través de la prueba de Friedman se mostró que el promedio de hemoglobina glucosilada era menor en el grupo de estudio. Conclusiones: el programa evaluado es efectivos al favorecer tanto el incremento del nivel de los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, las medidas para el control y la terapéutica, como el control metabólico del paciente.Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention program on people with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a family medical unit of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Methodology and material: This is a study of intervention, longitudinal and, comparative. A probabilistic sample and a randomized assignation was used. The variables of study were: level of knowledge in regard to the disease, self care and metabolic control of the patient. An educational intervention program was applied to the study group during nine

  19. Outcome in critically ill cancer patients: past and present Prognóstico de pacientes com câncer criticamente enfermos: passado e presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique D. Benoit


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Until the end of the previous century it remained controversial to admit cancer patients to the ICU for advanced-life-supporting therapy. However, over the past few years several centres over the world have shown that it is possible to achieve a meaningful survival in these patients. The aim of this review is to focus on the improvement in outcome that has been achieved over the past two decades in critically ill cancer patients. CONTENTS: We performed a MEDLINE search (period of 1980 to November 2007 to identify full-text English language publications on critically ill patients with solid tumors or hematological malignancies with particular interest for the outcome and treatment. Major MESH search terms included; cancer, solid tumor, hematologic or hematological malignancies, immunosupression, ICU, ventilation, organ failure, sepsis and infection. Additional studies were identified through a manual search of citations from retrieved articles. CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we first focus on the grim prognosis in the past, subsequently we discuss the improvements in outcome over the past few years across subgroups of cancer patients with increasing degree of severity of illness, and finally, we focus on the value of non-invasive ventilation since it is considered the initial ventilatory strategy in these patients.JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Até o final do século passado, havia grande incerteza quanto a propriedade de internar pacientes com câncer em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI para medidas de suporte avançado. Contudo, ao longo dos últimos anos, vários centros ao redor do mundo têm reportado aumento significativo da sobrevida de tais pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi rever os principais artigos publicados nas duas últimas décadas, com foco na melhoria do prognóstico de pacientes com câncer criticamente enfermos. CONTEÚDO: Realizou-se uma busca bibliográfica no sistema MedLine - PubMed (www

  20. Nutritional genomics. (United States)

    Ordovas, Jose M; Corella, Dolores


    Nutritional genomics has tremendous potential to change the future of dietary guidelines and personal recommendations. Nutrigenetics will provide the basis for personalized dietary recommendations based on the individual's genetic make up. This approach has been used for decades for certain monogenic diseases; however, the challenge is to implement a similar concept for common multifactorial disorders and to develop tools to detect genetic predisposition and to prevent common disorders decades before their manifestation. The preliminary results involving gene-diet interactions for cardiovascular diseases and cancer are promising, but mostly inconclusive. Success in this area will require the integration of different disciplines and investigators working on large population studies designed to adequately investigate gene-environment interactions. Despite the current difficulties, preliminary evidence strongly suggests that the concept should work and that we will be able to harness the information contained in our genomes to achieve successful aging using behavioral changes; nutrition will be the cornerstone of this endeavor.

  1. Nutritional Biochemistry (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.


    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  2. Geriatric nutrition. (United States)

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M


    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian.

  3. La experiencia de ser un 'niño débil y enfermo' lejos de su hogar: el caso del Asilo Marítimo, Mar del Plata (1893-1920)




    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la vida cotidiana de los 'niños tuberculosos', provenientes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, que fueron internados en el Hospital Marítimo, ubicado a 400km de la metrópolis, en la localidad marítima de Mar del Plata. En 1893, surgió la idea en la Sociedad de Beneficencia de la Capital Federal de fundar un hospital y el Asilo Marítimo destinado a niños enfermos de tuberculosis ósea en general, a niños débiles y convalecientes y también al tratamiento de p...

  4. O ser doente: uma visão à luz de Georges Canguilhem ILL BEINGS: a reflexion based on Georges Canguilhem EL SER ENFERMO: una reflexión a la luz de GEORGES CANGUILHEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available O texto apresenta uma reflexão sobre o SER DOENTE relacionando-o com alguns princípios que orientam a prática da Educação Física nos dias de hoje. Este artigo faz uma breve abordagem sobre a compreensão de corpo percebida pela ciência médica e, também, pelas outras áreas do conhecimento como, por exemplo, a Educação Física. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ser doente – Saúde – Educação Física This text reflects upon ill human beings, relating the topic to some of the principles that guide physical education practice in current times. It briefly covers the understanding of the body held by medical science, as well other areas of knowledge, like physical education. KEY-WORDS: ill beings - health - physical education. El texto presenta una reflexión sobre el SER ENFERMO relacionandolo con algunos principios que orientan la práctica de la Educación Física en los días de hoy. Hace un breve abordaje sobre la comprensión de cuerpo percebido por la ciencia médica como, también, este es percibido en otras áreas del conocimiento como, por ejemplo, la Educación Física. PALABRAS CLAVES: Ser enfermo - Salud - Educación Física

  5. Nutrition Advice and Recipes (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  6. Nutrition for Young Men (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  7. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  8. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition (United States)

    ... 35 grams of insoluble and soluble fiber. Important Plant Sources for Good Health lant Family Examples Grains ... orange/green vegetables and fruits The Department of Nutrition can provide nutritional counseling at the Nutrition Clinic ...

  9. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  10. Nutrición parenteral intradiálisis en el enfermo renal crónico: Consenso SEN-SENPE Intra-dialysis parenteral nutrition in chronic renal patients: Consensus SEN-SENPE


    A. García de Lorenzo; J. Arrieta; A. Ayúcar; G. Barril; E. Huarte


    Ante la alta prevalencia de la situación de malnutrición en pacientes en hemodiálisis y conociendo que ello implica un aumento de la tasa de infecciones, hospitalización y estancia lo que se traduce en un incremento de la morbimortalidad global, la Sociedad Española de Nefrología (SEN) y la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral (SENPE) realizan un consenso sobre las indicaciones, contraindicaciones y límites de la Nutrición Parenteral Intra Diálisis (NPID). En este consenso se c...

  11. Medical nutrition therapy planning


    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana


    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  12. La calidad de vida en los enfermos con insuficiencia cardiaca: visión desde atención primaria de salud Quality of life in patients with heart failure: the perspective of primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cesáreo Naveiro-Rilo


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Medir e identificar las dimensiones y los determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS en los enfermos con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica. Métodos: Mediante un estudio transversal se midió la CVRS con los cuestionarios SF-36 y MLHFQ, en 544 enfermos con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica, clínicamente estables, de 97 médicos de atención primaria. Resultados: La edad media de los enfermos es de 77,6 años (desviación estándar: 9,9, significativamente mayor en las mujeres. El 31,2% están en grado III-IV de la New York Heart Association (NYHA. El 88,6% tiene al menos otra enfermedad crónica. Las dimensiones físicas tienen peor puntuación que las emocionales en ambos cuestionarios. Tras ajustar por regresión múltiple, siete variables entran en alguno de los cinco modelos y explican entre un 22% y un 36% de la varianza. Conclusiones: La CVRS en los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica está alterada en todos los dominios. Ser mujer, estar en clase funcional de la NYHA III-IV, la presencia de otras afecciones tales como depresión o enfermedad osteoarticular, el ingreso hospitalario, el índice de masa corporal y la edad, se asocian con una peor percepción de la CVRS.Objective: To measure and identify the dimensions and determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study, in which HRQoL was measured with the short-form (SF-36 and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ in 544 clinically-stable patients with chronic heart failure managed by 97 primary care physicians. Results: The mean age of the patients was 77.6 years (SD: 9.9 and was significantly higher in women. A total of 31.2% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA grade III-IV and 88.6% had at least one chronic condition. In both questionnaires, physical dimensions scored worse than emotional dimensions. After adjustment was made for

  13. Las enfermedades crónicas desde la mirada de los enfermos y los profesionales de la salud: un estudio cualitativo en México Chronic illness from the perspective of patients and health professionals: a qualitative study in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Mercado-Martínez


    Full Text Available Las enfermedades crónicas constituyen las primeras causas de morbi-mortalidad e implican costos crecientes para los servicios sanitarios en numerosos países. Sin embargo, poco se conoce la forma como diversos grupos las perciben y enfrentan. Este trabajo compara las perspectivas de dos tipos de profesionales sanitarios y población enferma sobre tales enfermedades y sobre las relaciones existentes entre los actores involucrados. Un estudio cualitativo, multicéntrico, se realizó en tres ciudades de México: Guadalajara, San Luis Potosí y México DF. Participaron sujetos con enfermedades crónicas, médicos y profesionales sanitarios no médicos. La información se obtuvo mediante grupos focales y entrevistas individuales, analizándose mediante análisis del discurso. La perspectiva de los participantes sobre tales enfermedades varía entre la mirada medicalizada de los médicos, frente a la de los sujetos enfermos centrada en los padecimientos y la vida diaria. Los participantes coinciden en la existencia de relaciones desiguales entre los trabajadores de la salud, la familia y las personas enfermas, así como en relaciones más igualitarias entre los enfermos. Se discuten múltiples implicaciones de los resultados.Chronic diseases are leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and increasing expenditures in numerous countries. However, little is known about how chronic diseases are perceived and managed by social actors. This article aims to compare the perspectives of health professionals and patients towards chronic diseases, besides analyzing the relationship between these two groups. A qualitative, multi-center study was conducted in three Mexican cities: Guadalajara, San Luis Potosí, and Mexico City. Participants included chronically ill individuals, physicians, and other health professionals from primary and secondary health care centers. Data collection used focus groups and interviews. The data were analyzed using discourse analysis

  14. Estar críticamente enfermo significa no ser capaz y no poder decidir Undergoing a critical sickness means not to be capable and not to be able to decide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Beltrán Salazar


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el significado para los pacientes críticamente enfermos hospitalizados en UCI de la experiencia de ser dependientes de los enfermeros para la satisfacción de las necesidades. Metodología: Investigación con enfoque fenomenológico realizada en Medellín en 2006; incluyó a nueve personas adultas entre 24 y 80 años que estuvieron críticamente enfermos y hospitalizados en UCI. La entrevista en profundidad se utilizó para la recolección de información. Los datos se analizaron según el esquema propuesto por Cohen, Kahan y Steeves. Resultados: Depender de otras personas para actuar y para decidir, el sufrimiento y el dolor influyen en la dureza de la experiencia de padecer una enfermedad grave. Discusión: No ser capaz de autosatisfacer las necesidades propias y no poder tomar decisiones contribuyen para que la experiencia de padecer una enfermedad grave sea "dura y difícil". Conclusión: la dependencia de los pacientes que padecen una enfermedad grave no debe ser asumida por los enfermeros sino que debe evaluarse en cada caso, lo mismo que las respuestas a dicha dependencia para asegurar el respeto por los derechos de las personas enfermas.Objective: To describe the meaning for the critically sick patients hospitalized in ICU of the experience of being dependent of nurses for meting needs. Methodology: Phenomenological focused research carried out in Medellín in 2006; it included nine adults among 24 and 80 years who were critically sick and hospitalized in ICU. The interview in depth was used for gathering information. The data were analyzed according to the outline proposed by Cohen, Kahan and Steeves. Results: The dependency on other people to act and decide, the suffering and the pain influence in the hardness of the experience of suffering a serious illness. Discussion: Not to be capable of meeting the own necessities and making decisions make the experience of suffering a serious illness "hard and difficult

  15. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  16. Total parenteral nutrition (United States)

    ... Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition - infants (United States)

    ... Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... FAQs USDA Research, Education, and Economics Resources Welcome is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  19. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens


    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  20. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    early posttransplant nutritional therapy facilitates wound healing, decreases infectious complications and shortens ventilation time. Parenteral nutrition is needed if there is prolonged postoperative ileus or if gastrointestinal complications of surgery limit enteral feeding. All transplant patients require nutritional follow up to ...

  1. Nutrition for Sport Success. (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  2. Diet and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  3. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  4. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.


    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  5. Avaliação e controle de contatos faltosos de doentes com hanseníase Evaluación y control de contactos faltantes de enfermos con lepra Evaluation and control of missing contacts of leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia de Campos Almeida Vieira


    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, com variáveis qualitativas, realizado no Ambulatório Regional de Especialidades de Taubaté, com objetivo de resgatar e avaliar contatos faltosos de doentes de hanseníase. Analisou-se 36 prontuários de casos novos, no período de janeiro de 2003 a julho de 2004. Identificou-se 92 contatos, sendo 64,1% faltosos, tendo 25% entre 20 a 29 anos e 58,5% do sexo feminino. Destes, 61% foram submetidos à consulta de enfermagem no domicilio. Relataram não adesão ao controle por esquecimento (66,6%, e falta de tempo (11,1%; 4 contatos tinham sintomas de hanseníase, e 1 foi confirmado (forma transmissível - Dimorfa. Sem atingir 100% da cobertura de busca ativa, sugerimos, para assegurar a meta de eliminação da doença, parcerias e descentralização das ações de controle.Estudio descriptivo, con cualitativas variable, realizado en el Ambulatorio de Especialidades Regional de Taubaté, a fin de canjear y evaluar las deficiencias de enfermos de lepra. Se analizaron los registros de 36 nuevos casos, entre enero de 2003 y julio de 2004. Se identificaron 92 contactos, sendo 64,1% deficiencias, tendo 25% de 20 a 29 años y 58,5% mujeres. De estos, 61% fueron sometidos a consulta en la casa de los enfermos . Informó de la no pertenencia al control en el olvido (66,6%, y la falta de tiempo (11,1%, 4 contactos había síntomas de la lepra, y se confirmó 1 (formulario transmisibles - Dimorfa. Sin lograr una cobertura del 100% del activo de búsqueda, le sugerimos que, para garantizar el objetivo de eliminar la enfermedad, las asociaciones y la descentralización de las actividades de control.Descriptive study, with qualitative variables, carried on in the Ambulatory of Specialties Region of Taubaté, in order to evaluate the missing contacts of leprosy patients. Thirty-six records of new cases were analyzed, from January 2003 to July 2004. Ninety-two contacts were identified, being 64.1% missing ones, having 25% from 20 to 29 years

  6. Aproximación cualitativa de la experiencia vivida por la mujer de un enfermo con laringectomía Qualitative approach of the experience lived by the woman of a patient with laringectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Moreno Rodríguez


    Full Text Available España presenta la tasa más alta de Europa de cáncer de laringe en varones, con una tasa de supervivencia a los 5 años post cirugía de un 66,7%. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la vivencia de una mujer convertida bruscamente en cuidadora de un enfermo, sometido a cirugía laríngea radical y el cambio en su forma de vida. Utilizamos la metodología de Investigación Cualitativa de trayectoria fenomenológica. El análisis se realizó con la propuesta práctica de Taylor-Bogdan. De las categorías seleccionadas se interpreta que la mujer vive la experiencia con estrés elevado, el temor a la muerte de su marido es permanente, le resulta complejo realizar los cuidados del traqueostoma. Su vida, la relación y comunicación con su marido han cambiado radicalmente.Spain displays the high rate but of Europe of of men with a larynx cancer and a rate of survival after five years post surgery of about 66.7%. The objective of this study was to know the experience a woman turned abruptly into nursemaid of a patient submissive radical laryngeal surgery and the change into its form of life. We used the Qualitative Research Methodology of Phenomenological Trajectory. The analysis is realised with the practical proposal of Taylor-Bogdan. Of the selected categories it is interpreted that the woman lives the experience with elevated stress, the fear to the death is permanent, it turns out to him complex to realise the cares of tracheotomy. Its life and the relation and communication with its husband has changed radically.

  7. Nutrition in the adolescent. (United States)

    Wahl, R


    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.

  8. Cultura de Segurança do Doente percecionada por enfermeiros em hospitais distritais portugueses Cultura de Seguridad del Enfermo percibida por enfermeros en hospitales distritales portugueses Patient Safety Culture as perceived by portuguese nurses in district hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Manuel Martins Lopes Fernandes


    Full Text Available Contexto: a Cultura de Segurança do Doente (CSD apresenta-se como uma componente estruturante da Qualidade em Saúde. Os enfermeiros, atendendo às suas crenças, competências e características do seu desempenho, influenciam-na em definitivo. Objetivos: caracterizar a Cultura de Segurança do Doente percepcionada por enfermeiros, em hospitais distritais. Metodologia: estudo quantitativo, descritivo-analítico e transversal, realizado a partir de questionário sobre CSD. Resultados: dos 136 profissionais incluídos, 55,1% tem menos de 44 anos. Quatro dos doze fatores da CSD revelaram-se “críticos/ problemáticos” e um “forte”. Dos 42 indicadores, cinco apresentam um percentual muito bom de respostas positivas (> 75% e catorze apresentam-se “críticos/problemáticos”, com um percentual positivo inferior a 50%. Somente 46% dos enfermeiros atribui o grau de “muito bom” ou “excelente” à Segurança do Doente no seu serviço. O grupo dos 23-43 anos apresenta um percentual positivo inferior em nove fatores e superior num. Conclusão: a CSD apresenta-se como um fator crítico da Qualidade dos Cuidados, ao revelar apenas um fator forte. Estes profissionais revelaram-se céticos, sendo os mais novos menos positivos na sua apreciação. A Cultura identificada é caracterizada pelo paradigma da punição e ocultação do erro, com os enfermeiros convictos que, quando notificado, são eles o centro da atenção e não o evento.Contexto: la Cultura de Seguridad del Enfermo (CSD se presenta como un componente estructurante de la Calidad en Salud. Los enfermeros, atendiendo a sus creencias, competencias y características de su desempeño, la influencian en definitivo. Objetivos: caracterizar la Cultura de Seguridad del enfermo percibida por enfermeros, en hospitales distritales. Metodología: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo-analítico y transversal, realizado a partir de un cuestionario sobre la CSD. Resultados: de los profesionales

  9. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  10. [Nutrition and development]. (United States)

    de Arruda, I K; de Arruda, B K


    Discussions on development and nutrition frequently have a double focus: one that considers nutritional status as a reflection of development, and another that admits that nutrition strongly influences the level and rhythm of development. The authors view nutrition as a decisive factor for adequate social and economic development, specifying the fact that nutritional interventions might contribute to significant improvements in individual classroom performance, productivity at the workplace, and resistance to infections. The implications of malnutrition for the economy are thus evident: either by limitations in income expectations, increased costs deriving from burdens assumed by the population to protect themselves, or considerable hidden social costs--absenteeism, work accidents, and rotation of employees. Given modernization and a competitive economy, there is an unquestionable need for nutrition to head the agenda of national priorities, thus promoting human resource development and the preservation of this human capital, one of the chief goals of a socially responsible economy.

  11. Enzymes in animal nutrition


    Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition


    This report brings overview of endogenous as well as exogenous enzymes and their role and importance in animal nutrition. Enzymes for animal nutrition have been systematically developed since 1980´s. Phytase, xylanase and β-glucanase are used in poultry-rising, pig breeding, aquaculture and begin to push to the ruminant nutrition. Phytase increase availability of P, Ca, Zn, digestibility of proteins and fats. Its positive effect on the environment is well described – enzymes decrease the cont...

  12. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira


    .... Extensively referenced and filled with numerous tables and figures, this timely book focuses on the nutritional assessment of both recreational and professional athletes, including children, adolescents, and adults...

  13. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M


    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  14. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira


    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  15. Nutritional genomics and personalized diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nagwa E.A. Gaboon

    Nutritional genomics. Abstract Nutritional genetics is considered as the combination of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics is establishing the .... on the knowledge of nutritional requirements, nutritional status, and genotype (i.e., person- alized nutrition) can be used to prevent, mitigate, or cure chronic disease. 3.

  16. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández


    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  17. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  18. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša


    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  19. [Nutrition and health--enteral nutrition in intensive care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.M. van; Oudemans-van Straaten, H.M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Tepaske, R.; Hoeven, J.G. van der


    Nutritional therapy in the intensive care unit exerts favourable effects on morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. Only perforation or total obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, proven mesenteric ischaemia and toxic megacolon are absolute

  20. Nutrition After a Whipple Procedure (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  1. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.


    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  2. Geological impacts on nutrition (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  3. Maternal nutrition in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 5, 2017 ... contributed toward reducing quality of life and overall economic productivity, thereby stalling human development. Nutrition is defined as the intake of food necessary for optimal growth, function, and health, whereas good nutrition refers to the intake of a well-balanced diet that provides all essential nutrients ...

  4. Nutrition and Educational Performance. (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto


    Research studies concerning how nutrition affects educational performance are examined. From a developmental perspective it seems likely that the earlier the onset and the longer the duration of the nutritional deficiency the higher the probabilities of a cognitive deficit and poor school achievement in childhood and adolescence. (RM)

  5. Okia nutritional.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca, Del. L.) is one of the neglected staple crops of growing importance in the drought and famine-prone areas of Uganda. Unfortunately, information on its nutritional composition is still lacking, thus limiting their wider use and promotion. This study was designed to determine the nutritional.

  6. Nutritional Quality of Lettuce (United States)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable and plays an important role in American diet and nutrition. Crisphead lettuce has much lower nutrient content than leaf and romaine types. As the synthesis or absorption of many nutrients is light dependent, the lower nutritional value of crisphead lettuce is due...

  7. Evaluación de los factores de riesgo y los tipos de superficie para el desarrollo de las úlceras por presión en el enfermo crítico Assessment of risk factors and the types of surface for the development of pressure ulcers on critical ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepció Fuentes i Pumarola


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar los factores de riesgo y los tipos de superficie para el desarrollo de las úlceras por presión (UPP en el enfermo crítico ingresado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI. Material y métodos: Estudio prospectivo de incidencia de UPP. Población: Enfermos ingresados en una UCI con EMINA© de alto riesgo, estancia mínima de 48 horas y que no presentaran UPP al ingreso. Se registraron los datos demográficos, de gravedad al ingreso (SAPS II y APACHE III, diabetes, estado séptico, ventilación mecánica, incidencia y grado de UPP, y tipo de superficie de apoyo (alternante [SA] o estática [SE]. Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgo asociados con el desarrollo de UPP en el enfermo crítico fueron la edad, la estancia media y el tipo de superficie de apoyo, siendo muy significativa la disminución de la incidencia de UPP con las superficies alternantes.Objectives: To assess the risk factors and the types of surface for the development of pressure ulcers (PU on critical ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Material and methods: Prospective study about the incidence of PU. Population: All patients on ICU with EMINA® of high risk, who stay 48 h. at least and don't have PU in the moment of admission. Information about demographic characteristics, gravity in the moment of admitting was recorded: SAPS II and APACHE III, diabetes, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, incidence and graduation of PU, and the type of support surface: alternate (AS or static (SS. Conclusions: The risk factors associated with the development of PU on critical ill patients were the age, the average time in ICU and the type of support surface, being the reduction on incidence of PU with the alternate surfaces very important.

  8. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  9. La perspectiva de enfermos crónicos sobre la atención médica en Guadalajara, México. Un estudio cualitativo Perspectives of chronically ill patients concerning medical care in Guadalajara, Mexico. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Mercado Martínez


    Full Text Available Este trabajo reporta los hallazgos parciales de un estudio más amplio sobre la experiencia de vivir con enfermedades crónicas; el mismo se centra en la perspectiva de sujetos enfermos sobre los servicios de salud. Un estudio cualitativo fue realizado en un barrio popular de Guadalajara, con treinta sujetos con diabetes. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevistas semi y no estructuradas aplicadas en sus hogares. Los datos se obtuvieron durante un año, los mismos fueron analizados mediante análisis de contenido y conversacional. Tres valoraciones generales identificamos sobre la atención médica por parte de los participantes del estudio: algunos la consideran buena, para otros es ambivalente y para el resto es mala. Estas valoraciones se relacionan estrechamente con la trayectoria del padecimiento y los recursos materiales disponibles que posibilitan optar por distintos tipos de servicios. Tales perspectivas son cambiantes a lo largo del tiempo, incluyen los diversos servicios existentes y se construyen incorporando otros padecimientos crónicos. Quienes acuden al Seguro Social la definen en términos eminentemente negativos, a diferencia de aquellos con acceso a los servicios públicos de asistencia y a la medicina privada. Se discuten sus implicaciones en referencia a la reforma del sector salud.This paper reports partial findings from a broader study on the experience of people with chronic diseases. The objective was to explore the perspectives of diabetic patients towards medical care. A qualitative study was conducted in a poor neighborhood of Guadalajara, Mexico. Thirty subjects with diabetes mellitus participated in the study. Data was gathered by open and semi-open interviews in the subjects' homes and over the course of one year. Data were analyzed using a combination of content and conversational analyzing techniques. Three perspectives predominated when participants evaluated medical care: some define it as good, some as

  10. Percepción de la calidad de vida profesional, síndrome de Burnout y autocuidado de las enfermeras del sector salud de Tamaulipas, que cuidan a enfermos crónicos y terminales en Cd. Victoria Tamaulipas, México


    Mendiola Infante, Susana Virginia


    Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y relacional sobre Burnout, calidad de vida laboral y autocuidado en enfermeras que atienden y cuidan enfermos crónicos, terminales y complejos en los hospitales del sector público de Tamaulipas. La muestra no fue aleatoria. Estuvo compuesta por 185 profesionales de la enfermería que trabajan en siete hospitales del sector público de Tamaulipas. Además participó un grupo de enfermeras que trabajan en centros de salud de atención primaria. Esta i...

  11. Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs. (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

    This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

  12. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers. (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H


    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.

  13. Applying Communication Theory in Nutrition Education Research. (United States)

    Gillespie, Ardyth H.


    Reports on the state of research in nutrition communication, unmet goals in nutrition education, strategies for nutrition education and nutrition education research, and research design issues. Indicates that the field of communications offers theoretical perspectives for nutrition education research. (DS)

  14. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise. (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J


    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition?A Nutrition Ecological Perspective


    Metz, Martina; Hoffmann, Ingrid


    Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the eff...

  16. Papaya nutritional analysis (United States)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  17. Personalized nutrition and obesity. (United States)

    Qi, Lu


    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.

  18. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi


    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  19. Llama medicine. Nutrition. (United States)

    Johnson, L W


    The NWC are capable of assimilating a much lower plane of nutrition than we are accustomed to offer conventional domestic herbivores. Their unique gastric anatomy and physiology no doubt contribute to this apparent superiority, which is most evident when compared with sheep under lesser planes of nutrition. Llamas tend to be "cafeteria style" eaters, with some preference being given to taller, coarser forages. Absolute maintenance requirements for caloric, protein, fiber, and mineral content of NWC rations are yet to be finalized using North American feedstuffs, but some guidelines are offered. Proper assessment of body condition, acknowledgment of any nutritional problems, ration analysis, and assessment of management procedures likely will keep NWC nutrition on an even plane here in their new-found environment.

  20. What Is Enteral Nutrition? (United States)

    ... types of feeding tubes. Enteral Nutrition Fact Sheet Twitter Tweets by ASPENWEB ASPEN 8401 Colesville Road, Suite ... Staff Find a Clinician Press Room Career Center Advertising and Sponsorship Related Websites BPS NBNSC NBPNS Connect ...

  1. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition



    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  2. Nutrition of aging dogs. (United States)

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy


    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman


    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  4. Nutrition in the elderly. (United States)

    Pirlich, M; Lochs, H


    Malnutrition is more common in elderly persons than in younger adults. Ageing itself, however, neither leads to malabsorption nor to malnutrition with the exception of a higher frequency of atrophic gastritis in older persons. Malnutrition in elderly people is therefore a consequence of somatic, psychic or social problems. Typical causes are chewing or swallowing disorders, cardiac insufficiency, depression, social deprivation and loneliness. Undernutrition is associated with a worse prognosis and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Awareness of this problem is therefore important. For the evaluation of nutritional status, it must be remembered that most normal values are derived from younger adults and may not necessarily be suitable for elderly persons. Suitable tools for evaluating the nutritional status of elderly persons are e.g. the body mass index, weight loss within the last 6 months, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) or the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). An improvement in the nutritional status can be achieved by simple methods such as the preparation of an adequate diet, hand feeding, additional sip feeding or enteral nutrition. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology]. (United States)

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D


    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  6. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe


    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS...... for 73% of all cases presenting with hypocalcemic seizures, but biochemically, they did not have more severe rickets. Of patients diagnosed before the age of 4 years, 45% were ethnic Danish. In early childhood, insufficient or no vitamin D supplementation was given in 88% of all cases. Among immigrant...

  7. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Akiko Kamikado Pivi


    Full Text Available An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

  8. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kh Dzgoeva


    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  9. [Nutritional support for patients]. (United States)

    Corbee, Ronald Jan; van Kerkhoven, Wim


    A good intake of fluids and essential nutrients in the first fourteen days is of vital importance to recuperating animals. Moreover, it is important to encourage cats and dogs to eat after illness or surgery, in order to promote optimal functioning of the gut and the immune system. Enteral nutrition is to be preferred to nasogastric feeding or parenteral nutrition. In the first stage of recovery, during the first 24 to 48 hours, it is important to feed the gut' with nutrients, and thereafter, in the second stage of recovery (after day 3), the calorie intake can be increased. Timely nutritional support with nutraceuticals, such as arginine, glutamine, taurine, long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotic fibres, can considerably shorten the recovery period of cats and dogs after illness or surgery

  10. Nutritional role of folate. (United States)

    Ebara, Shuhei


    Folate functions as a coenzyme to transfer one-carbon units that are necessary for deoxythymidylate synthesis, purine synthesis, and various methylation reactions. Ingested folate becomes a functional molecule through intestinal absorption, circulation, transport to cells, and various modifications to its structure. Associations between nutritional folate status and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction have been reported. It has also been reported that maternal folate nutritional status is related to the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. It has also been recommended that folate be consumed in the diet to promote the maintenance of good health. To reduce the risk of NTDs, supplementation with folic acid (a synthetic form of folate) during the periconceptional period has also been recommended. This paper describes the basic features and nutritional role of folate. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  11. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D


    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  12. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lenoir-Wijnkoop (Irene); M. Dapoigny; D. Dubois; E. Ganse (Éric); I. Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea (Iñaki); J. Hutton; P. Jones; T. Mittendorf (Thomas); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Salminen (Seppo); M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark)


    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for

  13. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.


    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  14. The evaluation of a nutrition education programme on the nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this project was to test if learning took place through the implementation of a nutrition education programme, using specific developed nutrition education tools in pre-primary school children, aged six and seven years old, in the Vaal region. A validated nutrition knowledge questionnaire was completed with ...

  15. Nutritional and Anti – Nutritional Composition of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutritional and anti – nutritional composition of the African palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum). Subjects/ Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted on the proximate composition, vitamin C, total carotenoids and some anti-nutritional factors / toxins of the fresh seedling of the African ...

  16. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutrition. Studies done in Honduras showed that the academic performance and mental ability of learners with good nutritional status were significantly higher than those of learners with poor nutritional status, irrespective of the level of family income, school quality and teacher ability.[3] School feeding alleviates short-term.

  17. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a ... not transferable to non-comparable use. Second, the reference standard has to be relevant and.

  18. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems (United States)

    ... page: // Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  19. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America April 19, ... newsletter Related Resources Diet and Lupus ABCs of nutrition Thinking about drinking? Read this first. Stick to ...

  20. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle


    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  1. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.


    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is

  2. Nutrition of the transition cow


    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika


    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  3. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.


    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  4. Nutrition. Teacher Edition. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of the courses from the Oklahoma Practical Nursing series of competency-based training programs designed to coordinate the job-related experience and knowledge needed by personnel working in a practical nursing position. The nutrition module includes several concepts that are integrated throughout the Practical Nursing…

  5. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W


    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  6. Nutrition. Learning Activity Package. (United States)

    Lee, Carolyn

    This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  7. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.


    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  8. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation


    ... and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version ...

  9. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition. (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  10. Nutrition in Children's Sports. (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  11. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions. (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P


    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    ... and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version ...

  13. Insects: A nutritional alternative (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.


    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  14. Nutrition and Diet (United States)

    ... our mailing list ! Visit our Facebook page The Benefits of Exercise New Fetal Transplant Study Thalassemia Adoption Clinic Sign ... the Non-transfused Patient ▶ Calcium and Thalassemia ▶ The Benefits of Exercise ▶ Interview with Kim: Exercise ▶ Nutrition and Exercise in ...

  15. Nutrition, geoepidemiology, and autoimmunity. (United States)

    Selmi, Carlo; Tsuneyama, Koichi


    As well represented by the impaired immune function of malnourished individuals encountered in developing countries and the incidence of specific diseases following local nutrient deficiencies, nutrition and immunity have been linked to each other for centuries while the specific connection between dietary factors and autoimmunity onset or modulation is a more recent acquisition. Autoimmune diseases manifest limited prevalence rates in developing countries while numerous immunity-related claims have been proposed in the field of functional foods. Nevertheless, over the past years multiple lines of evidence have supported a major role for specific dietary factors (including vitamin D, vitamin A, selenium, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics, and flavanols) in determining the immune responses involved in infections, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the link between nutrition and autoimmunity may well contribute to the geoepidemiology observed for numerous conditions. In general terms, most data that will be discussed herein were obtained in experimental or animal models while human data from real-life clinical settings or randomized clinical trials remain largely unsatisfactory. Our current knowledge on the beneficial impact of nutrition on autoimmunity prompts us to encourage the search for evidence-based nutrition to support the everyday diet choices of patients. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.


    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  17. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna


    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  18. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent


    Stassart, Martine


    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  19. Nutrition Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach. (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This guide for teachers, supervisors and administrators offers a conceptual framework and resources for developing a complete nutrition education program. Included are: (1) a statement of need for nutrition education, (2) definition of what nutrition education should encompass; (3) goals identified by teachers, curriculum specialists and nutrition…

  20. State of nutrition support teams. (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True


    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  1. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.


    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  2. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal malignancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional management of a patient with gastrointestinal cancer fi rst begins with an appropriate nutritional assessment, seeing that several factors could affect the patient's nutritional status. The most signifi cant dietary advice for cancer patients in general, is to consume a signifi cant amount of energy daily to maintain ...

  3. Personalised nutrition: status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Gorman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.A.; Ommen, van B.; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.


    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing

  4. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon


    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  5. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (United States)

    ... and Learn Videos View More Understanding the New Nutrition Facts Label The new Nutrition Facts label features updated information to help consumers ... and Tipsheets for Families and Communities 3 National Nutrition Month® 1 How to Fuel Your Workout 2 ...

  6. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year. The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields.

  7. Lesão renal aguda em crianças: incidência e fatores prognósticos em pacientes gravemente enfermos Acute kidney injury in children: incidence and prognostic factors in critical ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Machado Souza Freire


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Lesão renal aguda caracteriza-se pela redução súbita e, em geral, reversível da função renal com perda da capacidade de manutenção da homeostase do organismo. Em pediatria, as principais causas de lesão renal aguda são sepse, uso de drogas nefrotóxicas e isquemia renal nos pacientes criticamente enfermos. Nesses pacientes, a incidência de lesão renal aguda varia de 20 a 30%, resultando em aumento da taxa de morbi-mortalidade de 40 a 90%. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a incidência de lesão renal aguda nos pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, classificar a gravidade da lesão renal aguda de acordo com o Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage (pRIFLE, analisar a relação entre lesão renal aguda e a gravidade através do Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM e estudar os fatores prognósticos associados. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo entre julho de 2008 a janeiro de 2009 dos pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica do Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão - Florianópolis (SC - Brasil. Todos os pacientes foram analisados diariamente através do débito urinário e creatinina sérica e classificados de acordo com pRIFLE. RESULTADOS: No período de acompanhamento foram internadas 235 crianças. A incidência de lesão renal aguda foi de 30,6%, sendo que o pRIFLE máximo durante a internação foi de 12,1% para R, 12,1% para I e 6,4% para F. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 12,3%. Os pacientes que evoluíram com lesão renal aguda apresentaram risco dez vezes maior de óbito em relação aos não expostos. CONCLUSÃO: Lesão renal aguda é uma entidade comum nos pacientes críticos. O diagnóstico precoce a e instituição imediata de medidas terapêuticas adequadas a cada situação clínica podem alterar o curso e a gravidade do envolvimento renal reduzindo a morbi-mortalidade do paciente.OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is characterized by sudden and generally

  8. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David


    1. The science of nutritional ecology spans a wide range of fields, including ecology, nutrition, behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and evolutionary biology. But does nutritional ecology have a unique theoretical framework and research program and thus qualify as a field of research...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...... requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...

  9. Calidad de la atención nutricional en el paciente pediátrico hospitalizado Quality of nutritional care in the hospitalized pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Betancourt Guerra


    Full Text Available Introducción: la nutrición es un aspecto importante en la terapéutica actual de los pacientes y tiene una repercusión social, por lo que todo el personal de salud debe considerarlo como un pilar terapéutico a la hora de atender a un enfermo. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de la atención nutricional del paciente pediátrico hospitalizado. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, y la muestra estuvo constituida por 50 pacientes. Se confeccionó un Formulario de Atención Nutricional que sirvió para registrar el estado actual del apoyo nutricional, y de esta forma, se evaluó la calidad de su atención. Resultados: la evaluación nutricional, al momento del ingreso, fue solo de un 18 %, y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional no se realizó en el 96 % de los pacientes ingresados. La realización de exámenes de laboratorio con relevancia nutricional fue de un 12 %, mientras las acciones terapéuticas para corregir los exámenes patológicos fueron de un 50 %. No se daba seguimiento a la curva de peso, y todos los pacientes ingresados mantenían regímenes de ayuno hospitalario por encima del 10 %. Conclusiones: la calidad de la atención nutricional en el paciente pediátrico hospitalizado fue deficiente.Introduction: nutrition is an important element of the present therapy of patients and has social impact, so the health professional staff should take it as a therapeutic support in the care of a patient. Objective: to evaluate the quality of nutritional care of the hospitalized pediatric patient. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in which the sample was made up of 50 patients. A Formulary of Nutritional Care was prepared, which served to register the current state of the nutritional support and thus evaluated the quality of nutritional care. Results: the nutritional assessment at the time of admission was just made in 18 % of cases and the diagnosis of nutritional state was ignored in 96 % of

  10. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández


    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  11. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition education...

  12. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal accepts articles from all basic and applied areas of dietetics and human nutrition, including clinical nutrition, community nutrition, food science, food policy, food service management, nutrition policy and public health nutrition. The Journal has a broad interpretation of the field of nutrition and recognizes that there ...

  13. Nutrition for Space Exploration (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.


    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  14. Nutrition in Children and Adolescents. (United States)

    Corkins, Mark R; Daniels, Stephen R; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Golden, Neville H; Kim, Jae H; Magge, Sheela N; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane


    Nutrition is a critical factor for appropriate child and adolescent development. Appropriate nutrition changes according to age. Nutrition is an important element for prevention of disease development, especially for chronic diseases. Many children and adolescents live in environments that do not promote optimum nutrition. Families must work to provide improved food environments to encourage optimum nutrition. Early primordial prevention of risk factors for chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, is important, and dietary habits established early may be carried through adult life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrition and sports performance. (United States)

    Brotherhood, J R


    During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Epidemiological and physiological studies have provided evidence that certain forms of dietary behaviour may be linked with an increased risk of developing disorders such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and some cancers. This has resulted in dietary recommendations that are intended to reduce the incidence of these disorders in the community. The science of nutrition in relation to sports performance has progressed from empirical studies investigating the effects of dietary manipulations, such as restriction and supplementation, to the direct investigation of the physiological basis of the specific nutritional demands of hard physical exercise. This review is based on the premise that it is "what comes out' rather than "what goes in', which provides the clues to ideal nutrition for athletic performance. Various aspects of the physical demands of athletic exercise are viewed as stresses that induce specific biochemical, and hence nutritional, strains in the athlete. Training is the predominant demand in the athletic lifestyle. This is characterised by acute bouts of high power output. During one hour of hard training an athlete may expend 30% of his or her total 24-hour energy output. These high power outputs have important implications for energy substrate and water requirements. Carbohydrate, specifically muscle glycogen, is an obligatory fuel for the high power outputs demanded by athletic sports. Muscle glycogen is a limiting factor in hard exercise because it is held in limited amounts, utilised rapidly by intense exercise, and fatigue occurs when it is depleted to low levels in the active muscles. Liver glycogen may also be exhausted by hard exercise and low blood glucose contributes to fatigue. High sweat rates are demanded during severe exercise and large water deficits commensurate with

  16. Improving nutrition through nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Good nutrition is essential to health and quality of life. As a United Nations agency dedicated to helping Member States achieve their social and economic goals, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognizes the importance of good nutrition and is working to address the problems underlying poor nutrition. In fact, many Agency activities serve basic human needs, by applying nuclear science to increase food production, improve health care, improve management of water resources, and assess sources of environmental pollution. Global progress in reducing malnutrition throughout the human life cycle has been slow and patchy. In its 2000 Report on the World Nutrition Situation, the United Nations Sub Committee on Nutrition estimated that in developing countries 182 million children under five years of age are chronically undernourished and 150 million are underweight. An estimated 30 million infants are born each year with impaired growth due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Worldwide, renewed international commitments have been made to address this situation, and the IAEA is a vital partner in these efforts. Nuclear science provides valuable tools for monitoring factors that influence nutrition, such as micronutrients, body composition, and breast milk uptake. Through its sub-programme on nutrition, the Agency is helping countries to use isotope applications and other nuclear techniques to their nutritional problems and is supporting leading-edge research on the interaction between nutrition and environmental pollution and infection with the ultimate goal of improving human nutrition

  17. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health. (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J


    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  18. Nutrition: ethical issues and challenges. (United States)

    Rucker, Robert B; Rucker, Michael R


    For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with apparent conflicts of interest. Also, there are few scientific disciplines that are defined by cultural, religious, or political codifications as is nutrition. Accordingly, examples of historical, cultural, and political events are described that have influenced ethical approaches related to nutrition research. Furthermore, nutrition research questions are often multifaceted and require dealing with complex variables. In this regard, ethical principles and perspectives that have relevance to data acquisition, the publication and translation of nutrition research, and the marketing of nutritional products and concepts are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Nutritional support in polytraumatized patients]. (United States)

    García de Lorenzo y Mateos, A; Acosta Escribano, J; Bonet Saris, A


    Polytraumatism usually presents in previously healthy patients with a good nutritional status. However, metabolic changes derived from the traumatic injury put these patients in a nutritional risk situation. Specialized nutritional support should be started if it is foreseeable that nutritional requirements will not be met p.o. within the 5-10 days period from admission. Enteral nutrition should be the first route to consider for nutrients intake. However, the presence of head trauma leads to gastrointestinal motility impairments that hinder tolerance to enteral nutrition. Patients with abdominal trauma also present difficulties for the onset and tolerance of enteral diet. The insertion of transpyloric tubes or jejunostomy catheters allows early use of enteral nutrition in these patients.

  20. Nutrition and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne


    The impact of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is most severe in sub-Saharan African countries already affected by undernutrition and food insecurity. There is a two-way relationship between HIV and undernutrition and food insecurity......, which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  1. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    per day in four weeks followed by four weeks of 1200 kcal daily) resulted in approximately 12 kg median weight loss, which primarily consisted of fat mass (≈66%). There was a significant difference between groups in regards to changes in weight, hip and waist circumference. The intervention group...... risk screening on their rounds, and register the data in the laboratory report. • Investigate the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet on physical status in obese moderate-to-severe heart failure patients, and to assess the effect on cardiovascular risk factors. To meet these objectives......, height, recent weight loss and/or recent loss of energy intake, or registration of disease severity, disagreed with data registered in other places in the medical record. The most common fault was vi a too low total score in the nutritional risk screening, which a failure to supply nutritional support...

  2. Nutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia. (United States)

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Kiesswetter, Eva; Drey, Michael; Sieber, Cornel C


    Frailty and sarcopenia are important concepts in the quest to prevent physical dependence, as geriatrics are shifting towards identifications of early stages of disability. Definitions of both sarcopenia and frailty are still developing, and both concepts clearly overlap in their physical aspects. Malnutrition (both undernutrition and obesity) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of frailty and sarcopenia. The quality of the diet along the lifespan has a close relation with the incidence of both entities, and nutritional interventions may be able to reduce the incidence or revert either of them. This brief review explores the role of energy and protein intake and other key nutrients on muscle function. Nutrition may be a key element of multimodal interventions for frailty and sarcopenia. The results of the "Sarcopenia and Physical fRailty IN older people: multi-componenT Treatment strategies" (SPRINTT) trial will offer key insights on the effect of such interventions in frail, sarcopenic older individuals.

  3. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids. (United States)

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah


    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  4. Acute nutritional axonal neuropathy. (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L


    This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dairy cow nutrition


    Tame, Mike


    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  6. Nutrition in Severe Dementia


    Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek


    An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of...

  7. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  8. Child nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Efforts to reduce malnutrition, particularly in densely populated, peri-urban areas, is considered a priority among governments around the world. The problem is especially acute in Africa due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency. The International Atomic Energy Agency is providing technical support to a community nutrition programme in Senegal where nuclear techniques help to monitor the programme's effectiveness in order to ensure that it produces maximum benefits on vulnerable groups (women and children). (IAEA)

  9. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho


    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  10. Nutrition support in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Korang, Steven Kwasi


    for one-third of all included participants. The included participants were heterogenous with regard to disease (20 different medical specialties). The experimental interventions were parenteral nutrition (86 trials); enteral nutrition (tube-feeding) (80 trials); oral nutrition support (55 trials); mixed...... we only had enough information to assess a risk ratio reduction of approximately 10% or more. A risk ratio reduction of 10% or more could be rejected.Trial Sequential Analysis of enteral nutrition alone showed that enteral nutrition might reduce serious adverse events at maximum follow-up in people...... limited signs of statistical heterogeneity. Further trials may be warranted, assessing enteral nutrition (tube-feeding) for different patient groups. Future trials ought to be conducted with low risks of systematic errors and low risks of random errors, and they also ought to assess health-related quality...

  11. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science. (United States)

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander


    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  12. Nutritional considerations after bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Elliot, Kelly


    Malnutrition is a risk that is associated with all bariatric surgeries. Malnutrition is largely preventable after these surgeries if proper patient selection, thorough preoperative nutrition education, and postoperative nutritional follow-up take place along with patient compliance. Bariatric surgery is divided into 2 major categories: restrictive or malabsorptive (with or without the restrictive aspect). The more dramatic weight loss is generally associated with procedures that are malabsorptive in nature. There is an increased risk of specific nutritional deficiencies associated with these surgeries. With proper supplementation these deficiencies are largely avoidable. This article reviews the more common bariatric surgeries and the nutritional considerations associated specifically with each surgery. The article then summarizes the typical diet advancement schedule and reviews critical care nutrition in regards to total parenteral nutrition administration for the morbidly obese individual, following bariatric surgery.

  13. [Hepatic complications in parenteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Müller, M J


    During parenteral nutrition hepatic complications are seen in about 15% of patients. They are characterized by steatosis, cholestasis and formation of sludge and bile stones. These hepatic complications depend on the duration as well as on the concept and mode of application of parenteral nutrition. They are more frequent after treatment periods of > 1-2 weeks, in response to a carbohydrate rich and low fat parenteral nutrition and in patients with extensive intestinal resection. Clinically, hepatic complications are frequently observed in new-borns and children, patients with inflammatory bowel disease, after ileum resection and in patients with hepatic malignancies. The exact pathophysiology of these phenomena is presently unknown. Enteral instead of parenteral nutrition, meeting the demand of nutrients, increasing fat supply (up to 50% of energy supply), "cyclic" parenteral nutrition and the addition of "semi-essential" nutrients (like L-glutamine, carnitin, cholin) are considered as possible strategies for the prevention and therapy of hepatic complications during parenteral nutrition.

  14. Nutrition in acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Mussi Guimarães

    Full Text Available Nutritional status has been considered to be one of the possible determinants of mortality rates in cases of acute renal failure (ARF. However, most studies evaluating possible mortality indicators in ARF cases have not focused on the nutritional status, possibly because of the difficulties involved in assessing the nutritional status of critically ill patients. Although the traditional methods for assessing nutritional status are used for ARF patients, they are not the best choice in this population. The use of nutritional support for these patients has produced conflicting results regarding morbidity and mortality. This review covers the mechanisms and indicators of malnutrition in ARF cases and the types of nutritional support that may be used.

  15. Bariatric Surgery and Precision Nutrition


    Carolina F. Nicoletti; Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira; Marcela A. S. Pinhel; Carla B. Nonino


    This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient’s genetic and epigenetic variables on the response t...

  16. Parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichvarova, I.


    Parenteral nutrition became a routine therapeutic option in malnourished patients, if conventional nutritional enteral support is not effective. Cachexia and malnutrition prolong the wound healing, contribute to immunosuppression, increase morbidity and the cost of treatment. Using of a malnutrition protocol as a screening tool is necessary to sort out malnourished patients. Parenteral nutrition is therefore an important part of the multimodal therapy and from the medical and the ethical point of view is a great mistake not to feed a patient. (author)

  17. Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition


    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne


    There have been significant advances in the provision of enteral nutrition support in the acute and community healthcare settings. Enteral nutrition is beneficial to individuals who have functional guts but may not be able to meet their nutritional requirements via a normal diet. Most of these people have neurological conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and dementia which could impact on swallowing reflexes, leading to dysphagia [1]. Others may have cancer, intellectual disability o...

  18. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang


    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  19. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan


    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  20. The changing nutrition scenario. (United States)

    Gopalan, C


    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  1. Nutrition intervention in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anzolin


    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the effectiveness of nutrition intervention in changing dietary intake among school children aged 6 to 10 years old in private school, in the city of Itajaí - SC, Brazil. Methods: A non-randomized and uncontrolled intervention study, carried through four educational activities in the period from August to November, 2008 and food intake reassessed at the end. We evaluated the nutritional status by means of body mass index for age and sex, and waist circumference. The frequency of consumption before and after intervention was compared using the paired Student t test. Results: Joined in the survey 93 students (69.92% of whom 48 children (54.5% were normal weight, while 36 (40.9% were overweight or presented obesity. The most consumed food groups, before and after intervention were: crackers and pasta; rice and fruit juice. The average frequency of sweets intake decreased after the intervention (0.54 to 0.24 times per day, p <0.001, however increased the intake of fried potatoes (0.25 to 0.65, p <0.001, pizza and hamburger (0.30 to 0.46, p = 0.028. Among girls, the intake of sweets decreased after the educational activities (0.58 to 0.12, p <0.001. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions, despite the short period of time, were effective in changing the consumption of certain foods / food groups. The results reinforce the need to carry out interventions more often and for longer periods, to promote effective changes in food consumption.

  2. Childhood nutrition and poverty. (United States)

    Nelson, M


    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  3. Nutrition, inflammation, and cognitive function. (United States)

    Wärnberg, Julia; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Romeo, Javier; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión


    Inflammation, particularly low-grade chronic inflammation, appears to affect several brain functions, from early brain development to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and perhaps some psychiatric diseases. On the other hand, nutrition and dietary components and patterns have a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory effects that could be linked to cognitive function. Even a modest effect of nutrition on cognitive decline could have significant implications for public health. This paper summarizes the available evidence regarding inflammation as a key mechanism in cognitive function and nutritional pro- or anti-inflammatory effects with the purpose of linking the apparent disparate disciplines of nutrition, immunity, and neurology.

  4. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression. (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E


    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies. (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny


    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and may...

  7. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition. (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C


    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

  8. The effect of Integrated nutrition care intervention on the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to adequate nutrition in children is essential for the attainment of high standards of health. The health and nutritional status of orphans and vulnerable children is important as it affects their growth, health and mental development. However, these children suffer from malnutrition as they have limited access to ...

  9. Nutritional requirements and parenteral nutrition in preterm infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provision of appropriate nutritional requirements soon after birth is critical for normal development and growth of preterm infants. Preterm infants are often not able to tolerate volumes of oral feeds that will provide adequate daily requirements for growth within the first week or two of life, therefore parenteral nutrition is often ...

  10. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is high in young children, especially in developing countries. Nutrition education is an important intervention to address these challenges. Objective. To determine the nutritional (anthropometric and micronutrient) status of ...

  11. Effect of nutrition education and dairy group membership on nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of nutrition education and dairy group membership on nutrition knowledge, practices and diet quality for rural Kenyan farm women. ... dairy development group were more food secure and had higher intake of certain micronutrients ... to improve intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc and was developed and delivered in

  12. Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Composition of Strychnos innocua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mal. Usman

    37. DOI: ISSN 0794-5698. 33. Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Composition of Strychnos innocua Del. (Monkey Orange) Fruit. Pulp Grown in Zuru, Nigeria. 1L.G. Hassan, 2U. Abdulmumin,1K.J. Umar, 1P.

  13. Capable and credible? Challenging nutrition science : Challenging nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Wolters, Anna; Feskens, Edith F; Brouns, Fred; Huber, Machteld; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Navis, Gerjan; Ockhuizen, Theo; Plat, Jogchum; Sikkema, Jan; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne; van 't Veer, Pieter; Verweij, Marcel; de Vries, Jan

    Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis

  14. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition. (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  15. Impact of a nutrition education programme on the nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to ascertain nutrition knowledge amongst primary school children in an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. A nutrition knowledge questionnaire was developed and tested for internal reliability using Cronbach Alpha methods. Pre- and postintervention tests were completed with ...

  16. Nutritional requirements and parenteral nutrition in preterm infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the fact that appropriate nutritional support ameliorates the protein and carbohydrate deficit and improves growth of preterm infants. The risk of growth failure increases with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Therefore, very preterm and extreme low birth weight infants will need more intensive nutritional support.

  17. Updates in pediatric nutrition. (United States)

    Oken, E; Lightdale, J R


    Ongoing research in several areas of pediatric nutrition has new practical applications for community-based pediatricians. For example, a fresh understanding of risk factors for rickets persuades pediatricians to recognize and treat this disease, which was thought to be nearly extinct in the modern industrialized world. Similarly, an expanded awareness of the antibacterial components of breast milk encourages a more complete dialogue between pediatricians and new mothers about the potential benefits of breast-feeding. For those infants with feeding intolerance, new data help to refine the indications for hypoallergenic formulas, which are increasingly recommended for children with a variety of symptoms. The past year also has seen breakthroughs in our understanding of supplemental nutrition for children. Vitamin A may provide direct benefits for the most vulnerable of children, namely premature infants at high risk for lung disease. At the other end of the pediatric spectrum, adolescent athletes seeking to enhance their performance are consuming poorly studied sports supplements that may not be beneficial and may even be toxic. Finally, a greater appreciation for the epidemic of obesity that is sweeping the United States and other countries suggests that children at high risk may represent a far more diverse population than had been recognized previously.

  18. Nutrition for cyclists. (United States)

    Grandjean, A C; Ruud, J S


    Good nutrition is important at every stage of training and competition. Both the serious competitive cyclist as well as the recreational cyclist should eat a balanced diet that provides calories adequate to meet energy demands. Athletes consuming less than 2000 calories a day may have difficulty meeting nutrient needs, particularly for iron and calcium. Weight loss, glycogen depletion, and dehydration also are possible results of an inadequate diet. Dietary strategies to enhance or maintain the body's carbohydrate stores are necessary for performance, especially for cyclists with high training miles or participating in road racing and other endurance events. Additionally, cyclists should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids, especially when in a hot environment. It appears that protein requirements of endurance athletes increase as the duration and intensity of exercise increases. However, factors such as total calorie intake and protein quality should be considered when determining protein needs. Many athletes are concerned about vitamin and mineral intake and often use nutritional supplements both for "insurance" as well as performance reasons. The supplements taken most often include vitamin C, the B-complex, and iron. Vitamins and minerals in excess of the RDA do not improve performance and can be toxic when consumed in large amounts. On the other hand, vegetarians and cyclists with low-calorie intakes may benefit from a multivitamin or mineral supplement.

  19. Nutrition in team sports. (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M


    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. School nutrition survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M


    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p < 0.01). Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child\\'s daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  1. Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Bin; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Nolan, Marie T


    This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002).......This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002)....

  2. Functional assessment of nutrition status. (United States)

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak


    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients (United States)

    Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.


    Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics…

  4. Nutrition policy in South Korea. (United States)

    Park, Hye-Kyung


    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  5. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology. (United States)

    Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodorakis, Michael J; Melnik, Bodo C; Pappas, Apostolos; Zouboulis, Christos C


    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, beauty, integrity and aging through multiple pathways and cofactors implicated in skin biology. The onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, especially acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss, have been suggested to be critically affected by nutrition patterns and habits. The relationship between acne and diet, predominantly the role of high glycemic load diets and dairy consumption have recently gained increased interest. Abnormal nutritional conditions such as obesity or malnutrition often manifest themselves by specific cutaneous features and altered skin function. Skin photoprotection, rendered by various nutrients, is well documented and appropriate nutritional supplementation has been shown to exert beneficial effects upon impaired skin integrity, restore its appearance and promote skin health. It is our intention to provide a comprehensive review of the most recent information on the role of nutrition for common skin diseases and regulation of skin biology. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology have been reviewed using the MedLine literature source and the terms "diet" or "nutrition" and "skin". The data on the relationship between nutrition and skin are until now controversial and much more work is needed to be done to clarify possible etiological correlations.

  6. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health. (United States)

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.


    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  7. Climate change and nutrition: creating a climate for nutrition security. (United States)

    Tirado, M C; Crahay, P; Mahy, L; Zanev, C; Neira, M; Msangi, S; Brown, R; Scaramella, C; Costa Coitinho, D; Müller, A


    Climate change further exacerbates the enormous existing burden of undernutrition. It affects food and nutrition security and undermines current efforts to reduce hunger and promote nutrition. Undernutrition in turn undermines climate resilience and the coping strategies of vulnerable populations. The objectives of this paper are to identify and undertake a cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the existing mechanisms, strategies, and policies to address them. A cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the mechanisms and policies to address them was guided by an analytical framework focused on the three 'underlying causes' of undernutrition: 1) household food access, 2) maternal and child care and feeding practices, 3) environmental health and health access. The analytical framework includes the interactions of the three underlying causes of undernutrition with climate change,vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation. Within broad efforts on climate change mitigation and adaptation and climate-resilient development, a combination of nutrition-sensitive adaptation and mitigation measures, climate-resilient and nutrition-sensitive agricultural development, social protection, improved maternal and child care and health, nutrition-sensitive risk reduction and management, community development measures, nutrition-smart investments, increased policy coherence, and institutional and cross-sectoral collaboration are proposed as a means to address the impacts of climate change to food and nutrition security. This paper proposes policy directions to address nutrition in the climate change agenda and recommendations for consideration by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Nutrition and health stakeholders need to be engaged in key climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives, including science-based assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC

  8. Nutritional status and liver transplantation. (United States)

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero


    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review


    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel


    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics. (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M; Trujillo, Elaine


    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutritional genomics provides insight into how diet and genotype interactions affect phenotype. The practical application of nutritional genomics for complex chronic disease is an emerging science and the use of nutrigenetic testing to provide dietary advice is not ready for routine dietetics practice. Registered dietitian nutritionists need basic competency in genetics as a foundation for understanding nutritional genomics; proficiency requires advanced knowledge and skills. Unlike single-gene defects in which a mutation in a single gene results in a specific disorder, most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are multigenetic and multifactorial and therefore genetic mutations are only partially predictive of disease risk. Family history, biochemical parameters, and the presence of risk factors in individuals are relevant tools for personalizing dietary interventions. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is not closely regulated in the United States and may not be accompanied by access to health care practitioners. Applying nutritional genomics in clinical practice through the use of genetic testing requires that registered dietitian nutritionists understand, interpret, and communicate complex test results in which the actual risk of developing a disease may not be known. The practical application of nutritional genomics in dietetics practice will require an evidence-based approach to validate that personalized recommendations result in health benefits to individuals and do not cause harm. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrition, epigenetic mechanisms, and human disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maulik, Nilanjana; Maulik, Gautam


    .... The text discusses the basics of nutrigenomics and epigenetic regulation, types of nutrition influencing genetic imprinting, and the role of nutrition in modulating an individual's predisposition to disease...

  12. As doenças e os doentes: a apreensão das práticas médicas no modo de produção capitalista Las enfermedades y los enfermos: la aprehensión de las prácticas médicas en el modo de producción capitalista The diseases and the sick: the understanding of medical practices in capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleuza P. Ornellas


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as doenças e os doentes e o processo através do qual o cuidar dos doentes e o tratar das doenças tornou-se objeto das práticas médicas. Baseado nas contribuições de Donnangelo & Pereira e Gonçalves discute o processo que explica a apropriação das práticas médicas no modo de produção capitalista.Este artículo discute las enfermedades y los enfermos y el processo hacia el cual el cuidar de los enfermos y el tratar las enfermedades se convirtieron en objeto de las prácticas médicas. Basado en las contribuiciones de Donnagelo e Gonçalves discute el proceso que explica la apropriación de las prácticas médicas en el modo de producción capitalista.This article discusses the diseases and the sick as well as how the process from which to take care of them became object of medical practices. Based on Donnagelo and Gonçalves contributions, the author discusses the process that explains medical practices appropriation by the capitalism.

  13. Algunos problemas filosóficos de la nutrición: la ética en la atención nutricional del paciente Some philosophical problems of nutrition: ethics in the patient's nutritional care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bolet Astoviza


    Full Text Available Este trabajo se refiere a algunos problemas filosóficos de la nutrición, principalmente de la ética en la atención nutricional de los pacientes, y hace hincapié en la realización de la evaluación nutricional de ellos a través de la historia clínica y dietética, las mediciones antropométricas y las pruebas bioquímicas que se indicaron. Hace una revisión de la desnutrición y la obesidad, cuadro clínico, clasificación, del tratamiento nutricional de estas y del apoyo psicológico en estos casos para lograr cambios en el estilo de vida de dichos enfermos. Tiene siempre presente la ética en su trato, hace énfasis en la relación médico paciente, así como en la valoración del contexto psíquico y social. Se concluye que el hombre es un sistema biosicosocial. Se hacen recomendaciones al insistir en los aspectos bioéticos en el tratamiento con los pacientes, y la promoción de estilos y patrones de vida más saludables.This paper deals with some philosophical problems of nutrition, mainly with the ethics in the nutritional attention given to the patients. Emphasis is made on their nutritional evaluation through the medical and dietetic history, the anthropometric measures and the biochemical tests indicated. A review of malnutrition and obesity, clinical picture, staging, nutritional treatment and of the psychological support given in these cases in order to attain changes in the life style of these patients is made. Ethics is always present in their treatment. The physician-patient relation as well as the assessment of the psychical and social context are emphasized. It is concluded that man is a biopsychosocial system. Recommendations are made on insisting on the bioethical aspects in the treatment with the patients and on the promotion of healthy life styles and patterns.

  14. Nutritional status and nutritional risk in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mette; Dam, Gitte Aarøe; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens


    level of function in 43% of the patients. About 38% were at nutritional risk, more frequent in patients with residual disease (45% versus 29%, p level of function and being at nutritional risk were associated with the NIS: Nausea, vomiting, stomach ache and dry mouth (p...... (NIS). We aimed to assess nutritional status (NS) and risk, level of function and associations with NIS in NET patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of NET patients, we measured body mass index (BMI) and handgrip strength (HGS) as markers of NS and muscle function assessed by HGS...... level of function (p 

  15. [Bone and Nutrition. Nutrition care of renal osteodystrophy]. (United States)

    Tanaka, Sarasa; Ito, Mikiko


    Renal osteodystrophy is the damage of bone morphology by CKD and treatment and occurred abnormal bone metabolism through renal dysfunction. It demonstrated that the control of P and Ca improves to normalization of mineral metabolism. Protein energy wasting and malnutrition are common in patients with CKD stage 5 and has been associated with life prognosis. In CKD patients, nutritional management is a critical role of treatment. Also it may be important of nutritional management that control P and Ca and improve nutritional status in renal osteodystrophy patients.

  16. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels. (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh


    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meat-based enteral nutrition (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.


    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  18. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches. (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny


    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  19. Recent Advances in Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rüştü Kutlu


    Full Text Available One of the most industrialized animal production branches of ruminant production successfully requires a blending of theoretical knowledge of nutritional principles with practical stockmanship, maintaining health and dealing with numbers. It is well known that high yielding, dairy cows, require balanced diet with adequate nutrients for yielding. This is not provided with only a few feedstuffs. Milk production in dairy cows is related to the improvements in genetic merit of farm animals and also developments in feed science, feed technology and animal nutrition. In particular, feeds and feed technology studies associated with sustainability, economical perspectives and product quality in the last decade have been in advance. In the present work, recent advances in feed sources and feed technology, minerals (macro and trace minerals , vitamins and amino acids, feed additives (antibiotics alternative growth stimulants, rumen modulator, organic acids, antioxidants, enzymes, plant extracts, nutrition-products (meat-milk-progeny quality and functional food production (milk, meat nutrition-reproduction, nutrition-animal health, nutrition-environmental temperature, nutrition-global warming were evaluated.

  20. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn


    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  1. 2011 Nutritional Assessment Guidelines : information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Freeman


    Full Text Available Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA, following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old, suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin, muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal.

  2. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs) and ranges were used for socioeconomic ...

  3. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Murgia


    Full Text Available Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice.



    Desai, B.P.


    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pr...

  5. Nutrition pathways in consequence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.


    During 1979-1980 calculations of risk from waste transportation by truck (fire following collision) and fire in temporary storage for waste were performed. A modified version of the consequence model of WASH-1400 (CRAC) was used. Two exposure pathways dominated the results: external exposure from material on the ground and exposure via nutrition. Many of the parameters entering into the nutrition calculations will depend upon local conditions, like soil composition, crop yield, etc. It was decided to collect detailed comments upon the CRAC nutritions model and parameter values from radioecologists in the four Nordic countries. Four alternate sets of parameter values were derived from these comments, and new risk calculations were performed

  6. Nutritional evaluation of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    An advisory group of experts, comprising nutritionists, analysts and plant breeders, discussed the desirability of nutritional goals for plant breeding and attempted to specify the deficiencies of various cereal crops in essential nutrients. It considered the plant factors influencing the value for human and animal nutrition and the feasibility of improving these by genetic and plant breeding methods. Methods of assaying nutritional quality were discussed, particularly in relation to the need for rapid, inexpensive methods capable of being used as screening procedures in plant breeding programmes. The proceedings contain 9 scientific papers and a conclusion and recommendations, including a review of the chemical cuzymatic, microbiological and animal assay techniques that are available

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.


    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  8. Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids. (United States)

    Van Saun, Robert J


    It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.

  9. A brief nutritional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia


    Food irradiation is a preservation method comparable to others that use heat. Some advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Ionizing radiations provided by specific radioactive substances: Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137, or by machines (electron accelerators and X-ray devices), are employed to eliminate living organisms which are harmful to human health or cause food spoilage. Several applications are listed. As any other food preservation method, it does not substitute good manufacturing practices but complements them. Being perhaps the most studied food preservation method, its wholesomeness is guaranteed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the American Medical Association, The American Dietists Association, among others. Like in any other food preservation method, some nutritional and sensory losses can occur after an irradiation treatment; so, processing conditions are chosen to minimize these changes. Generally, nutrients are well protected within the food because there are many different molecules able to react with radiation. Some significant nutrient losses referred to in literature are usually found only when irradiating experimental mixtures of an isolated diluted food component and water. The evaluation concludes that macro nutrients like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are scarcely altered in their nutritional value after a treatment carried out under good irradiation practices. Regarding micro nutrients, minerals are stable, and some vitamins are slightly sensitive, mainly thiamine, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols, being their losses smaller than 15 - 20% which are comparable with those found in foods preserved by other methods. Besides, the impact that food irradiation would have on consumers' vitamins intake should be assessed considering the whole diet contribution, as many products are not likely to be irradiated. Confidence in food irradiation is such

  10. Aspectos atuais na terapia nutricional de pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI News aspects of nutritional support in the critically ill at intensive care unit (ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Lamounier de Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available O tratamento do paciente gravemente enfermo tem despertado bastante interesse nos últimos anos. A terapia nutricional tem um papel fundamental para estes pacientes, visando: prevenir a desnutrição calórico-protéica e avaliar e determinar as necessidades nutricionais de forma mais adequada possível. Inúmeras dietas estão disponíveis, no entanto, as dietas imunoestimulantes com arginina, ácido graxo ômega-3, nucleotídeos e glutamina estão sendo muito utilizadas, com o esforço de diminuir as complicações infecciosas, mas suas vantagens terapêuticas ainda estão sendo debatidas.The treatment of critically-ill patients has aroused great interest during the last years. The nutrition support has an important role for these patients, seeking to prevent the protein-energy malnutrition and to evaluate and determine the appropriate nutrient requeriments. Some diets are available, however, immune-stimulating diets wish arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, nucleotides and glutamine have been used in an effort to decrease infectious complications, but their therapeutic advantages are still being debated.

  11. 77 FR 43229 - Food and Nutrition Service (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National... AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the annual... Namian, Section Head, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition...

  12. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings. (United States)

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  13. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul


    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  14. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture... Participant Benefits § 246.11 Nutrition education. (a) General. (1) Nutrition education shall be considered a benefit of the Program, and shall be made available at no cost to the participant. Nutrition education...

  15. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanier, B. W. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.


    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English

  16. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability. (United States)

    Reber, Robert J.


    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  17. Undergraduate Training in Nutritional Science (United States)

    Briggs, George M.


    Discusses need to establish minimum standards of training for nutrition educators,'' and standardized curricula at the undergraduate level. Gives attention to definitions, adequate training, and suggested guidelines as a starting point for further discussion. (LK)

  18. Table showing nutritional plant list

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    . It is obvious, however, that preservation of botanical knowledge is critical and justified because wild species can be nutritional substitutes to cultivated food plants during economic hardship, drought, or periods of social and ...

  19. School Health and Nutrition Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Yabanci


    Full Text Available Schools play an effective role for adopt and maintain healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. Schools are an important part of national efforts to prevent chronic diseases such as childhood obesity, coronary heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. Nutrition programs in schools can help children and adolescents participate in full educational potential; improve academic performance and health quality. To ensure a healthy future for our children, school-based nutrition education programs must become a national priority. Governments, community leaders, doctors, dieteticians, nurses, teachers, and parents must commit to implementing and sustaining nutrition education programs within the schools. School health and nutrition programs which part of public health and education are summarized in this review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 361-368

  20. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: Caffeine (United States)

    ... mg) a day, you may want to consider cutting back. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends ... US adults: 2001-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101:1081. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for ...

  1. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy? (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet Related Links: Nutrition Support Patient Data Twitter Tweets by ASPENWEB ASPEN 8401 Colesville Road, Suite ... Staff Find a Clinician Press Room Career Center Advertising and Sponsorship Related Websites BPS NBNSC NBPNS Connect ...

  2. Exploring nutrition education resources and barriers, and nutrition knowledge in teachers in California. (United States)

    Jones, Anna Marie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri


    To determine barriers to nutrition education, nutrition education resources used, and the relationship between nutrition knowledge and whether public school teachers in California teach nutrition in the classroom. A total of 102 teachers in California participated in a Web-based survey about nutrition education barriers, resources used to plan nutrition lessons, and factors that would encourage inclusion of nutrition. A validated questionnaire was used to assess nutrition knowledge. Analyses included ordinary least-squares regression. Common barriers were lack of instructional time and unrelated subject. Teachers were unaware of many nutrition education resources. Nutrition knowledge was not associated with nutrition lessons but was positively associated with teaching high school (β = 5.13; P teachers to provide nutrition education. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this holds true in a broader sample. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Public Health Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hillger


    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970 has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Of those that are considered to be basic physiological needs hunger, thirst as well as bodily comforts are considered to be the most important. Physiological needs are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived on all needs it is these physiological needs that would take the highest priority. As food is characterized as a basic need, we should have a special view on our daily food and our handling of it. Most people do not act careful with their daily intake of food. In the last decades, the increases of nutrition-associated diseases such as overweight and obesity and on the other hand underweight have been recorded. From a life-span approach, the problem has its offset point in the early age of development, namely in children and adolescents. Malnutrition, overweight and obesity limit children’s personal quality of life in terms of unhappiness with their own body, opposition or even rejection in peer group communication and general difficulties in day-to-day social interaction. A close connection between physical stature and the development of a negative self-concept and a low self-esteem is postulated.

  4. Infant and toddler nutrition. (United States)

    Marks, Katie


    General practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of advice about nutrition and feeding concerns in infants and toddlers. The aim of this article is to discuss the assessment of breastfed infants and address commonly presenting issues such as regurgitation, vomiting and bowel habits. Recommendations for starting solids and management of fussy eating are also outlined in this article. Breastfeeding should be supported by all healthcare professionals. Intake is difficult to quantify, but can be assessed using growth and urine output, with support from lactation consultants and/or child and family health nurses. Regurgitation is common, and usually resolves itself. If there are clinical concerns about a child's vomiting, they should be investigated medically. Consti-pation can be caused by insufficient fluid intake and should be managed medically; dietary interventions are not recommended as first-line treatment. Solid foods should be introduced around six months of age, when the infant is developmentally ready. Delaying the introduction of solids or allergenic foods does not prevent allergies. Fussy eating is common in toddlers exerting their independence, and behavioural management is essential.

  5. Nutrition and cognitive impairment (United States)

    Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio


    Dementia, closely linked to environmental predisposing factors such as diet, is a public health problem of increasing magnitude: currently there are more than 35 million patients with Alzheimer´s disease, and is expected to exceed 135 million by 2050. If we can delay the development of dementia 5 years will reduce its prevalence by 50%. Patients with dementia modify their diet, and it has been reported in them deficits, among others, of folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, C, E, A, D, K, beta carotene and omega 3 fatty acids, that must be resolved with proper diet and with extra contributions if needed in some cases. But to reduce, or at least delay, the prevalence of dementia we advocate prevention through proper diet from the beginning of life, an idea that is reinforced given that cardiovascular risk factors are related directly to the development of dementia. A lot of literature are available that, although with limits, allows us to make nutritional recommendations for preventing cognitive impairment. Better results are achieved when complete diets have been studied and considered over specific nutrients separately. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet has great interest in this disease, since it ensures a high intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, cereals, fish and olive oil, and moderate intake of meat, dairy products and alcohol. We will focus more on this article in this type of diet.

  6. HIV and nutrition. (United States)

    Tinnerello, D


    Nutrition plays a big part in enabling patients to properly take medication, manage side effects, and maintain adequate nourishment. Recommendations for light snacks are included, as are remedies for unpleasant tastes caused by some medications. Weight gain is an issue for all AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy. Nutritionists advise that to manage increasing weight, patients should cut fat and calories, but not eliminate the good fats, such as monounsaturated fats and Omega 3 polyunsaturated fat. Because AIDS-related illnesses can cause loss of lean body mass and wasting, people with AIDS need to consume more protein. It is also important to maintain calcium in the diet for bone health, blood clotting, nerve transmission, and regulating heartbeat. Carbohydrates round out the healthy diet by lowering cholesterol, lowering glucose absorption, alleviating constipation, and facilitating movement through the bowel. Aside from a well balanced diet, it is important to prepare food safely and to know the source of any drinking water. A guide to kitchen safety is described. Suggestions for handling side effects of medication are given.

  7. Úlcera de pressão e estado nutricional: revisão da literatura Ulcera de presión y estado nutricional: revisión de la literatura Decubitus ulcer and nutritional status: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Dias Castilho


    Full Text Available Para melhor compreender os aspectos envolvidos na avaliação nutricional de pacientes em risco para úlcera de pressão, desenvolvemos uma revisão bibliográfica da literatura nacional e internacional indexada nas bases de dados bibliográficos LILACS e MEDLINE, no período de 1987 a 2001. O objetivo foi investigar a produção do conhecimento sobre úlcera de pressão e estado nutricional, assim como a autoria principal e o enfoque das publicações. Concluiu-se que os pacientes que apresentam risco para o desenvolvimento de úlcera de pressão podem ser identificados precocemente através da avaliação nutricional, incluindo os dados bioquímicos, mensurações antropométricas, sinais clínicos, história dietética e gasto energético. As alterações são mais freqüentes em pacientes idosos, hospitalizados, portadores de doenças crônicas como acidente vascular cerebral, câncer e lesão de medula espinhal.Para una mejor compresión de los aspectos envueltos en la evaluación nutricional de enfermos en peligro de úlcera por decúbito, los autores desarrollaron una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura nacional e internacional indexada en las basis de datos LILACS y MEDLINE durante el período de 1987 a 2001. El objetivo fue investigar la producción del conocimiento sobre úlcera de presión y estado de nutrición, así como la autoría principal y el enfoque de las publicaciones. Los autores concluyeron que los enfermos presentando peligro para el desarrollo de úlcera de presión pueden ser identificados de modo prematuro vía la evaluación nutricional, incluyendo los datos bioquímicos, mensuraciones antropométricas, indicios clínicos, historia dietética y expensas energéticas. Las alteraciones son más frecuentes en enfermos ancianos, hospitalizados, portadores de enfermedad crónica como accidente vascular cerebral, cáncer y lesión de la medula espinal.In order to better understand aspects related to the nutritional

  8. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future. (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus


    Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Nutritional factors in gallbladder diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiane Prolo


    Full Text Available Biliary system disorders are all diseases that affect the gallbladder and the ducts. They may be originated from various etiologies. Inadequate living habits, being female and smoking are risk factors for the development of these diseases, as well as poor nutrition, nutritional deficiencies, obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables and the regular practice of physical activity act as protective factors for these diseases.

  10. Nutrition in Children with Cancer


    Gönül Dinler


    Malnutrition is a common event in children with cancer. Both cancer and its therapies contribute to malnutrition in different proportion. Malnutrition predisposes the child to increased morbidity, poorer outcome and reduction in quality of life. To prevent and/or treat malnutrition, children with cancer need to be evaluated their nutritional status and need to be supported nutritionally. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 31-6)

  11. Forecasting Nutrition Research in 2020 (United States)


    how they utilize foods, their susceptibility to nutritional deficiencies and toxicities, their response to xenobiotics, and their risk for many food...pass and other forms of bariatric surgery . Given that a growing number of adolescents are obese, the population of bypass pa- tients will...JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Forecasting Nutrition Research in 2020. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  12. Nutritional requirements after bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Bosnic, Gordana


    This article presents an overview of postoperative nutritional requirements and goals following bariatric surgery. It summarizes current diet progression and nutrient intake guidelines geared toward optimizing weight loss and maintaining adequate nutritional status, nutrient absorption, as well as hydration. The article further emphasizes the importance of postoperative follow-up with a bariatric multidisciplinary team for appropriate postoperative care, diet management, and nutrient deficiency screenings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of paediatric nutrition. (United States)

    Patience, Sara


    This articles looks at infant nutrition, from birth and through the first year of life. Good quality foods in infancy and childhood do not only promote optimum growth and development during that time, but also play a role in helping to prevent obesity and some diseases of adulthood, particularly non-communicable diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Ensuring a good nutritional start for the paediatric population will help reduce morbidity and mortality later in life.



    Ivan Vasiljević; Danilo Bojanić; Jovica Petković; Aldijana Muratović


    Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004).The aim...

  15. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis (United States)

    Petrov, Max


    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  16. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology


    Qi, Lu


    Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel’s law o...

  17. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia (United States)

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena


    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  18. Nutrition support in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk. (United States)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Korang, Steven Kwasi; Halberg Engell, Kirstine; Nielsen, Marie Skøtt; Zhang, Kang; Didriksen, Maria; Lund, Lisbeth; Lindahl, Niklas; Hallum, Sara; Liang, Ning; Xiong, Wenjing; Yang, Xuemei; Brunsgaard, Pernille; Garioud, Alexandre; Safi, Sanam; Lindschou, Jane; Kondrup, Jens; Gluud, Christian; Jakobsen, Janus C


    The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), LILACS (BIREME), and Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science). We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (;; Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP); Google Scholar; and BIOSIS, as well as relevant bibliographies of review articles and personal files. All searches are current to February 2016. We include randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication type, publication date, and language, comparing nutrition support versus control in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk. We exclude trials assessing non-standard nutrition support. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group. We used trial domains to assess the risks of systematic error (bias). We conducted Trial Sequential Analyses to control for the risks of random errors. We considered a P value of 0.025 or less as statistically significant. We used GRADE methodology. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. We included 244 randomised clinical trials with 28,619 participants that met our inclusion criteria. We considered all trials to be at high risk of bias. Two

  19. Metabonomics in neonatal nutrition research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Rezzi


    Full Text Available Maternal obesity and early post-natal nutrition might associate with increased obesity risk in later life. We have investigated the effect of breastfeeding and infant formulas differing in protein content on the urinary and fecal metabolism of term infants born from overweight and obese mothers using a metabonomic approach. Metabolic differences were observed between breast and formula fed infants both in urine and stool samples. Metabolic profiles of formula fed infants exhibited a distinct metabolic pattern that was associated with the processing of dietary proteins from the host and the gut microbiota. Metabonomics appears as a powerful tool to measure the physiological response to infant formula versus the gold standard breastfeeding. In future, nutritional phenotyping will combine metabonomics and nutritional profiling to study specific nutritional requirements and measure the efficacy of tailored nutritional interventions on growth and development endpoints. It will then open novel opportunities to develop targeted nutritional solutions for health maintenance and disease prevention. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  20. Nutritional consequences of bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Xanthakos, Stavra A; Inge, Thomas H


    Bariatric surgery is being increasingly used to help treat morbidly obese adults and adolescents. As a greater percentage of this population faces a lifetime of living with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, increased awareness of the nutritional consequences is critical for all health care practitioners, as many of these patients may be lost to follow-up and can present with significant nutritional complications years after surgery. Nutritional deficiencies can occur after bariatric surgery, although to a lesser degree after restrictive procedures. Risk may increase over time, perhaps due to poor compliance with supplementation, continued inadequate intake and/or ongoing malabsorption. Adolescent patients may be at greater risk due to poor compliance and longer life span. Nutritional monitoring and supplementation among bariatric programs has been widely variable and few prospective studies of outcomes exist. Bariatric surgery can carry significant risk of nutritional complications. Compliance with dietary recommendations should be monitored and encouraged, with annual screening for selected deficiencies. Prospective longitudinal research is needed to identify the true prevalence and significance of nutritional deficiency in these patients and to determine optimum dietary recommendations.

  1. Nutrition marketing on food labels. (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita


    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Horng Su


    Full Text Available Extrauterine growth restriction is common in very preterm infants. The incidence in very-low-birth-weight infants ranges between 43% and 97% in various centers, with a wide variability due to the use of different reference growth charts and nonstandard nutritional strategies. Extrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate postnatal nutrition is an important factor contributing to growth failure, as most very preterm infants experience major protein and energy deficits during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. First-week protein and energy intake are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in very preterm infants. Early aggressive nutrition, including parenteral and enteral, is well tolerated in the very preterm infant and is effective in improving growth. Continued provision of appropriate nutrition (fortified human milk or premature formula is important throughout the growing care during the hospitalization. After discharge, exclusively breast-fed infants require additional supplementation. If formula-fed, nutrient-enriched postdischarge formula should be continued for approximately 9 months corrected age. Supplementation of the preterm formulas with protein would increase the protein/energy ratio (3 g/100 kcal, leading to increased lean mass with relatively decreased fat deposition. Further research is required to optimize the nutritional needs of preterm infants and to evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on long-term growth, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes.

  3. Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hammad


    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging. Preoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, namely, sarcopenia, has a significant detrimental impact on post-transplant outcomes. It is essential to provide sufficient nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the needed energy intake. Herein, the latest currently employed perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant recipients are thoroughly illustrated including synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, immunonutrition formulas, fluid and electrolyte balance, the offering of nocturnal meals, dietary counselling, exercise and rehabilitation.

  4. Nutritional anemias and the elderly. (United States)

    Carmel, Ralph


    Nutritional anemias are important because they are easily reversed and because their underlying causes, most often unrelated to dietary intake, require individualized assessment. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) usually results from iron losses accompanying chronic bleeding, including loss to intestinal parasites, or from gastric disorders or malabsorption in the elderly. Cobalamin-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia with predilection for the elderly, nearly always stems from failure of intrinsic factor (IF)-related absorption. Folate-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia usually caused by poor intake, has nearly disappeared in countries that fortify food with folic acid. Copper-deficiency anemia, which usually results from malabsorptive disorders or from medical or nutritional interventions that provide inadequate copper or excess zinc, is uncommon but increasingly recognized. The prevalences of nutritional anemias, which are not always distinguished from non-anemic deficiency, are uncertain. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) provides an essential diagnostic tool leading to judicious matching of relevant biochemical changes with relevant anemia. Nutritional anemias usually feature abnormal MCV, whereas the predominant anemias in the aged, especially the anemias of chronic disease/chronic inflammation (ACD/ACI), of renal failure, and of unknown causes, are typically normocytic.

  5. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research


    Jie Yin


    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  6. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K


    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  7. Nutrition and sow prolificacy. (United States)

    Aherne, F X; Kirkwood, R N


    Prolificacy has been defined as the number of viable piglets produced per year or per breeding lifetime. Prolificacy is influenced by age at first successful mating, ovulation rate and embryo survival at each mating, number of live born, viable pigs and the sow's ability to be successfully remated at regular intervals. It is concluded that under normal conditions of feeding and management nutrition will have a minimal influence on gilt prolificacy. However, to gain the advantages of a slightly younger age at puberty, maximal ovulation rate and an adequate fat cover (if only to ensure against subsequent poor management), gilts should be fed ad libitum up to the time of mating. Long-term performance is best served by minimizing fluctuations in live weight and fat reserves, so avoiding extremes of body condition and subsequent poor performance. This is achieved by small controlled increases in sow body weight during pregnancy and feeding to appetite for restricted periods each day during lactation. Assuming the sow has not achieved a very poor condition during lactation, feeding level during pregnancy will have little effect on numbers of piglets born, and only a limited influence on piglet birthweights. The conclusion that piglet birth weights will be influenced more by total pregnancy feed intake than pattern of feed distribution is unchallenged. Lactation feed intake is shown to have marked effects on the post-weaning performance, low-level feeding leading to an extension of the remating interval and possibly increasing embryo mortality. No benefit of high-level feeding after weaning is demonstrable, except possibly in primiparous sows or sows having suffered an extreme loss of liveweight and body condition during the previous lactation.

  8. [Esthetic nutrition: body and beauty enhancement through nutritional care]. (United States)

    Witt, Juliana da Silveira Gonçalves Zanini; Schnider, Aline Petter


    Nowadays, there is an increasing quest for beauty and the models proposed by fashion goods and service segments, to achieve the perfect body. The standard of beauty corresponds to a thin body, without considering health aspects. The number of women who go on diets to control weight is increasing; and taking this into consideration the objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical review and extract data on esthetics and body image to support the practice of nutritional care. Socio-cultural aspects, which motivate the quest for the perfect body, as well as body, beauty, esthetics, nutritional counseling and cognitive behavior therapy were examined in this survey. On the basis of this work, it is possible to conclude that the continuing obsession with the body may lead the person to go on diets and other drastic methods to control weight, such as surgical procedures. In this respect, nutritional care is far more than merely recommending a standard diet or giving information, as it represents providing an effective model for nutritional reeducation, prioritizing improvement in the style and quality of life. This article provides data about enhancing esthetics and beauty by means of appropriate nutrition.

  9. Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs. (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Thornburg, Kent L; Prentice, Andrew M; Campisi, Susan; Lassi, Zohra S; Koletzko, Berthold; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of age), late adolescence (15-19 years of age), and young adulthood (20-24 years of age). Adolescence is marked by physical and sexual maturation, social and economic independence, development of identity, acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. Adolescence is characterized by a rapid pace of growth that is second only to that of infancy. Nutrition and the adolescent transition are closely intertwined, since eating patterns and behaviors are influenced by many factors, including peer influences, parental modeling, food availability, food preferences, cost, convenience, personal and cultural beliefs, mass media, and body image. Here, we describe the physiology, metabolism, and nutritional requirements for adolescents and pregnant adolescents, as well as nutrition-related behavior and current trends in adolescent nutrition. We conclude with thoughts on the implications for nutrition interventions and priority areas that would require further investigation. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. A critical look at medical nutrition terminology and definitions,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, E.; Weenen, T.C.; Commandeur, H


    A plethora of terms and definitions for medical nutrition has resulted in an ambiguity in the way "medical nutrition" is termed and defined across various societal levels. The terms medical nutrition, clinical nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, oral nutritional supplements, medical

  11. Future trends in parenteral nutrition. (United States)

    Wretlind, A


    With our present knowledge of total, intravenous nutrition it is now possible to eliminate, or greatly reduce, the incidence of malnutrition, as a complication of various medical and surgical conditions in modern hospitals. There is a tendency to include supplementary or total intravenous nutrition in the feeding program of the hospital, to ensure that the patients get an adequate daily amount of nutrients. The trend in the development of intravenous nutrition is, to supply all nutrients in the same proportions as those in which they enter the general circulation following a well-balanced oral food intake. Various mixtures of amino acids have been used as part of a complete intravenous nutrition. All studies in this field indicate a trend to use those amino acids mixtures which contain the essential and the nonessential L-amino acids in the same proportions as are found in the aminogram of proteins with high biological value. There is a trend to include fat, as fat emulsion (soybean oil-egg yolk-phospholipid emulsion), for intravenous nutrition, in an amount corresponding to about 40 energy percent as both the source of energy and of essential fatty acids for the body. To make an intravenous nutrition as complete as possible, all essential minerals should be included. Phosphorus is of special interest here as it aids in the prevention of hypophatemia and tissue anoxia caused by deficiency of diphosphateglycerate in the erythrocytes. Zinc may also be mentioned because of its importance for wound healing. There is also a tendency to include all the 13 necessary vitamins in an intravenous feeding program. In this connection vitamin K1 is of special importance. If patients on intravenous nutrition are treated with antibiotics, this may result in a change in the intestinal flora and a loss of intestinal vitamin K production, causing vitamin K deficiency, with severe or fatal bleeding. Consequently, vitamin K1 should be given daily to every patient on intravenous

  12. Efeito da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias sobre parâmetros de inflamação e estresse oxidativo em pacientes criticamente enfermos Effect of red blood cell transfusion on parameters of inflammation and oxidative stress in critically ill patients

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    Samuel Diomário da Rosa


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Transfusão de concentrado de hemácias é freqüentemente prescrita nas unidades de terapia intensiva. Durante muito tempo a transfusão de hemácias era vista como tendo benefícios clínicos óbvios. Entretanto nos últimos anos a prática de transfusão sanguínea tem sido examinada de uma forma mais cautelosa, levando a investigações a respeito dos benefícios transfusionais, incluindo aqui o fato de os efeitos imunomoduladores relacionados à transfusão podem aumentar o risco de morbimortalidade dos pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias e sua relação com a produção de citocinas inflamatórias e dano oxidativo em pacientes criticamente enfermos admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados durante 6 meses, no ano de 2008, pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intenvia que realizaram transfusão de concentrado de hemácias. Foram analisados os níveis séricos pré e pós transfusionais de interleucina-6 (IL-6, proteínas carboniladas e substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição dos níveis séricos de IL-6 pós-transfusionais e um aumento significativo tanto para TBARS quanto para proteínas carboniladas. No entanto não houve significância estatística entre os níveis séricos de IL-6, TBARS antes e após transfusão de concentrado de hemácias e a taxa de mortalidade. Contudo ocorreu significância da relação dos níveis pós transfusionais de proteínas carboniladas e mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: Transfusão de concentrado de hemácias é associada a aumento dos marcadores de dano oxidativo e diminuição de IL-6 em pacientes criticamente enfermos.INTRODUCTION: Red blood cell transfusions are common in intensive care units. For many years, transfusions of red blood were thought to have obvious clinical benefits. However, in recent years, the risks and benefits of blood transfusions have been

  13. Relação de ajuda no desempenho dos cuidados de enfermagem a doentes em fim de vida Relacíon de ayuda en el contexto de los cuidados de enfermeria a enfermos al final de su vida Helping relationship in end-of-life patient's nursing care context

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    Rosa Maria Pereira Simões


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como principal objetivo verificar a importância que os enfermeiros atribuem às competências relacionais na ajuda a doentes em fim de vida. A investigação é de tipo descritivo-correlacional, transversal, com uma amostra de 56 enfermeiros, selecionada de forma intencional, acidental e desenvolvida a partir da aplicação de um instrumento de medida que integra o Inventário de Competências Relacionais de Ajuda, Escala de Satisfação com a Vida, Questões relativas à importância atribuída à formação contínua. Da análise dos resultados ressalta-se que os enfermeiros consideram as competências relacionais fundamentais para o cuidado ao doente em fim de vida. O desempenho de competências relacionais de ajuda está significativamente correlacionado com a formação que os enfermeiros desenvolveram sobre relação de ajuda, bem como com a satisfação que têm com a vida em geral.Este estudio tiene como principal objetivo comprobar la importancia que conceden los enfermeros a las competencias de relacionamiento, en la ayuda a enfermos al final de su vida. La investigación es de tipo descriptivo y de correlación, transversal, con una muestra de 56 enfermeros, seleccionada de forma intencional, accidental y desarrollada a partir de la aplicación de un instrumento de medida integrado en el Inventario de competencias relacionales de ayuda, Escala de satisfacción con la vida, cuestiones referentes a la importancia concedida a la formación continua. Del análisis de los resultados concluimos que los enfermeros consideran las competencias de relacionamiento fundamentales para cuidar al enfermo al final de su vida. Los resultados indican que el mejor resultado de competencias de relacionamiento, por parte de los enfermeros, está correlacionado con mejor formación sobre relación de ayuda, así como la percepción de mayor satisfacción con la vida en general. Estos resultados tienen aplicación en el proceso de

  14. O cuidado de enfermagem e a invasão da privacidade do doente: uma questão ético-moral El cuidado de enfermería y la invasión de la privacidad del enfermo: una cuestión ético-moral Nursing care and the invasion of patients' privacy: an ethical and moral issue

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    Jussara Simone Lenzi Pupulim


    Full Text Available Os enfermeiros constantemente invadem a intimidade e a privacidade do doente ao realizar os cuidados de enfermagem, porém raramente discutem os aspectos que envolvem esse problema. A literatura de enfermagem abrangendo esse tema é escassa, motivando a elaboração deste estudo com o objetivo de sensibilizar os enfermeiros quanto à relevância e necessidade de reflexão sobre o assunto. Ressaltam-se questões ético-legais e morais que permeiam a invasão da privacidade, apontando as responsabilidades dos profissionais de enfermagem. Discute-se a atuação dos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa e das Comissões de Ética de Enfermagem das Entidades como mecanismos de controle e proteção dos indivíduos, circunstanciando, principalmente, a respeito da conduta e postura dos enfermeiros no processo de cuidar. O estudo alerta para a necessidade de discussão e reavaliação dos papéis desses mecanismos e da qualidade da assistência de enfermagem, uma vez que a proteção da privacidade dos doentes ainda é deficiente.Los enfermeros constantemente invaden la intimidad y la privacidad del enfermo al realizar los cuidados de enfermería, raramente discuten los aspectos que involucran este problema. La literatura de enfermería sobre el tema es escasa, motivando la elaboración de este estudio con el objetivo de sensibilizar los enfermeros al respecto de la relevancia y necesidad de reflexión sobre el asunto. Son resaltadas las cuestiones ético-legales y morales involucradas en la invasión de la privacidad, apuntando las responsabilidades de los profesionales de enfermería. Se discute la actuación de los Comités de Ética en Investigación y de las Comisiones de Ética de Enfermería de las entidades como mecanismos de control y protección de los individuos, circunscribiendo la conducta y postura de los enfermeros en el proceso de cuidar. El estudio alerta para la necesidad de discusión y re-evaluación de los papeles de estos mecanismos y de

  15. Produção de sentidos acerca da família que convive com o doente mental Producción de sentidos acerca de la familia que convive con el enfermo mental Production of meanings about family members living with mentally-ill patients

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    Rozemere Cardoso de Souza


    Full Text Available A assistência às famílias é, hoje, um grande desafio da prática em Saúde Mental, exigindo dos profissionais estudos e aproximação desses atores sociais. Este estudo, norteado por abordagem construcionista social e qualitativa, objetivou conhecer os sentidos dados por profissionais do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF acerca da família que convive com o doente mental. Obtiveram-se os dados por meio de grupo focal, com membros de duas equipes do PSF, em Ilhéus/Bahia. Como resultados, descrevem-se a família e suas inscrições conceituais, assim como os sentidos de: cuidadora; motivadora e sofredora de preconceitos; impotente e carente de recursos; produtora de maus-tratos e desequilibrada. Desses sentidos produzidos, constatou-se que uns servem para reforçar a exclusão do doente mental e de sua família, na comunidade, e outros rompem com esse discurso, podendo favorecer a aproximação entre esses atores e os profissionais, a favor de uma nova prática que melhore as condições de suas vidas.La atención a las familias constituye hoy un gran desafío de la práctica en Salud Mental, exigiendo de los profesionales estudios y aproximación de eses actores sociales. La finalidad de este estudio, orientado por una aproximación construccionista social y cualitativa, fue la de conocer los sentidos dados por profesionales del Programa de Salud de la Familia (PSF acerca de la familia que convive con el enfermo mental. Obtuvimos los datos mediante la técnica del grupo focal con miembros de dos equipos del PSF en Ilhéus/Bahia, Brasil. Como resultados, describimos a la familia y sus registros conceptuales, así como los sentidos de: cuidadora; motivadora y sufridora de prejuicios; impotente y falta de recursos; productora de maltratos y desequilibrada. De esos sentidos producidos, constatamos que algunos sirven para reforzar la exclusión del enfermo mental y su familia en la comunidad, y que otros rompen con este discurso, lo que puede

  16. A família e o doente mental usuário do hospital-dia: estudo de um caso La familia y el enfermo mental usuário del hospital/día: estudo de un caso The family and the mentally-ill user of day-hospitals: a case study

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    Ana Ruth Macêdo Monteiro


    Full Text Available O hospital-dia, como modalidade de assistência psiquiátrica, proporciona a família a possibilidade de vivenciar junto ao seu familiar doente uma maior convivência durante o tratamento, e a leva a buscar junto a esse familiar formas de facilitar o processo adaptativo de interação na família. A proposta deste estudo se configura na busca de compreender de que modo a família e o usuário do hospital-dia interagem no recesso do lar e descrever a experiência narrada por uma família. A família deste estudo foi selecionada a partir de um usuário do hospital-dia que possuísse ou possua história anterior de internações psiquiátricas. Foram entrevistados cinco membros da família em estudo. A partir das experiências descritas pelos sujeitos emergiram duas grandes categorias temáticas: A família vivenciando junto ao seu familiar o hospital-dia , A convivência família ¾ usuário. As experiências relatadas pelos sujeitos neste estudo são bastante significativas para a construção de novas possibilidades na assistência à família do doente mental.El hospital-día como modalidad de atención psiquiátrica, proporciona a la familia la posibilidad de tener una mayor convivencia con su familiar enfermo durante el tratamiento y la lleva a buscar de forma conjunta con éste, formas para facilitar el proceso de adaptación e interacción en la familia. El estudio pretende comprender la manera como la familia y usuario del hospital-día interactuan en el ambiente del hogar y describir la experiencia narrada por una familia. La familia de este estudio fue seleccionada de un usuario del hospital-día que tuviese historia anterior de hospitalizaciones psiquiátricas. Fueron entrevistados cinco familiares. A partir de las experiencias descritas por los sujetos se formaron dos grandes categorías temáticas: La familia conviviendo con su familiar en el hospital-día y la convivencia familia/usuario. Las experiencias relatadas por los sujetos en

  17. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

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    Wilma Leslie


    Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.

  18. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease? (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth


    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  19. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, María Josefa; Melián Fernández, Cristóbal; Romeo Donlo, María


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic pathology that has an outbreaks course that in recent years have seen an increase in incidence, especially at younger ages. Malnutrition is frequently associated with this condition, therefore, it is very important to ensure a right nutritional intervention, especially in pediatric patients, to ensure an optimal growth and also an improvement in the clinic. Our goal will be updated the role of nutrition in this disease and in its treatment based on the published evidence. Malnutrition in these patients is frequent and is influenced by various factors such as, decreased food intake, increased nutrient requirements, increased protein loss and malabsorption of nutrients. Therefore there should be a nutritional monitoring of all of them, in which anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and densitometry were made to establish the needs and sufficient caloric intake tailored to each patient. The use of enteral nutrition as a treatment in Crohn’s disease with mild to moderate outbreak in child population, is amply demonstrated, has even shown to be superior to the use of corticosteroids. Therefore we can conclude by stressing that nutritional intervention is a mainstay in the management of patients with IBD, which aims to prevent and / or control disease-related malnutrition to decrease morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.

  20. Nutritional consequences of renal transplantation. (United States)

    Teplan, Vladimir; Valkovsky, Ivo; Teplan, Vladimir; Stollova, Milena; Vyhnanek, Frantisek; Andel, Michal


    Successful kidney transplantation leads to restoration of renal function. Some metabolic disorders from chronic renal failure may persist and new metabolic abnormalities can develop (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, bone disease, and anemia). Additionally, influence of immunosuppressive drugs (corticosteroids, cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, and rapamycin) may aggravate the course of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Nutritional management of renal transplantation is divided into the pretransplant period, transplant surgery, and early and late posttransplant period. Patients in the pretransplant period in dialysis treatment may develop protein-energy malnutrition and negative nitrogen balance, with loss of lean body mass and fat deposits. Nutritional management in the early posttransplant period with a functioning kidney graft necessitates fluid and electrolyte balance control with protein intake of 1,2/kg BW/day and 30-35 kcal/kg BW/day. In a nonfunctioning kidney graft, dialysis treatment continues and the therapeutic dose of immunosuppressive drugs must be reduced. The principal objective in the late posttransplant period is the maintenance of optimal nutritional status. Nutrition is important in managing obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Other posttransplant conditions for which diet and/or nutritional supplements may be beneficial include hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, chronic renal allograft failure, renal anemia, and renal bone disease.

  1. Pediatric sports nutrition: an update. (United States)

    Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon


    There is a growing interest in the field of pediatric sports nutrition because of the will to lead the child athlete to high achievements, with minimal impairment of growth and development. In this article, we review some of the new data concerning the possible short-term and long-term effects of nutrition on children's performance, current and future health. Growing children engaged in strenuous exercise have several physiologic and metabolic characteristics that distinguish them from adults and require specific nutritional considerations. There is currently not enough evidence to support either carbohydrate loading or increased protein intake in the diet of the child athlete. Creatine use, although common among youth, is not recommended. Adequate hydration is essential to optimal performance. Consumption of iron-rich foods should be encouraged, as depleted iron stores are common in young athletes. In female athletes, nutritional deficiencies could lead to athletic amenorrhea and bone loss, and the resolution of energy deficits can restore normal bone formation and the return of menses. In the highly competitive world of the child athlete, proper nutrition is of essence. Unfortunately, most of the knowledge in this field is based on adult literature. Age-specific research would lead to a better understanding of what constitutes 'a healthy diet' in the context of the growing athlete and may be a first step toward achieving these necessary insights.

  2. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  3. La experiencia de ser un 'niño débil y enfermo' lejos de su hogar: el caso del Asilo Marítimo, Mar del Plata (1893-1920 The experience of a 'weak and sick childhood' far from home: the experience of the Maritime Asylum, Mar del Plata (1893-1920

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    Adriana Álvarez


    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la vida cotidiana de los 'niños tuberculosos', provenientes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, que fueron internados en el Hospital Marítimo, ubicado a 400km de la metrópolis, en la localidad marítima de Mar del Plata. En 1893, surgió la idea en la Sociedad de Beneficencia de la Capital Federal de fundar un hospital y el Asilo Marítimo destinado a niños enfermos de tuberculosis ósea en general, a niños débiles y convalecientes y también al tratamiento de pacientes con tuberculosis extra-pulmonar. En este artículo, se pretende avanzar en la comprensión de dos problemáticas vinculadas entre sí: por un lado las características de la ingerencia institucionalizada de la Sociedad de Beneficencia y por el otro, la experiencia que estos niños tuberculosos vivieron en ese ámbito.The objective of this work is to analyze the daily life of 'tubercular children'" coming from the city of Buenos Aires. They were hospitalized in the Maritime Asylum located in the seaside city of Mar del Plata, 400 kilometers from the capital. In 1893, in the Charitable Society of the Federal Capital, the idea arose of founding a hospital and maritime asylum for children ill with osseous tuberculosis in general, weak and convalescing children and the treatment of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. This paper attempts to advance the understanding of two inter-related topics: on the one hand, the characteristics of the institutionalized meddling of the Charitable Society, and, on the other, the experience that these tubercular children had in this institution.

  4. [Nutritional depletion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yao, Wan-zhen


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major diseases worldwide. Nutritional depletion is a common problem in COPD patients and also an independant predictor of survival in these patients. Many data are helpful for determining nutritional depletion, including anthropometric measurement, laboratory markers, body composition analysis (fat-free mass and lean mass), and body weight. The mechanism of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD is still uncertain. It may be associated with energy/metabolism imbalance, tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammation, and leptin/orexin disorders. In patients with nutritional depletion, growth hormone and testosterone can be used for nutritional therapy in addition to nutrition supplementation.

  5. Importance of nutrition in pediatric oncology. (United States)

    Rogers, P C


    A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and survivorship. This article briefly describes this perspective of nutrition within a cancer control context and is a summary of the presentation at the "1st International SIOP-PODC Workshop on Nutrition in Children with Cancer" held in Mumbai.

  6. Aspectos ergonômicos na transferência de pacientes: um estudo realizado com trabalhadores de uma central de transportes de um hospital universitário Aspectos ergonómicos en la transferencia de enfermos: un estudio hecho com trabajadores de una central de transportes de un hospital universitário The transfer of patients and its ergonomic aspects: a study conducted at a university hospital lifting center

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    Cristiane Gonzales Rossi


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar aspectos ergonômicos na transferência de pacientes com a utilização de maca e cadeira de rodas, observou-se 249 transferências realizadas por trabalhadores da Seção de Escolta de um Hospital Universitário. Os resultados sugerem que a existência dessa equipe é uma iniciativa que deve ser estimulada mas que esses trabalhadores precisam de treinamento específico sobre movimentação e transporte de pacientes e de terem à disposição materiais auxiliares e equipamentos mecânicos.Com el objetivo de avaliar aspectos ergonómicos de transferencia de enfermos com utilización de maca y silla de ruedas, observarán se 249 transferencias realizadas por trabajadores de la Sección de Escolta (Acompañamiento de un Hospital Universitário. Los resultados sugerem que la existencia desse equipo es una iniciativa que debrá ser estimulada. Pero esos trabajadores necessitan entrenamiento especifico sobre mobilizacion y transporte de enfermos e necessitam tener a disposicion materiales auxiliares y equipamentos mecânicos.The purpose of this study was to evaluate ergonomic aspects involved in using a stretcher and a wheel chair to transfer patients. 249 transfers carried out by the workers of a university hospital lifting sector were observed. The observations showed that the idea of having a team to transfer patients has to be stimulated but the members of the team require specific training in handling and transferring patients. Mechanical equipment and other devices should also be available.

  7. Uso de olanzapina e eletroconvulsoterapia em um paciente com esquizofrenia catatônica refratária e antecedentes de síndrome neuroléptica maligna Olanzapina y ECT en un enfermo con esquizofrenia catatónica refractaria y alto riesgo de síndrome neuroléptico maligno Olanzapine and ECT combined therapy in a refractory catatonic subtype schizophrenia patient with previous neuroleptic malignant syndrome episodes

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    Pedro Gomes de Alvarenga


    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a história clínica e o manejo de um paciente masculino adulto com esquizofrenia catatônica refratária a dois neurolépticos típicos (haloperidol e clorpromazina e a outro agente atípico (risperidona, e com antecedente de dois episódios de síndrome neuroléptica maligna em vigência de neurolépticos típicos. Os autores optaram pela associação de eletroconvulsoterapia (ECT e olanzapina (7,5 mg. Foram obtidos consideráveis benefícios para o paciente.Presentamos un relato clínico referente a la historia precedente y al desarrollo de un enfermo varón con esquizofrenia catatónica refractaria a los neurolépticos convencionales (clorpromazina y haloperidol y a otro agente de nueva generación (risperidona. El enfermo presentó, en dos ocasiones, síndrome neuroléptico maligno, provocado por el uso de los neurolépticos convencionales. Los autores emplearon ECT y olanzapina (7,5 mg obteniendo considerable éxito clínico.This article describes the clinical history and management of an adult male patient with refractory catatonic schizophrenia to two typically used neurolpetic medications (haloperidol and chlorpromazine and to another atypical agent (risperidone.The patient had also presented two neuroleptic malignant syndrome episodes due to typical neuroleptic agents. The authors combined ECT and olanzapine (7.5 mg as treatment, and a considerable clinical improvement was obtained.

  8. Genomics, nutrition, obesity, and diabetes. (United States)

    Johnson, Rolanda L; Williams, Scott M; Spruill, Ida J


    To present evidence of genetic and environmental interactions as they relate to nutrition, diabetes, and obesity. A review of seminal literature related to genetics, obesity, and diabetes. Multifactorial interactions are important in the development of nutrition-related disorders, but the challenge remains to explain how these interactions are expressed. Treating subpopulations of people might be important and useful to some extent at present, but in the future treating people of given genetic predispositions and other personal and environmental factors will have greater effects on quality-of-life indicators and life expectancies. Individualization coupled with multifactorial interactions will lead to new and more effective preventive and treatment modalities of nutrition-related disorders. With obesity and diabetes, genomics will bridge the traditional use of diet, exercise, and weight reduction with other environmental factors, ultimately leading to healthier lives.

  9. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  10. Lead toxicity and nutritional deficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, O.A.


    Recent data concerning lead toxicity and nutritional deficiencies are summarized. Lead poisoning can be exacerbated by consumption of either deficient or excessive levels of protein. Mineral deficiencies also exaggerate lead poisoning. Evidence for antagonism between lead and nutritional levels of selenium is inconclusive. Vitamin E deficiency and lead poisoning interact to produce an anemia in rats that is more severe than that caused by either treatment alone. A pro-oxidant stress of lead on red blood cells is hypothesized to cause their accelerated destruction. In addition, disruption of normal membrane structure, leading to peroxidative damage, may occur. Calcium deficiencies in children are negatively correlated with lead concentrations in their blood. Other examples of interactions between minerals and lead poisoning are provided. Nutritional deficiencies have been shown to have an additive effect in potentiating lead toxicity in some cases. (112 references, 4 tables)

  11. Nutrition and diet services actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, T.L.


    The paper stresses the difficulties to establish nutritional standard due to the fact that non-existent previous parameters because it is an new type of accident, becoming necessary an elaboration and use of nutritional plans coherent with probable demands, needs and complications of the patients. It is shown how that was accomplished without any prejudice to the other inpatients. The role of the nutritionists in all evolutional phase of the contaminated persons is described ed, introducing many types of diets used in accordance with individual and general demands. One case in which parenteral nutrition was utilized is analysed. The patients discharge from hospital conditions is explained and was a fact that all patients gained weight, concluding the writer says that was not possible to perform a deeper evaluation because of the great risk of contamination always present. (author)

  12. Research on improving animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.


    With a view to improve animal nutrition, studies have been carried out on the utilization of animal feeds using radioisotopes. Improvement of the nutritive value of straws, digestibility and VFA production by alkali treatment and other treatments has been studied by injecting VFA labelled with C 14 and H 3 . Microbial protein synthesis rates in ruminants were studied using C 14 and S 35 labelled mixed culture of bacterial protozca. Results obtained are helpful in understanding the metabolism in rumens and the microbial proteins available to the host animals on various dietary regimen. (A.K.)

  13. [Nutritional assessment for hospitalized patients]. (United States)

    Henríquez Martínez, T; Armero Fuster, M


    A review of the following points was performed: Factors favouring the development and presence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. Useful parameters in nutritional evaluation. Types of malnutrition. The Chang nutritional evaluation protocol is used in our Hospital, which is simple, inexpensive, reliable, specific and easily reproduced. This is based on five variables (three anthropometric and two biochemical), randomized and based on reference tables and values. A study was made on data corresponding to 70 patients, in whom a prevalence of malnutrition was observed in critical patients. The patients were classified based on three different definitive possibilities (Marasmo, Kwashiorkor and combined), and three grades of malnutrition (slight, moderate and severe).

  14. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Modulation of metabolism through nutrition and management (United States)

    The primary role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients through lactation to the human diet. It is clear that these high-producing and long lactations are stressful on the cows, and minor changes in nutrition and management can have significant impacts on profi...

  15. Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Composition of Strychnos innocua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    242.91mg/100g). The levels of various nutrient and mineral elements varied significantly, which indicates the potential of the pulp to be harnessed for diverse application for value addition as health food provided that the anti-nutritional factors ...

  16. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of underutilized wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2013 ... Ogle BM and LE Grivetti Legacy of the chameleon: edible wild plants in the. Kingdom of Swaziland, Southern Africa. A cultural, ecological, nutritional study. Part. II - Demographic, species, availability and dietary use, analysis by ecological zone. Ecol Food Nutr. 1985; 17: 1 - 30. 10. Lakshmi B and V Vimala ...

  17. Phytochemical, nutritive and anti-nutritive composition of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, nutritive and antinutritive composition of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) tubers and leaves were investigated. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, phlobatinnins, saponins and anthrocyanosides in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of raw tubers and leaves ...

  18. Community nutrition: a panacea for grassroots nutrition development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the nation It identified some problems that can hinder the programme and suggested methods for enhancements and the importance of the programme for the rural women in rural community, recommendation were made. Keywords: community nutrition, rural women. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol.

  19. The Emotional Aspects of Nutrition. New Horizons in Nutrition. (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. The focus of this booklet is on the psychological aspects of obesity. A discussion is also presented of the emotional and psychological causes of anorexia nervosa. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a…

  20. Nutritional support for liver disease. (United States)

    Koretz, Ronald L; Avenell, Alison; Lipman, Timothy O


    Weight loss and muscle wasting are commonly found in patients with end-stage liver disease. Since there is an association between malnutrition and poor clinical outcome, such patients (or those at risk of becoming malnourished) are often given parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or oral nutritional supplements. These interventions have costs and adverse effects, so it is important to prove that their use results in improved morbidity or mortality, or both. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, and oral nutritional supplements on the mortality and morbidity of patients with underlying liver disease. The following computerised databases were searched: the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (January 2012). In addition, reference lists of identified trials and review articles and were searched. Trials identified in a previous systematic handsearch of Index Medicus were also considered. Handsearches of a number of medical journals, including abstracts from annual meetings, were done. Experts in the field and manufacturers of nutrient formulations were contacted for potential references. Randomised clinical trials (parallel or cross-over design) comparing groups of patients with any underlying liver disease who received, or did not receive, enteral or parenteral nutrition or oral nutritional supplements were identified without restriction on date, language, or publication status. Six categories of trials were separately considered: medical or surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or supplements. The following data were sought in each report: date of publication; geographical location; inclusion and exclusion criteria; the type of nutritional support and constitution of the nutrient formulation; duration of

  1. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (United States)

    ... of Food Expenditures on Children by Families USDA's Nutrition Evidence Library (projects column 2) Know Your Farmer, ... Food Supply Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Nutrition Insights Internship Program Health and Medicine Division Study ...

  2. Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished Under-five Children in Communities Implementing Positive Deviance - Hearth or Community Health Workers' Nutrition Promotion Approaches in Karusi and Kirundo Provinces, Burundi.

  3. Archives: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 53 ... Archives: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home > Archives: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Divergence and convergence in nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan


    Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we

  5. Nutrition Research: Its Place in Home Economics. (United States)

    Murphy, Alleyne


    Examines the current role of nutrition research as a component of home economics, predicts a greater importance for nutrition research, and offers remedies for problems arising from conflicts between the two disciplines. (JB)

  6. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print ...

  8. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma


    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  9. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition (United States)

    ... Journals and Publications Donate Today! Support Nutrition Research Twitter Tweets by ASPENWEB Advertisement Events Webinar: Parenteral Nutrition ... Staff Find a Clinician Press Room Career Center Advertising and Sponsorship Related Websites BPS NBNSC NBPNS Connect ...

  10. A personal view of nutrition in Spain


    Salvador Zamora


    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first han...

  11. The concept evaluation of dairy cattle nutrition




    Bachelor thesis gives a comprehensive overview of the dairy cow nutrition and assesses the system of nutrition and feeding in relation to milk production. The main part is devoted to the basics of dairy cow nutrition, the main nutrient requirements and composition of feed diets. There was assessed composition of feed rations for the year 2010 in working conditions on the School farm Měšice. The recommendations were designed to improve the nutrition level on the farm on the based data.

  12. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S.


    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive. PMID:17273329

  13. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy


    Montgomery, Kristen S.


    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive.

  14. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes


    Hoorweg, J.C.


    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is followed by a discussion of the problems confronting impact evaluation. Firstly, methodological difficulties often weaken the power of the evaluation or restrict its scope. Secondly, the effects of most...

  15. Importance of nutrition in pediatric oncology


    P C Rogers


    A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and...



    V.R. Kuchma; Zh.Yu. Gorelova


    The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age ph...

  17. Nutrition terms use in primary school textbooks


    Šalamun, Amadeja


    During compulsory schooling pupils in various subjects familiarize themselves withnutritional content and concepts. Integrating nutrition content in the curriculum of compulsory formal education of children improves their nutritional knowledge. Nutritional education is important because it can affect dietary behavior and help form individual eating habits. The purpose of the thesis was to identify nutritional concepts that appear in the curricula of compulsory and elective subjects and to...

  18. Eating disordes and the importance of nutrition


    Kučírková, Hana


    This thesis deals with nutritional therapy for eating disorders. It explores whether nutritional therapy has an irreplaceable role in treatment of these disorders or whether nutritional therapy has a marginal effect. I describe general issues of eating disorders in a theoretical part of my thesis such as etiology, epidemiology, therapy and nutrition therapy. I composed educational handout about eating in a practical part of my thesis containing fundamental dietary recommendations, menu for un...

  19. Bariatric Surgery and Precision Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina F. Nicoletti


    Full Text Available This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient’s genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance.

  20. Ecological approaches to human nutrition. (United States)

    DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Palm, Cheryl; Remans, Roseline


    Malnutrition affects a large number of people throughout the developing world. Approaches to reducing malnutrition rarely focus on ecology and agriculture to simultaneously improve human nutrition and environmental sustainability. However, evidence suggests that interdisciplinary approaches that combine the knowledge bases of these disciplines can serve as a central strategy in alleviating hidden hunger for the world's poorest. To describe the role that ecological knowledge plays in alleviating hidden hunger, considering human nutrition as an overlooked ecosystem service. We review existing literature and propose a framework that expands on earlier work on econutrition. We provide novel evidence from case studies conducted by the authors in western Kenya and propose a framework for interdisciplinary collaboration to alleviate hidden hunger, increase agricultural productivity, and improve environmental sustainability. Our review supports the concept that an integrated approach will impact human nutrition. We provide evidence that increased functional agrobiodiversity can alleviate anemia, and interventions that contribute to environmental sustainability can have both direct and indirect effects on human health and nutritional well-being. Integrated and interdisciplinary approaches are critical to reaching development goals. Ecologists must begin to consider not only how their field can contribute to biodiversity conservation, but also, the relationship between biodiversity and provisioning of nontraditional ecosystem services such as human health. Likewise, nutritionists and agronomists must recognize that many of the solutions to increasing human wellbeing and health can best be achieved by focusing on a healthy environment and the conservation of ecosystem services.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cia is more amenable to treatment than osteoporosis, e the importance of establishing the correct diagnosis. be many causes of osteomalacia, pure nutritional. ,malacia, the adult counterpart of vitamin-D-sensitive ts, is reported in a current textbook of endocrinology'. ~ing extremely rare. However, in the British medical.

  2. The nutrition transition in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. 1St John's Institute of Population Health and Clinical Research, Bangalore, India, and. 2Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Canada ..... 2. Popkin BM. An overview on the nutrition transition and its health implications: the. Bellagio meeting. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5(1A): 93-103. 3. Shetty PS.

  3. Child Nutrition Programs. Administrative Manual. (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…

  4. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth / For Teens / Cystic Fibrosis: ... Enzyme Supplements Beating the Frustration Print What Is Cystic Fibrosis? At lunch, Lindsay often gets bored with having ...

  5. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods. (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R


    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.

  6. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen. (United States)

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  7. Bariatric Surgery and Precision Nutrition. (United States)

    Nicoletti, Carolina F; Cortes-Oliveira, Cristiana; Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nonino, Carla B


    This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient's genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance.

  8. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition. (United States)

    Clark, Nancy


    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  9. Nutritional implications of food allergies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diets are frequently adopted in the treatment of atopic dermatitis when the actual prevalence of cow's milk allergy in patients on milk elimination diets may be significantly lower than the number of patients prescribed such diets.2 Elimination of any major food, without considering its nutritional implications, has the potential to.

  10. Nutritional Aspects of Dysphagia Management. (United States)

    Gallegos, C; Brito-de la Fuente, E; Clavé, P; Costa, A; Assegehegn, G

    This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders). This chapter gathers up-to-date information on the screening and diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the consequences of dysphagia (aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration), and on the nutritional management of dysphagic patients. Concerning this last topic, this chapter reviews the rheological aspects of swallowing and dysphagia (including shear and elongational flows) and its influence on the characteristics of the enteral nutrition for dysphagia management (solid/semisolid foods and thickened liquids; ready-to-use oral nutritional supplements and thickening powders), with special focus on the real characteristics of the bolus after mixing with human saliva. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vegetarianism. New Horizons in Nutrition. (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit examines the vegetarian diet as a viable alternative, and at the same time, it introduces the topics of protein and vitamin B12. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for the…

  12. Nutrition in paediatric Crohn's disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goulet O, MD, PhD. Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, National Reference Center for Rare Digestive Diseases. Intestinal Failure Rehabilitation Center, Hôpital Necker – Enfants Malades, Paris, France, niversity of Paris-Descartes. Correspondence to: Prof Olivier Goulet, e-mail: ...

  13. Nutrition in contemporary South Africa#

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Division Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, PO Box 667, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. Abstract .... Stunted children typically have multiple functional disad- vantages that persist throughout childhood. These include sub- optimal cognitive development and school achievement (Chang.

  14. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.


    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  15. Nutrition, health and human rights. (United States)

    Brundtland, G H


    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  16. Student Nutrition, Learning and Behavior. (United States)

    Royster, Martha

    This discussion addresses several nutrition issues considered important to schools, students, and educators in the United States. Contents consist of a review of malnutrition and learning research and discussions of food additives and allergies, diet and hyperkinesia, the effects of caffeine and sugar on children's behavior, and the National…

  17. Soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, R.G.; Smith, S.J.


    The applications of isotopic and related techniques, including autoradiography, radiation absorption, radiation scattering and activation analysis, in investigations on soil fertility and plant nutrition are discussed. The unique information that can be obtained with isotopes and radiation techniques is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed in relation to other methods of obtaining similar information. (U.K.)

  18. Aging in Community Nutrition, Diet Therapy, and Nutrition and Aging Textbooks (United States)

    O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbein, Pamela


    Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in…

  19. Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vasiljević


    Full Text Available Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004.The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition in sports coaching. Mthods: The sample was composed of 30 licensed coaches from Montenegro (football, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis. Knowledge of sports nutrition was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge manager on sports nutrition, the ingredients that are necessary in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy to training and competition, the dietary supplements, meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and rehydration during training and competition. The survey was anonymous. The data were analyzed by statistical methods, using the statistical software STATISTICA for WINDOWS. Results: According to the results as a whole, it can be concluded that the trainer's knowledge of sports nutrition at a satisfactory level. Out of 600 responses was achieved 469 correct answers, or 78.1%. However, when looking at individual responses then satisfaction with the relative high percentage loss since the observed large gaps on very important issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing research results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006 that in a sample of 56 coaches basketball and skiing, received 77.8% of correct answers and insight into the results of our study, it is clear that the results of the approximate value of both work, which is an indicator of quality

  1. Nutrition Students Enhance School Health Education (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.


    Purpose: The purpose of the Nutrition Education Students and Teachers (NEST) project was to develop a model of collaboration between University of Delaware dietetics students and elementary teachers to promote nutrition education in the classroom. Design/methodology/approach: Junior and senior level students in a nutrition education course…

  2. Rx for a Healthy School Nutrition Program (United States)

    Boettger, Julie


    School nutrition directors face challenges on many fronts, from changing nutrition standards to addressing community interest in sustainability and local food sourcing. Programs are constantly changing to meet these new demands. How does a school business administrator know which changes will affect his/her school nutrition program positively? The…

  3. Attitudes towards nutritional supplement use amongst adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutritional supplements refer to a product ingested to increase the nutritional content of a normal diet, to fill a dietary need and/or presumed deficiency. The usage and popularity of nutritional supplements, however, raises concerns from a health benefit and risk perspective. In South Africa, there is currently no ...

  4. Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Functional Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a good source of nutritional components and essential nutrients, including minerals and amino acids, and have functional properties, which, if properly utilized, can improve human nutrition and health. Keywords: Grewia tenax, Physicochemical, Amino acids, Nutrition, Functional properties, Minerals, Volatile compounds ...

  5. Undergraduate module on nutrition education and communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, respondents answered 96% of the questions in the questionnaire. Information was obtained on areas such as students' social/cultural interests; food and nutrition experience and expertise; food and eating habits; ideas of nutrition education and training in nutrition education; and study preferences. In addition ...

  6. Maternal nutrition and newborn health outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, AI


    Early life nutrition is one of the most substantial environmental factors that shapes future health. This extends from the women’s nutritional status prior to conception and during pregnancy to the offspring’s nutritional conditions during infancy and early childhood. During this critical period,

  7. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Folake Samuel Editor-in-Chief, Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Department of Human Nutrition Faculty of Public Health University of Ibadan Nigeria Editor-in-Chief - NJNS. Department of Human Nutrition. Faculty of Public Health. University of Ibadan. Nigeria.

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Facts and Myths How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  9. Back to Basics. New Horizons in Nutrition. (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit discusses the basic concept in nutrition education that if one eats a varied, well-balanced diet it is likely that one's nutritional needs will be met. Information on the fat soluble vitamins is…

  10. The USDA Food and Nutrition Summer Institute (United States)

    The USDA Food and Nutrition Summer Institute was sponsored by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center in partnership with several USDA and non-USDA agencies between 1999 and 2007. Partners included the USDA Food and Nutrition Service, USDA Cooperative State Research and Extension Service, US...

  11. assessing nutrition intervention programmes that addressed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2012 ... Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Norway. 2. Division of Human Nutrition, .... system and served as the basis for the development of the Integrated Nutrition. Programme (INP). The INP .... two studies we evaluated aspects of the NTP in 20 clinics located in urban and rural areas of the Western Cape ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the role of nutritional information for addressing under-five child malnutrition in Tanzania. The paper is based on a master's dissertation whose objective was to determine the sources of nutritional information used to provide nutritional information to mothers in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics, ...

  13. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related assessment...

  14. GEMS: Nutrition Activities for the School Cafeteria. (United States)

    Hix, Cathy L.


    Describes a teaching kit for use in the K-6 school cafeteria to teach about food and nutrition. The kit (consisting of a 56-page instruction booklet and 60 colorful nutrition cards) is meant to supplement nutrition education provided in the classroom by providing relevant food information at the point-of-purchase. (JN)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    nutritional value, sensory properties, and functional qualities. Functional foods have nutritional ... Teff provides over two-thirds of the human nutrition in Ethiopia, with grain protein content (10-12%) similar to ..... diseases, non-insulin dependant diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, colon cancer as well as reduction of traveller's ...

  16. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijkx, Piet J.; Besselink, Marc G.; Witteman, Ben J.; Schepers, Nicolien J.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Bakker, Olaf J.


    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition

  17. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijkx, Piet J.; Besselink, Marc G.; Witteman, Ben J.; Schepers, Nicolien J.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821721; Bakker, Olaf J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314099050

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition

  18. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended to...

  19. Nutrition from the Inside Out. (United States)

    Bier, Dennis M


    Nearly 50 years ago, I set out to investigate the clinical problem of hypoglycemia in children with illnesses that limited their food intake. My goal was to gather accurate and precise measurable data. At the time, I wasn't interested in nutrition as a discipline defined in its more general or popular sense. To address the specific problem that interested me required development of entirely new methods based on stable, nonradioactive tracers that satisfied the conditions of accuracy and precision. At the time, I had no inclination of the various theoretical and practical problems that would have to be solved to achieve this goal. Some are briefly described here. Nor did I have the slightest idea that developing the field would result in a fundamental change in how human clinical investigation was conducted, with the eventual replacement of radiotracers with stable isotopically labeled ones, even for adult clinical investigation. Additionally, I had no inclination that the original questions would open avenues to much broader questions of practical nutritional relevance. Moreover, only much later as the editor of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition did I appreciate the policy implications of how nutritional data are presented in the scientific literature. At least in part, less accurate and precise measurements and less than full transparency in reporting nutritional data have resulted in widespread debate about the public policy recommendations and guidelines that are the intended result of collecting the data in the first place. This article provides a personal recollection (with all the known faults of self-reporting and retrospective memory) of the journey that starts with measurement certainty and ends with policy uncertainty.

  20. The aging gut. Nutritional issues. (United States)

    Saltzman, J R; Russell, R M


    With improvements in health care, living standards, and socioeconomic status, more adults are living to old age. As the population ages, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that affect the nutritional status and thus the health status of older adults. Many factors contribute to inadequate nutrition, including health status, financial capacities, mobility, exercise, and physiologic needs. This article considered only the potential changes in nutritional needs because of alterations in the gastrointestinal tract owing to aging. One of the most remarkable changes with aging is the frequent development of atrophic gastritis and the inability to secrete gastric acid. This process affects approximately a third of older adults in the United States and only recently was recognized to be due to infection by H. pylori in the majority of cases. The lack of gastric acid in atrophic gastritis may lead to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and influences the absorption of a variety of micronutrients, including iron, folate, calcium, vitamin K, and vitamin B12. Lactose maldigestion is a frequent condition in older adults and is extremely common worldwide. The intolerance of dairy products leads to avoidance of these foods and likely contributes to the development of osteopenia. Overall, the small intestine and pancreas undergo astonishingly few clinically significant changes with aging. The relative preservation of overall gastrointestinal function with aging is likely due to the large reserve capacity of this multiorgan system. Further research is needed to define the precise nutritional needs for older adults because simple extrapolation of values from younger adults is now recognized to be insufficient. In addition, it is no longer acceptable to define adequate nutriture in terms of amounts of vitamins needed to maintain serum levels of a nutrient. Further RDAs must consider the functional implications of adequate nutrition. Nutrients in the elderly will

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services. (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G


    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. Copyright © 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status among inpatients admitted in a tertiary hospital


    Juliana Lammel Ricardi; Aline Marcadenti; Simone Perocchin de Souza; Anelise Siviero Ribeiro


    Introduction: Malnutrition is very common in hospitals and inpatients with prescription of oral nutritional supplementation have improvement of the nutritional status. Objectives: To detect the total acceptance rate and a possible association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 398 inpatients. Fifteen types of supplements were analyzed and nutritional status was detected by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA...

  3. Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Evaluation of Cnidoscolus aurifolia Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwemedimo Emmanuel Udo


    Full Text Available The leaves of Cnidoscolus aurifolia were analysed for their chemical, antinutrients, proximate and mineral element compositions using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes and tannins while anthraquinones, glycosides and phlobatannins were absent. Proximate analysis indicated high protein content (59.45 ± 0.07% with crude fibre and fat also present in appreciable quantities. Mineral elements determination showed the presence of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc. Antinutrient analysis of the leaf extract of C. aurifolia indicated low levels of phytic acid and hydrocyanide well below the lethal doses. An unusually high oxalate level of 404.80 ± 0.11 mg/100 g (dry weight was also obtained although still below toxic level. These results support the ethnomedicinal and nutritional uses of this plant and suggest that the consumption of leaves of C. aurifolia is not harmful nutritively.

  4. Web Based Personal Nutrition Management Tool (United States)

    Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal

    Internet is being used increasingly as a resource for accessing health-related information because of its several advantages. Therefore, Internet tailoring becomes quite preferable in health education and personal health management recently. Today, there are many web based health programs de-signed for individuals. Among these studies nutrition and weight management is popular because, obesity has become a heavy burden for populations worldwide. In this study, we designed a web based personal nutrition education and management tool, The Nutrition Web Portal, in order to enhance patients’ nutrition knowledge, and provide behavioral change against obesity. The present paper reports analysis, design and development processes of The Nutrition Web Portal.

  5. Lessons learned from nutrition curricular enhancements. (United States)

    Hark, Lisa A


    The Nutrition Academic Award funded 21 US medical schools to develop, implement, evaluate, and disseminate nutrition curricula for medical students, residents, and physicians in practice over a 5-y period. This article summarizes some of the important lessons learned from this process and offers guidance and strategies for long-term success of nutrition curricular enhancements. Medical educators need to continue to develop, implement, evaluate, and disseminate nutrition curricula with and without funding. By using the lessons learned and the products developed by the Nutrition Academic Award schools, educators will be in a position to enhance their medical curriculum.

  6. Nutrient intake and nutritional status in alcoholics. (United States)

    Salaspuro, M


    The modern techniques used in making reliable nutritional surveys and in assessing the nutritional status of alcoholic individuals have greatly improved our possibilities to determine the nutrient intake and to detect nutritional deficiencies in alcoholics from different social groups. In earlier studies, the rather high incidence of malnutrition in alcoholics can be related to the patients consisting of indigent, skid row alcoholics or patients with severe somatic complications. Later studies have revealed that nutritional deficiencies are rare among middle-class alcoholics without significant somatic complications. However, selective nutritional deficiencies may be found among lower-income and homeless alcoholic populations.

  7. Nutrition for working and service dogs. (United States)

    Wakshlag, Joseph; Shmalberg, Justin


    Conformation, genetics, and behavioral drive are the major determinants of success in canine athletes, although controllable variables, such as training and nutrition, play an important role. The scope and breadth of canine athletic events has expanded dramatically in the past 30 years, but with limited research on performance nutrition. There are considerable data examining nutritional physiology in endurance dogs and in sprinting dogs; however, nutritional studies for agility, field trial, and detection are rare. This article highlights basic nutritional physiology and interventions for exercise, and reviews newer investigations regarding aging working and service dogs, and canine detection activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Nutrition Specific Quality of Life Associated With Nutritional Status? (United States)

    Feasel-Aklilu, Sarah; Marcus, Andrea; Parrott, J Scott; Peters, Emily; Byham-Gray, Laura


    The study purpose was to explore the relationship between nutritional status, as measured by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), and Health Related Quality of Life measured using the Nutrition Specific Quality of Life (NS-QoL), tool among participants on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The study aim was to determine if NS-QoL may be an adjuvant tool for detecting changes in nutritional status among patients on MHD. This is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from a multi-center study. Participants were adult (>18) men and women on MHD (n = 145) recruited from 3 institutions in the Northeastern United States. Statistical tests were conducted to determine the relationship between key demographic characteristics (age, sex, dialysis vintage, gender, and ethnicity) and SGA and NS-QoL. Spearman's correlation examined the relationship between the independent variable, SGA and the dependent variable, NS-QoL. A univariate general linear model was conducted to adjust for confounding variables. The relationship between overall SGA score and composite NS-QoL score. The sample consisted of 85 men (58.6%), with a mean age of 55.3 ± 11.9 years, who were largely African-American (84.1%) and non-Hispanic (77.2%). Mean SGA score was 5.5 ± 1.0, and the mean NS-QoL composite score was 9.51 ± 3.77. No key demographic characteristics had a statistically significant relationship with SGA, whereas sex (P nutritional status. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutrition in transition: the changing global nutrition challenge. (United States)

    Popkin, B M


    The rapid shift in the stage of nutrition towards a pattern of degenerative disease is accelerating in the developing world. Data from China, as shown by the China Health and Nutrition Survey, between 1989 and 1993, are illustrative of these shifts. For example, an increase from 22.8 to 66.6% in the proportion of adults consuming a higher-fat diet, rapid shifts in the structure of diet as income changes, and important price relationships are examples that are presented. There appears to reflect a basic shift in eating preferences, induced mainly by shifts in income, prices and food availability, but also by the modern food industry and the mass media. Furthermore, the remarkable shift in the occupations structure in lower-income countries from agricultural labour towards employment in manufacturing and services implies a reduction in energy expenditure. One consequence of the nutrition transition has been a decline in undernutrition accompanied by a rapid increase in obesity. There are marked differences between urban and rural eating patterns, particularly regarding the consumption of food prepared away from home. Other issues considered are the fetal origins hypothesis, whereby the metabolic efficiencies that served well in conditions of fetal undernutrition become maladaptive with overnutrition, leading to the development of abnormal lipid profiles, altered glucose and insulin metabolism and obesity. Furthermore, obesity and activity are closely linked with adult-onset diabetes. The shift towards a diet higher in fat and meat and lower in carbohydrates and fibre, together with the shift towards less onerous physical activity, carries unwanted nutritional and health effects. It is also clear that the causes of obesity must be viewed as environmental rather than personal or genetic.

  10. Internet: un cuerpo enfermo y un campo de batalla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raymond Colle


    Full Text Available Al celebrarse en 1999 los 30 años de la primera conexión telemática, los innumerables beneficios obtenidos de la conformación y desarrollo de esta red de redes pueden hacer olvidar que también es fuente de nuevos problemas y que está causando fuertes "dolores de cabeza" tanto a sus desarrolladores como a sus usuarios. Se abordan principalmente aquí los problemas vinculados al crecimiento de la red -como lentitud, limitaciones del protocolo TCP/IP, creciente dificultad para realizar búsquedas efectivas, etc.- y al mal uso de la misma ("guerra" digital, acciones de "piratas" y otras actividades delictivas, así como algunas de las acciones o proyectos tendentes a aportar soluciones (nuevas funciones de navegación, Internet 2, etc..

  11. Nutrition therapy in the critically ill child. (United States)

    Skillman, Heather E; Mehta, Nilesh M


    Malnutrition and obesity are prevalent in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional deterioration secondary to suboptimal nutrient delivery can adversely affect outcomes during pediatric critical illness. This review highlights the recent investigations of nutrition assessment, energy balance, indirect calorimetry, nutrition therapy, barriers to nutrient delivery, monitoring during enteral feeding, and the role of nutrition guidelines in critically ill children. Critically ill children are at high risk for energy and protein imbalance. Indirect calorimetry remains the only accurate method to assess energy requirements in this population. Intensive insulin therapy to achieve glycemic control may reduce morbidity and mortality in adults, but risks hypoglycemia in critically ill children. Early enteral nutrition improves nutrition outcomes and adherence to nutrition guidelines can overcome barriers to optimal nutrition therapy. Timely and adequate nutrition therapy is essential to improve nutrition outcomes in critically ill children. Further research is required to determine clinical outcome benefits with indirect calorimetry and enteral nutrition guidelines, and to identify optimal glucose targets.

  12. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review. (United States)

    Lodewijkx, Piet J; Besselink, Marc G; Witteman, Ben J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J


    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness.

  13. Crossover Designs in Nutrition and Dietetics Research. (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Raynor, Hollie A


    This article is the 12th installment in a statistical series exploring the importance of research design, epidemiologic methods, and statistical analysis as applied to nutrition and dietetics research. The purpose of this series is to assist registered dietitian nutritionists in interpreting nutrition research and aid nutrition researchers in applying scientific principles to produce high-quality nutrition research. This article focuses on the use of crossover designs in nutrition and dietetics research. The purpose is to distinguish the crossover design from the randomized clinical trial, define important terms, illustrate a 2×2 crossover design, discuss potential confounding variables in the crossover design, describe the analysis and interpretation of crossover data, present sample size considerations, provide examples of the use of the crossover design in nutrition and dietetics, and discuss additional considerations when the independent variable has more than two levels. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional Status of Maasai Pastoralists under Change. (United States)

    Galvin, Kathleen A; Beeton, Tyler A; Boone, Randall B; BurnSilver, Shauna B

    This study assesses the nutritional status of Maasai pastoralists living in a period of great social, economic and ecological changes in Kajiado County, southern Kenya. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences were collected from 534 individuals in the year 2000. The data were used to describe mean differences in human nutrition between ages, sexes, and within and among three Group Ranches. Nutritional data and diet recall data were compared with past studies of Maasai nutrition from 1930 to 2000. Results indicate that nutritional status is poor and has remained so despite numerous changes to the social-ecological system including livelihood diversification, sedentarization, human population growth and decreased access to vegetation heterogeneity. Imbirikani Group Ranch had better access to infrastructure and markets and some measures of nutritional status were better than for individuals in other group ranches. However, nutritional status remains poor despite transitioning to greater market integration.

  15. Impacto de un programa de atención domiciliaria al enfermo crónico en ancianos: calidad de vida y reingresos hospitalarios Impact of the program home care for the chronically ill for elderly: quality of life and hospital readmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Espinel-Bermúdez


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto del programa Atención Domiciliaria al Enfermo Crónico (ADEC comparado con la atención habitual (AH a ancianos con dependencia funcional, derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Cohorte prospectiva a tres meses a partir del egreso hospitalario en dos hospitales de la Ciudad de México. Se ingresaron 130 ancianos con dependencia funcional, 70 insertados al programa ADEC y 60 con atención habitual. Se midió impacto en reingresos hospitalarios y calidad de vida a partir de la escala Perfil de Impacto de la Enfermedad (SIP, por sus siglas en inglés. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio de los ancianos fue de 74 años (61/103 y 60% fueron mujeres. El principal diagnóstico fue enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC (30.77%. El grupo de ADEC mejoró la calidad de vida en la dimensión psicosocial [46.26 (±13.85 comparado con 29.45 (±16.48 vs. 47.03 (±16.47 a 42.36 (±16.35 p0.05. CONCLUSIONES: El programa mejoró la dimensión psicosocial de calidad de vida.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the ADEC program (acronym in Spanish as compared with the typical care provided to disabled elderly affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort at three months after discharge from two general hospitals in Mexico City. A total of 130 patients with functional dependency were studied, 70 in the ADEC program and 60 with typical care. Impact was measured using hospital readmissions and quality of life based on the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP. RESULTS: Average age was 74 (61/103 years and 60% were women. The main diagnosis was cerebrovascular disease (30.77%. The quality of life in the psychosocial dimension improved for the ADEC group (from 46.26 (±13.85 to 29.45(±16.48 as compared with 47.03 (±16.47 to 42.36 (±16.35 for those receiving typical care (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HC program improved the psychosocial dimension of quality of

  16. Nutrition for the pediatric athlete. (United States)

    Unnithan, Viswanath B; Goulopoulou, Styliani


    A paucity of literature exists with regard to research on nutrition for the pediatric athlete. This lack of research makes the development of specific nutritional recommendations for young athletes problematic. This issue is made difficult by the macro- and micronutrient intake required for growth and development in conjunction with that required for sports. Exogenous carbohydrate drinks could be considered for the young athlete engaged in both endurance exercise and high-intensity exercise. Monitoring of the energy intake during resistance training in the pediatric athlete needs to be considered, as there is evidence to suggest that energy deficits may occur. If decrements in exercise performance are noted, then serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations should be monitored, as nonanemic iron deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric athlete. The pediatric athlete exercising in the heat is susceptible to voluntary dehydration and evidence exists to suggest that a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink will abolish this phenomenon.

  17. Nutritional advice from George Orwell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Hedegaard


    Despite of a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the “social gradient” on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (WHO 2013, Marmot & Wilkinson 1999, Marmot 1991, Budrys 2003, Ross & Wu 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual...... help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification...... identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (ill health) consequences for people with low socio-economic status especially. Finally the article discusses how social mechanisms affecting our nutritional choices could...

  18. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition. (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David


    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Nutritional care in peptic ulcer


    VOMERO, Nathália Dalcin; COLPO, Elisângela


    INTRODUCTION: Peptic ulcer is a lesion of the mucosal lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract characterized by an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors of the mucosa, having H. pylori as the main etiologic factor. Dietotherapy is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease. AIM: To update nutritional therapy in adults' peptic ulcer. METHODS: Exploratory review without restrictions with primary sources indexed in Scielo, PubMed, Medline, ISI, and Scopus databases...


    Stapleton, Renee D.; Suratt, Benjamin T.


    This chapter collectively discusses two important topics related to patients with ARDS: 1) obesity and its potential contribution to clinical outcomes through proposed biologic mechanisms and 2) current literature on provision of nutrition and micronutrients. The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing around the world, and more than one third of Americans are now obese. While obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population, recent literature suggests that among critically ill patients including those with ARDS, the relationship between obesity and outcomes is quite complex. Observational data demonstrate that obese patients may be at greater risk of developing ARDS and of having longer ICU and hospital lengths of stay compared to normal weight patients. However, obesity is also associated with improved survival. Therefore, in contrast to what might be assumed by clinicians, although obesity may confer greater ICU morbidity, it appears to simultaneously decrease mortality. The mechanisms for these findings are not yet clear, but recent biologic data may begin to provide an explanation. Critical illness, and more specifically the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a catabolic state where patients demonstrate a profound inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction, and hypermetabolism. This is often accompanied by malnutrition, which can lead to further impairment of immune function and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past decade or more, as we have come to better understand immunologic effects of nutrition in critical illness, nutrition has begun to be thought of as therapeutic, rather than purely supportive. Additionally, the concept of pharmaconutrition has emerged. Fortunately, several recent large studies about nutrition in critical care, with some investigations specifically in patients with ARDS, have provided valuable new evidence. PMID:25453416

  1. The history of infant nutrition. (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo


    To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.

  2. Irradiated food - no nutritional value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Hasselmann, C.


    Attempts by the European Commission to regulate food irradiation in the European Community by a directive have been repeatedly turned down by the European Parliament. The basis of information for the Parliamentarians was a Committee Report, which stated that irradiated foods had no nutritional value. This conclusion is compared with the richly available results of experimental studies. The authors conclude that the European Parliament has been completely misinformed. (orig.) [de

  3. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H


    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  4. [Nutritional anemias in elderly patients]. (United States)

    Serraj, Khalid; Federici, Laure; Kaltenbach, Georges; Andrès, Emmanuel


    Nutritional deficiencies cause one third of the cases of anemia in the elderly. The urgency of anemia management in elderly patients depends on tolerance and repercussions, rather than only on the hemoglobin level. Iron, vitamin B12 and folate are the most common deficiencies, and their levels should be tested. Chronic gastrointestinal bleeding is the principal cause of iron-deficiency anemia. Management is based on supplementation combined with effective etiological treatment.

  5. Nutrition transition and food sustainability. (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia


    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  6. [Current views of nutritional therapy]. (United States)

    Pogozheva, A V; Kaganov, B S


    Epidemiologic studies in the Research Institute of Nutrition showed that dietary patterns of the Russian population are on the whole at variance with the balanced feeding formula largely due to excessive consumption of animal fat, insufficient consumption of proteins, vitamins, micro- and macroelements, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fibers. It is estimated that over 70% of total lethality in this country is due to diseases directly related to improper feeding (the so-called alimentary-dependent diseases), cardiovascular disorders, some neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, etc. Dietary therapy adjusted to specific pathogenetic features, clinical picture, stage of the disease, character of metabolic disorders in individual patients is an important factor having versatile beneficial effects on the patient's health, correcting metabolic problems, and improving quality of life. Decree No 330 of August 5, 2003 "On measures to improve nutritional therapy in medical institutions of the Russian Federation" introduced a new nomenclature of standard diets based on chemical composition of separate foods and the previously used system of numbered diets. Modern dietary therapy includes not only standard and special diets but also specific products to be used in concrete clinical conditions, enteral and parenteral nutrition, biologically active food additives, etc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Basso


    Full Text Available Research of antimicrobials use and resistance in food animals have been developed in various countries, although few studies include the bacteria prevalence in respiratory tract of companion animal. The aim of this paper was to verify antimicrobial resistance profile from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of health and sick dogs. Twenty animals were evaluated, 10 in the health group (group 1 and 10 in respiratory distress group (group 2. The bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube or guided by a rigid endoscope. Culture, identification and bacterial sensibility of the fluid were performed through agar diffusion method. The bacterial isolated were: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas e Proteus mirabilis. Of all samples, 63% showed resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. Therefore antibiotic resistance is present in sick as well in health animals and ceftriaxone and amoxicilin associated with clavulanic acid are effective against respiratory tract bacteria.

    KEY WORDS: Antibiotic resistance, bacteria, respiratory distress.

    Nacional de Encuestas sobre el uso de antibióticos y la resistencia a los antibióticos en la producción animal se llevan a cabo en varios países, sin embargo pocos estudios que incluyen agentes bacterianos asociados con las vías respiratorias de los animales domésticos. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos en el líquido de lavado tracheobronchial sanos y enfermos perros. Hemos utilizado 20 animales, 10 clínicamente sanos (grupo 1 y 10 con trastorno respiratorio (grupo 2. La colecci��n de la tracheobronchial lavado se realizó con el tubo endotraqueal o guiado con la ayuda de un endoscopio rígido. Se han realizado el cultivo y la identificaci

  8. [Supplemental parenteral nutrition for intensive care patients: a logical combination with enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Thibault, Ronan; Berger, Mette M; Pichard, Claude


    Undernutrition is a widespread problem in the intensive care and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Enteral nutrition is the recommended nutritional support in ICU patients. However, enteral nutrition is frequently insufficient to cover protein-energy needs. The initiation of supplemental parenteral nutrition, when enteral nutrition is insufficient, could optimize the nutritional therapy. Such a combination could allow reducing morbidity, length of stay and recovery, as well as improving quality of life and health care costs. Prospective studies are currently underway to test this hypothesis.

  9. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louay Labban


    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge can affect someone to follow dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of Syrian university students and to find out if there was any relationship between anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, type of university and nutrition knowledge of the students. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using valid nutrition knowledge questionnaire, which covered six main sections. The questionnaire was designed for this study and was adapted from Parameter and Wardle. The number of students participated in the study was 998 students and were selected from four universities in Syria. They were asked to complete the nutrition knowledge questionnaire under supervision of trained nutritionist. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants by trained professional. The results were statistically analyzed and P 30 had the highest points in TNK. Females had higher TNK score as compared with males. Furthermore, students enrolled in the private university and in health-related programs showed typically better TNK scores than those enrolled in public universities and in nonhealth-related programs. The highest TNK score based on BMI was found among students with BMI >30. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  10. Nutrition review for hockey players : enhancing performance through nutrition


    Bursich, Chris


    With the advancement of sports medicine in the past decade, hockey players all over the world are always trying to find a competitive edge through nutritional education and proper eating. It is very common to find young junior players looking to make the jump into the professional game always trying to find ways to get bigger and add lean muscle mass, likewise, there are always players looking to drop a few pounds while keeping their muscle mass. Research has proven that through proper educat...

  11. Role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education for enhancing nutrition knowledge and improving nutritional behaviour among adolescents. (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming


    The integration of nutrition knowledge into nutritional behaviour can help children to develop a healthy lifestyle that may be carried forward into adulthood. E-learning enables students to take ownership of recording their dietary intake and modify their diets by making their own decisions regarding food choices and portion sizes through reflective feedback. This study investigated the role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education in modifying students' nutrition knowledge and behaviour. Ninety-five secondary students studying from Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 were recruited from five schools. Moreover, 50 and 45 students were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Nutrition education delivered through e-learning (NeL) was adopted to record students' diets. Online reports with behavioural feedback were provided for the experimental group but not for the control group. NeL sessions lasted for 12 weeks. The energy and nutrient profiles of the students were recorded as pre-post measurements. Pre-post nutrition knowledge was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline and after intervention. The experimental group had significantly higher scores in the 'dietary recommendation' and 'food choices' domains of the questionnaire and demonstrated significant dietary improvement in the intake of all studied macronutrients and micronutrients. Nutrition education conducted with behavioural feedback can effectively improve adolescents' nutrition knowledge and nutritional behaviour.

  12. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E) (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.


    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma


    Full Text Available The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age physiological needs of children and teenagers for nutrient materials and energy. In this situation, the available experience of using vitaminbenriched products as well as vitamin and mineral complexes in children will permit to quickly resolve the existing problems of the improper, and sometimes, insufficient, nutrition.Key words: school nutrition, organization, international experience.

  14. Nutritional therapy in cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fialla, Annette D; Israelsen, Mads; Hamberg, Ole


    with 329 allocated to enteral (nine trials) or intravenous (four trials) nutrition and 334 controls. All trials were classed as having a high risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that nutritional therapy reduced mortality 0.80 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.99). The result was not confirmed in sequential......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis are often malnourished and have a superimposed stress metabolism, which increases nutritional demands. We performed a systematic review on the effects of nutritional therapy vs. no intervention for patients with cirrhosis...... or alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: We included trials on nutritional therapy designed to fulfil at least 75% of daily nutritional demand. Authors extracted data in an independent manner. Random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses were performed and the results expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...

  15. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention


    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov


    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food it...

  16. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla


    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  17. Evolution of diabetes medical nutrition therapy


    Franz, M; Warshaw, H; Daly, A; Green-Pastors, J; Arnold, M; Bantle, J


    Research supports the importance of medical nutrition therapy in achieving diabetes treatment goals. For persons requiring insulin therapy, the first priority is to integrate an insulin regimen into the patient's lifestyle. For type 2 diabetes, the priority is to focus on lifestyle strategies (that is, nutrition and exercise) that will improve metabolic outcomes at diagnosis and as the disease progresses. Patients with diabetes need nutrition recommendations that are supported by scientific e...

  18. Increased nutritional value in food crops


    Goicoechea, Nieves; Antolín, M. Carmen


    Summary Modern agriculture and horticulture must combine two objectives that seem to be almost mutually exclusive: to satisfy the nutritional needs of an increasing human population and to minimize the negative impact on the environment. These two objectives are included in the Goal 2 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations: ‘End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture'. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetable...

  19. Assessing the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz NAS


    Full Text Available Nur Adilah Shuhada Abd Aziz, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Mohd Ramadan Abdul Hamid, Nazrul Hadi Ismail Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Malaysia Purpose: The increasing number of elderly people worldwide throughout the years is concerning due to the health problems often faced by this population. This review aims to summarize the nutritional status among hospitalized elderly and the role of the nutritional assessment tools in this issue.Methods: A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms “malnutrition”, “hospitalised elderly”, “nutritional assessment”, “Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA”, “Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI”, and “Subjective Global Assessment (SGA”.Results: According to the previous studies, the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly shows an increasing trend not only locally but also across the world. Under-recognition of malnutrition causes the number of malnourished hospitalized elderly to remain high throughout the years. Thus, the development of nutritional screening and assessment tools has been widely studied, and these tools are readily available nowadays. SGA, MNA, and GNRI are the nutritional assessment tools developed specifically for the elderly and are well validated in most countries. However, to date, there is no single tool that can be considered as the universal gold standard for the diagnosis of nutritional status in hospitalized patients.Conclusion: It is important to identify which nutritional assessment tool is suitable to be used in this group to ensure that a structured assessment and documentation of nutritional status can be established. An early and accurate identification of the appropriate treatment of malnutrition can be done as soon as possible, and thus, the malnutrition rate among this group can be minimized in the future. Keywords: malnutrition in elderly

  20. Essays on health and nutrition in China


    Nie, Peng


    This dissertation aims to investigate several major socio-economic determinants of health and nutrition in China. By using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) spanning from 1991 to 2009, this enhances the understanding of the transition of health and nutrition with such unprecedented economic and social changes in China. This dissertation contains six chapters: more specifically, Chapter 1 gives a brief description of general background, research aim and also the outlin...

  1. Hepatobiliary manifestations of gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders. (United States)

    Samarasena, Jason B; Hu, Ke-Qin


    Hepatobiliary manifestations of gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders can occur as part of the clinical spectrum of the underlying disease or as a consequence of the treatment of the disease. This article reviews aspects of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of hepatobiliary manifestations associated with a selection of gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, Whipple's disease, and parenteral nutrition associated disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition Considerations in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. (United States)

    Davis, Jillian; Samuels, Emily; Mullins, Lucille


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a serious degenerative muscular disease affecting males. Diagnosis usually occurs in childhood and is confirmed through genetic testing and/or muscle biopsy. Accompanying the disease are several nutrition-related concerns: growth, body composition, energy and protein requirements, constipation, swallowing difficulties, bone health, and complementary medicine. This review article addresses the nutrition aspects of DMD. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Uncovering the Nutritional Landscape of Food (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Sung, Jaeyun; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun


    Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food’s frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition. PMID:25768022

  4. Phenylketonuria: nutritional advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannini Marcello


    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the appearance of new treatment, dietary approach remains the mainstay of PKU therapy. The nutritional management has become complex to optimize PKU patients' growth, development and diet compliance. This paper review critically new advances and challenges that have recently focused attention on potential relevant of LCPUFA supplementation, progress in protein substitutes and new protein sources, large neutral amino acids and sapropterin. Given the functional effects, DHA is conditionally essential substrates that should be supplied with PKU diet in infancy but even beyond. An European Commission Programme is going on to establish quantitative DHA requirements in this population. Improvements in the palatability, presentation, convenience and nutritional composition of protein substitutes have helped to improve long-term compliance with PKU diet, although it can be expected for further improvement in this area. Glycomacropeptide, a new protein source, may help to support dietary compliance of PKU subject but further studies are needed to evaluate this metabolic and nutritional issues. The PKU diet is difficult to maintain in adolescence and adult life. Treatment with large neutral amino acids or sapropterin in selected cases can be helpful. However, more studies are necessary to investigate the potential role, dose, and composition of large neutral amino acids in PKU treatment and to show long-term efficacy and tolerance. Ideally treatment with sapropterin would lead to acceptable blood Phe control without dietary treatment but this is uncommon and sapropterin will usually be given in combination with dietary treatment, but clinical protocol evaluating adjustment of PKU diet and sapropterin dosage are needed. In conclusion PKU diet and the new existing treatments, that need to be optimized, may be a complete and combined strategy possibly positive impacting on the psychological, social, and neurocognitive life of PKU patients.

  5. Nutrition security under extreme events (United States)

    Martinez, A.


    Nutrition security under extreme events. Zero hunger being one of the Sustainable Development Goal from the United Nations, food security has become a trending research topic. However extreme events impact on global food security is not yet 100% understood and there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of global food trade and nutrition security to improve countries resilience to extreme events. In a globalized world, food is still a highly regulated commodity and a strategic resource. A drought happening in a net food-exporter will have little to no effect on its own population but the repercussion on net food-importers can be extreme. In this project, we propose a methodology to describe and quantify the impact of a local drought to human health at a global scale. For this purpose, nutrition supply and global trade data from FAOSTAT have been used with domestic food production from national agencies and FAOSTAT, global precipitation from the Climate Research Unit and health data from the World Health Organization. A modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) has been developed to measure the level of resilience of one country to a drought happening in another country. This index describes how a country is dependent of importation and how diverse are its importation. Losses of production and exportation due to extreme events have been calculated using yield data and a simple food balance at country scale. Results show that countries the most affected by global droughts are the one with the highest dependency to one exporting country. Changes induced by droughts also disturbed their domestic proteins, fat and calories supply resulting most of the time in a higher intake of calories or fat over proteins.

  6. Nutritional Psychiatry: Where to Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice N. Jacka


    Full Text Available The nascent field of ‘Nutritional Psychiatry’ offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD. Finally, new studies focused on understanding the biological pathways that mediate the observed relationships between diet, nutrition and mental health are pointing to the immune system, oxidative biology, brain plasticity and the microbiome-gut-brain axis as key targets for nutritional interventions. On the other hand, the field is currently limited by a lack of data and methodological issues such as heterogeneity, residual confounding, measurement error, and challenges in measuring and ensuring dietary adherence in intervention studies. Key challenges for the field are to now: replicate, refine and scale up promising clinical and population level dietary strategies; identify a clear set of biological pathways and targets that mediate the identified associations; conduct scientifically rigorous nutraceutical and ‘psychobiotic’ interventions that also examine predictors of treatment response; conduct observational and experimental studies in psychosis focused on dietary and related risk factors and treatments; and continue to advocate for policy change to improve the food environment at the population level.

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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  8. Links between nutrition and reproduction in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, M.


    Situations in which nutrition modulates reproductive function, and targets involved, are identified, particularly in relation to initiation of cyclicity (at puberty, during the post-partum period or after induction of ovulation), fertility and induction of ovulation. The usefulness and pertinence of measurements of body weight variations, body condition score, nutritional balance or blood metabolites (glucose, ketone bodies, free fatty acids, cholesterol, urea and amino acids) to evaluate nutritional status in this context is considered. Leptin could play a central role in causal mechanisms linking nutrition and reproduction, in conjunction with somatotropic axis, insulin, opioids, and neuropeptide Y. (author)

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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  10. The nutritional knowledge of Australian nurses. (United States)

    Schaller, Christine; James, Erica L


    Sound nutrition is an essential component of good health. A number of health professionals, including nurses, provide nutritional information to the community. However, little research exists which measures the nutrition knowledge of nurses in Australia. The aim of this study was to determine the nutrition knowledge of nurses in regional Victoria. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with 103 nurses (81% currently practicing in an acute regional hospital). The nurses answered 48 multiple choice general knowledge questions (using a valid and reliable questionnaire) and provided educational and demographic details. Each multiple choice question was scored as correct or incorrect and given the value of one point (maximum possible 48 points). The mean knowledge score for all nurses was 60.2% (SD = 8.4). Older nurses, those with more years of experience, and nurses with general training (rather than a degree) scored higher average knowledge scores. Respondents reported requests for nutrition information from patients and clients, and indicated that the most frequently used nutrition information sources were dietitians, other nurses, professional journals, books and literature from the National Heart Foundation. The nutrition knowledge score reported in this study is low to moderate by definition from previous studies using the same questionnaire. It is recommended that the Australian nursing profession determines its own nutrition knowledge standard and the nutrition knowledge needs of nurses working in particular areas of practice. Further work is required to determine the validity and reliability of an Australian knowledge instrument.

  11. European Nutrition and Health Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, A.; Nowak, V.

    The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute to the identificat......The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute...... to the identification of major nutrition and health problems in the EU regions and to the monitoring and evaluation of food and nutrition policies already in place within the Member States. The method implies collecting and critically reviewing available data on the most common indicators used for the assessment...... of nutrition and health situation of 25 European countries. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will provide information on dietary habits, diet related health indicators as well as established food and nutrition policies in European countries....

  12. Nutritional support in patients with oesophageal cancer. (United States)

    Bozzetti, Federico


    Obesity and overweight are risk factors for developing an oesophageal cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma in the distal oesophagus or at the gastroesophageal junction, and many patients still are overweight at the clinical presentation even if they are losing weight. Main mechanisms involved in weight loss are a decreased nutrients' intake and an alteration in metabolism due to a cytokine-driven inflammatory status. Malnutrition is a risk factor for a poor compliance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy and finally for the oncologic outcome. There is scientific evidence that frequently both conditions exist but in the advanced stages of disease metabolic alterations play a major role and are responsible for the poor response to nutritional support. The literature about the nutritional support in patients with cancer of the oesophagus has been reviewed with special emphasis on randomised clinical trials whenever available. In surgical patients, both overweight and weight loss increase the risk of postoperative complications. In non-dysphagic patients receiving a neo-adjuvant oncologic treatment, the simple use of oral nutritional supplements is little effective in ameliorating the nutritional status, in contrast, an intensive dietetic surveillance associated with oral supplements can lead to better nutritional status, improved quality of life and better compliance with therapy. In dysphagic patients, many comparative non-randomised clinical studies have shown clinical benefits from tube feeding on the nutritional status and compliance with therapy. There is no apparent difference on the metabolic efficacy of the enteral versus parenteral nutrition. Studies on peri-operative nutrition in oesophagectomy patients were often underpowered and, hence, inconclusive, but the large experience on the nutritional support in patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing major abdominal surgery has clearly shown the benefits of the enteral nutrition. Both the American and

  13. [Nutritional status in patients with recurrent glioblastoma]. (United States)

    Gokcek, D; Tran, J-D; Gonzalez-Aguilar, A; Alentorn, A; Liou, A; Delattre, J-Y; Idbaih, A


    Nutritional status is a major clinical parameter in multiple cancers. Indeed, nutritional status is a prognostic factor and a predictor of response and toxicity to treatments in breast and lung cancers for instance. To our knowledge, in patients suffering from malignant primary brain tumors, nutritional status has been poorly investigated. Nutritional status of 26 glioblastoma patients relapsing after a first line of treatment was studied. The body mass index (BMI), the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI) and the instant nutritional score (INS) were assessed. The BMI was abnormal in 12 patients, two were malnourished while 10 were overweight. The BMI was not correlated to age of patients. Overweight status did not impact patient survival but it was associated with reduced performance status. The PINI was abnormal in three patients. Finally, the INS was abnormal in 24 patients, noted 2 (n=22) or 4 (n=4). Our results were not in favor of systematic nutritional support in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after a first line of treatment. Being overweight does not influence prognosis but may influence performance status. Steroid therapy and chemotherapy (inducing sodium and water retention and lymphopenia) weaken the relevance of BMI and INS for nutritional assessment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Further studies using additional nutritional tests in larger, independent and prospective cohorts of patients are warranted to obtain more details. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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  16. Frailty and nutrition: searching for evidence. (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M; Berrut, G; Lesourd, B; Ferry, M; Gilbert, T; Guérin, O; Hanon, O; Jeandel, C; Paillaud, E; Raynaud-Simon, A; Ruault, G; Rolland, Y


    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that predicts disability, morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Poor nutritional status is one of the main risk factors for frailty. Macronutrients and micronutrients deficiencies are associated with frailty. Recent studies suggest that improving nutritional status for macronutrients and micronutrients may reduce the risk of frailty. Specific diets such as the Mediterranean diet rich in anti-oxidants, is currently investigated in the prevention of frailty. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current body of knowledge on the relations between nutrition and frailty, and provide recommendations for future nutritional research on the field of frailty.

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

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  19. Nutritional deficiencies in celiac disease. (United States)

    Barton, Susan H; Kelly, Darlene G; Murray, Joseph A


    Celiac disease is characterized by small bowel enteropathy, precipitated in genetically susceptible individuals by the ingestion of "gluten," which is a term used to encompass the storage proteins of wheat, rye, and barley. Although the intestine heals with removal of gluten from the diet, the intolerance is permanent and the damage recurs if gluten is reintroduced. This damage causes a wide variety of consequence including maldigestion and malabsorption, resulting in the characteristic, although not universal, features of malnutrition. This article examines recent advances in the understanding of the spectrum of celiac disease, illustrates the impact of celiac disease on nutrition, and describes approaches to the management of the disease.

  20. Vacuum Frying: A nutritional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Coronel


    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/08/07 - Accepted: 2014/09/22One of the largest areas of the food industry is the production of snacks, but these have generally an inadequate nutritional profile in healthy eating. The vacuum frying technology is presented as a clear option processing for the development of new products and existing ones. This review article presents the advantages of using technology in Vacuum frying different types of food, especially in relation to the contents of some micronutrients and fat. They also mention the work done in Ecuador, especially in local products.

  1. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Halpern


    Full Text Available SUMMARY This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with Nacetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  2. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.


    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  3. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette


    or other related literacy areas to food. The works are presented through their components and concepts of food literacy, andfurther discussed in the light of food elements included and seen in relation to aims concerning competencies. The definitions and content of the works presented reveal both...... similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  4. Nutrition (United States)

    ... That Almost Always or Always Used Healthy Food Preparation Practices, * 2000 and 2006 2000 2006 Low-Fat a la Carte Foods Bread sticks, rolls, bagels, pita bread, or other bread products 50.8 67.1 Lettuce, vegetable, or bean salads 52.6 72.8 Low-fat salty snacks 38.2 53.2 Low-fat or nonfat yogurt 35. ...

  5. Nutrition (United States)

    ... weight for girls Eating healthy at restaurants Special food issues Vegetarian eating Eating for strong bones Quiz: Food Facts ... should experiment with fruits, veggies, grains, nuts, and vegetarian foods. They are usually packed with nutrients." —  ...

  6. Knowledge of the Andalusian legislation on dignified death and perception on the formation in attention to terminally ill patients of health sciences students at Universidad de Granada, Spain Conocimiento sobre la ley andaluza de muerte digna y percepción sobre la formación en la atención a enfermos terminales del alumnado de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Granada, España Conhecimento sobre a lei andaluza de morte digna e percepção sobre a formação no atendimento a enfermos terminais do corpo discente de ciências da saúde da Universidade de Granada, Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia María Morales-Martín


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the knowledge of the Andalusian ''Legislation of Rights and Guarantees of the Dignity of Individuals during the Death Process'' and perception of the formation on attention to terminally ill patients by students of health sciences at Universidad de Granada, Spain. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in 2010, with the participation of 572 students from the Nursing, Physical Therapy, and Occupational Therapy careers of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Universidad de Granada. A questionnaire including 19 variables was used. The data gathered was analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 program. Results. Half of the participants know of this Legislation. A total of 86.7% of the students did not know that the limitation of the therapeutic effort is a legal practice throughout Spain; 97.9% did not know either that the limitation of vital support measures is a legal practice. 64.2% of the students feel capable of addressing this issue with terminally ill patients and their families. 83.3% of those surveyed report not having sufficient knowledge to provide information about the ''Living testament''. Nursing students have greater knowledge of the Legislation studied; likewise, those who took the Palliative Care course obtained better results than students who did not. Conclusion. Students do not have adequate knowledge of the Andalusian legislation of dignified death. Although the participants do not feel prepared academically to deal with these types of patients, they do consider themselves capable of doing so.Objetivo. Determinar el conocimiento sobre ''Ley de Derechos y Garantías de la Dignidad de la Persona en el Proceso de la Muerte'' y percepción sobre la formación en la atención a enfermos terminales del alumnado de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Granada, España. Metodología. Estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal, realizado en 2010, en el que participaron 572 alumnos de las titulaciones de

  7. The limit of change: Contradictions on nutritional behaviour between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional Behaviour of pregnant women is in response to food intake beliefs, food handling practices, health related nutritional practices and access to nutritional information irrespective of nutritional health policies. While studies exist on nutritional behaviour with focus on food intake beliefs there is empirical gap on ...

  8. Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.


    Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

  9. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Cavallieri, D.; Roche, H.M.; Klein, U.I.; Daniel, H.


    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes.

  10. Key Resources for Creating Online Nutrition Education for Those Participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (United States)

    Stosich, Marie C.; LeBlanc, Heidi; Kudin, Janette S.; Christofferson, Debra


    Internet-based nutrition education is becoming an important tool in serving the rural, low-income community, yet the task of creating such programming can be daunting. The authors describe the key resources used in developing an Internet-based nutrition education program for those participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program…

  11. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980). (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  12. Nutrition and the Circadian System (United States)

    Potter, Gregory D M; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J


    The human circadian system anticipates and adapts to daily environmental changes to optimise behaviour according to time of day and temporally partition incompatible physiological processes. At the helm of this system is a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN are primarily synchronised to the 24 hour day by the light/dark cycle; however, feeding/fasting cycles are the primary time cues for clocks in peripheral tissues. Aligning feeding/fasting cycles with clock-regulated metabolic changes optimises metabolism, and studies of other animals suggest that feeding at inappropriate times disrupts circadian system organisation and thereby contributes to adverse metabolic consequences and chronic disease development. ‘High-fat diets’ (HFDs) produce particularly deleterious effects on circadian system organisation in rodents by blunting feeding/fasting cycles. Time-of-day-restricted feeding, where food availability is restricted to a period of several hours, offsets many adverse consequences of HFDs in these animals; however, further evidence is required to assess whether the same is true in humans. Several nutritional compounds have robust effects on the circadian system. Caffeine, for example, can speed synchronisation to new time zones after jetlag. An appreciation of the circadian system has many implications for nutritional science and may ultimately help reduce the burden of chronic diseases. PMID:27221157

  13. Maternal nutrition and perinatal outcomes. (United States)

    Barger, Mary K


    Diet and patterns of eating during pregnancy can affect perinatal outcomes through direct physiologic effects or by stressing the fetus in ways that permanently affect phenotype. Supplements are not a magic nutritional remedy, and evidence of profound benefit for most supplements remains inconclusive. However, research supports calcium supplements to decrease preeclampsia. Following a low glycemic, Mediterranean-type diet appears to improve ovulatory infertility, decrease preterm birth, and decrease the risk of gestational diabetes. Although women in the United States have adequate levels of most nutrients, subpopulations are low in vitamin D, folate, and iodine. Vitamin D has increasingly been shown to be important not only for bone health, but also for glucose regulation, immune function, and good uterine contractility in labor. To ensure adequate vitamin and micronutrient intake, especially of folate before conception, all reproductive age women should take a multivitamin daily. In pregnancy, health care providers need to assess women's diets, give them weight gain recommendations based on their body mass index measurement, and advise them to eat a Mediterranean diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids (ingested as low-mercury risk fatty fish or supplements), ingest adequate calcium, and achieve adequate vitamin D levels through sun exposure or supplements. Health care providers should continue to spend time on nutrition assessment and counseling. Copyright © 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrition: ethics and social implications. (United States)

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Jenie, Iumar A


    In October 2003, the general conference of UNESCO adopted the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, followed by the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights in October 2005 to ensure the respect of human dignity and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the collection, processing, use and storage of human genetic data with the requirement of equality, justice and solidarity. Nutrigenomics studies the relationship between specific nutrients or diet and polymorphisms and gene expression; therefore, eventually diet can be tailored for each individual. The dietary intervention is based on collected human genetic data that eventually build knowledge of nutritional requirements, and the nutritional status of different human genotypes. This knowledge can be used to prevent, mitigate or cure chronic diseases. As in another branch of posthuman genome science, it is a global concern that the collected data should not be misused or create inequity. Some ethical issues raised and discussed in this paper are: (1) consent and confidentiality issues in the collection and storage of data, (2) genetic screening and how to prevent inequity, (3) regulatory oversight and in a wider context the need to improve public confidence in biotechnology-related science, (4) other social issues. The ethical issues in nutrigenomics need clear and concise guidelines developed in accordance with the universally adopted declarations and ethical concern needs to be integrated in the scientific design. Efforts to improve the public awareness, public participation and consultation need to be made at the early stage of the development of nutrigenomics.

  15. Nutrition and Muscle in Cirrhosis. (United States)

    Anand, Anil C


    As the cirrhosis progresses, development of complication like ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma signify increasing risk of short term mortality. Malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) is yet other complications that negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Conventionally, these are not routinely looked for, because nutritional assessment can be a difficult especially if there is associated fluid retention and/or obesity. Patients with cirrhosis may have a combination of loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue, culminating in the condition of "sarcopenic obesity." Sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients has been associated with increased mortality, sepsis complications, hyperammonemia, overt hepatic encephalopathy, and increased length of stay after liver transplantation. Assessment of muscles with cross-sectional imaging studies has become an attractive index of nutritional status evaluation in cirrhosis, as sarcopenia, the major component of malnutrition, is primarily responsible for the adverse clinical consequences seen in patients with liver disease. Cirrhosis is a state of accelerated starvation, with increased gluconeogenesis that requires amino acid diversion from other metabolic functions. Protein homeostasis is disturbed in cirrhosis due to several factors such as hyperammonemia, hormonal, and cytokine abnormalities, physical inactivity and direct effects of ethanol and its metabolites. New approaches to manage sarcopenia are being evolved. Branched chain amino acid supplementation, Myostatin inhibitors, and mitochondrial protective agents are currently in various stages of evaluation in preclinical studies to prevent and reverse sarcopenia, in cirrhosis.

  16. [Nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease]. (United States)

    Machado, Jacqueline; Caram, Carmen Lucia Barreto; Frank, Andrea Abdala; Soares, Eliane de Abreu; Laks, Jerson


    To describe the nutritional status of elderly subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Subjects of both genders (n=40) diagnosed with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, participated in the study. Socioeconomic status, activities of daily life, anthropometric, clinical and dietary profiles were surveyed. Of the total, 65% were female. More than 70% were capable of accomplishing daily activities by themselves. Subjects were eutrophic with a statistically significant difference of the arm circumference between the mild and moderate groups. As for illnesses secondary to Alzheimer's, 52% of the elderly presented hypertension, followed by arthrosis type alterations (17%). The mean consumption of energy and macronutrients in the elderly classified as mild dementia was of 1645 kcal, distributed in 53.7% of carbohydrate, 17.5% of proteins or 0.9 g/kg and 28.8% of lipids. For those classified as moderate dementia it was of 1482 kcal, distributed in 59.3% of carbohydrate, 16.1% of proteins and 24.6% of lipids. In this descriptive study of elderly outpatients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease, most presented a nutritional status of eutrophy, with adequate dietary intake of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and vitamin C, but with low dietary intake of vitamin E.

  17. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure. (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P


    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  18. [Genetic approaches to nutrition personalization]. (United States)

    Baturin, A K; Sorokina, E Iu; Pogozheva, A V; Tutel'ian, V A


    The paper presents the results of studies conducted in recent years, which show that nutrients and bioactive food components, directly or indirectly regulate the functional activity of genes influencing gene transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. A definition of "nutrigenomics" - the science that emerged at the turn of nutrition and genetics, and studies the relationship of human nutrition with the characteristics of its genome in order to understand how food affects gene expression, and ultimately, on human health. It is shown that the cellular and molecular level, nutrients, first serving as a ligand, the receptors are transcription factors, and secondly, as a substrate or intermediate metabolites are incorporated into metabolic pathways whose products control the expression of genes and, thirdly, positive or negative effect on signaling pathways. We present results of their research, which characterize the rate of prevalence of polymorphisms of genes that are markers of risk for obesity. On the basis of domestic and foreign studies concluded that genetic markers can be used for the diagnosis and prognosis of alimentary-dependent diseases such as obesity, and as well as a predictor for the development of a personalized diet and forecast its performance.

  19. Nutritional assessment of children with cancer. (United States)

    Mosby, Terezie Tolar; Barr, Ronald D; Pencharz, Paul B


    Regardless of which parts of the world they live in, most children will develop and grow at a similar rate if proper nutrition is ensured. Children from developing countries are at risk for primary malnutrition. Children undergoing anticancer therapy are at higher risk for secondary malnutrition, including obesity and growth retardation. Periodic nutritional assessments are important for planning effective dietary interventions for such children. In this review, we describe malnutrition as it occurs in children with cancer and various ways of assessing the nutritional status of these children, depending on the availability of resources in their local hospitals. Objective and subjective data should be used to complete the nutritional assessment. We discuss screening methods, including the use of subjective global assessment. Different parts of nutritional assessment include medical history; physical examination; biochemical and hematological data, such as visceral proteins, blood glucose levels, and lipid profiles, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the lymphocyte count; anthropometric measurements; and food and nutrition history. We review medical tests and procedures to determine nutritional status, including nitrogen balance, delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, prognostic nutritional index, creatinine height index, maldigestion and malabsorption tests, indirect calorimetry, and dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA scan). Evaluation and interpretation of data and estimation of nutritional risk are discussed, including proper techniques and use of anthropometric measures, selection and use of growth charts, calculation of caloric and protein needs, and the percentage of calories ingested. These methods will enable local health care providers to accurately assess the nutritional status of children with cancer, identify children at risk, and plan adequate nutritional interventions.

  20. Mortality among critically ill patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a multicenter cohort study in Colombia Mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos con bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina: un estudio multicéntrico de cohortes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Castillo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bacteremia emergence, its prognosis, and mortality-determining factors in critically ill patients in Colombia. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in 2005-2008 at 16 public and private reference health care institutions in Bogotá, Colombia, that form part of a national epidemiological surveillance network and a hospital network with 4 469 beds. Methicillin-resistant emergence and mortality were analyzed using descriptive and time-to-event analysis; a multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was built to test the association between methicillin resistance and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 372 patients were studied: 186 with MRSA bacteremia, randomly matched with 186 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA bacteremia. Previous surgery, antibiotic exposure, and hospital-acquired infections were independently associated with methicillin resistance. MRSA caused longer hospital stays among survivors (median 24 versus 18 days, P = 0.014. Mortality predictors were: patient age, creatinine level over 1.21mg/dl at ICU admission, severe sepsis, and inotropic requirement. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy and antimicrobial therapy change were independent protective factors, as was male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Methicillin resistance per se was not a mortality-independent prognostic factor. Previous conditions, such as age, baseline renal impairment, severe sepsis, and inotropy demand explained the observed mortality. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy remained a protective factor. A call to improve infection control measures in Colombia is mandatory.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (MRSA, su pronóstico y los factores determinantes de la mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos en Colombia. M

  1. [Actively promote nutrition and health surveillance, achieve the national nutrition and health goals]. (United States)

    Ding, Gangqiang; Zhao, Wenhua; Chen, Junshi


    The results of Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2010-2012) showed that the anemia prevalence in China reduced significantly compared with 2002, and people's nutrition and health status have improved. Unbalanced diet still exist, such as low intake of vegetables and fruits, and high intake of salt. The serum total cholesterol level and the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and borderline high cholesterolemia were high among urban adults, and more attention should be paid for high serum total cholesterol level among older adults. These results are significant to the development of nutrition and health intervention strategy, carry out nutrition intervention and the achievement of national nutrition and health goals.

  2. Intervention in child nutrition : evaluation studies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.


    In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological

  3. Nutrition for Seniors: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... for Healthy Older Adults (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults (AGS Foundation for ... a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Meals on Wheels: Find a Meal (Meals on ...

  4. Nutrition in Transition: A Challenge to Cooperation and Coordination. (United States)

    Bray, George A.


    The role of the newly formed Nutrition Coordinating Committee of the Department of Health Education and Welfare, is discussed. The need for nutrition information for consumers is described as well as a need for definitions of nutritional terms. (SA)

  5. Diabetes Nutrition: Eating Out When You Have Diabetes (United States)

    Diabetes nutrition: Eating out when you have diabetes Diabetes nutrition — Make restaurant meals a healthy part of your diabetes meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you have diabetes, eating out while sticking to your nutrition plan has gotten ...

  6. Progress in Human Nutrition, Volume 1. (United States)

    Margen, Sheldon, Ed.

    In view of the international character of nutrition and interrelationships and meaning of food to all people, this annual series of open-ended books has been started to direct attention to the aspects of human nutrition in regard to the quality of life. It is believed the study of the action nutrients, their interrelationships, and their ingestion…

  7. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, a report of a. World Heatth Organisation Expert Committee, contains material contributed by numerous experts consulted in different specialised fields, together with the conClusions reached and recommendations made by the Expert. Consultation. The nineteen nutritionally ...

  8. Nutritional status of the Indian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    High prevalence of low birth weight, high morbidity and mortality in children and poor maternal nutrition of the ... In particular, maternal nutrition and fetal growth relationship, long term effects of early life .... Multiple regression analysis of the relationship of the frequency of maternal intakes of green leafy vegetables, fruits.

  9. The new nutrition science: sustainability and development. (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L


    To show that nutrition science is anchored in food systems and is influenced by the social, through the environmental to the cosmological, life's connections and rhythms. To indicate that an integrative approach is now becoming possible with advances in food technology, in the understanding of food choice and of human behaviour, and in a preparedness to recognise nutritional inputs in the full sweep of life-long well-being and health outcomes. An analysis of the much broader understanding of nutritionally related diseases from an ecological perspective, with attention to economic development, beginning with poverty alleviation. Recognition that the biological dimension of nutrition science is undergoing a profound reappraisal; that technologies will allow us to change the course of nutritionally related diseases for the better; and that nutrition science will find partners in information technology and telecommunications, food technology and energy technology. A new generation of nutrition scientists can help build a new economy that supports development amongst communities, whether close or distant from each other. The opportunities for this kind of development to be realised between Asia, Latin America and Africa are considerable. At all times, however, nutrition scientists must uphold the paramount importance of good governance, conflict resolution and maternal literacy if their work is to achieve its growing potential.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to assess the impact of dairy production on the nutritional status of preschool children aged between 24 and 59 months in Mumias Division, a predominantly sugarcane growing zone of Western Kenya was undertaken between 1997 and 1998. Nutritional status was assessed by taking height, weight and age of the ...

  11. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014


    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  12. Prevalence of nutrition associated ponderal outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 7.6%, respectively, in the urban subjects and 1.5%, 2.3% and 20.3%, respectively, in the rural subjects. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight among rural school children and adolescents is high, thus a need for nutritional intervention. Keywords: Ebonyi state, nutritional, obesity, overweight, South‑East Nigeria, ...

  13. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing malnutrition-related maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa requires a systematic and coordinated strategy. This paper discusses a health sector strategy which includes: i) advocating for action in nutrition at all levels; ii) integration of the essential nutrition actions into six key contact points ...

  15. Nutrition in children posttransplantation | Goddard | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition support is a vitally important issue in the pretransplantation period. Once a child has been assessed and placed on a list for transplantation the child must see a dietitian to optimise the child's nutritional status as this is vital to improve the outcome at surgery. Children with chronic liver disease who are candidates for ...

  16. Nutrition. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual. (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Definitions, advantages, and functions of nutrition are the starting point for this food service training manual, which includes lessons on proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins. Energy foods for child nutrition programs are also identified, as are balanced diets and meal pattern guidelines. Class activities,…

  17. A Synergetic Linkage between Agricultural Productivity, Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of health and nutrition on labour productivity of farmers in South-western Nigeria. Within this geo-political zone of the country, primary data was collected through a field survey of 470 rural farmers. Descriptive statistics, Anthropometric measures of nutrition (BMI and DDS) and the Tobit model ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nutritive Value and Phytochemical Composition of Solanum incanum. NUTRITIVE VALUE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ... Proximate analysis: The recommended method of association of analytical chemists (AOAC, 1990) was ... The result of proximate composition from the present study revealed that heat treatment reduces ...

  19. Nutritional assessment in children with cystic fibrosis (United States)

    Optimal nutrition, including consuming 35–40% of calories (kcal) as fat, is a vital part of the management of cystic fibrosis (CF), and involves accurate assessment of dietary intake. We compared 3 methods of nutritional assessment in 8– to 14-year-old children (n=20) with CF: 1) a 24-h Dietary Reca...

  20. Using genetic variation to optimize nutritional preemption. (United States)

    Gillies, Peter J; Krul, Elaine S


    One of the promises of nutritional genomics is a set of dietary recommendations that leverage our understanding of nutrient-gene interaction in the preemptive dietary management of complex chronic diseases. Whether nutritional genomics can deliver on this promise is a matter of debate and controversy. Although nutritional genomics is often viewed as an extension of pharmacogenomics, the pharmacogenomics paradigm is a disease-centric reductionistic model that overshadows both the complexities and opportunities to be leveraged in preemptive nutritional pharmacology. Moreover, the pharmacogenomics model tends to set clinical expectations that nutritional genomics may not be able to achieve. The biological boundaries of nutritional pharmacology are being tested in many areas of preventive medicine such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this regard, the lessons learned in one disease may be germane to the other. Recent results from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP), the Norwegian Vitamin (NORVIT), and the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 trials underscore the incertitude of translating epidemiologic data into preemptive nutritional guidance. Moving ahead, the genetic determinism of the nutrigenomic model needs to take on a more holistic and phenotypic focus. To the extent this can be done, preemptive nutrition may one day become a safe and practical reality.