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Sample records for energy-efficient light scooter

  1. Energy-efficient light scooter; Energieeffizienter Leicht-Scooter im Gewichtsbereich eines Mofa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, A.

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of feasibility study on the development of an energy-efficient lightweight scooter. The report looks at the low energy consumption and low CO{sub 2} emissions of ultra-lightweight vehicles and presents a market analysis. The state-of-the-art of electrically-powered two-wheel vehicles is reviewed. Further topics include technical feasibility, drive-system components and battery-management systems. Safety considerations and economical feasibility are examined, as are functional requirements. A vision for a ultra-lightweight scooter is presented and industrial production aspects are reviewed.

  2. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... illuminance uniformity . There is still work to be done on the prototype to optimize the energy consumption of the task light and measures need to be taken to minimize glare from the task light as well as reflected glare . The lamp head adjustment possibilities regarding tilting and turning result in problems...... to all objects on the desk than the two traditional reference task lights with LED retrofit light bulbs . By utilising this new type of task light, the energy consumption by general lighting can be reduced by approximately 40 % by fully exploiting the lower illuminance levels required by lighting...

  3. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  4. Energy efficient lighting in the retail sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Good Practice Guide gives details on how energy efficient lighting can be incorporated in the brief for a lighting consultant or contractor. The advantages of energy efficiency are highlighted, and the lighting of retail stores, the introduction of energy efficiency measures, and the application of good practice are discussed. Case studies of W H Smith, Cambridge, Tesco Stores, Boots plc, the Harvey Centre, Harlow, and the National Westminster Bank plc are presented. A guide for senior executives and specialists in lighting design is also included. (UK)

  5. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  6. Energy efficient lighting and communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Kavehrad, M.; Deng, P.

    2012-01-01

    As Light-Emitting Diode (LED)'s increasingly displace incandescent lighting over the next few years, general applications of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology are expected to include wireless internet access, vehicle-to-vehicle communications, broadcast from LED signage, and machine-to-machine communications. An objective in this paper is to reveal the influence of system parameters on the power distribution and communication quality, in a general plural sources VLC system. It is demonstrated that sources' Half-Power Angles (HPA), receivers' Field-Of Views (FOV), sources layout and the power distribution among sources are significant impact factors. Based on our findings, we developed a method to adaptively change working status of each LED respectively according to users' locations. The program minimizes total power emitted while simultaneously ensuring sufficient light intensity and communication quality for each user. The paper also compares Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and On-Off Keying (OOK) signals performance in indoor optical wireless communications. The simulation is carried out for different locations where different impulse response distortions are experienced. OFDM seems a better choice than prevalent OOK for indoor VLC due to its high resistance to multi-path effect and delay spread. However, the peak-to-average power limitations of the method must be investigated for lighting LEDs.

  7. Energy efficient lighting for the biological clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Unexpectedly the existence of a formerly unknown type of photoreceptor in the human eye has been proven about 10 years ago. Primarily sensitive in the blue spectral range it is responsible for transducing light signals directly into the brain, controlling essential biological functions like setting of the circadian clock or daytime activation. Recent scientific research has enabled beneficial applications. The paradigms for good lighting design are shifting and standardization activities have been started to build up a sound base for description and application of biologically effective lighting. Latest improvements of LED technology are now allowing realizeation of advanced lighting solutions based on SSL. Optimization of biological effects is possible while demands on good vision are maintained. As biologically effective lighting is addressing a second system besides vision in the human body a measure beyond lumen per watt is required for a proper description of energy efficiency.

  8. Energy Efficient LED Spectrally Matched Smart Lighting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research has teamed with the University of Southern Mississippi to develop a novel energy efficient smart light system. Smart lighting adds an...

  9. Energy Efficient LED Spectrally Matched Smart Lighting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research and the University of Houston Clear Lake have teamed to develop a widely extensible, affordable, energy efficient, smart lighting...

  10. Green Lighting. Energy-efficient integrated lighting systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, F.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the Green Lighting project was to develop a High Performance Integrated Lighting System, based on advanced technologies for day- and electric lighting, achieving a Lighting Power Density (LPD) that does not exceed 3 W/m{sup 2}. The project has revealed that Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are an ideal basis for High Performance Integrated Lighting Systems. Not only are they able to provide adequate illumination (i.e. sufficiently high illuminance) in office rooms during large fractions of normal office hours, under various sky conditions and over the entire year, but they are also highly appreciated by office occupants at the condition that glare control mechanisms are available. Complementary electric lighting is, however, still necessary to back up the ADS at times when there is insufficient daylight flux available. It was shown during this project, that the most interesting trade-offs between energy-efficiency and visual comfort are obtained by using a combination of ceiling-mounted directly emitting luminaires with very high optical efficiencies for ambient lighting and portable desk lamps for temporary task lighting. The most appropriate lamps for the ceiling-mounted luminaires are currently highly efficient fluorescent tubes, but white LED tubes can be considered a realistic option for the future. The most suitable light sources for desk lamps for temporary task lighting are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and white LED light bulbs. Based on the above-mentioned technologies, a High Performance Integrated Lighting System with a very low LPD has been developed over the last three years. The system has been set up in an office room of the LESO solar experimental building located on the EPFL campus; it has been tested intensively during a Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) study involving twenty human subjects. This study has revealed that the subjects' performance and subjective visual comfort was improved by the new system, compared to

  11. Assessment of photobiological safety of energy-efficiency urban lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Stanisław Pierzchała

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exceeding the safe threshold for exposure on high energy radiation (UV and blue light could cause the emergence of a number of diseases. Eyesight is particularly sensitive to excessive lighting. This paper presents the laboratory research on the assessment of the photobiological risk generated by the energy-efficiency urban lighting. The results show that LED lighting systems can be a source of radiation that significantly negatively affects the eyesight and could contribute to circadian rhythm disorders.

  12. Energy efficiency of lighting installations: Software application and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Lobão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of energy and energy-efficient environmental public street lighting is an important topic. In the design of new public lighting installations, national regulations containing energy-efficient guidelines are already used. Nevertheless, either in new installations or in reconstructions of existing lighting, designers do not generally consider all the available means to save energy. In installations of street lighting, energy consumption can be reduced by reducing the losses in the conductors, associated with the efficiency of the equipment, allowing better use of the available energy. The losses in the conductors must be analysed in conjunction with all the loads that contribute to the current in the sections of the installed street lighting. When opting for more efficient lamps and luminaires or lighting control systems, the current decreases in the sections covered with the most significant power loss due to proportionality with the square of the current. This decrease, often forgotten, is considered in this work in the investment analysis of efficiency and sustainable street lighting via simulation and experimental results. This analysis, combined with the features and operating parameters of the electrical installation, accounts for all the gains that can make a difference in the choice of efficient street lighting.

  13. Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka); Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Ranasinghe, S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings. (Author)

  14. Membrane systems for energy efficient separation of light gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Archuleta, T.; Barbero, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ethylene and propylene are two of the largest commodity chemicals in the United States and are major building blocks for the petrochemicals industry. These olefins are separated currently by cryogenic distillation which demands extremely low temperatures and high pressures. Over 75 billion pounds of ethylene and propylene are distilled annually in the US at an estimated energy requirement of 400 trillion BTU`s. Non-domestic olefin producers are rapidly constructing state-of-the-art plants. These energy-efficient plants are competing with an aging United States olefins industry in which 75% of the olefins producers are practicing technology that is over twenty years old. New separation opportunities are therefore needed to continually reduce energy consumption and remain competitive. Amoco has been a leader in incorporating new separation technology into its olefins facilities and has been aggressively pursuing non-cryogenic alternatives to light gas separations. The largest area for energy reduction is the cryogenic isolation of the product hydrocarbons from the reaction by-products, methane and hydrogen. This separation requires temperatures as low as {minus}150{degrees}F and pressures exceeding 450 psig. This CRADA will focus on developing a capillary condensation process to separate olefinic mixtures from light gas byproducts at temperatures that approach ambient conditions and at pressures less than 250 psig; this technology breakthrough will result in substantial energy savings. The key technical hurdle in the development of this novel separation concept is the precise control of the pore structure of membrane materials. These materials must contain specially-shaped channels in the 20-40A range to provide the driving force necessary to remove the condensed hydrocarbon products. In this project, Amoco is the technology end-user and provides the commercialization opportunity and engineering support.

  15. The impact of clerestory lights on energy efficiency of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenadić Dalibor M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings are among major energy consumers, whose energy efficiency is rather low. Clerestory windows are responsible for a large portion of energy losses from the buildings. The energy efficiency of buildings can greatly be improved by upgrading clerestory and other windows. This paper focuses on the theoretical and experimental investigations on how this can be performed in an old school building in the town of Bor in eastern part of Serbia. For that purpose a modern measuring technique has been applied to identify the existing status, and to compare theoretical and actual conditions.

  16. Next Generation Luminaires: Recognizing Innovative, Energy-Efficient Commercial Lighting Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Fact sheet that describes the Next Generation Luminaires SSL lighting design competition, which recognizes excellence in technical innovation and design of high-quality, energy-efficient commercial lighting, both indoor and outdoor.

  17. Energy efficiency and colour quality improvement and subjective preference of LED office lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Baniya, Rupak Raj

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to explore different approaches to improve energy efficiency and colour quality, and to find out the subjective preference of LED office lighting. Four approaches (optimization of LED spectra, lighting retrofitting, hue-heat hypothesis, and smart indoor lighting control) were studied for energy efficiency and colour quality improvement. Two experiments, one in lighting booths and the other in an office room, were conducted to examine subjective preferences. ...

  18. Energy efficient lighting design for Venlo type greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Zonneveldt, L.; Sools, F.

    2005-01-01

    TNO has developed a Radiance software model to calculate the light distribution in the greenhouse using raytracing methods, suitable for daylight and artificial lighting. The model is based on a 3d CAD model. The objective is to maximize the efficiency of the artificial lighting system (the amount

  19. Energy efficient lighting design for Venlo type greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.; Zonneveldt, L.; Sools, F.

    2006-01-01

    TNO has developed a Radiance software model to calculate the light distribution in the greenhouse using raytracing methods, suitable for daylight and artificial lighting. The model is based on a 3D CAD (Computer aided design) model. The objective is to maximize the efficiency of the artificial

  20. National award for energy-efficient town lighting. Compilation of energy-efficient town lighting techniques; Bundeswettbewerb Energieeffiziente Stadtbeleuchtung. Sammlung energieeffizienter Techniken fuer die Stadtbeleuchtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piller, Sabine; Huebner, Vanessa; Barbre, Felix; Schaefer, Moritz [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-11

    The national award for innovative urban lighting was initiated by the Federal Environmental Office. The resulting publication presents innovative techniques for urban lighting. While it is not a complete market survey, it provides an outline of modern, energy-efficient and environment-friendly technologies that are commercially available. Most systems are also available at comparatively low cost. For more information, interested users should refer to http://www.bmu.de/klimaschutzinitiative/aktuell/41708.php. (orig./AKB)

  1. Replacement of Lighting Fixtures with LED Energy Efficient Lights at the Parking Facility, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Brien

    2012-06-21

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC or Tribe) owns a six-story parking facility adjacent to its Potawatomi Bingo Casino (the Casino) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as well as a valet parking facility under the Casino (collectively, the Parking Facility). The Parking Facility contained 205-watt metal halide-type lights that, for security reasons, operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Starting on August 30, 2010, the Tribe replaced these fixtures with 1,760 state-of-the-art, energy efficient 55-Watt LED lights. This project resulted in an immediate average reduction in monthly peak demand of 238 kW over the fourth quarter of 2010. The average reduction in monthly peak demand from October 1 through December 31, 2010 translates into a forecast annual electrical energy reduction of approximately 1,995,000 kWh or 47.3% of the pre-project demand. This project was technically effective, economically feasible, and beneficial to the public not only in terms of long term energy efficiency and associated emissions reductions, but also in the short-term jobs provided for the S.E. Wisconsin region. The project was implemented, from approval by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to completion, in less than 6 months. The project utilized off-the-shelf proven technologies that were fabricated locally and installed by local trade contractors.

  2. Energy efficient lighting in the residences of staff of the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that 15% of electric power production is used for lighting consumption in Ghana. This figure is likely to increase as the country develops. There is no doubt therefore, that improving the energy efficiency of lighting in Ghana could have a great impact on Ghana's energy consumption, and subsequently, on the ...

  3. Joint Power and Beam Angle Control for Energy Efficiency in Lighting Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Din

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an energy-efficient utilization in lighting control systems (LCS. A joint power and beam angle control in LCS is proposed that reduces energy consumption while satisfying the user’s lighting requirements. A problem to find the optimal pair of power and the beam angle of luminaries is formulated and an algorithm to find the optimal solution is suggested. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves considerable improvement in energy savings compared to conventional lighting energy saving scheme which does not consider the beam angle control.

  4. High Performance and Energy Efficient Traffic Light Controller Design Using FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Sujeet; Shrivastav, Vivek Kumar; Sharma, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Verilog is used as hardware description language for implementation of traffic light controller. It shows Red, Green and Yellow color at a predefined interval. Technology scaling is used as energy efficient technique. We have used 90nm, 65nm, 40nm and 28nm technology based FPGA...... and then we have analyzed power consumption for traffic light controller on different FPGA. Leakage power is in range of 97.5-99% of total power consumption by traffic light controller on Virtex-7 FPGA. Signal power, clock power and IOs power are almost negligible. Power dissipation is measured on XPOWER...

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. New rules of thumb maximizing energy efficiency in street lighting with discharge lamps: The general equations for lighting design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-García, A.; Gómez-Lorente, D.; Espín, A.; Rabaza, O.

    2016-06-01

    New relationships between energy efficiency, illuminance uniformity, spacing and mounting height in public lighting installations were derived from the analysis of a large sample of outputs generated with a widely used software application for lighting design. These new relationships greatly facilitate the calculation of basic lighting installation parameters. The results obtained are also based on maximal energy efficiency and illuminance uniformity as a premise, which are not included in more conventional methods. However, these factors are crucial since they ensure the sustainability of the installations. This research formulated, applied and analysed these new equations. The results of this study highlight their usefulness in rapid planning and urban planning in developing countries or areas affected by natural disasters where engineering facilities and computer applications for this purpose are often unavailable.

  8. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  9. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  10. An empirical study on energy efficiency improvement through photovoltaic systems and a LED lighting control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Kwan; Lee, Jae Hyeong

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a facility was constructed and its performance was analyzed to improve the energy efficiency of a vertical-type water treatment building. After the design and construction of a fixed tilt Photovoltaic in Building (PVIB) on the rooftop using a crystalline silicon solar cell module and photovoltaic generator integrated with the building by using a Building Integrated Photovoltaic System (BIPV), a thin-film module on the rooftop and outer wall of water treatment building, and the generation efficiency was analyzed. Also, a DC distribution was established for use of a brushless DC (BLDC) pump motor, and the existing lighting-facility-based manual on-off method was turned into a system for energy conservation by controlling light emitting diode (LED) through a wireless motion sensor and dimming control. In addition, a Building Energy Management System (BEMS) for a real-time analysis of the energy efficiency for a vertical0type water treatment building was prepared and tested. The vertical-type water treatment building developed in this study is currently operating the BEMS. The vertical-type water treatment building reported in this paper is expected to reduce energy consumption by about 30% compared to existing water treatment systems.

  11. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Obraztsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electron beams without energy consumption. The nano-graphite film material was produced by using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Prototypes of cathodoluminescent lamp devices with a construction optimized for the usage of nano-graphite cold cathodes were developed, manufactured and tested. The results indicate prospective advantages of this type of lamp and the possibility to provide advanced power efficiency as well as enhanced spectral and other characteristics.

  12. Does lighting fit in an energy efficient cultivation of peppers?; Past belichting in een energiezuinige paprikateelt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Elings, A. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Esmeijer, M.H.; Houter, G. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, PPO Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    In 2004 the Wageningen University and Research Centre made an analysis of the cultivation strategy of three sweet pepper growers with low energy use, i.e. approximately 33 m{sup 3} gas per m{sup 2} annually. The main characteristics of their cultivation concept are that cultivation takes place at a relatively low temperature with limited humidity regulation and steady climate transitions. This research projects examined to what extent assimilation lighting can be fitted in this energy efficient concept for sweet pepper. For this purpose interviews were held with three energy efficient sweet pepper growers who don't use assimilation lighting and with growers using assimilation lighting. Next, calculations were made with a greenhouse climate model and a crop cultivation model. Finally, the results were discussed with a group of sweet pepper growers using assimilation lighting. (mk) [Dutch] In 2004 is door Wageningen UR een analyse gemaakt van de teeltstrategie van drie paprikatelers met een laag energiegebruik, circa 33 m{sup 3} gas per m{sup 2} per jaar. De belangrijkste karakteristieken van hun teeltconcept zijn dat geteeld wordt bij een relatief lage temperatuur, dat er weinig op vocht geregeld wordt en dat er rustige klimaatovergangen aangelegd worden. In dit onderzoeksproject is nagegaan in hoeverre belichting in te passen is in dit energiezuinige teeltconcept voor paprika. Hiervoor zijn interviews gehouden met drie energiezuinige onbelichtende paprikatelers en met belichtende telers. Vervolgens zijn er berekeningen gedaan met een kasklimaatmodel en een gewasgroeimodel. Tenslotte zijn de resultaten besproken met een groep belichtende paprikatelers.

  13. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  14. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  15. A SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT CONTROL OF SUPPLEMENTARY LIGHTING IN GREENHOUSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    of 2009 – 2010 showed 25 percent savings with no negative effect on plant quality. To accelerate the impact of our approach, we chose to use Software Product Line Engineering, as it enables a greater variety of related software tools to be created faster. We have created a web-based analysis tool, Dyna...... preserving production quality. This paper presents a novel approach addressing this issue. We use weather forecasts and electricity prices to compute cost- and energy-efficient supplementary light plans that achieve the required plant growth defined by the grower. Experiments performed during the winter...... of these two tools is described together with the lessons learned from using Software Product Line Engineering in the domain of greenhouse software development....

  16. Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siqi; Zhu, Xiaolong; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N Asger; Dong, Jianji; Ding, Yunhong

    2017-02-09

    Slow light has been widely utilized to obtain enhanced nonlinearities, enhanced spontaneous emissions and increased phase shifts owing to its ability to promote light-matter interactions. By incorporating a graphene on a slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguide, here we experimentally demonstrate an energy-efficient graphene microheater with a tuning efficiency of 1.07 nmmW-1 and power consumption per free spectral range of 3.99 mW. The rise and decay times (10-90%) are only 750 and 525 ns, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the fastest reported response times for microheaters in silicon photonics. The corresponding figure of merit of the device is 2.543 nW s, one order of magnitude better than results reported in previous studies. The influence of the length and shape of the graphene heater to the tuning efficiency is further investigated, providing valuable guidelines for enhancing the tuning efficiency of the graphene microheater.

  17. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-29

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds! But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost.

  18. ABS for scooters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischenich, B.

    2000-07-01

    The different performance requirements between passenger car, motorcycle and scooter anti-lock braking systems are described here. The function and design principle of the newly developed power assisted electro hydraulic brake system for scooters is described in detail. This development is characterised by the high level of functionality achieved despite the fact that due to cost and weight constraints, only one channel is anti-lock controlled. It is the first time a combined brake has been realised for this vehicle category. (orig.)

  19. Deployment methods of visible light communication lights for energy efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Muhammad Tabish; Imdad, Fatima; Kim, Soomi; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2016-10-01

    Indoor visible light communication (VLC) uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) to provide both illumination and data communication. The deployment of LED plays an important role in maintaining a steady optical power distribution over the reference receiving plane. Typical ways of luminaire deployment in offices and homes are not optimized for VLC. This paper investigates various configurations of LEDs for deploying them on the ceilings of offices and homes. The existing square array deployment of LEDs does not provide a full coverage on the receiving plane leaving dead spaces, which in turn affects the performance of the whole system. An optimized circular deployment scheme is proposed that considers both the position of the LED transmitters on the ceiling and the first reflections at each wall to yield more accurate results. Rectangular deployment and circular deployment are analyzed through simulation of the received optical power distribution, average outage area rate, and energy consumption. An optimization technique is developed to analyze the LED deployment schemes. It is clear from the results that the circular LED deployment provides a better performance than the square array grid LED deployment.

  20. Adult Scandinavians' use of powered scooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate user satisfaction with characteristics of powered scooters (scooters), frequency of use, and factors predicting daily scooter use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SAMPLE: Adult scooter users (n = 59) in Denmark and Norway, mean age 74.5 (standard deviation 12.3) years. METHODS...... in the service delivery process in order to support safe and frequent scooter use. Training of scooter skills should be considered in the service delivery process....

  1. Possibility of cost effective and energy efficient high-quality natural white light sources with new nano-phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Dilip K.; Olukunle, Olawole C.; Iorkyaa, Ahemen; Willoughby, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present results authors published initially on the white light emission with broad band (330-465 nm) excitation of the specially prepared nano-phosphor: Eu3+: ZnS which is capped with sodium methyl carboxylate and on pure red-light emission from the nano-phosphor when capped with alpha methyl acrylic acid and prepared in a different method. Then we discuss possible methods of future improvement of the white light emission from the nano-phosphor. We then present the cost effective and energy efficient method of obtaining highest quality natural white light sources using such nano-phosphor and blue or near UV blue light emitting diodes. The latter discussion includes the driving circuit for the white LED and powering the LED by concentrated solar photovoltaics for both lighting and waste heat energy storage for completely clean energy natural white lighting sources.

  2. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  3. Investigation of a scanning laser projector as an energy-efficient light source in plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murase, Haruhiko; Helm, van der Bob; Oke, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The energy costs for artificial lighting in plant factories are very high, but may be decreased by introducing more efficient light sources. Light absorption in plants takes place in the order of a femtosecond, while the chemical reactions for carbon fixation of 5 milliseconds are limiting the

  4. The African disability scooter: efficiency testing in paediatric amputees in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckles, Verona; McCahill, Jennifer L; Stebbins, Julie; Mkandawire, Nyengo; Church, John C T; Lavy, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The African Disability Scooter (ADS) was developed for lower limb amputees, to improve mobility and provide access to different terrains. The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of the ADS in Africa over different terrains. Eight subjects with a mean age of 12 years participated. Energy expenditure and speed were calculated over different terrains using the ADS, a prosthetic limb, and crutches. Repeated testing was completed on different days to assess learning effect. Speed was significantly faster with the ADS on a level surface compared to crutch walking. This difference was maintained when using the scooter on rough terrain. Oxygen cost was halved with the scooter on level ground compared to crutch walking. There were no significant differences in oxygen consumption or heart rate. There were significant differences in oxygen cost and speed between days using the scooter over level ground, suggesting the presence of a learning effect. This study demonstrates that the ADS is faster and more energy efficient than crutch walking in young individuals with amputations, and should be considered as an alternative to a prosthesis where this is not available. The presence of a learning effect suggests supervision and training is required when the scooter is first issued. Implications for Rehabilitation The African Disability Scooter: is faster than crutch walking in amputees; is more energy efficient than walking with crutches; supervised use is needed when learning to use the device; is a good alternative/adjunct for mobility.

  5. Solar PV Powered Energy Efficient LED Lighting System for a Class Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sathya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of Solar PV based LED lighting system suitable for a class room. The model of class room is created using DIALux 4.11and LED lighting system is provided inside the room for illumination. The design calculations of the lighting are done as per the IESNA (Illumination Engineering Society of North America standards. Based on the lighting load requirement, the number of solar panels and batteries required to generate and store the power is determined. To assess the performance of the lighting system, simulation is done and the photometric parameters are calculated from the observed values. In addition to the photometric parameters, the annual lighting energy required for illuminating the room is also estimated. The computed result has proved that the LED lighting system is suitable for residential indoor applications providing good visual clarity and comfort.

  6. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design

  7. EFFECT OF ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHT SOURCES ON READABILITY OF STUDENTS – AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATHYA P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of light sources on readability of students using psychophysical methods. Light sources such as Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL and Light Emitting Diode lamp (LED of same power rating were used in this research work because of their high lighting efficiency and uniformity of illuminance compared to that of Incandescent lamp (IL and florescent lamp (FL. A group of prospective students having normal vision, and abnormal vision like myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism were involved in the test process. Three types of test like Snellen visual acuity, Color contrast test and Readability test were conducted on student participants under different lighting conditions. Test results showed the visibility and color contrast sensitivity of the students were high in the LED illumination. The quantitative measure of readability under different circumstances showed that the lightness difference on text under different color combination and font size, affected their readability. The computed average results confirmed that the luminance and color contrast were improved in LED illumination and also proved a high readability measure in the experimentation. Both the results of psychophysical test were proven that LED lighting was the best lighting system suitable for color distinction and readability.

  8. Understanding energy efficient lighting as an outcome of dynamics of social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    2017-01-01

    - and professional practices, by presenting a historical account of particular spatio-temporal moments in the development of domestic lighting. The analysis unfolds how a number of lighting-related practices seem to have influenced each other and that these practices have been (re-) configured in particular ways due...... to certain social-political arrangements (such as breaks with dominant philosophical tendencies in lifestyles as well as lighting design), culturaldiscursive arrangements (such as emphasis on increasing energy demand vs. emphasis on decreasing energy demand), and material-economic arrangements (such...... and modifications of these wider practice-arrangements related to the provisioning and consumption of lighting. In doing so, this research extends the current field of social practice theoretical understandings of innovation and consumption dynamics....

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. B. Ganandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.

  10. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  11. Research on natural lighting in reading spaces of university libraries in Jinan under the perspective of energy-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zengzhang

    2017-11-01

    The natural lighting design in the reading spaces of university libraries not only influences physical and mental health of readers but also concerns the energy consumption of the libraries. The scientific and rational design of natural lighting is the key to the design of energy saving for physical environment of the reading space. The paper elaborates the present situation and existed problems of natural lighting in reading spaces of university libraries across Jinan region based on characteristics of light climate of Jinan region and concrete utilization of reading spaces in university libraries, and combining field measurement, survey, research and data analysis of reading spaces in Shandong Women’s University’s library. The paper, under the perspective of energy-efficiency, puts forward proposals to improve natural lighting in the reading spaces of university libraries from five aspects, such as adjustment of interior layout, optimization of outer windows design, employment of the reflector panel, design lighting windows on inner walls and utilization of adjustable sun shading facilities.

  12. Evaluation of energy efficiency in street lighting: model proposition considering climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Caruzzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impacts of climate variability on efficient electricity consumption in street lighting in Brazil. The Climate Demand Method (CDM was applied, and the energy savings achieved by Brazil’s National Efficient Street Lighting Program (ReLuz in 2005 were calculated, considering the monthly climatology of sunshine duration, disaggregated by county in Brazil. The total energy savings in street lighting in 2005 were estimated at 63 GWh/year or 1.39% higher than the value determined by ReLuz/Eletrobrás and there was a 15 MW reduction in demand in Brazil, considering the nearly 393,000 points in ReLuz served in 2005. The results indicate that, besides the difference in latitude, climate variability in different county increases the daily usage of street lighting up to 19%. Furthermore, Brazil’s large size means that seasonality patterns in energy savings are not homogeneous, and there is a correlation between the monthly variability in sunshine duration and the latitude of mesoregions. The CDM was also shown to be suitable for ranking mesoregions with the highest levels of energy saving lighting.

  13. Energy efficiency and color quality limits in artificial light sources emulating natural illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Wim; Llenas, Aleix; Quintero, Jesús M; Hunt, Charles E; Carreras, Josep

    2014-12-15

    We present in this work a calculation of the theoretical limits attainable for natural light emulation with regard to the joint optimization of the Luminous Efficacy of Radiation and color fidelity by using multiple reflectance spectra datasets, along with an implementation of a physical device that approaches these limits. A reduced visible spectrum of blackbody radiators is introduced and demonstrated which allows lamps designed to emulate natural light to operate with excellent color fidelity and higher efficiency as compared to full visible spectrum sources. It is shown that even though 3,000K and 5,500K blackbody sources have maximum efficacies of 21 lm/W and 89 lm/W, respectively, reduced-spectrum artificial light sources can exceed those values up to 363 lm/W and 313 lm/W, respectively, while retaining excellent color fidelity. Experimental demonstration approaching these values is accomplished through the design and implementation of a 12-channel light engine which emits arbitrarily-tunable spectra. The color fidelity of the designed spectra is assessed through Color Rendering Maps, showing that color fidelity is preserved uniformly over a large spectral reflectance dataset, unlike other approaches to generate white light.

  14. The health risks associated with energy efficient fluorescent, LEDs, and artificial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Allen

    2014-09-01

    With the phasing out of incandescent lamps in many countries, the introduction of new LED based light sources and luminaries sometimes raise the question of whether the spectral characteristics of the LED and other energy savings Fluorescent lights including the popular CFLs are suitable to replace the traditional incandescent lamps. These concerns are sometimes raised particularly for radiation emissions in the UV and Blue parts of the spectrum. This paper aims to address such concerns for the common `white light' sources typically used in household and other general lighting used in the work place. Recent studies have shown that women working the night shift have an increased probability of developing breast cancer. We like to report on the findings of many studies done by medical professionals, in particular the recent announcement of AMA in the US and many studies conducted in the UK, as well as the European community to increase public awareness on the long term health risks of the optical and opto-biological effects on the human health caused by artificial lighting.

  15. Non-disruptive regime changes-The case of competing energy efficient lighting trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Simone; Alkemade, Floortje

    2016-01-01

    Technologies within the same industry are expected to follow similar patterns of innovation, and when the dominant patterns change, this is often expected to have disruptive effects on the industry. However, the three most recent lighting technologies (fluorescent, compact fluorescent, and LED......) show different patterns of innovative activities despite similarities in the determinants of innovation; and we observed multiple technological regimes within the lighting industry. Furthermore, we observed changes in these innovative patterns without widespread disruptive effects. While FL and LED...... for policymakers in stimulating new technologies in industries with undesirable Mark II pattern through the influence of all the dimensions of the technological regimes....

  16. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  17. Energy Efficient Lighting in the Residences of Staff of the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    This in no small way contributes to a lot of wastage in terms of electricity consumption. There is therefore the need to find alternative ways of household lighting to conserve energy. An alternative lamp type called compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) is recommended. This lamp-type offers benefits in terms of energy cost-control.

  18. 76 FR 47178 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Lighting Systems (Luminaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... STAR test procedures reference industry test procedures for fluorescent, high-intensity discharge and... unit consisting of a fluorescent lamp or lamps, together with parts designed to distribute the light... for the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps determination arguing that ``industry believes that the...

  19. Special features of radio control link for energy efficient LED light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Aladov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal the special features of radio control link model in LR-WPAN under operating conditions of interference of the reflected and the line-of-sight component and to evaluate the radio link's range of positive light source control. The results of development and practical implementation of controlled spectrally tunable light emitting diode (LED light sources with ISM- and ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.04-based radio frequency transceivers are presented. A software application developed in LabVIEW simulation of a radio control link for light sources and used for evaluating the radio control link's range of various combinations of polarization of transmitting and receiving antennas has been discussed. It was established and experimentally verified that the received energy was able to be computed using the two-ray model: a line-of-sight ray and the reflected one. This approach is simpler as compared to cellular networks in which multiple reflections from various objects result in multi-path propagation without line-of-sight component.

  20. An Energy Efficient Lighting Design Strategy to Enhance Visual Comfort in Offices with Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amirkhani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A high luminance contrast between windows and surrounding surfaces can increase the risk of discomfort glare, which can diminish office workers’ satisfaction and productivity. Accordingly, it can lead to occupant interventions, such as drawing window blinds or increasing electric light levels, which are intended to enhance indoor visual comfort but counterproductively act to increase energy consumption. Increasing the luminance of the areas surrounding the windows using a supplementary lighting system, such as wall-washing with light emitting diode (LED linear luminaires, could reduce discomfort glare arising from windowed walls. This paper reports on the results of a study in a typical office room in Brisbane, Australia. The outcomes of this study indicate that creating a luminance contrast of between 11:1 and 12:1 on the window wall in an office room with a 45% window-to-exterior-wall ratio using a supplementary LED system leads to improved subjective assessments of window appearance. The results suggest that such an enhancement could significantly reduce discomfort glare from windows, as well as diminishing the likelihood of the users intending to turn on the ceiling lights or to move the blinds.

  1. Metasurface integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Xu, Fuyang; Lin, Yu; Cao, Bing; Chen, Linghua; Wang, Chinhua; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2017-07-06

    We proposed and demonstrated an integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN green LED grown on (0001) oriented sapphire with combined metasurface polarizing converter and polarizer system. It is different from those conventional polarized light emissions generated with plasmonic metallic grating in which at least 50% high energy loss occurs inherently due to high reflection of the transverse electric (TE) component of an electric field. A reflecting metasurface, with a two dimensional elliptic metal cylinder array (EMCA) that functions as a half-wave plate, was integrated at the bottom of a LED such that the back-reflected TE component, that is otherwise lost by a dielectric/metal bi-layered wire grids (DMBiWG) polarizer on the top emitting surface of the LED, can be converted to desired transverse magnetic (TM) polarized emission after reflecting from the metasurface. This significantly enhances the polarized light emission efficiency. Experimental results show that extraction efficiency of the polarized emission can be increased by 40% on average in a wide angle of ±60° compared to that with the naked bottom of sapphire substrate, or 20% compared to reflecting Al film on the bottom of a sapphire substrate. An extinction ratio (ER) of average value 20 dB within an angle of ±60° can be simultaneously obtained directly from an InGaN/GaN LED. Our results show the possibility of simultaneously achieving a high degree of polarization and high polarization extraction efficiency at the integrated device level. This advances the field of GaN LED toward energy efficiency, multi-functional applications in illumination, display, medicine, and light manipulation.

  2. Innovative, energy-efficient lighting for New York state roadways : opportunities for incorporating mesopic visibility considerations into roadway lighting practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The present report outlines activities undertaken to assess the potential for implementing research on visibility at mesopic light levels into lighting practices for roadways in New York State. Through measurements of light levels at several roadway ...

  3. Science-based design of stable quantum dots for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohwer, Lauren E. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    II-VI quantum dots, such as CdSe and CdTe, are attractive as downconversion materials for solid-state lighting, because of their narrow linewidth, tunable emission. However, for these materials to have acceptable quantum yields (QYs) requires that they be coated with a II-VI shell material whose valence band offset serves to confine the hole to the core. Confinement prevents the hole from accessing surface traps that lead to nonradiative decay of the exciton. Examples of such hole-confined core/shell QDs include CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdS. Unfortunately, the shell can also cause problems due to lattice mismatch, which ranges from 4-6% for systems of interest. This lattice mismatch can create significant interface energies at the heterojunction and places the core under radial compression and the shell under tangential tension. At elevated temperatures (~240°C) interfacial diffusion can relax these stresses, as can surface reconstruction, which can expose the core, creating hole traps. But such high temperatures favor the hexagonal Wurtzite structure, which has lower QY than the cubic zinc blende structure, which can be synthesized at lower temperatures, ~140°C. In the absence of alloying the core/shell structure can become metastable, or even unstable, if the shell is too thick. This can cause result in an irregular shell or even island growth. But if the shell is too thin thermallyactivated transport of the hole to surface traps can occur. In our LDRD we have developed a fundamental atomistic modeling capability, based on Stillinger-Weber and Bond-Order potentials we developed for the entire II-VI class. These pseudo-potentials have enabled us to conduct large-scale atomistic simulations that have led to the computation of phase diagrams of II-VI QDs. These phase diagrams demonstrate that at elevated temperatures the zinc blende phase of CdTe with CdSe grown on it epitaxially becomes thermodynamically unstable due to alloying. This is accompanied by a loss of hole

  4. Energy efficiency: A proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendić Zoran R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of energy efficiency in Serbia is one of the priority tasks. Sector of electric lighting offers great opportunities for increasing energy efficiency due to the rapid development of LED technology. Nowadays LED lighting is still expensive and have relatively little application in the domain of electric lighting. However, it is anticipated that LED products would soon greatly transform the electric lighting market. In recent years, LED technology has significantly improved, and constantly evolving. It is expected that advanced and future LED bulbs / lamps to be getting cheaper and with a better technical characteristics and that they will soon be dominant on the lighting market. Serbia must prepare for the LED future, creating appropriate legislation and promotion of appropriate incentive measures.

  5. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  6. Increase of energy efficiency in horticultural tissue culture with high-power-LED lighting systems; Energieeffizienzsteigerung pflanzlicher In-vitro-Kulturverfahren mit Hochleistungs-LED-Belichtungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornwasser, Thorsten

    2011-07-01

    The lighting of tissue cultures is one of the main cost factors in growing rooms due to the high energy need. A lighting system with high-power light-emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) was tested as an alternative to the conventionally used fluorescent tubes. Therefore the HP-LED-types royal-blue, red, and cool white were used to create different spectral outputs. The photon flux yield, level of efficiency, and spectral shift of the single HP-LEDs were measured beforehand at different operating conditions (i.e. increasing current and junction temperature). The energy efficiency of the HP-LED lighting system was determined at 0.83 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} with the same shelf board distance (300 mm) and average PPFD on the exposed surface as compared to the control lighting system. The energy efficiency of the fluorescent lighting system could reach a maximum value of 0.68 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In addition to the reduced energy needs, HP-LED lighting systems reduce the need for cooling energy in culture rooms to regulate the room temperature. HP-LED lighting systems allow the reduction of the shelf board distance due to the small mass volume of LEDs and diminished radiant heat output towards the plant. The lower shelf board distance led to an additional increase of the energy efficiency up to 1.16 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} at a distance of 210 mm. Simultaneously the PPFD distribution was more regular than under the exposure with a fluorescent tube. Beside the increase of energy efficiency, HP-LEDs facilitate the control of the spectral composition. The spectral output can be adjusted to the plants' needs and thereby permit a more optimal production and influence the plant morphology (Nhut und Na, 2010; Morrow, 2008). Various plant tissue cultures and their response to different spectral compositions were investigated with the developed HP-LED lighting system. For none of the tested cultures could a preference for one of the spectral compositions be determined

  7. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  8. Can scooter emissions dominate urban organic aerosol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, Imad; Platt, Stephen; Huang, Ru-Jin; Zardini, Alessandro; Clairotte, Micheal; Pieber, Simone; Pfaffenberger, Lisa; Fuller, Steve; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay; Chirico, Roberto; Kalberer, Markus; Marchand, Nicolas; Dommen, Josef; Astorga, Covadonga; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    In urban areas, where the health impact of pollutants increases due to higher population density, traffic is a major source of ambient organic aerosol (OA). A significant fraction of OA from traffic is secondary, produced via the reaction of exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with atmospheric oxidants. Secondary OA (SOA) has not been systematically assessed for different vehicles and driving conditions and thus its relative importance compared to directly emitted, primary OA (POA) is unknown, hindering the design of effective vehicle emissions regulations. 2-stroke (2S) scooters are inexpensive and convenient and as such a popular means of transportation globally, particularly in Asia. European regulations for scooters are less stringent than for other vehicles and thus primary particulate emissions and SOA precursor VOCs from 2S engines are estimated to be much higher. Assessing the effects of scooters on public health requires consideration of both POA, and SOA production. Here, we quantify POA emission factors and potential SOA EFs from 2S scooters, and the effect of using aromatic free fuel instead of standard gasoline thereon. During the tests, Euro 1 and Euro 2 2S scooters were run in idle or simulated low power conditions. Emissions from a Euro 2 2S scooter were also sampled during regulatory driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Vehicle exhaust was introduced into smog chambers, where POA emission and SOA production were quantified using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. A high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to investigate volatile organic compounds and a suite of instruments was utilized to quantify CO, CO2, O3, NOX and total hydrocarbons. We show that the oxidation of VOCs in the exhaust emissions of 2S scooters produce significant SOA, exceeding by up to an order of magnitude POA emissions. By monitoring the decay of VOC precursors, we show that SOA formation from 2S scooter

  9. Energy Efficient Content Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo J.; Giroire F.; Liu Y; Modrzejewski R.; Moulierac J.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize energy efficiency in network, operators try to switch off as many network devices as possible. Recently, there is a trend to introduce content caches as an inherent capacity of network equipment, with the objective of improving the efficiency of content distribution and reducing network congestion. In this work, we study the impact of using in-network caches and CDN cooperation on an energy-efficient routing. We formulate this problem as Energy Efficient Content Distribution. The ...

  10. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m -2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light - 8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 μmol m -2 s -1 and 48.4 mol m -2 d -1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m -2, 16.0 g m -2 d -1 and average seed production was 689 g m -2 and 7.9 g m -2 d -1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m -2 and 18.8 g m -2 d -1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m -2 and 13.3 g m -2 d -1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m -2 and 9.3 g m -2 d -1 vs. 566.5 g m -2 and 6.5 g m -2 d -1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m -2 d -1. Temperature regime was 28 ± 3 °C day/22 ± 4 °C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m -2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m -2 d -1 wet weight and 11.3 g m -2 d -1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol -1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol -1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol -1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but

  11. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Given new regulations, increased complexity in the market, and the general shift from CFLs to LEDs, this evaluation protocol was updated in 2017 to shift the focus of the protocols toward LEDs and away from CFLs and to resolve evaluation uncertainties affecting residential lighting incentive programs.

  12. Human-centered sensor-based Bayesian control: Increased energy efficiency and user satisfaction in commercial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Jessica Ann

    2007-12-01

    The need for sustainable, efficient energy systems is the motivation that drove this research, which targeted the design of an intelligent commercial lighting system. Lighting in commercial buildings consumes approximately 13% of all the electricity generated in the US. Advanced lighting controls1 intended for use in commercial office spaces have proven to save up to 45% in electricity consumption. However, they currently comprise only a fraction of the market share, resulting in a missed opportunity to conserve energy. The research goals driving this dissertation relate directly to barriers hindering widespread adoption---increase user satisfaction, and provide increased energy savings through more sophisticated control. To satisfy these goals an influence diagram was developed to perform daylighting actuation. This algorithm was designed to balance the potentially conflicting lighting preferences of building occupants, with the efficiency desires of building facilities management. A supervisory control policy was designed to implement load shedding under a demand response tariff. Such tariffs offer incentives for customers to reduce their consumption during periods of peak demand, trough price reductions. In developing the value function occupant user testing was conducted to determine that computer and paper tasks require different illuminance levels, and that user preferences are sufficiently consistent to attain statistical significance. Approximately ten facilities managers were also interviewed and surveyed to isolate their lighting preferences with respect to measures of lighting quality and energy savings. Results from both simulation and physical implementation and user testing indicate that the intelligent controller can increase occupant satisfaction, efficiency, cost savings, and management satisfaction, with respect to existing commercial daylighting systems. Several important contributions were realized by satisfying the research goals. A general

  13. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  14. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  15. Energy Efficient TCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    This paper describes the design of an energy-efficient transport protocol for mobile wireless communication. First we describe the metrics used to measure the energy efficiency of transport protocols. We identify several problem areas that prevent TCP/IP from reaching high levels of energy

  16. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  17. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency can be powerful tool for achieving sustainable economic development and most important for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution on national level. Unfortunately, energy efficiency is difficult to conceptualize and there is no single commonly accepted definition. Because of that, measurement of achieved energy efficiency and its impact on national or regional economy is very complicated. Gross Domestic Product (GDP is often used to assess financial effects of applied energy efficiency measures at the national and regional levels. The growth in energy consumption per capita leads to a similar growth in GDP, but it is desirable to provide for the fall of these values. The paper analyzes some standard indicators and the analysis has been applied to a very large sample ensuring reliability for conclusion purposes. National parameters for 128 countries in the world in 2007 were analyzed. In addition to that, parameters were analyzed in the last years for global regions and Serbia.

  20. What is energy efficient light?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    I forbindelse med et øget fokus på at nedbringe CO2 udledning og mindske klimaforandringer, har EU igangsat en reguleringsprocess for at effektivisere energiforbrugende og energirelaterede produkter. Dette gøres ved at stille mindstekrav til produkters energivirkningsgrad. En af produktgrupperne ...

  1. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  2. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  4. Solar-energy production and energy-efficient lighting: photovoltaic devices and white-light-emitting diodes using poly(2,7-fluorene), poly(2,7-carbazole), and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupré, Serge; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc T; Leclerc, Mario

    2010-02-23

    World energy needs grow each year. To address global warming and climate changes the search for renewable energy sources with limited greenhouse gas emissions and the development of energy-efficient lighting devices are underway. This Review reports recent progress made in the synthesis and characterization of conjugated polymers based on bridged phenylenes, namely, poly(2,7-fluorene)s, poly(2,7-carbazole)s, and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole)s, for applications in solar cells and white-light-emitting diodes. The main strategies and remaining challenges in the development of reliable and low-cost renewable sources of energy and energy-saving lighting devices are discussed.

  5. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  6. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... and combining best practices,PLEEC will develop a general model for energy efficiency and sustainable city planning. By connecting scientific excellence and innovative enterprises in the energy sector with ambitious and well‐organized cities, the project aims to reduce energy use in Europe in the near future...

  7. The experience of being a motorised mobility scooter user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomiatti, Ryan; Moir, Lois; Richmond, Janet; Millsteed, Jeannine

    2014-05-01

    To explore the individual experience of being a scooter user and the ways in which scooters impact the individual's community and social engagement, daily activities and enhances mobility. A qualitative, constructive framework utilising purposive sampling and a semi structured interview was used with 14 individuals. Questions were categorised according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework into the three areas of activities, participation and environmental factors. The three main themes identified through the research were knowledge, engagement and environments. Knowledge included a lack of concise information, and adequate trialling and training prior to purchase. Engagement consisted of participation and interaction demonstrating scooter use resulted in increased participation, role maintenance, choice, freedom and social interaction. Environments highlighted discrimination from the wider population and building design and barriers. The research demonstrated a strong positive impact on individual's engagement from using a scooter, while highlighting a lack of adequate knowledge about scooters, batteries, skill ability and design along with environmental challenges of discriminatory attitudes and physical barriers. The research indicates the need for pre-purchase assessments and trials along with improvements in community attitudes and environments. Development of a pre-purchase assessment including specific core skills for scooter use is of great importance to minimise accidents and death as a consequence of scooter driving. Education and training of prescribers and suppliers of scooters is important to match needs and skills to enable a better fit of scooter to user. Incorporation of adjustability of features within the standard design of scooters, including type of driving controls, seat height, and adjustment of distance to controls, will enable greater fit of scooter to the user s needs.

  8. PROBLEMS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCE STRATEGY AND THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Danilov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Data of energy saving politics strategy in the light of the principles of global energy safety system are presented. Theoretical base of energy efficiency and energy saving (integral energy – ecological analysis is worked out. The realization and efficiency results of action of energy saving by the example of Sverdlovsk Region are cited. Practical significance of main principle of energy efficiency economics – energy capacity reduction by Gross Returns increasing – is determined.

  9. Innovations in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Recent IEA analysis highlights member countries' significant progress with developing energy efficiency policy (International Energy Agency 2009). The 28 member countries of the IEA are engaged in promoting innovative financial instruments, energy efficiency strategies and action plans. They are designing policies to promote energy efficiency in buildings, the adoption of standby power, the phase out of inefficient lighting, proper tyre-inflation and related policies, and energy efficiency in utilities.

  10. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... to meet the required reduction in final energy consumption (goal for 2013) and in primary energy consumption (with goals in 2011 and 2020) as planned by parliament? Recommendations were made on how to improve and develop the portfolio using cost effectiveness as well as organisational clarity as criteria...

  11. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  12. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  13. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1

  14. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  15. Complex photonic structures for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiersma D. S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Photonic structures are playing an increasingly important role in energy efficiency. In particular, they can help to control the flow of light and improve the optical properties of photovoltaic solar cells. We will explain the physics of light transport in such structures with a special focus on disordered materials.

  16. Perfect roses and energy efficient cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, De A.

    2017-01-01

    How to grow roses with a constant quality year round in an energy efficient manner? That is the question for an applied research in which assimilation lighting, existing of HPS lamps and inter lighting LED, and cooling equipment and forced ventilation for semi-closed cultivation are combined. The

  17. Complex photonic structures for energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burresi, M.; Wiersma, D. S.

    2013-06-01

    Photonic structures are playing an increasingly important role in energy efficiency. In particular, they can help to control the flow of light and improve the optical properties of photovoltaic solar cells. We will explain the physics of light transport in such structures with a special focus on disordered materials.

  18. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  19. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  20. Motorcycle and scooter speeds approaching urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D; Buchanan, J

    2012-09-01

    Five urban, uncontrolled T-intersections known to be motorcycle crash 'black spots' were monitored using instrumentation and a roadside observer. Two sets of twelve-hour observations were collected for each site (N≈100,000). Instrumentation recorded the 'events' of vehicles passing to measure, speed, direction, lane position, vehicle type (broadly characterised) and headway. Observers further recorded times of bicycle events, type of motorcycle (scooters or motorcycles), the behaviour of motorcycles and the use of 'high conspicuity' gear such as clothing or helmets. Results establish that motorcycles travel around 10% faster than the other traffic (car mean speed=34.97 km/h), with motorcycles travelling on average 3.3 km/h faster than cars. Motorcycles were 3.4 times more likely to be exceeding the speed limit than cars. Similar results are described for scooters. Also examined are the influences on mean speeds such as the time of day, the presence of a car at the t-intersection, and the influence of free headway. The results are compared for robustness across locations and days. It is concluded that in urban areas motorcycles are travelling significantly faster than other traffic. These findings are discussed against a concern to reduce motorcycle crashes by improving conspicuity and previous research that implicates a 'looked-but-failed-to-see' effect for car drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  2. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  3. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Dan

    2014-04-09

    The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by Nunamiut Corporation in Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The upgrades mentioned will include lighting, heating system, insulation and smart control units designed to increase the energy efficiency of Village Corporation owned buildings.

  4. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries'...

  5. Mobility scooter driving ability in visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2017-03-21

    To investigate how well visually impaired individuals can learn to use mobility scooters and which parts of the driving task deserve special attention. A mobility scooter driving skill test was developed to compare driving skills (e.g. reverse driving, turning) between 48 visually impaired (very low visual acuity = 14, low visual acuity = 10, peripheral field defects = 11, multiple visual impairments = 13) and 37 normal-sighted controls without any prior experience with mobility scooters. Performance on this test was rated on a three-point scale. Furthermore, the number of extra repetitions on the different elements were noted. Results showed that visually impaired participants were able to gain sufficient driving skills to be able to use mobility scooters. Participants with visual field defects combined with low visual acuity showed most problems learning different skills and needed more training. Reverse driving and stopping seemed to be most difficult. The present findings suggest that visually impaired individuals are able to learn to drive mobility scooters. Mobility scooter allocators should be aware that these individuals might need more training on certain elements of the driving task. Implications for rehabilitation Visual impairments do not necessarily lead to an inability to acquire mobility scooter driving skills. Individuals with peripheral field defects (especially in combination with reduced visual acuity) need more driving ability training compared to normal-sighted people - especially to accomplish reversing. Individual assessment of visually impaired people is recommended, since participants in this study showed a wide variation in ability to learn driving a mobility scooter.

  6. Chapter 3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carlson, Stephen [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for energy savings resulting from programmatic installation of lighting control equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, government, institutional, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. When lighting controls are installed in conjunction with a lighting retrofit project, the lighting control savings must be calculated parametrically with the lighting retrofit project so savings are not double counted.

  7. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an architecture for wireless ATM and a novel MAC protocol that achieves a good energy efficiency of the wireless interface of the mobile and provides QoS support for diverse traffic

  8. Energy Efficiency Policy Developments: September 2011-September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member and key non-member countries over the period from September 2011 to September 2012. The report provides an overview of energy efficiency policy developments across the seven sectors covered by the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations (25 EEPR) – Cross-sectoral activities, Buildings, Appliances and Equipment, Lighting, Transport, Industry and Energy Providers.

  9. Chapter 2: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gowans, Dakers [Left Fork Energy, Harrison, NY (United States); Telarico, Chad [DNV GL, Mahwah, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-02

    The Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for gross energy savings resulting from the programmatic installation of efficient lighting equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. A separate Uniform Methods Project (UMP) protocol, Chapter 3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol, addresses methods for evaluating savings resulting from lighting control measures such as adding time clocks, tuning energy management system commands, and adding occupancy sensors.

  10. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  11. Energy efficiency in schools lighting systems: technical-economical assessment under thr consumer viewpoint; Eficiencia energetica em sistemas de iluminacao de estabelecimentos escolares: avaliacao tecnicoeconomica sob a otica do consumidor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naspolini, Helena F.; Camargo, C. Celso de Brasil [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Schwinden, Norma B.C.; Gomes, Max B. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. (CELESC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Golffeto, Rosania M. [Secretaria de Estado da Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Every nation, must balance their energy needs with environmental impacts and economic growth. The Brasilian Federal Government by means of law number 9991, of july, 24, 2000, regulated investments in Research, Development and Energy Efficiency made by electric utilities. Later, a South Brazilian utility, CELESC, subscribed with ANEEL, the Brazilian Regulatory Agency for Electric Energy, a permission agreement, so that CELESC could implement actions of R and D in Electric Power Systems and develop Energy Efficiency Programs. This paper then aims to describe actions taken by CELESC, a South Brazilian utility, in partnership with ANEEL, in order to replace incandescent by compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), and 2x40w fluorescent lamps with electromagnetic reactors by 2x32w fluorescent lamps with electronic reactors and aluminium reflector in 42 public schools in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Lighting programs tend to be relatively simple to design and implement while the costs tend also to be modest relative to other DSM programs. The paper shows the feasibility of the use of CFL lighting in public schools, the energy thus saved and the good cost-benefit results of the project . (author)

  12. La programación del mantenimiento del alumbrado viario y el impacto en su eficiencia energética; The road lighting maintenance schedule and the impact in their energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Omar Mockey Coureaux

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio acerca de la influencia de las acciones de mantenimiento en las instalaciones de alumbradoviario. Se abordan los aspectos relacionados con las causas de depreciación de estos sistemas y las acciones demantenimiento para su corrección. Se conceptualiza la eficiencia energética para el caso del alumbrado viario y semencionan todos los aspectos relacionados con ello. Los autores llaman la atención acerca de que frecuentementelos análisis para incrementar la eficiencia de estos sistemas de alumbrado solo se centran en las posibilidades decambio y mejoramiento de las lámparas, balastos, luminarias, así como las técnicas de regulación y control. En elartículo se hace énfasis en cómo a través del establecimiento del programa de mantenimiento que se defina sepuede impactar en la eficiencia energética desde la etapa de diseño y durante su explotación, resaltando laspotencialidades en esta vía poco estudiada hasta este momento.   A study about maintenance actions influences in road lighting efficiency is presented. The aspects related with thecauses of the luminous depreciation of road lighting systems and the maintenance actions are approached for theircorrection. The energy efficiency is conceptualized for the road lighting case and all the aspects can be impacted toincrease it are mentioned. The authors emphasis stands out that attention that usually the analyses to increase theefficiency of these systems is frequently focused only on the possibilities of change and improvement of the lamps,ballasts, luminaries and the control and regulation techniques to increase the efficiency of road lighting. The paperanalyses how through a maintenance schedule it can impact on the energy efficiency from the design stage andduring their exploitation, standing out the potentialities in this way little studied until this moment.

  13. The urban lighting in the rehabilitation of the minor historical centre. The design scenarios for the architectural valorisation and the energy efficiency improvement of the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi De Berardinis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the topic of lighting of the historical minor centres is taking a prominent role in the cultural debate on the urban recovery interventions, because of the development of a greater awareness of the regenerative potential role that a careful planning system of urban lighting can take in this context. The latter, which had a purely functional role in the past, has recently taken a figurative and emotional role, associated with the vision of the urban light scene during the night and its valorization. The study of light, therefore, has inevitably turned into an instrument of knowledge and critical interpretation of the urban spaces, aimed both to functional recovery of the lighting network technology, and the regeneration of the urban image and its night scenes. The needs that this sector should satisfy are multiple and, sometimes, conflicting: the need for road safety, the reduction of light pollution, the need for energy and cost savings. The research aims to define an operative methodology to deal with the light planning in complex contexts as the minor historical centers, in which the concept of transformation of the urban scene clashes directly with the concept of preserving the identity features of the places and its constructive values and materials. Among the goals, there is therefore the aim of highlighting the main gaps in the network, due both to plant engineering reasons and to the obsolescence of the existing lighting fixtures. We operatively work in the urban voids system field, as spaces that characterize the urban scene. Through the knowledge of their dominant features it is possible to preserve their identity and, at the same time, enhance their singularity, with a suitable lighting project, which requires the study of materials, colors and consumption. The purpose is to promote an urban development, able to produce positive economic, social and cultural effects, oriented to improve the quality of life, as well

  14. An electric scooter simulation program for training the driving skills of stroke patients with mobility problems: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, M.J.A.; Erren-Wolters, C. Victrorien; de Kort, Alexander C.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an electric scooter simulation program and a first evaluation study in which we explored if it is possible to train the driving skills of future users of electric mobility scooters by means of an electric scooter simulation program in addition to conventional electric scooter

  15. An Electric Scooter Simulation Program for Training the Driving Skills of Stroke Patients with Mobility Problems : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, M.J.A.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; De Kort, A.C.; Van der Kooij, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an electric scooter simulation program and a first evaluation study in which we explored if it is possible to train the driving skills of future users of electric mobility scooters by means of an electric scooter simulation program in addition to conventional electric scooter

  16. Energy efficiency for the removal of non-polar pollutants during ultraviolet irradiation, visible light photocatalysis and ozonation of a wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier; Gómez, María José; Herrera-López, Sonia; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy; Rosal, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to assess the removal of a set of non-polar pollutants in biologically treated wastewater using ozonation, ultraviolet (UV 254 nm low pressure mercury lamp) and visible light (Xe-arc lamp) irradiation as well as visible light photocatalysis using Ce-doped TiO2. The compounds tracked include UV filters, synthetic musks, herbicides, insecticides, antiseptics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Raw wastewater and treated samples were analyzed using stir-bar sorptive extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (SBSE-CG × GC-TOF-MS). Ozone treatment could remove most pollutants with a global efficiency of over 95% for 209 μM ozone dosage. UV irradiation reduced the total concentration of the sixteen pollutants tested by an average of 63% with high removal of the sunscreen 2-ethylhexyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), the synthetic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydronaphthalene (tonalide, AHTN) and several herbicides. Visible light Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis reached ~70% overall removal with particularly high efficiency for synthetic musks. In terms of power usage efficiency expressed as nmol kJ(-1), the results showed that ozonation was by far the most efficient process, ten-fold over Xe/Ce-TiO2 visible light photocatalysis, the latter being in turn considerably more efficient than UV irradiation. In all cases the efficiency decreased along the treatments due to the lower reaction rate at lower pollutant concentration. The use of photocatalysis greatly improved the efficiency of visible light irradiation. The collector area per order decreased from 9.14 ± 5.11 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for visible light irradiation to 0.16 ± 0.03 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis. The toxicity of treated wastewater was assessed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Ozonation reduced the toxicity of treated wastewater, while UV irradiation and visible light photocatalysis limited by 20-25% the algal growth due to

  17. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  18. The ELENA Programme in the Province of Chieti - A Public Private Partnership Best Practice Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings and Public Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Fecondo

    2015-09-01

    To date, the most relevant Project outcomes consist 87 municipalities involved, a structured database of energy audit and data about 144 buildings and about 46,000 public light points. Moreover, an effective engagement of public and private stakeholders, lays the foundation for a strong Energy Performance Contract framework able to leverage financing based on minimun guaranteed energy savings of 20% in respect to baseline values.

  19. E-Scooters - Research encourages market development and vice versa; E-Scooters: Forschung belebt Marktentwicklung - und umgekehrt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Urs Schwegler from the Swiss NewRide programme takes a look at the development of the market for electrically-driven bicycles and scooters and the market hindrances encountered. Various models including scooters, cross-country bikes and the novel Segway transporter are introduced and their advantages from the ecological point of view are examined. The E-Scooter programme is introduced and concepts for battery-charging stations are discussed. The results of test-days at various locations in Switzerland are examined. Four Action Programmes are introduced. The various actors involved and market development aspects are discussed, as are reliability, charging, promotional measures as well as energy and environmental aspects.

  20. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  1. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  2. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  3. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  4. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  5. Energy-efficient wireless communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter we present an energy-efficient highly adaptive network interface architecture and a novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for diverse traffic types. Due to the dynamic nature of wireless networks, adaptations in bandwidth

  6. Regional reserves of energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aleksandrovich Bayev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of peculiarities of power consumption and energy efficiency of the Russian regions. The level of energy efficiency in Russia compared with other countries of the world is analyzed. The indicators of energy consumption and industrial structure of the regions are compared. The dependence of the electricity consumption in the regions and the gross regional product per capita is studied. Based on the made analysis, the map of electricity consumption in the regions demonstrating the high level of differentiation of Russian regions on a level of energy efficiency is formulated. The authors have suggested the recommendations on the selection of priority directions of implementation of energy conservation policy for the subjects of the Russian Federation. On the example of the Chelyabinsk region, the features of realization of the regional program on energy efficiency are considered. The ways of its improvement on the basis of developed are offered by the authors of the matrix electricity consumption. Research results have practical significance and can be used to improve existing regional energy saving programs for individual sectors of the regional economy, and for the regions in general

  7. The casualties from electric bike and motorized scooter road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Israel Trauma Group; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-04-03

    The objective of this study was to describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in e-bike and motorized scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided by different road user groups: riders and pedestrians. This was a retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an e-bike or motorized scooter were included. The type of hospitalized road user was further categorized and described by different variables. During the study period, the Israel Trauma Registry identified 795 hospitalized patients due to an e-bike or motorized scooter accident, with a dramatic 6-fold increase from 2013 to 2015. Although the majority of the injured patients were riders, 8% were pedestrians. Among the total casualties, 33% were children aged 0-14 years and among pedestrians 42% were children and 33% were seniors (ages 60+). Five persons died in hospital, 3 riders and 2 pedestrians. E-bike and motorized scooter riders represent the majority of patients hospitalized due to related traffic incident. This finding questions the social and economic advantages of electric-powered 2-wheeled vehicles.

  8. Scooter Leasing : A Cradle-to-Cradle Sound Strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, F.H.J.; De Brito, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the application of the Cradle-to-Cradle approach to the electric scooter vehicle, and how the concept of leasing can be used as a means to make it operational. This research is a result of a research project with Eco-Movement, a Dutch firm currently selling electric

  9. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amy [Ad Council, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  10. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    policy design. The paper also discusses the “rebound effect”, which can imply that energy efficiency measures produce less energy savings than expected, but should be reconsidered in light of the variety of other benefits which are generated.

  11. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  12. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  13. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  14. Benchmarks for industrial energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kumana, J.D. [Linnhoff March, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shah, J.V. [Electric Power Research Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemicals and Petroleum Center

    1996-12-31

    What are the standards for improving energy efficiency for industries such as petroleum refining, chemicals, and glass manufacture? How can different industries in emerging markets and developing accelerate the pace of improvements? This paper discusses several case studies and experiences relating to this subject emphasizing the use of energy efficiency benchmarks. Two important benchmarks are discussed. The first is based on a track record of outstanding performers in the related industry segment; the second benchmark is based on site specific factors. Using energy use reduction targets or benchmarks, projects have been implemented in Mexico, Poland, India, Venezuela, Brazil, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa and Russia. Improvements identified through these projects include a variety of recommendations. The use of oxy-fuel and electric furnaces in the glass industry in Poland; reconfiguration of process heat recovery systems for refineries in China, Malaysia, and Russia; recycling and reuse of process wastewater in Republic of South Africa; cogeneration plant in Venezuela. The paper will discuss three case studies of efforts undertaken in emerging market countries to improve energy efficiency.

  15. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Cutter Energy Efficient Lighting: Cost Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    11 Figure 4. This particular fluorescent lamp has...particular fluorescent lamp has more power in the short wavelength of the visible spectrum (below 450 nanometers) than the incandescent lamp shown above

  17. Progress with Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies in the G8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    At the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, leaders reaffirmed the critical role improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic objectives. They went even farther than in previous Summits and committed to maximising implementation of the 25 IEA energy efficiency recommendations prepared for the G8. The imperative to enhance energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. To support governments with their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of a broad range of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 Summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations from these Summits covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and power utilities. If governments want to significantly improve energy efficiency, the IEA considers that no single policy implemented in isolation will be effective at achieving this aim. The IEA Secretariat recommends that governments implement a full set of appropriate measures. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save around 8.2 GtCO2/yr by 2030 -- equivalent to twice the EU's yearly emissions. This report evaluates the progress of the G8 countries in implementing energy efficiency policy, including the 25 G8/IEA recommendations. Information in this report is current up to 31 March 2009.

  18. Energy efficiency in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jumira, Oswald

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed

  19. Energy efficient and healthy buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica [AaF Process (Sweden); Oefverholm, Egil [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Bengtsson, Magnus; Tolstoy, Nikolaj [National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Indoor environment has become an important subject matter in Scandinavia since increasingly many buildings demonstrate poor indoor air quality, problems with mould and other sick building syndromes. There are worries that the malignity is derived from tighter constructions and more sparse ventilation since problems have been escalating contemporary to better energy efficiency in the building stock. Based on this possible linkage, Sweden has decided to include also indoor environment aspects in the implementation of the directive on energy declaration of buildings. By the same token, a co-operation between the Swedish Energy Agency and the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is underway where more than 100 schools are investigated regarding their energy usage patterns as well as their indoor environment status. Results from this inventory will be elaborated in this paper. The hypothesis for the investigation is that it is quite possible to demonstrate energy efficient and healthy buildings, and therefore results will give no significant statistical linkage between poor indoor quality and low specific energy use. Preliminary findings underpin this assumption. The paper will discuss the factors and their statistical interaction in more detail, and a discussion will be held on what other reasons there can be behind the sick buildings.

  20. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P

    2013-06-04

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond.

  1. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266

  2. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload challenges...

  3. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  4. Global status report on energy efficiency 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Breevoort, P.; Roes, A.L.; Coenraads, R.; Müller, N.

    2008-01-01

    There is wide agreement that energy efficiency improvement is one of the key strategies to achieve greater sustainability of the energy system. In the past, the contribution of energy efficiency has already been considerable.Without the energy efficiency improvements achieved since the 1970s,

  5. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  6. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  7. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  8. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  9. Energy efficiency networks; Energieeffizienz-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Anna [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH (FfE GmbH), Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency networks are an attractive method to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce the costs and CO{sub 2} emissions of the companies operating in this network. A special feature of the energy efficiency networks is the exchange of experiences and training of the energy managers. Energy efficiency networks consist of about ten to fifteen locally domiciled companies. During the project period of three to four years, there are two main phases. In the first phase, the initial consultation phase, the actual state of a company is captured, and measures to increase the efficiency and energy conservation are identified. Parallel to this, in the second phase every three months a meeting with the participating companies takes place. Experience exchange and implementation of energy efficiency measures are the focus of these meetings. Initial studies show that the increase of the energy efficiency during participating in the energy efficiency network almost can be doubled in comparison to the average of the industry.

  10. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  11. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  12. Energy efficient heating and ventilation of large halls

    CERN Document Server

    Hojer, Ondrej; Kabele, Karel; Kotrbaty, Miroslav; Sommer, Klaus; Petras, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook is focused on modern methods for design, control and operation of energy efficient heating systems in large spaces and industrial halls. The book deals with thermal comfort, light and dark gas radiant heaters, panel radiant heating, floor heating and industrial air heating systems. Various heating systems are illustrated with case studies. Design principles, methods and modeling tools are presented for various systems.

  13. An electric scooter simulation program for training the driving skills of stroke patients with mobility problems: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, Michiel J A; Erren-Wolters, C Victorien; de Kort, Alexander C; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes an electric scooter simulation program and a first evaluation study in which we explored if it is possible to train the driving skills of future users of electric mobility scooters by means of an electric scooter simulation program in addition to conventional electric scooter training. Within this explorative study,10 stroke survivors were randomly assigned to either the control (n=5) or the electric scooter simulation intervention group (n=5). Participants were assessed twice on the functional evaluating rating scale. During the followup measurement, subjective experiences regarding both forms of electric scooter training were elicited by a questionnaire. After a training period of 5 weeks, both groups improved on the Functional Evaluation Rating Scale. It can be concluded that the patients with stroke were satisfied with the electric scooter simulation training.

  14. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  15. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  16. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  17. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy-efficient adaptive wireless network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides quality of service (QoS) support for diverse

  19. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit

  20. Energy efficiency governance an emerging priority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, Nigel (Energy Efficiency and Environment Div., International Energy Agency, Paris (France)); Ellis, Mark (Mark Ellis and Associates, Wagstaffe, NSW (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    End-use energy efficiency is widely accepted as providing least-cost solutions to greenhouse gas mitigation and energy supply. However, maximising this potential resource is proving difficult, even elusive. Despite widespread energy efficiency policies covering many sectors, most evaluations show that we are falling well short of the potential level of energy efficiency. One reason for this is that estimates of potential tend to cover the whole of an economy or large sectors, whereas policy measures tend to be targeted towards individual, smaller parts of the economy. The authors contend that the energy efficiency potential within an economy will not be maximised without understanding the complete governance framework the central mechanism for marshalling drivers within the public and private sectors of an economy and ensuring that it is aligned towards energy efficiency. This paper explores the rationale for focusing on energy efficiency governance. In doing so, we attempt to define energy efficiency governance and present a conceptual framework for the better understanding of the issues involved. After reviewing the available literature in this field we present a description of the IEA governance programme of work that aims to assist countries to establish the most effective energy efficiency institutional structures at national and local levels.

  1. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  2. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1981-05-01

    The aim of the Energy Efficient Buildings Program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research on various aspects of building technology that will permit such gains in energy efficiency without decreasing occupants' comfort or adversely affecting indoor air quality. To accomplish this goal, we have developed five major research groups. The foci of these groups are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality; Building Energy Analysis; Energy Efficient Windows and Lighting; and Building Energy Data, Analysis and Demonstration.

  4. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Said; Kamelia Youssef; Hatem Waheed

    2017-01-01

    According to the statistics in Egypt (2013), the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of ...

  5. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  6. Options to improve energy efficiency for educational building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Mafruha

    The cost of energy is a major factor that must be considered for educational facility budget planning purpose. The analysis of energy related issues and options can be complex and requires significant time and detailed effort. One way to facilitate the inclusion of energy option planning in facility planning efforts is to utilize a tool that allows for quick appraisal of the facility energy profile. Once such an appraisal is accomplished, it is then possible to rank energy improvement options consistently with other facility needs and requirements. After an energy efficiency option has been determined to have meaningful value in comparison with other facility planning options, it is then possible to utilize the initial appraisal as the basis for an expanded consideration of additional facility and energy use detail using the same analytic system used for the initial appraisal. This thesis has developed a methodology and an associated analytic model to assist in these tasks and thereby improve the energy efficiency of educational facilities. A detailed energy efficiency and analysis tool is described that utilizes specific university building characteristics such as size, architecture, envelop, lighting, occupancy, thermal design which allows reducing the annual energy consumption. Improving the energy efficiency of various aspects of an educational building's energy performance can be complex and can require significant time and experience to make decisions. The approach developed in this thesis initially assesses the energy design for a university building. This initial appraisal is intended to assist administrators in assessing the potential value of energy efficiency options for their particular facility. Subsequently this scoping design can then be extended as another stage of the model by local facility or planning personnel to add more details and engineering aspects to the initial screening model. This approach can assist university planning efforts to

  7. Les accidents de scooter chez l'enfant au CHU Aristide Le Dantec ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les accidents de scooter chez l'enfant au CHU Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar: à propos de 74 cas. Azhar Salim Mohamed, Gabriel Ngom, Mamadou Sow, Papa Alassane Mbaye, Souleymane Camara, Ndeye Fatou Seck, Oumar Ndour ...

  8. Adaptive Backstepping Self-balancing Control of a Two-wheel Electric Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ngoc Son

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an adaptive backstepping control law for a two-wheel electric scooter (eScooter with a nonlinear uncertain model. Adaptive backstepping control is integrated with feedback control that satisfies Lyapunov stability. By using the recursive structure to find the controlled function and estimate uncertain parameters, an adaptive backstepping method allows us to build a feedback control law that efficiently controls a self-balancing controller of the eScooter. Additionally, a controller area network (CAN bus with high reliability is applied for communicating between the modules of the eScooter. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the robustness and good performance of the proposed adaptive backstepping control.

  9. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  10. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  11. Scaling up energy efficiency under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arquit Niederberger, A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyses the barriers to end-use energy efficiency under the CDM, presents elements of a new shared vision for a CDM that will encourage end-use energy efficiency and suggests necessary reforms in the international climate framework that go beyond the traditional conception of CDM reform. For the CDM to achieve its dual mitigation and sustainable development objectives, the Parties to the UNFCCC can no longer be satisfied with the perfect environmental integrity of a zero-sum CDM at the expense of real action on end-use efficiency. Nothing short of a global energy efficiency offensive is needed in Copenhagen in 2009. (au)

  12. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  13. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  14. Energy efficiency: Building labels lead to savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Various programmes have been introduced to increase energy efficiency in buildings. A study of commercial buildings in Los Angeles, USA, now finds that voluntary certification programmes have been effective at lowering energy use, bringing savings of up to 30%.

  15. Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series provides a comprehensive, straightforward overview of green-house gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies for local governments. Developing and implementing energy efficiency improvements in water an

  16. Evaluating architecture impact on system energy efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shijie Yu; Hailong Yang; Rui Wang; Zhongzhi Luan; Depei Qian

    2017-01-01

    As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially...

  17. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  18. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  19. Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Góes; J. Manzi

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial...

  20. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  1. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  2. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  3. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  4. Kolter leading the way in energy efficient property management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froebelius, R. [Kolter Property Management Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-03-01

    Kolter Property Management Ltd., which manages office buildings across North America, is committed to energy efficiency. The company implements systems that save energy and make use of waste heat in office buildings. Kolter's Ontario Hydro Place was the most energy efficient building in the world when it was built in 1975. Kolter joined the Energy Innovators Initiative (EII) in 1999. The program helps commercial businesses and public institutions improve their energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Kolter's goal is to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions by 15 per cent below 1990 levels by 2005. The strategies include: improve efficiency through low-cost opportunities such as good operating and maintenance practices; reduce energy operating costs by initiating an energy retrofit program that will reduce GHG emissions; improve energy efficiency through capital upgrades; and, work with EII to reduce the overall energy consumption of its properties. This paper describes the efforts that Kolter made at Canada Square in Toronto where an energy bill of nearly $3 million was reduced through energy upgrades such as electronic ballasts, light reflector systems, T-8 lamps, new and upgraded HVAC systems, and a sub-metering system. The retrofit project saved 17.3 per cent energy and $503,264 in annual energy bills. GHGs were reduced by 3,681 tonnes per year. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Energy-efficiency based classification of the manufacturing workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumuşanu, G.; Afteni, C.; Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.

    2017-08-01

    EU Directive 92/75/EC established for the first time an energy consumption labelling scheme, further implemented by several other directives. As consequence, nowadays many products (e.g. home appliances, tyres, light bulbs, houses) have an EU Energy Label when offered for sale or rent. Several energy consumption models of manufacturing equipments have been also developed. This paper proposes an energy efficiency - based classification of the manufacturing workstation, aiming to characterize its energetic behaviour. The concept of energy efficiency of the manufacturing workstation is defined. On this base, a classification methodology has been developed. It refers to specific criteria and their evaluation modalities, together to the definition & delimitation of energy efficiency classes. The energy class position is defined after the amount of energy needed by the workstation in the middle point of its operating domain, while its extension is determined by the value of the first coefficient from the Taylor series that approximates the dependence between the energy consume and the chosen parameter of the working regime. The main domain of interest for this classification looks to be the optimization of the manufacturing activities planning and programming. A case-study regarding an actual lathe classification from energy efficiency point of view, based on two different approaches (analytical and numerical) is also included.

  6. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus; Mahir Asif Mohammed; Sanzidur Rahman; Sayedus Salehin; Mohammad Abdul Mannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. Th...

  7. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  8. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The... becoming more energy efficient, understanding the cost savings from improved energy efficiency, and...

  9. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  10. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENT RENOVATION OF SOCIAL HOUSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Christiansen, Michael; Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    is out of step with modern requirements when it comes to plan arrangements, energy frame calculation, flexible building services and social challenges. It is no longer enough to focus on developing efficient products concerning energy renovation. To be able to achieve an environmental, economically...... and socially sustainable objective, which seeks towards energy efficient renovation as an overall, systemic and interdisciplinary collaboration, the construction industry needs to focus on developing, testing, evaluating and implementing tools and methods to optimize and improve processes in a value....... Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy efficient renovation housing sector strategy. All in all, our project contributes to the building sector by testing new methods and suggesting methods for meeting challenges concerning energy efficient renovation. It also...

  12. Energy-Efficiency in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia

    This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the complex problem of implementing energy efficient optical networks. The main contribution of this Ph.D. thesis is providing a holistic approach in a multi-layered manner where different tools are used to tackle the urgent need of both estimating...... with current traffic demands and this dissertation tackles the trade-off between energy efficiency and quality of service in terms of latency. Another important contribution of this thesis is the novel mixed integer linear programing (MILP) formulation for internet protocol (IP) over wavelength division...... with parallel optics and WDM systems is reported. These results show the trade-off between increased capacity and both power consumption and system performance. In conclusion, an energy-efficient set of tools has been provided covering different aspects of the telecommunication network resulting in a cohesive...

  13. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  14. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  15. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  16. Information technology applications in improving energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Heine, P. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Power systems, Espoo (Finland)); Koski, P. (Motiva, Helsinki (Finland)), email: pertti.koski@motiva.fi

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the project was to study how the different statistical analysis and optimization methods can be applied in the data obtained from data systems and energy measurement databases, in order to increase the energy efficiency in small and medium size industry, in commercial and public sector and in households. The project had two subtasks: (1) Development of analysis techniques and their applications in kWh-metering databases, combined with data from various other databases, like customer data bases, data bases of building authorities etc. The aim is to identify the key technologies of energy efficiency, and their potential. (2) Development of business models for energy saving activities: How to find motivation for increasing energy efficiency, howto divide benefits, how to divide activities between different parties. (orig.)

  17. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  18. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  19. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  20. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  1. Energy Efficient Design for Body Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hardware requirements and design constraints that derive from unique features of body sensor networks (BSNs. Based on the BSN requirements, we examine the tradeoff between custom hardware and commercial off the shelf (COTS designs for BSNs. The broad range of BSN applications includes situations where either custom chips or COTS design is optimal. For both types of nodes, we survey key techniques to improve energy efficiency in BSNs and identify general approaches to energy efficiency in this space.

  2. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  3. Overall assessment of the energy efficiency in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Світлана Вікторівна Шастун

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to investigation of the energy efficiency in Ukraine. The author aims to establish the current state of Ukraine energy efficiency and identify the potential of energy efficiency development. The object of research are following areas of energy efficiency in Ukraine: energy efficiency of the regions (including analysis of energy efficiency of the fields of activity, which is within the territorial units, namely agriculture, industry, services, housing sector and determin...

  4. Field Load Acquisition and variable amplitude fatigue testing on maxi-scooter motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Petrone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work was the instrumentation of a maxi scooter for the field collection of service loads acting on the scooter main components such as frame, fork, handlebar, rear frame and suspension. Service loads were collected on an instrumented Yamaha Tmax scooter equipped with 22 channels during a set of field tests that were representing a predefined road mix, covering a mileage of 270 km. Field load histories were used to develop an accelerated test procedure for the accelerated bench fatigue testing of a new model prototype whose mission was set to 50000 km. The acceleration procedure allowed a time reduction from 1600 hrs to 122 hrs bench equivalent testing. Both the benchmark scooter Tmax and a maxi-scooter prototype under development underwent the bench variable amplitude fatigue testing. The results of the fatigue tests on the prototype allowed to identify some critical bolted connections and to reduce some stress concentration features causing the appearance of small cracks that were found also after during 50000 km of driving tests.

  5. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  6. Energy Efficiency in Self Organising Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisielius, Edvinas; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of an energy efficient algorithm that controls power emissions and the number of powered cell sites (eNBs) in overlaid Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler and we investigate cells cites designed to meet peak hours trac demand...

  7. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  8. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  9. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design o...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  10. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  11. The Next Frontier in Industiral Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. In the near future, energy efficiency is

  12. Energy-Efficient Routing in GMPLS Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a GMPLS controlled core network model that takes energy efficiency into account is built using OPNET MODELER. By extending the standard GMPLS routing protocol -- OSPF-TE, we are able to spread desired energy related information over the local area, and subsequently use RSVP...

  13. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  14. Promoting Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This pilot project is the first attempt to address the lack of rigorous and transparent approach to defining best practice in city energy efficiency programmes. The project has provided interesting insights into a range of exciting projects being implemented in cities around the world. However, the potential exists for far greater benefit. The study has found that it is possible to collate the detailed information needed to identify best practice energy efficiency projects in cities. However, gathering the data is not easy. The data is often not recorded in an easily accessible format. Nor is it easy to get city officials to allocate time to the necessary data collation given the many other competing demands on their time. A key area that this project identifies as requiring urgent attention is the development of a common data management format for energy efficiency projects by Cas. Further work could also focus on refining the criteria used to define best practice, and broadening the scope of projects beyond energy efficiency.

  15. Finding structural parameters for energy efficient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, S.A.; Mashayekhi, A.; Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Europe is going through a great social, economic and environmental period of transition. The changes the EU is currently undergoing have been causing increased awareness about sustainable development, natural resources use and energy efficiency on the agenda at the European level of policy making.

  16. 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations. 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA recommends that G8 leaders adopt and urgently implement this package of measures to significantly enhance energy efficiency. This package was developed under the Gleneagles G8 Plan of Action, which mandates the pursuit of a clean, clever and competitive energy future.

  17. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . An increase in the number of BSs is directly proportional to an increase in energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. To deal with these challenges, network operators and vendors are embarking on building energy efficient networks to support a...

  18. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  19. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  20. Evaluating architecture impact on system energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shijie; Yang, Hailong; Wang, Rui; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei

    2017-01-01

    As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy. Fortunately, the advent of Intel Running Average Power Limit (RAPL) interfaces has promoted the power measurement ability into next level, with higher accuracy and finer time resolution. Therefore, we argue it is the exact time to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the existing architecture designs to understand their impact on system energy efficiency. In this paper, we leverage representative benchmark suites including serial and parallel workloads from diverse domains to evaluate the architecture features such as Non Uniform Memory Access (NUMA), Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) and Turbo Boost. The energy is tracked at subcomponent level such as Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores, uncore components and Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) through exploiting the power measurement ability exposed by RAPL. The experiments reveal non-intuitive results: 1) the mismatch between local compute and remote memory node caused by NUMA effect not only generates dramatic power and energy surge but also deteriorates the energy efficiency significantly; 2) for multithreaded application such as the Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PARSEC), most of the workloads benefit a notable increase of energy efficiency using SMT, with more than 40% decline in average power consumption; 3) Turbo Boost is effective to accelerate the workload execution

  1. Evaluating architecture impact on system energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shijie; Wang, Rui; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei

    2017-01-01

    As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy. Fortunately, the advent of Intel Running Average Power Limit (RAPL) interfaces has promoted the power measurement ability into next level, with higher accuracy and finer time resolution. Therefore, we argue it is the exact time to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the existing architecture designs to understand their impact on system energy efficiency. In this paper, we leverage representative benchmark suites including serial and parallel workloads from diverse domains to evaluate the architecture features such as Non Uniform Memory Access (NUMA), Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) and Turbo Boost. The energy is tracked at subcomponent level such as Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores, uncore components and Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) through exploiting the power measurement ability exposed by RAPL. The experiments reveal non-intuitive results: 1) the mismatch between local compute and remote memory node caused by NUMA effect not only generates dramatic power and energy surge but also deteriorates the energy efficiency significantly; 2) for multithreaded application such as the Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PARSEC), most of the workloads benefit a notable increase of energy efficiency using SMT, with more than 40% decline in average power consumption; 3) Turbo Boost is effective to accelerate the workload execution

  2. Ergonomic study and static analysis for new design of electric scooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzly, M. K.; Munirah, Anis; Shayfull, Z.; Saad, Mohd Sazli

    2017-09-01

    The purposes of this project are to design and diversify the function of a battery powered scooter frame which is more practical for the human factor in ergonomic and optimum design. The new design is based on ideas which are studied from existing scooter frame, United States Patent design and European States International Patent design. The final idea of concept design for scooter frame is based on concept chosen from the best characteristics and it is divided into three main difference ideas and the matrix evaluation method is applied. Analysis that applies to frame design, arm, rim and drive train component is based on Cosmos Express program. As a conclusion, the design that is produce are able to carry the maximum also has more practical features in ergonomic view.

  3. Energy efficiency and social equity in South Africa: seeking convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horen, C.; Simmonds, G. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Energy and Development Research Centre

    1998-09-01

    A key challenge facing post-apartheid South Africa is to achieve a balance between equity and efficiency goals. On the one hand, the democratic government wishes to improve the quality of life of the majority of the population, whilst on the other, the country needs an efficient and internationally competitive economy. At the more specific level of household energy policy, this efficiency-equity linkage represents a key challenge for policy-making and implementation: it is essential that convergence is sought between household energy strategies aimed at improving energy efficiency, and those strategies which improve the living conditions of the poor. This paper begins by reviewing developments in South Africa`s household energy sector in the early-1990s, most notably the national electrification plan which was launched in 1991. A second development, in 1994, was the establishment of the National Electricity Regulator. Despite the attention given to energy efficiency in the government`s new energy policy, energy efficiency considerations have not yet emerged as a major force in the energy sector. Electricity prices underestimated the environmental and other impacts of coal and nuclear-generated electricity. A range of economic and institutional reasons for this are identified and considered. Finally, two interventions on which some progress has been made, are described: these include insulation and thermal performance projects in new lost-cost houses, and a compact fluorescent lighting programme. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  4. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  6. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  7. The Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Victoria [Building Industry Research Alliance, Stockton, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency. The report covers critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  8. Overall assessment of the energy efficiency in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Вікторівна Шастун

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to investigation of the energy efficiency in Ukraine. The author aims to establish the current state of Ukraine energy efficiency and identify the potential of energy efficiency development. The object of research are following areas of energy efficiency in Ukraine: energy efficiency of the regions (including analysis of energy efficiency of the fields of activity, which is within the territorial units, namely agriculture, industry, services, housing sector and determine the total rate of energy efficiency in the region; energy efficiency of GDP of Ukraine compared to the same period of other countries; energy efficiency of building fund of Ukraine and energy efficiency of industries. We have found a significant nonconformance at all analyzed levels of energy efficiency to European and world levels in the presence of significant energy efficiency potential. The main barriers (which are both reserves of energy efficiency in Ukraine are identified: imperfect legal framework, lack of sufficient incentive system for energy efficiency measures, obsolete equipment used in industry, physical aging of housing stock, dependence on exported energy resources, low awareness of population, lack of sufficient training in energy efficiency, lack of a unified database of energy use. Energy efficient development of Ukraine will be provided by eliminating these barriers.

  9. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  10. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  11. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    of energy conservation to realize such savings; even those who are more concerned with their culinary achievements than with energy efficiency are likely to benefit. Besides being energy efficient the EffiCooker is user friendly. Many cooking tasks, once initiated, are performed automatically without any......Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer....... A working prototype of a saucepan, dubbed the EffiCooker, has been constructed according to these guidelines. The EffiCooker has demonstrated energy savings in the range from 28% to 81% compared to conventional equipment when performing ordinary cooking tasks. The user need not be particularly aware...

  12. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  13. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  14. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified....... The study of municipal planning practices shows that the municipalities make serious efforts to mobilise local stakeholders to implement energy efficient technologies through municipal planning practices, and that they are struggling to cope with the reluctance of these stakeholders to change their building...... understanding of and involvement in local building processes. Through such planning approaches with a strong local contex-tual rooting, the municipalities are capable of facilitating changes in local building practices, leading to the implementation of energy efficient technologies in local building projects...

  15. Industrial energy-efficiency improvement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies is described. Practices which will improve energy efficiency, encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels, and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams are enumerated. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. A summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix is presented.

  16. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  17. Energy Efficient Supply Boosted Comparator Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat U. Ay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mixed-signal design technique called supply boosting technique (SBT and the design of an energy efficient, sub-1 V supply boosted comparator (SBC in a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The selected CMOS process does not allow sub-1 V operation with a wide input range due to high threshold voltage (high-VTH of MOS transistors (+0.8 V/−0.9 V. Despite this, the proposed comparator operates sub-1 V supply voltages with input common mode voltage larger than 60% of supply voltage by utilizing a supply boosting technique. The measured power consumption of the supply boosted comparator for 1 V supply was 90 nW and speed was 6500 conversions per second, resulting in 14 pJ per conversion energy efficiency.

  18. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Zizi GOSCHIN; Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  20. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  1. EU - India Sustainable Energy Efficiency Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agster, Rainer; Henzler, Mikael P. (Adelphi Research GmbH, Berlin (Germany)); Asthana, Arvind (Bureau of Energy, Efficiency/GTZ-Indo-German Energy Programme (India))

    2009-07-01

    Between 2006-2008 the EU India Sustainable Energy Initiative (EISEEI) has supported marketing, implementation and enforcement of the Indian Energy Conservation Act, which came into force in 2002 - on state and local level. Market oriented five-year action plans were prepared, which are implemented by State Designated Agencies (SDA) in charge of energy efficiency measures in their respective states. Each Energy Conservation (EC) action plan states the foreseen activities for the next five years as well as general policies, a mission, and a vision relating to energy efficiency. The EISEEI project activities focused on facilitating a moderated dialogue between India and Europe as well as among the SDAs in order to support the preparation of action plans and operational plans. Furthermore, domestic and overseas trainings for SDA staff and the know-how exchange between policy makers, opinion leaders and professionals in these areas were facilitated. During the duration of the project the Indian Ministry of Power decided to apply the same methodology for 24 more SDAs to cover all Indian states. While the initial 6 pilot states were supported with EU and German development aid funds, the enlargement was 100% financed by the Indian government. The paper will highlight the efforts and results of mainstreaming energy efficiency at various consumer levels (from industry to households) in India. The paper will encompass also the involvement of various agencies and institutional structures as well as the operational experiences with the implementation of the action plan on energy efficiency in one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

  2. Evaluating baghouse systems for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Energy efficiency of pulse jet baghouses may be evaluated by the magnitude of the pressure drop across the unit and the amount of cleaning energy it takes to properly clean the filter bags. The higher the pressure drop, the higher the energy consumption. Hints are given on optimum pressure drop specification, and efficient pulse system design. Proper insulation of the collector and proper flow control devices also help to conserve energy.

  3. Energy efficient for refrigeration and air conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evo...

  4. Holistic Approach to Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Steven W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This presentation discusses NREL's Energy System Integrations Facility and NREL's holistic design approach to sustainable data centers that led to the world's most energy-efficient data center. It describes Peregrine, a warm water liquid cooled supercomputer, waste heat reuse in the data center, demonstrated PUE and ERE, and lessons learned during four years of operation.

  5. Adopting Energy Efficiency in Connected Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kemper, Emily [CLEAResult

    2017-10-02

    This presentation on connected homes was presented at the 11th Rocky Mountain Utility Efficiency Exchange on September 28, 2017. The discussion covered the integration of energy efficiency measures and practices with Internet of Things (IoT) awareness and adoption of smart technologies and services via WiFi/ Bluetooth enabled home and office equipment. The presentation also describes the benefits to the home and business and benefits/challenges for the utility/implementer.

  6. Energy efficiency governance. The case of white certificate instruments for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuwer, Dagmar Sibyl

    2013-04-01

    Energy efficiency contributes to the main objectives of energy policy in the European Union: energy security, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits. However, the efficiency potential remains widely untapped. Will White Certificate Instruments, a new framework instrument to foster end-use energy efficiency, help to close the energy efficiency gap' The analysis compares the political process of choosing and designing White Certificate Instruments in Italy, France and Great Britain. The book shows that the type of policy instrument as well as its image has an influence not only on agenda-setting but also on the policy instrument's effectiveness due to interactions with existing energy efficiency discourses, regulatory traditions and the prevailing policy style.

  7. Energy efficiency in products and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugrul, Kodaz [Arcelik (Turkey)], email: tugrul.kodaz@arcelik.com

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency is not simply about making energy savings, it is also about maintaining the quality of living conditions, service quality and volumes of production in industrial plants. Using energy effectively wherever and whenever possible in our everyday lives will most likely make a great positive contribution to our household budget, to the national economy and to the protection of the environment. Fossil fuels, like petroleum and coal, the most important energy sources, are being depleted. What is worse, greenhouse gas emissions, which cause global warming and climate change, are rising. So there is an urgent need to raise energy efficiency and prevent energy wastage. Economic development will be based on sustainable usage of natural resources. Therefore, a combined commitment to protecting the environment and preserving and ecological balance at every stage of production activities is the central guarantee natural resource sustainability. This paper provides information on various studies of how to achieve high energy efficiency with respect both to products and their production.

  8. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  9. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  10. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  11. Energy Efficient Payload Aggregation in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos MILÁNKOVICH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating wireless sensor networks requires a different approach than traditional communication networks because energy efficiency plays a key role in sensor networks, which consist of devices without external power. The amount of energy used determines the lifetime of these devices. In most cases data packets are less sensitive to delay, thus can be aggregated, making it possible to gather more useful information reducing the energy required to transmit information. This article discusses the energy efficiency of different Forward Error Correction algorithms and presents a method to calculate the optimal amount of aggregation of the data packets in terms of power consumption, while taking into account the Bit Error Rate characteristics of the wireless channel. The contribution of this paper is a general method to improve the energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks by using the optimal amount of aggregation in case of different Forward Error Correction codes and channel characteristics. The presented results can be applied to any packet-based wireless protocol.

  12. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  13. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  14. Vision-related fitness to drive mobility scooters: A practical driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Oliver M; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2017-03-06

    To investigate practical fitness to drive mobility scooters, comparing visually impaired participants with healthy controls. Between-subjects design. Forty-six visually impaired (13 with very low visual acuity, 10 with low visual acuity, 11 with peripheral field defects, 12 with multiple visual impairment) and 35 normal-sighted controls. Participants completed a practical mobility scooter test-drive, which was recorded on video. Two independent occupational therapists specialized in orientation and mobility evaluated the videos systematically. Approximately 90% of the visually impaired participants passed the driving test. On average, participants with visual impairments performed worse than normal-sighted controls, but were judged sufficiently safe. In particular, difficulties were observed in participants with peripheral visual field defects and those with a combination of low visual acuity and visual field defects. People with visual impairment are, in practice, fit to drive mobility scooters; thus visual impairment on its own should not be viewed as a determinant of safety to drive mobility scooters. However, special attention should be paid to individuals with visual field defects with or without a combined low visual acuity. The use of an individual practical fitness-to-drive test is advised.

  15. Vision-related fitness to drive mobility scooters : A practical driving test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Oliver M.; Brookhuis, Karel A.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.

    Objective: To investigate practical fitness to drive mobility scooters, comparing visually impaired participants with healthy controls. Design: Between-subjects design. Subjects: Forty-six visually impaired (13 with very low visual acuity, 10 with low visual acuity, 11 with peripheral field defects,

  16. MintoUrban Communities : an energy efficiency and environmental leader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, A. [MintoUrban Communities Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    MintoUrban Communities Inc. (MUCI) is a home construction company which operates multi-residential rental properties ranging from garden homes to high-rise apartments. The company is committed to energy efficiency, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. It strives to be a leader in reducing energy and water consumption while improving the living environment of tenants. MUCI spends up to $20 million each year on lighting, heating, cooling and other energy related services for their buildings. In the late 1990s, the company began paying more attention to energy efficiency and created the Minto Energy Management Division to manage energy and water use while helping to protect Canada's natural resources and minimizing the environmental impact of Minto's operations. Attention to date has focused on multi-residential properties where the two main energy sources are natural gas used for space and domestic hot water heating, and electricity used for lighting and space heating/cooling. MUCI invested $1 million in a pilot project at the Toronto High Park Village complex where the boilers and control system were retrofitted and low-flow toilets and shower heads were installed. The improvements reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the complex by 3.14 tonnes per year. MUCI's energy management action plan covers a five-year period from 2000 to 2004 during which time it will apply a sustainable development approach to all its new high-rise construction. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS IN TROPICAL CLIMATES – MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban-Huat Ng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There exists a well-known gap between occupants and building’s energy-efficient designs. A comprehensive building performance diagnostic technique, Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE may surpass the current evaluation method by reducing the gap between occupants and building’s energy-efficient design. Due to these reasons, the aim of this research is to identify the problems with respect to energy-efficient design which affect occupants’ comfort. This research focuses on the application of energy-efficient design in office building and was conducted on energy-efficient buildings in Malaysia. A building performance survey framework, Energy-efficient Building Environmental Quality Questionnaire (EBEQ2, was  used to identify the problems affecting occupants’ comfort and buildings’ Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ. The result was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The research outcome shows that majority of occupants are not satisfied  with the thermal comfort and lighting condition of  the buildings. Building certified with sustainable building rating tools does not guarantee better IEQ performance. Thus  continuous research is needed to ensure energy-efficient building concept is applied effectively in each type of building.

  18. Energy efficiency : an economic stimulator; Efficacite energetique : un moteur economique vert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contant, A.

    2009-04-01

    In an effort to meet Quebec's energy requirements projected for 2015, Hydro-Quebec along with its partners and clients will invest $3 billion in energy efficiency. Quebec's Energy Efficiency Agency, Canada's Office of Energy Efficiency and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) green municipal fund have all contributed to energy efficiency projects to stimulate the economy. These measures are expected to create nearly 4000 jobs in Quebec for electricians, heating contractors, plumbers and building professionals. This investment will also benefit the suppliers and distributors of electrical materials as well as the forestry industry, cement manufacturers, and specialized engineers. Since the benefits of energy efficiency upgrades are already well established, projects can get underway without further studies. The proposed energy efficiency projects can be applied anywhere in the province of Quebec and are not intended for any specific region. To name a few, the projects have included energy upgrades in an arena in Riviere du Loup, the Montreal Health Institute's head office building, and traffic light upgrades in Levis, Quebec. The article noted that energy efficiency upgrades made in the office buildings of Alcan, IBM, Molson and Bombardier have all resulted in at least a 5 per cent reduction in electricity use. All these changes have been good for the environment, even though Quebec's electricity is generated almost entirely from renewable energy sources. 6 figs.

  19. Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Technology Institute

    2009-03-31

    energy utility networks; (d) Alternative land-use design and development options and their impact on energy efficiency and urban runoff, emissions and the heat island effect; and (e) Alternative transportation and mobility options and their impact on local emissions. (2) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Reference Guide to Barriers, Solutions and Resources report provides the results of an effort to identify the most innovative existing and emerging public policy, incentive and market mechanisms that encourage investment in advanced energy technologies and enabling community design options in the State of California and the nation. The report evaluates each of these mechanisms in light of the preceding research and concludes with a set of recommended mechanisms designed for consideration by relevant California State agencies, development and finance industry associations, and municipal governments. (3) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Technical Reference Guide to Building and Site Design report contains a set of selected commercially viable energy technology and community design options for high-efficiency, low-impact community development in California. It includes a summary of the research findings referenced above and recommendations for energy technology applications and energy-efficient development strategies for residential, commercial and institutional structures and supporting municipal infrastructure for planned communities. The document also identifies design options, technology applications and development strategies that are applicable to urban infill projects.

  20. Tools for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Aden, Nate; Tsakiris, Aristeidis

    With growing urbanization, our cities are playing an increasingly important role in accelerating energy efficiency improvements and mitigating climate change (REN21 2016). Cities are one of the biggest consumers of energy in the world, representing almost two-thirds of global primary energy demand...... and accounting for 70 per cent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector (IEA2016). Therefore, with urbanization forecast to continue cities will be a critical driver in the sustainable energy transition. Typically city governments have direct decision powers to implement policy actions, which have...

  1. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  2. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  3. Energy efficiency in multi-story buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staritcyna Anastasiia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project a research on energy efficiency of Malta house was provided, it is a residential multi-story building in Helsinki, Jätkäsaari area. This project describes introduction with a new heating system for residential dwellings, which uses only heated air. To maintain air temperature in comfort level heat recovery and district heating is used in the same system. The task was to research efficacy of the enclosure structures. For research the 3D model has been created in the program the Revit 2015 and Lumion 13. Thermotechnical calculation for three types of a design has been executed in the program U-value.net.

  4. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  5. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T.; Vesterager Christensen, D.; Andersen, Hans (Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Dam, M. (NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark)); Thorndahl, M. (Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark)); Weldingh, P. (Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark)); Maagoee, P.; Kristensen, Kenneth T. (Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Kirketerp Friis, A. (Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  6. Energy efficiency improvements in Chinese compressed airsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Li, Li; Li, Yuqi; Taranto, T.

    2007-06-01

    Industrial compressed air systems use more than 9 percent ofall electricity used in China. Experience in China and elsewhere hasshown that these systems can be much more energy efficient when viewed asa whole system and rather than as isolated components.This paper presentsa summary and analysis of several compressed air system assessments.Through these assessments, typical compressed air management practices inChina are analyzed. Recommendations are made concerning immediate actionsthat China s enterprises can make to improve compressed air systemefficiency using best available technology and managementstrategies.

  7. Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda, Making Energy Efficiency Count. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Pudleiner, David; Jones, David; Khan, Aleisha

    2017-06-15

    Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda has focused its energy sector investments largely on increasing energy access by increasing energy supply. The links between energy efficiency and energy access, the importance of energy efficiency in new energy supply, and the multiple benefits of energy efficiency for the level and quality of energy available, have been largely overlooked. Implementing energy efficiency in parallel with expanding both the electricity grid and new clean energy generation reduces electricity demand and helps optimize the power supply so that it can serve more customers reliably at minimum cost. Ensuring efficient appliances are incorporated into energy access efforts provides improved energy services to customers. Energy efficiency is an important contributor to access to modern energy. This Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda (Roadmap) is a response to the important role that electrical energy efficiency can play in meeting Uganda’s energy goals. Power Africa and the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiatives collaborated with more than 24 stakeholders in Uganda to develop this document. The document estimates that if the most efficient technologies on the market were adopted, 2,224 gigawatt hours could be saved in 2030 across all sectors, representing 31% of the projected load. This translates into 341 megawatts of peak demand reductions, energy access to an additional 6 million rural customers and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 10.6 million tonnes in 2030. The Roadmap also finds that 91% of this technical potential is cost-effective, and 47% is achievable under conservative assumptions. The Roadmap prioritizes recommendations for implementing energy efficiency and maximizing benefits to meet the goals and priorities established in Uganda’s 2015 SEforALL Action Agenda. One important step is to create and increase demand for efficiency through long-term enabling policies and financial incentives

  8. Pilot project for evaluating motorized personal transportation devices : Segways and electric scooters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavallee, P. [Centre for Electric Vehicle Experimentation in Quebec, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2004-05-01

    This report presented information on the Segway and electric scooter, 2 types of motorized personal transportation devices (MPTDs) that are the subject of a 2-phase pilot project conducted by the Centre for Electric Vehicle Experimentation. A general literature review of MPTDs was presented, with a focus on pilot projects carried out in the United States and Europe, along with legislation in various countries regarding user safety, legal frameworks, and traffic conditions. The report also contained an analysis of existing safety regulations for Segways and scooters, the legal framework for using the vehicles, as well as information concerning traffic rules and incidents involving MPTDs in Canada. In addition, details of a group of tests conducted by groups of experts and a group of 50 participants were presented. Various ergonomic, technical and operational evaluations of the MPTDs were conducted on a closed indoor test track and in the laboratory. Results of the technical evaluation demonstrated that under normal use, Segways are stable, easy to manoeuvre, and can stop quickly in case of emergency. An ergonomic evaluation indicated that a wide range of users found Segways easy to use. Results of the behavioural study indicated that the parameters to be taken into account in Segway use included training by a recognized government-certified organization; a set minimum user age of 14; and the wearing of safety helmets. Survey results indicated that Segways may generate transfer to other alternatives to automobiles. Electric scooter evaluation results indicated that the scooters were safe in normal use situations. The addition of horns and helmets was recommended, as well as a minimum user age of 12. It was concluded that Phase 2 of the project be carried out according to procedures established by the project partners in order to evaluate their reliability and safety in urban areas, the social acceptability of scooters and Segways in Quebec, and the ability of the

  9. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Qing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  10. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  11. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  12. Aligning Utility Incentives with Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the financial effects on a utility of its spending on energy efficiency programs, how those effects could constitute barriers to more aggressive and sustained utility investment in energy efficiency.

  13. 78 FR 73355 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... investing in energy efficiency; and (5) encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side..., RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements...

  14. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  15. Towards Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman

    2016-07-14

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a cutting-edge wireless communication technology that adopts several existing communication concepts in order to efficiently utilize the spectrum and meet the users demands of high throughput and real-time systems. Conventionally, high throughput demands are met through adopting broadband and multi-antenna technologies such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). Whereas, real-time application demands are met by analyzing metrics which characterize the delay limited channels, such as, outage probability over block-fading channels. Being an environmental friendly technology, energy efficiency metrics should be considered in the design of a CR application. This thesis tackles the energy efficiency of CR system from different aspects, utilizing different measuring metrics and constrains. Under the single-input single-output (SISO) OFDM we minimized the energy per goodbit (EPG) metric subject to several power and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. In this approach, the minimum EPG metric is optimized via proposing two optimal and sub-optimal resource allocation schemes. We consider several parameters as optimization variables, such as, power policy, sensing threshold, and channel quality threshold. We also captured the impact of involving the media access control (MAC) layers parameters, such as, frame length, in the minimization of a modified EPG metric. Also, a MAC protocol, i.e., hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), and the associated power consumption of the retransmission mechanism is considered in the formulation of the problem. In this context, the optimal power and frame length are derived to minimize the modified EPG while considering several spectrum-sharing scenarios, which depend on sensing information. In MIMO based CR system, we maximized capacity to power ratio (CPR) (as an energy efficiency (EE) metric) subject to several power and QoS constraints. In this context, the

  16. A new energy efficiency index for the german manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Jörg; Sauer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Reliable measurements of energy efficiency relevant developments are of increasing importance to decision makers on various levels. In order to effectively assess the current situation as well as future advancements in the field of energy efficiency, index concepts are inevitable. The paper briefly reviews existing energy efficiency figures applied in Germany followed by the description of the concept and implications of a new leading energy efficiency indicator that is tailored towards the m...

  17. Effects of Building Occupancy on Indicators of Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Aapo Huovila; Pekka Tuominen; Miimu Airaksinen

    2017-01-01

    The potential to reduce energy consumption in buildings is high. The design phase of the building is very important. In addition, it is vital to understand how to measure the energy efficiency in the building operation phase in order to encourage the right efficiency efforts. In understanding the building energy efficiency, it is important to comprehend the interplay of building occupancy, space efficiency, and energy efficiency. Recent studies found in the literature concerning energy effici...

  18. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  19. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  20. Driver's education may reduce annual incidence and severity of moped and scooter accidents. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosola, Silja; Salminen, Päivi; Kallio, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, the annual number of adolescents treated at Helsinki Children's Hospital and Töölö Trauma Centre for injuries from moped and scooter accidents increased five-fold between 2002 and 2007. In June 2011, the requirements for a moped/scooter license changed to include driver's education and a vehicle handling evaluation. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of legislative changes on moped and scooter related serious injuries in adolescents. Data from 520 patients (age 15-16) treated for trauma from moped and scooter accidents at our institutions between January 2008 and December 2013 were included. Case numbers were compared with population data from national databases. Overall incidence, trauma mechanism, injury profile, and proportion of patients requiring hospital admission were calculated for time periods before and after the law amendment. After the law change in 2011, the annual incidence of moped/scooter injuries among 15-year-olds in our area decreased from 0.8% in 2011 to 0.3% in 2013 (p<0.001), and estimated incidence of injuries per new moped/scooter license declined from 1.8% in 2011 to 1.0% in 2013 (p=0.001). Simultaneously, proportions of patients injured in collisions, diagnosed with multiple trauma or requiring in-patient care reduced. A change in moped/scooter license requirements may have a causal relationship with both reduced number and severity of moped/scooter related injuries in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  2. Multi functional roof structures of the energy efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern architectural concepts, which are based on rational energy consumption of buildings and the use of solar energy as a renewable energy source, give the new and significant role to the roofs that become multifunctional structures. Various energy efficient roof structures and elements, beside the role of protection, provide thermal and electric energy supply, natural ventilation and cooling of a building, natural lighting of the indoor space sunbeam protection, water supply for technical use, thus according to the above mentioned functions, classification and analysis of such roof structures and elements are made in this paper. The search for new architectural values and optimization in total energy balance of a building or the likewise for the urban complex, gave to roofs the role of "climatic membranes". Contemporary roof forms and materials clearly exemplify their multifunctional features. There are numerous possibilities to achieve the new and attractive roof design which broadens to the whole construction. With such inducement, this paper principally analyze the configuration characteristics of the energy efficient roof structures and elements, as well as the visual effects that may be achieved by their application.

  3. Energy efficiency in retrofitted and new museum buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannis, G.; Santamouris, M.; Geros, V.; Karatasou, S.; Pavlou, K.; Assimakopoulos, M. N.

    2006-12-01

    This article deals with the energy performance of eight new and existing museum buildings located around Europe. Various energy efficiency and microclimate improvement measures have been adopted to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings and improve the comfort conditions. The investigation was implemented in two principal phases. During the first phase, energy simulation studies were performed in all buildings to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed measures and the various design possibilities. The energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting and other electrical devices was calculated with and without the application of the proposed techniques and the corresponding energy conservation was estimated. Therefore, the proper measures from the energy point of view were adopted. During the second phase, measurements of the energy consumption were performed in the buildings after the finalization of the construction and the implementation of the proposed measures. The energy conservation was again calculated to evaluate the energy efficiency of the final construction. In addition to the energy aspect, the environmental impact of the final construction of the museums was investigated by calculating the reduction of the CO2 emissions due to the applied energy conservation techniques. Finally, the economic efficiency was examined by assessing the payback period of the adopted measures.The results of the present work show that the adaptation of energy conservation techniques in museums buildings can reduce significantly the energy consumption by respecting at the same time the requirements of the exhibition spaces and the comfort conditions of the visitors.

  4. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review subcommittee reports on the...

  5. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries, including...

  6. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on May 1, 2013. The... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The...

  7. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE... CONTACT: Christine Platt-Patrick, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), (202) 586-7691...

  8. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The... CONTACT: Mr. Hoyt Battey, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy...

  9. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00 p.m...

  10. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The...

  11. An Energy Efficient Physical Platform for Solving Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    An Energy -Efficient Physical Platform for Solving Differential Equations Jaeha Kung, Yun Long, Duckhwan Kim, and Saibal Mukhopadhyay School of...present the design of an energy -efficient physical platform for solving differential equations. Our approach crosscuts dynamic system based...of significant gain in performance and energy -efficiency. Based on the analysis on preliminary results, detailed simulation results on digital

  12. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    efficiency in Mbps/kWh is also analyzed. Furthermore, a cost analysis is carried out, to give a more complete picture of the different options being considered. Focusing on the last year of the evolution analysis, results show that deploying more pico sites reduces the energy consumption of the network......, by a maximum of 30%. With regards to the energy efficiency, high deployment of pico sites allowed the network to carry 16% more traffic for the same amount of energy. This, however, results in an increase in cost, specifically operational costs....... options for how to evolve their networks, allowing them to carry the expected increase in traffic. The best solution is generally selected based on two main criteria, performance and cost. However, pushed by a variety of environmental and energy challenges, MNOs are now also showing interest...

  13. Exploring Energy Efficiency of Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    lightweight block ciphers, and thereby try to predict the optimal value of r at which an r-round unrolled architecture for a cipher is likely to be most energy efficient. We also try to relate our results to some physical design parameters like the signal delay across a round and algorithmic parameters like......In the last few years, the field of lightweight cryptography has seen an influx in the number of block ciphers and hash functions being proposed. One of the metrics that define a good lightweight design is the energy consumed per unit operation of the algorithm. For block ciphers, this operation...... is the encryption of one plaintext. By studying the energy consumption model of a CMOS gate, we arrive at the conclusion that the energy consumed per cycle during the encryption operation of an r-round unrolled architecture of any block cipher is a quadratic function in r. We then apply our model to 9 well known...

  14. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  15. TV ENERGIA Energy Efficiency Web TV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vasco; Alves, Luis (Research Group on Energy and Sustainable Development, Technical Univ. of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)); Ferreira, Pedro (Tools to Change, Lda (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The number of thematic TV channels broadcasted over the Internet is a phenomenon that expands the democratisation of institutions and promotes the public participation. This is clear in the creation of the European Web TVs to inform and interact with the public, and institutions. TV ENERGIA is a Portuguese Web TV dedicated to engage the public and the businesses in energy issues, and induce social change by promoting more sustainable behaviours and the use of more energy efficient technologies. TV ENERGIA concept is different from existing Web portals and Web TV on energy and sustainability. It uses Web 2.0 capabilities, video and existing social networks as the main tool for reaching and interacting with the audience. TV ENERGIA is know looking for new partners for creating a wider internet community that uses video broadcasting and Web 2.0 capabilities to promote sustainable energy use.

  16. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  17. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  18. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  19. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  20. The green computing book tackling energy efficiency at large scale

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2014-01-01

    Low-Power, Massively Parallel, Energy-Efficient Supercomputers The Blue Gene TeamCompiler-Driven Energy Efficiency Mahmut Kandemir and Shekhar Srikantaiah An Adaptive Run-Time System for Improving Energy Efficiency Chung-Hsing Hsu, Wu-chun Feng, and Stephen W. PooleEnergy-Efficient Multithreading through Run-Time Adaptation Exploring Trade-Offs between Energy Savings and Reliability in Storage Systems Ali R. Butt, Puranjoy Bhattacharjee, Guanying Wang, and Chris GniadyCross-Layer Power Management Zhikui Wang and Parthasarathy Ranganathan Energy-Efficient Virtualized Systems Ripal Nathuji and K

  1. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    In order to reduce climate change, resource scarcity and other global environmental issues major increases in energy efficiency are necessary throughout our energy system. Despite this daunting outlook and the fact that energy efficiency in most instances makes economic and environmental sense......, these energy efficiency improvements do not occur by themselves. This challenge of low diffusion for energy-efficient solutions has been the subject of policy efforts since the oil crisis in the 1970s and they are gaining in attention. In certain sectors, however, it seems like energy efficiency is starting...

  2. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the last meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP)1 held in January 2010. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency developments across all sectors, but is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries. At the request of the EEWP, this issue of the country report summary focuses primarily on transport. Countries reported a wide range of energy efficiency policy activity. Compared with past reports, energy efficiency policy planning seems to be giving way to programme implementation in the buildings, lighting and appliances sectors. Planning and implementation is underway in the transport sector. Measures in the transport sector are diverse and include financial support for electric vehicle R&D and pilot projects, fiscal policies to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles, eco-drive programmes and vehicle labelling. Measures of note outside the transport sector include the promotion of smart metering.

  3. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  4. Comparison of technologies for new energy-efficient lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, R. R.; Rubinstein, F. R.

    1983-06-01

    Energy efficient light bulbs are developed to replace the incandescent lamp where they can satisfy the design criteria and be used in sockets that have long hours of annual use. Four technologies are discussed which include: the compact fluorescent lamp, coated filament lamp, electrodeless fluorescent lamp, and compact high intensity discharge lamp. The systems demonstrate efficacy improvements of two to four times that of their incandescent counterparts. The new lamps required considerable advances in lamp technology. They offer the potential for achieving efficacies close to 80 lumens per watt. The new lamps will reduce the energy used annually by incandescent lamps (190 BkWh) by more than 50% in the 1990s, at which times they will be commonly employed.

  5. Energy Efficient Hybrid Gas Separation with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xinyan; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    and membranes together with distillation require less energy and have attracted much attention. With the property of non-volatility and good stability, ionic liquids (ILs) have been considered as new potential solvents for the absorption step. However, the enormous number of potential ILs that can......Shale gas, like natural gas, contains H2, CO2, CH4 and that light hydrocarbon gases needs processing to separate the gases for conversion to higher value products. Currently, distillation based separation is employed, which is energy intensive. Hybrid gas separation processes, combining absorption...... systems is established for process design-analysis. A strategy for hybrid gas separation process synthesis where distillation and IL-based absorption are employed for energy efficient gas processing is developed and its application is highlighted for a model shale gas processing case study....

  6. Energy efficiency and CO2: is electricity the key factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Europe must face soon to the depletion of fossil energy resources. Efficiency in end energy uses is a key to prepare this challenge. First, the report shows that significant energy efficiency capacities remain in the main economy sectors in France and Europe: buildings, industry, transportation. The key technologies, mainly electricity-driven, are briefly presented, together with the related main tracks for R and D: heat pumps, thermal insulation, induction and mechanical vapour compression for industry, plugged hybrid vehicle, LED sources for lighting. Their ability to decrease CO2 emissions is shown. Control equipment and users behaviour are pointed out, mainly with the key role of price energy with recent French experience : load shifting, peak shaving. Finally, the report shows that a firm policy, based on high performance equipments, could lead to a significant decrease of energy needs in France around 2030.

  7. Energy efficiency in public buildings; Eficiencia energetica em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, Asher; Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto; Vianna, Luis Gustavo; Freitas, Daniela; Oliveira, Braulio; Azevedo, Alexandre; Alves, Igor; Fagundes, Vitor Lacerda [Universidade Federal da Bahia (TECLIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Rede de Tecnologias Limpas

    2010-07-01

    The implementation process of a energy management system in buildings of the Bahia state administration is presented. Completed a first phase, with a prior knowledge of the characteristics of the energy use in buildings and the implementation of a daily consumption monitoring system (the Vianet), a second phase begins with the definition of consumption targets and mobilization actions of the people, both the whole of the users, and more strongly the 'eco team', group which shall be responsible for the management. This paper makes a theoretical consideration on the use of energy in buildings, showing the room for energy management in addition to the simple exchange by efficient equipment, estimates the reduction obtained by the energy efficiency program of the electric utility with the exchange of light fixtures and air conditioners, shows the targeting process and difficulties found and identifies measures that will be implemented to achieve increasingly efficient patterns of energy use. (author)

  8. Towards Energy Efficient and Shared Mobility Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Throughout the 20th century, automobiles have shaped urban and suburban landscapes, especially in North America. Globally, the car-centric transportation paradigm has contributed to unprecedented issues in terms of air quality, fossil-fuel dependence, carbon emissions lock-in, traffic congestion, road safety, parking scarcity, serious public health concerns, and socioeconomic inequality. Nonetheless, in the United States the percentage of single-occupant vehicle (SOV) commuters has continued to rise since 1960 while the proportion of carpooling has decreased by more than half since 1980. Evolving mobility services, in conjunction with new behavioral insights, have motivated recent inquiries in how to best foster sustainable growth while reducing traffic congestion and improving health outcomes. Few studies have assessed their true effectiveness, unanticipated effects (e.g., 'dead-head' or 'empty-vehicle' ride-hailing trips) or measured their impact on a specific city (e.g., modal shift, changes in personal miles traveled/vehicle miles traveled). This effort aims to answer the following questions: to what extent can shared mobility help invert the trend of increasing SOV trips? What are the energy risks and benefits of shared mobility? How do interactions between technology, policy, urban design, and behavioral change shape the transition to energy-efficient transportation? To this end, an assessment framework for sustainable urban mobility is developed, incorporating behavioral metrics (percent active transportation, percent transit ridership, percent shared trips), energy use (vehicle miles traveled per capita, percent SOV trips) and urban planning (population density, average commute time). We apply this framework to three cities (Denver, CO; San Francisco, CA; and Paris, France) to evaluate the sustainability of their transportation systems and explore their potential for shared mobility. The influence of incentives, social norms, and public

  9. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS

  10. All-terrain vehicle, trampoline and scooter injuries and their prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah

    2006-06-01

    Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Injuries specifically related to all terrain vehicles, trampolines and scooter usage can be devastating and are often preventable. Our understanding of how and why these injuries occur can aid in preventing morbidity and mortality. The popularity of all-terrain vehicles, nonmotorized scooters and trampolines has soared over recent years. This increased usage has led to a tremendous rise in injuries in children utilizing these recreational activities. Many of the injuries occur in younger children who may not possess the motor and cognitive skills necessary to safely engage in these activities. These activities lead to a number of head and extremity injuries, most of which can be attenuated by the use of protective gear such as helmets and protective padding. Understanding the nature of these injuries can lead to advocacy and hopefully legislation to prevent further injuries from occurring.

  11. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; Haddad, I El; Pieber, S M; Huang, R-J; Zardini, A A; Clairotte, M; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Barmet, P; Pfaffenberger, L; Wolf, R; Slowik, J G; Fuller, S J; Kalberer, M; Chirico, R; Dommen, J; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R; Marchand, N; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2014-05-13

    Fossil fuel-powered vehicles emit significant particulate matter, for example, black carbon and primary organic aerosol, and produce secondary organic aerosol. Here we quantify secondary organic aerosol production from two-stroke scooters. Cars and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of 'asymmetric pollution' from two-stroke scooters, vehicles that constitute a small fraction of the fleet, but can dominate urban vehicular pollution through organic aerosol and aromatic emission factors up to thousands of times higher than from other vehicle classes. Further, we demonstrate that oxidation processes producing secondary organic aerosol from vehicle exhaust also form potentially toxic 'reactive oxygen species'.

  12. The effect of powered scooters on activity, participation and quality of life in elderly users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Ingvor; Hagberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Carin; Hermansson, Liselotte N

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to explore the effect of using a powered mobility device (PMD) on older peoples' activity, participation and quality of life (QoL). A pre- and post-intervention design with outcome measures for activity, participation (Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment, IPPA; World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2.0) and QoL (SF-36) were used. T-test was used to analyse the data. The magnitude of the effects was measured by Cohen's criteria for effect sizes (d). The sample consisted of 45 individuals (36 men) aged 66-88 years referred for prescription of a PMD. All were prescribed a powered scooter (PS). A statistically significant improvement with a large effect on IPPA in the ICF domains of Self-care (d = 2.47), Domestic life (d = 2.40), Interpersonal interactions and relationships (d = 2.08), and Community, social, and civic life (d = 2.36) was found. Medium-sized improvement on the WHODAS 2.0 domain of Participation and small improvements in the SF-36 domains of Physical Health and Role-Physical were also found. A PS has significant effects on the areas of activity, participation and QoL in elderly people. These findings have implications for prescriptions of a PS to this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Powered scooter interventions increased the performance of activities and increased participation in elderly people with mobility limitations. Actions from several parts of the community are required to prevent from mishaps from using powered scooters. The Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment is an adequate method to measure goal attainment in elderly users of powered scooters.

  13. Motion estimation by integrated low cost system (vision and MEMS) for positioning of a scooter "Vespa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.

  14. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.

  15. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  16. GPC Light Shaper for energy efficient laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    with steep, well defined edges that would further increase laser cutting precision or allow “single shot” laser engraving of arbitrary 2D profiles, as opposed to point scanning [3,4]. Instead of lossy approaches, GPC beam shaping is achieved with simplified, binary phase-only optics [5] that redistributes...... the available photons into the desired output shape, removing upto ~66% from typical power requirements due to a threefold intensity gain. Furthermore, upto ~93% of losses from typical amplitude masking is consistently reclaimed....

  17. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  18. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  19. Energy Efficiency in Computing (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    As manufacturers improve the silicon process, truly low energy computing is becoming a reality - both in servers and in the consumer space. This series of lectures covers a broad spectrum of aspects related to energy efficient computing - from circuits to datacentres. We will discuss common trade-offs and basic components, such as processors, memory and accelerators. We will also touch on the fundamentals of modern datacenter design and operation. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Google), as well as international research institutes, such as EPFL. Currently, Andrzej acts as a consultant on technology and innovation with TIK Services (http://tik.services), and runs a peer-to-peer lending start-up. NB! All Academic L...

  20. Energy Efficiency in Computing (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We will start the second day of our energy efficient computing series with a brief discussion of software and the impact it has on energy consumption. A second major point of this lecture will be the current state of research and a few future technologies, ranging from mainstream (e.g. the Internet of Things) to exotic. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Google), as well as international research institutes, such as EPFL. Currently, Andrzej acts as a consultant on technology and innovation with TIK Services (http://tik.services), and runs a peer-to-peer lending start-up. NB! All Academic Lectures are recorded. No webcast! Because of a problem of the recording equipment, this lecture will be repeated for recording pu...

  1. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  2. Finite Capacity Energy Efficient Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanod Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance analysis of a finite capacity energy efficient femtocell network. A FAP (Femtocell Access Point provides continuous connectivity for M communicating nodes in this network. The data transmission from M communicating nodes to the central entity (FAP is represented using M/M/1/K queue. To save energy, the server, in this case, takes exponentially distributed vacations during idle periods. Due to finite buffer size of FAP, this network represents a finite capacity system. The network model where sever takes vacation to save energy is solved with help of MGM (Matrix Geometric Method. For different system capacities, the network performance is analyzed in terms of power savings and QoS (Quality of Service parameters such as utilization, average packet delay, and packet blocking probability. Results show that with small traffic intensity the energy savings is high, whereas utilization, delay and blocking are low. Moreover, the maximum energy can be saved when system in quite underutilized

  3. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  4. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  5. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion. Vol. 653

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion V. Topics covered include: electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control; high contrast electrochromic tungsten oxide layers; transparent thermal insulation with infrared-absorbing gases; and a modified luminescent solar concentrator.

  6. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollini, R. [Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Viale Druso 1, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Danza, L.; Meroni, I. [ITC-CNR, Construction Technologies Institute - Italian National Research Council, Via Lombardia, 49 - 20098 San Giuliano Milanese (MI) (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  7. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  8. Towards Hybrid Urban Mobility: Kick Scooter as a Means of Individual Transport in the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata; Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    The characteristic feature of a contemporary city is its inconvenience and oppressiveness caused by the hitherto dominant paradigm of urban planning based on car mobility. As a result, the inhabitants have to cope with air pollution, noise, spatial barriers, sedentary lifestyle and other factors which worsen their health and quality of life. Ecological and physically activating urban mobility thus plays an increasingly important role in the process of creating a friendly and healthy city. For many years, a steadily increasing share of bicycles in urban traffic has been observed. There are also other trending forms of non-motorized transport, such as in-line skates, skateboards, kick scooters, etc. Riding each of them can be regarded as a form of recreation or sport, but also as an ecological, physically activating means of urban mobility. The paper discusses the different forms of recreational mobility in the context of the possibility of combining it with city public transport, with particular emphasis on kick scooters. Kick scooters are becoming more and more popular, not only among children and youth, but also among adults, who use it mainly as a means of the non-motorised urban transport. Numerous publications from different parts of the world show a dynamic growth of this phenomenon. The aim of the article is also to answer the question in what extent the design of public space takes into consideration the use of these new forms of transport and recreation and, consequently, what aspects and requirements should be taken into account in the planning and design process. The paper presents the conclusions of a field study carried out with a group of students in Szczecin and Berlin. The aim of the research was to evaluate the possibilities of using kick scooters in big cities as a means of hybrid mobility combined with public transport by exploring the spectrum of public spaces (streets, squares, traffic nodes and hubs, public buildings, etc.) and testing the

  9. Energy Efficiency Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Martha [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    The Consortium for Building Energy Innovation (CBEI) was established through a Funding Opportunity Announcement led by the U.S. Department of Energy, under a cooperative agreement managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. CBEI is led by The Pennsylvania State University and is composed of partners from academia, the private sector, and economic development agencies. The Consortium has included as many as 24 different partners over the five years, but 14 have been core to the work over the five year cooperative agreement. CBEI primarily focused on developing energy efficiency solutions for the small and medium commercial building market, with a focus on buildings less than 50,000 square feet. This market has been underserved by the energy efficiency industry, which has focused on larger commercial buildings where the scale of an individual retrofit lends itself to the use of sophisticated modeling tools and more advanced solutions. Owners/operators and retrofit providers for larger buildings have a greater level of understanding of, and experience with different solutions. In contrast, smaller commercial building retrofits, like residential retrofits, often have owners with less knowledge about energy management and less time to learn about it. This market segment is also served by retrofit providers that are smaller and often focused on particular building systems, e.g. heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, roofing, or insulation. The size of a smaller commercial building retrofit does not lend itself, from a cost perspective, to the application of multiple, sophisticated design and modeling tools, which means that they are less likely to have integrated solutions.

  10. Design of Energy Efficient SMISMO-ELS Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally mechanical linked meter-in and meterout spool valves are used for velocity control of hydraulic differential cylinders. However with the demand for energy efficient systems the individual meter-in and meter-out valves draws massive attention. This paper propose an energy efficient...... actuator control and combines this with energy efficient system control. Finally energy neutral performance improvments are suggested for the subjacent actuator in an ELS system....

  11. Metrics for Energy Efficiency in Logistics of Freight Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Stet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a study on the energy efficiency indicators that can be used for the activities in logistics of freight distribution, at the company level, as well as at macroeconomic level. There are highlighted also some solutions for increasing energy efficiency in distribution channels, starting from technical and logistics management actions, at the company level. There are revealed also the impacts of energy efficiency measures.

  12. A Wireless Platform for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    reductions due to energy efficiency gains as well as installed (first) cost and maintenance cost reductions from using WSN and MPC for building HVAC...for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits August 2012 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Platform for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  13. Energy Efficiency in Architecture – a Technical Obstacle or a Chance to Find new Forms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchepetkov Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes innovative materials and structures for improving the energy efficiency of lightning in architecture. The problem of architectural energy efficiency and its part – energy saving illumination of rooms and urban environment is very actual in developing countries. This problem can be successfully solved only by a complex of architectural, constructional, electrical and technological measures which will lead to new forms in architecture and lightning design. This article briefly reviews the benefits of light pipes technologies to enhance natural illumination of deep plan buildings.

  14. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This White Paper focuses on the areas and products involved in the above tasks, based on the White Paper - Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2010), here referred to as “White Paper 2010”, which analyzed the energy efficiency status of 21 typical energy-using products in five sectors: household appliances, office equipment, commercial equipment, industrial equipment, and lighting equipment. Table 1 illustrates the detailed product coverage for this year’s paper, noting the addition of three household appliance items (automatic electric rice cooker, AC electric fan, and household induction cooktop) and one industrial sector item (three-phase distribution transformer).

  15. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  16. Incentives to improve energy efficiency in EU Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Beestermoeller, C.; Gardiner, A.

    2013-04-15

    The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) includes provisions related to network tariffs and regulation. It is timely therefore to revisit the potential options for energy efficiency in grids, the treatment of energy efficiency in network tariffs and alternative policies for improving energy efficiency. This project builds on work done previously for the European Copper Institute in this area. In this paper, we concentrate on energy efficiency in electricity network design and operation. Other articles in the Directive relate to the role of the network tariffs and regulations in enabling or incentivising the provision of energy efficiency to end users. In section 2, we describe technical efficiency measures to reduce losses (improve energy efficiency) in the grid. Section 3 reviews grid tariffs in three countries to identify whether they provide incentives or disincentives for energy efficiency in the grid. Section 4 discusses and evaluates alternative regulations for energy efficiency in grids. Section 5 concludes and discusses the main components of the optimal policy framework.

  17. Energy Efficiency Resources to Support State Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-06-01

    An early step for most energy efficiency planning is to identify and quantify energy savings opportunities, and then to understand how to access this potential. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offers resources that can help with both of these steps. This fact sheet presents those resources. The resources are also available on the DOE State and Local Solution Center on the "Energy Efficiency: Savings Opportunities and Benefits" page: https://energy.gov/eere/slsc/energy-efficiency-savings-opportunities-and-benefits.

  18. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  19. Buildings Energy Efficiency: Interventions Analysis under a Smart Cities Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriele Battista; Luca Evangelisti; Claudia Guattari; Carmine Basilicata; Roberto de Lieto Vollaro

    2014-01-01

    .... Smart cities can be a viable solution. The methodology traditionally adopted to evaluate building energy efficiency starts from the structure's energy demands analysis and the demands reduction evaluation...

  20. Closing the Gap GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays and will continue to play an important role in the world to save energy and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, little is known on how much additional capital should be invested to ensure using energy efficiently as it should be, and very little is known which sub-areas, technologies, and countries shall achieve maximum greenhouse gas emissions mitigation per dollar of investment in energy efficiency worldwide. Analyzing completed and slowly moving energy efficiency projects by the Global Environment Facility during 1991-2010, Closing the Gap: GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency evaluates impacts of multi-billion-dollar investments in the world energy efficiency. It covers the following areas: 1.       Reviewing the world energy efficiency investment and disclosing the global energy efficiency gap and market barriers that cause the gap; 2.       Leveraging private funds with public funds and other resources in energy efficiency investments; using...

  1. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  2. Energie Efficiency Directive. Article 7. Dutch implementation; Energie Efficiency Directive. Artikel 7. Nederlandse invulling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.; Gerdes, J.; Boonekamp, P.; Kroon, P.; Stutvoet-Mulder, K.; Tigchelaar, C.; Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Article 7 of the recently adopted Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) obliges the EU member states to achieve 1.5% yearly efficiency improvements during the period 2014-2020, culminating in a cumulative savings target. This report describes the way the Netherlands intends to meet the article 7 obligations, as requested by the European Commission. The EED offers the member states various degrees of freedom with regard to the definition of the target and the way it is met. Hence, this report addresses the choices of the Netherlands and their consequences for the Dutch target and the realised energy savings. A broad-lined description of the choices and overall results is complemented by extensive annexes that offer technical descriptions and detailed numbers [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de manier waarop Nederland aan haar doelstelling voor artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) denkt te voldoen. Het is gebaseerd op de interpretaties en keuzes die de Nederlandse overheid heeft gemaakt. Artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive verplicht Nederland tot het realiseren van een efficiencyverbetering van 1,5% per jaar in de periode 2014-2020, als cumulatieve doelstelling. Voor Nederland betekent dit - rekening houdend met de vrijheidsgraden van de EED - een doelstelling van minimaal 482 PJ besparing op het finaal energiegebruik. Nederland verwacht een cumulatieve besparing te bereiken tussen de 387 en 562 PJ in finale termen, waarvan 87 tot 186 PJ door nieuw beleid. Dit nieuwe beleid bestaat uit de overeengekomen beleidsmaatregelen uit het recente Energieakkoord dat onder regie van de Sociaal Economische Raad (SER) is gesloten. Het kabinet heeft dit akkoord mede ondertekend.

  3. Three essays on energy efficiency policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Maryam

    This thesis is comprised of three essays which explore selected aspects of demand side energy efficiency policy of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC). The first essay models the adoption of IECC in the U.S. between 1998 and 2010. An ordered probit model with IECC adoption as the dependent variable is used to test if a set of socio-economics, political, spatial, and environmental factors predict the residential building energy code adoption. The results show that higher energy price, relative political extraction, climate extremes, pollution level, and population growth predict IECC adoption in the sample. The diffusion variable (share of neighbor states with IECC) is shown to have large impacts on the probability of IECC adoption. The next two essays examine the effect of IECC on residential electricity consumption. The second essay investigates the impact of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) on per-capita residential electricity consumption for 44 U.S. states from 1981-2008. Applying the pooled mean group (PMG) model developed by Pesaran et al. (1999), and controlling for energy specific demand factors such as: prices, income, heating degree days, and cooling degree days, I find that there is an overall 2% decrease in new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption in the states which adopted any version of IECC. The new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption has decreased by about 2.5% and 5% in the states with IECC 2000 and IECC 2003 respectively. The third essay examines the impact of building energy code on the household electricity consumption in three states in U.S. To do so; I construct a pseudo panel using household level data from the American Community Survey (ACS) over the period 2005-2010. By constructing pseudo panel, we are able to track cohorts of relatively homogeneous individuals over time, and control for cohort unobserved heterogeneity that may bias the results of cross sectional estimates

  4. Curriculum for Commissioning Energy Efficient Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Lia [Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., OR (United States)

    2012-12-27

    In July 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded funding to PECI to develop training curriculum in commercial energy auditing and building commissioning. This program was created in response to the high demand for auditing and commissioning services in the U.S. commercial buildings market and to bridge gaps and barriers in existing training programs. Obstacles addressed included: lack of focus on entry level candidates; prohibitive cost and time required for training; lack of hands-on training; trainings that focus on certifications & process overviews; and lack of comprehensive training. PECI organized several other industry players to create a co-funded project sponsored by DOE, PECI, New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), California Energy Commission (CEC), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and California Commissioning Collaborative (CCC). After awarded, PECI teamed with another DOE awardee, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), to work collaboratively to create one comprehensive program featuring two training tracks. NJIT’s Center for Building Knowledge is a research and training institute affiliated with the College of Architecture and Design, and provided e-learning and video enhancements. This project designed and developed two training programs with a comprehensive, energy-focused curriculum to prepare new entrants to become energy auditors or commissioning authorities (CxAs). The following are the key elements of the developed trainings, which is depicted graphically in Figure 1: • Online classes are self-paced, and can be completed anywhere, any time • Commissioning Authority track includes 3 online modules made up of 24 courses delivered in 104 individual lessons, followed by a 40 hour hands-on lab. Total time required is between 75 and 100 hours, depending on the pace of the independent learner. • Energy Auditor track includes 3 online modules made up of 18 courses delivered in 72 individual

  5. Investigating the technical, economic and environmental performance of electric vehicles in the real-world: A case study using electric scooters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin D. K.; Doucette, Reed T.; Robinson, Daniel; Mills, Barnaby; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    This work presents the findings of a small-scale electric scooter trial in Oxford, United Kingdom. The trial scooters were instrumented with global positioning satellite data loggers and energy meters to record their time of day usage and charging regimes. The scooters were most likely driving at 09:00, 12:45 and 17:15 and charging at 10:15-10:40. The electric scooter normalized mains-to-wheel energy use was 0.10 kWh km -1. The electric scooter total operating costs (electricity and battery replacement) of £0.045 km -1 is 24% greater than the best selling equivalent petrol motorcycle and 1.7 times lower than the best selling car. The electric scooter uses 0.45 MJ km -1, or 2.9 times and 6.1 times less than the petrol motorcycle and car, respectively. Further, the electric scooter can achieve zero carbon dioxide equivalent (greenhouse gas, GHG) emissions when electricity from renewable energy sources is used. In 2008, there were 247 000 motorcycles in the UK vehicle fleet of equivalent size to the trial scooter. Scaling up the electric vehicle fleet size accordingly would avoid 0.60 billion car or motorcycle kilometres and 54-110 kt associated GHG. The fleet would require 59 GWh, or 0.015% of total annual generation with a time-shifted, peak demand of 250 MW, or 0.44% of the 58 GW maximum national demand.

  6. ETARP: An Energy Efficient Trust-Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new routing protocol called Secure and Energy Aware Routing Protocol (ETARP designed for energy efficiency and security for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. ETARP attempts to deal with WSN applications operating in extreme environments such as the battlefield. The key part of the routing protocol is route selection based on utility theory. The concept of utility is a novel approach to simultaneously factor energy efficiency and trustworthiness of routes in the routing protocol. ETARP discovers and selects routes on the basis of maximum utility with incurring additional cost in overhead compared to the common AODV (Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector routing protocol. Simulation results show that, in comparison to previously proposed routing protocols, namely, AODV-EHA and LTB-AODV (Light-Weight Trust-Based Routing Protocol, the proposed ETARP can keep the same security level while achieving more energy efficiency for data packet delivery.

  7. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  8. Energy efficiency in hybrid mobile and wireless networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaul Haq Abbas

    2012-07-01

    . Towards this direction, various solutions have been proposed, ranging from deployment strategies for base stations to cooperative techniques etc. However, as base stations have the largest share in a network's energy consumption, methods that allow lightly-loaded base stations sleep or be switched off are possible means as a feasible step towards green communications. In this dissertation, we tackle the above mentioned problems from two perspectives, i.e., mobile station's and operator's perspectives. More specifically, by taking into account the amount of transferred data in uplinks and downlinks individually for various components in a hybrid network, strategies are proposed to reduce mobile station's battery energy consumption. For this purpose, other parameters such as link distance and remaining battery energy can also be considered for handover decision making, in order to maximize energy efficiency of the mobile station. To optimize long-term energy consumption of the mobile stations operated in such scenarios, a Markov decision process-based methodology is proposed as our contribution to this topic. Moreover, from operator's perspective, a network energy conservation scheme which may switch off a base station is proposed for micro- or pico-cells scenarios. Both deterministic and probabilistic schemes are proposed for network energy conservation. The problems considered and the solutions proposed in this dissertation advance the frontiers of the research work within the theme of energy efficiency for mobile devices as well as hybrid mobile and wireless networks.(Author)

  9. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  10. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J... Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... to Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000...

  11. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Advance notice of... the message. Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program...

  12. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  13. Energy efficiency of error correcting mechanisms for wireless communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We consider the energy efficiency of error control mechanisms for wireless communication. Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy efficient error control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. Although good designed retransmission schemes can be optimal

  14. Energy efficiency in elastic-bandwidth optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaino, Jorge Lopez; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    The forecasted growth in the Internet traffic has made the operators and industry to be concerned about the power consumption of the networks, and to become interested in alternatives to plan and operate the networks in a more energy efficient manner. The introduction of OFDM, and its property...... modulation formats offer in terms of energy efficiency....

  15. Energy Efficiency Plan in Public Sector in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Camelo, Susana

    2012-01-01

    January 2011 the Energy Efficiency Programme in Management Public - Eco.AP Project, a rolling program, to: increase the energy efficiency of Public Administration services, buildings and equipment, target of 30% by 2020, contracts with ESCOs to obtain, in a cost-effective, improvements in efficiency.

  16. THERMAL INSULATION EFFECTS ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cvetkovska; Knezevic, M.; Rogac, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of Finite Element Method for heat transfer analysis. Connections wall-beam-floor structures with different positions of the thermal insulation have been analyzed and conclusions about energy efficiency and energy loss are made. Keywords: heat transfer, numerical analysis, finite elements, thermal insulation, energy efficiency.

  17. Energy efficiency opportunities in the Canadian brewing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This guide is one of several that will be issued over time as part of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC). The objective in this instance is to describe data related to industrial energy use in the Canadian brewing industry and the opportunities for energy efficiency within the industry. The various industry task forces within CIPEC act as the focal point for identifying energy efficiency potential and improvement opportunities, establish energy efficiency targets for their respective sectors, reviewing and addressing barriers, and developing and implementing strategies for the achievement of targets. This guide, compiled on behalf of the brewing industry task force of CIPEC, is designed to demonstrate practical support for federal government objectives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, help in the development of the industry`s energy efficiency targets and draw up an action plan to realize this target. Accordingly, the guide provides brief descriptions of energy efficiency opportunities, and describes proven and tested energy and money-saving methods. These methods include procedural changes, employee involvement, common-sense good housekeeping tips, energy audits, improvements in maintenance practices, changes in the operational and control functions, capital investments, and improvements through monitoring and targeting. Integrating energy efficiency improvement efforts with an environmental management system is also described as part of demonstrating good corporate citizenship. Various energy efficiency case histories taken from brewing industry experiences are described as examples of the kind of energy efficiency measures that breweries could profitably undertake. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. The Green Lab : Experimentation in Software Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccianti, Giuseppe; Lago, Patricia; Vetrò, Antonio; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wieringa, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Software energy efficiency is a research topic where experimentation is widely adopted. Nevertheless, current studies and research approaches struggle to find generalizable findings that can be used to build a consistent knowledge base for energy-efficient software. To this end, we will discuss how

  19. Shared Savings Financing for College and University Energy Efficiency Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Shared savings arrangements for campus energy efficient investments are discussed. Shared savings is a term for an agreement in which a private company offers to implement an energy efficiency program, including capital improvements, in exchange for a portion of the energy cost savings. Attention is directed to: types of shared savings…

  20. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  1. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy...

  2. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and...

  3. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a... administration of programs and policies to enhance the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy...

  4. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy...

  5. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear... of Commerce on efforts to address issues that affect the competitiveness of U.S. renewable ] energy...

  6. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to... programs and policies to expand the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy...

  7. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver 11... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy...

  8. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing the...

  9. An energy efficiency guide for use in cleanroom programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale

    2001-12-07

    This guide was developed to provide ideas for considering energy efficiency in the early stages of a cleanroom design project. Use of this guide will facilitate selection of design features that will improve energy efficiency in cleanrooms. Cleanroom owners and designers can use the guide to focus on energy intensive items in the design of a cleanroom facility.

  10. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  11. 77 FR 43723 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Conservation programs (EE Programs) undertaken by an eligible utility system to finance demand side management... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... implementing demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid...

  12. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  13. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...... efficiency actions is rather similar between the four countries. The simple and inexpensive actions, like choosing the lorry according to the cargo and idling avoidance, are most widely implemented. The energy efficiency index developed in this research proved to be a very useful tool for comparing......In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...

  14. The Multiple Benefits of Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    Understanding the barriers to, and enablers for, energy efficiency requires targeted information and analysis. This report is a summary of four detailed studies providing new insights on how to promote efficiency in selected priority areas. It complements initiatives such as the so-called energy...... efficiency accelerators, which seek to increase the uptake of selected technologies, as well as the work of many other institutions committed to improving energy efficiency. The modelling estimates and the case studies presented in this report illustrate that, while significant progress has already been...... achieved, the case for accelerating energy efficiency action is strong. Key highlights include: • At the global level, energy efficiency improvements would account for between 2.6 and 3.3 Gt CO2e of the reductions in 2030, equivalent to between 23 and 26 percent of the overall reductions achieved...

  15. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products... Efficiency Standard for Residential Non- Weatherized Gas Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Commonwealth of Massachusetts seeking an exemption from Federal preemption of certain energy efficiency...

  16. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  17. Energy-Efficient Office Buildings at High Latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerum, V.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes a method for energy efficient office building design at high latitudes and cold climates. The method combines daylighting, passive solar heating, solar protection, and ventilative cooling. The thesis focuses on optimal design of an equatorial-facing fenestration system. A spreadsheet framework linking existing simplified methods is used. The daylight analysis uses location specific data on frequency distribution of diffuse daylight on vertical surfaces to estimate energy savings from optimal window and room configurations in combination with a daylight-responsive electric lighting system. The passive solar heating analysis is a generalization of a solar load ratio method adapted to cold climates by combining it with the Norwegian standard NS3031 for winter months when the solar savings fraction is negative. The emphasis is on very high computational efficiency to permit rapid and comprehensive examination of a large number of options early in design. The procedure is illustrated for a location in Trondheim, Norway, testing the relative significance of various design improvement options relative to a base case. The method is also tested for two other locations in Norway, at latitudes 58 and 70 degrees North. The band of latitudes between these limits covers cities in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Finland, Russia, and Northern Japan. A comprehensive study of the ``whole building approach`` shows the impact of integrated daylighting and low-energy design strategies. In general, consumption of lighting electricity may be reduced by 50-80%, even at extremely high latitudes. The reduced internal heat from electric lights is replaced by passive solar heating. 113 refs., 85 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. The Inefficiencies of Energy Efficiency : Reviewing the Strategic Role of Energy Efficiency and its Effectiveness in Alleviating Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, S.A.; Lindhult, Erik; Mashayekhi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Our present economy is high-energy and demand-intensive, demand met through the use of high energy yield fossil fuels. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are proposed as the solution and named the ‘twin pillars’ of sustainable energy policy. Increasing energy efficiencies are expected to

  19. Factores humanos asociados a los accidentes mortales de motocicletas scooter en España

    OpenAIRE

    Sospedra Baeza, María José; Hidalgo Fuentes, Sergio; Cuñado Pérez, Lia

    2017-01-01

    Los accidentes de motocicleta son uno de los problemas de seguridad vial más importantes a nivel mundial. Hay una escasez de estudios específi cos sobre las características de la accidentalidad de las motocicletas de tipo scooter, motivada por la falta de una defi nición precisa de este tipo de motocicleta y de la identifi cación de los distintos tipos de vehículos de dos ruedas en los registros de accidentes. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar las características de los 293 conductore...

  20. Energy efficient housing in South Africa. A Research Alliance, CSIR/SUPSI project proposal for energy efficient building (housing) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available /SUPSI Project Proposal For Energy Efficient Building (Housing) in South Africa PROJECT TITLE: “Energy Efficient Housing in SA” Presentation: Energy Efficient Housing in SA Background SDC HQ Meeting, Bern, Switzerland 11 February, 2010 Presenter: Dr...

  1. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  2. On Energy Efficiency of Prioritized IoT Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2018-01-15

    The inevitable deployment of 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) sheds the light on the importance of the energy efficiency (EE) performance of Device-to- Device (DD) communication systems. In this work, we address a potential IoT application, where different prioritized DD system, i.e., Low-Priority (LP) and High-Priority (HP) systems, co-exist and share the spectrum. We maximize the EE of each system by proposing two schemes. The first scheme optimizes the individual transmission power and the spatial density of each system. The second scheme optimizes the transmission power ratio of both systems and the spatial density of each one. We also construct and analytically solve a multi- objective optimization problem that combines and jointly maximizes both HP and LP EE performance. Unique structures of the addressed problems are verified. Via numerical results we show that the system which dominates the overall EE (combined EEs of both HP and LP) is the system corresponding to the lowest power for low/high power ratio (between HP and LP systems). However, if the power ratio is close to one, the dominating EE corresponds to the system with higher weight.

  3. Making Image More Energy Efficient for OLED Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, more and more mobile smart devices are emerging massively; energy consumption of these devices has become an important consideration due to the limitation of battery capacity. Displays are the dominant energy consuming component of battery-operated devices, giving rise to organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a new promising display technology, which consumes different power when displaying different content due to their emissive nature. Based on this property, we propose an approach to improve image energy efficiency on OLED displays by perceiving image content. The key idea of our approach is to eliminate undesired details while preserving the region of interest of the image by leveraging the color and spatial information. First, we use edge detection algorithm to extract region of interest (ROI of an image. Next, we gradually change luminance and saturation of region of noninterest (NON-ROI of the image. Then we perform detailed experiment and case study to validate our approach; experiment results show that our approach can save 22.5% energy on average while preserving high quality of the image.

  4. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  5. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  6. Effects of Building Occupancy on Indicators of Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aapo Huovila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential to reduce energy consumption in buildings is high. The design phase of the building is very important. In addition, it is vital to understand how to measure the energy efficiency in the building operation phase in order to encourage the right efficiency efforts. In understanding the building energy efficiency, it is important to comprehend the interplay of building occupancy, space efficiency, and energy efficiency. Recent studies found in the literature concerning energy efficiency in office buildings have concentrated heavily on the technical characteristics of the buildings or technical systems. The most commonly used engineering indicator for building energy efficiency is the specific energy consumption (SEC, commonly measured in kWh/m2 per annum. While the SEC is a sound way to measure the technical properties of a building and to guide its design, it obviously omits the issues of building occupancy and space efficiency. This paper studies existing energy efficiency indicators and introduces a new indicator for building energy efficiency which takes into account both space and occupancy efficiency.

  7. Plugging the Energy Efficiency Gap with Climate Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the Green Climate Fund to realise the potential of energy efficiency in developing countries. This report examines the current role of climate finance in funding EE projects and the potential to channel funds to relevant EE projects in developing countries under the new Green Climate Fund (GCF). The objectives of the report are to examine: 1) the share of climate finance currently being channelled to energy efficiency measures, and 2) how the design of climate finance can better facilitate energy efficiency projects. Improving energy efficiency (EE) can deliver a range of benefits such as improved air quality, enhanced economic competitiveness and, at the national scale, a higher degree of energy security. Significant improvements in energy efficiency in developing countries could provide greater opportunity for economic growth while also providing broader access to energy and related services even from limited energy resources. However, several barriers limit the scaling-up of funding of EE projects in developing countries (some are common also to developed countries). The report focuses primarily on public climate finance flows from 'north' to 'south', probing the current use of funds from multi-lateral development banks (MDBs), bi-lateral financial institutions (BFIs) and carbon markets for energy efficiency projects and the design of the future climate financial mechanisms such as the Green Climate Fund to encourage energy efficiency improvements in developing countries.

  8. Methods for evaluating effect of operators on dragline energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi Oskouei, Maryam

    Draglines are dominant machines and the most significant electricity consumers in surface coal mines. With the growing price of energy, environmental concerns, and the high sensitivity of mine profitability to dragline productivity, any improvement in efficiency of dragline will be beneficial for mines. Research has shown that operator practices have a significant impact on energy efficiency of mining loading tools. However, not enough work has been done to provide guidance on how to quantitatively assess the effect of operator practices on dragline energy efficiency. The objectives of this work were to: (i) test the hypothesis that dragline operator's practices and skills significantly affect dragline energy efficiency; and (ii) develop a methodology to identify the critical parameters that explain the differences in operator energy efficiency. Statistical tests are suggested to study the effect of operator practice and skills on dragline energy efficiency to achieve the first research objective. The second objective was achieved with a novel methodology based on sound statistical principles. Both approaches were illustrated with a real-life dragline operation. The suggested methodology was used on the data collected from an 85yd 3 BE-1570w dragline to compare the energy efficiency of five operators during a one month period. Valid methods have been formulated for testing operator effects on dragline energy efficiency and for identifying critical parameters that explain such differences. Using the developed approaches, the case study shows that operator practices can affect dragline energy efficiency. The tests show that there is a high probability that differences in energy efficiency are due to dumping height, vertical and horizontal drag distances, and spotting and dumping time among the surveyed operators.

  9. Supply Chain Management for Improved Energy Efficiency: Review and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a key resource for economic and social development, providing substantial benefits to different stakeholders, ranging from the entities which develop energy efficient measures to everyone in society. In addition to cost savings, multiple benefits can be achieved by supporting a better alignment between energy issues and strategic business priorities: e.g., improved competitiveness, profitability, quality, etc. Thus, energy efficiency can be a strategic advantage, not just a marginal issue, for companies. However, most firms, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs, face many problems and, in some cases, hostility when trying to effectively implement energy efficiency actions. The most dominant barriers are the access to capital and the lack of awareness (especially in terms of life cycle cost effects. The supply chain viewpoint represents one of the main opportunities for overcoming those barriers and improving energy performance even for weaker companies. Since the current literature on energy efficiency and practical approaches to ensure energy efficiency mainly focus on energy performance on a single-firm basis, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of papers on the integration of energy efficiency in supply chain design and management published in academic journal, thereby defining potential research streams to close the gaps in the literature. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on specific aspects of sustainable or on green supply chain management; however, to the best of our knowledge, no review has focused on the energy efficiency issue. Firstly, the present paper shows how considering energy consumption in supply chain management can contribute to more energy-efficient processes from a systemic point of view. Then, the review methodology used is defined and the sampled papers are analyzed and categorized based on the different approaches they propose. From these

  10. Rational Increasing of Energy Efficiency of Sacral Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repelewicz, Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency of sacral buildings. Churches in the Zawiercie pastoral district of the Archdiocese of Czestochowa have been used as examples of typical sacral buildings of low energy efficiency. Such structures need to be thermally insulated during their use. Certain possibilities of raising the energy efficiency of churches have been presented. The paper describes different systems: increasing of wall and roof insulation, installation of new windows, and modern heating systems. Installation of a new heating system has been considered the most effective and the easiest to be implemented one.

  11. Energy efficiency in small and medium scale foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Patange

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research results of surveys which were conducted in an Indian foundry cluster which are potential members of such sectors are presented. These results indicate that there is an enough potential improvement in the energy use. The use of energy efficient practices can result in their energy use effectively as well as cost reduction. The key findings about the energy pattern are a lack of energy efficient practices. The suggested recommendations can contribute to an increase in energy efficiency in such cluster.

  12. RATIONAL INCREASING OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SACRAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra REPELEWICZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency of sacral buildings. Churches in the Zawiercie pastoral district of the Archdiocese of Czestochowa have been used as examples of typical sacral buildings of low energy efficiency. Such structures need to be thermally insulated during their use. Certain possibilities of raisingthe energy efficiency of churches have been presented. The paper describes different systems: increasingof wall and roof insulation, installation of new windows, and modern heating systems. Installation of a new heating system has been considered the most effective and the easiest to be implemented one.

  13. MULTIFACTOR ECONOMETRIC MODELS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is approaching the energy efficiency topic from the viewpoint of its trends and influence factors, in the context of requirements, criteria and principles of sustainable development. Energy efficiency is measured as ratio of GDP and energy use and its multiple factors of influence are considered. With a view to deducing some conclusions of theoretical-methodological but also of practical-applicative character, we are researching the variation in energy efficiency in European Union, but also in the case of new candidates and other countries, by means of multifactor econometric modeling.

  14. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  15. Adaptive and energy efficient SMA-based handling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzki, P.; Kunze, J.; Holz, B.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.

    2015-04-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMA's) are known as actuators with very high energy density. This fact allows for the construction of very light weight and energy-efficient systems. In the field of material handling and automated assembly process, the avoidance of big moments of inertia in robots and kinematic units is essential. High inertial forces require bigger and stronger robot actuators and thus higher energy consumption and costs. For material handling in assembly processes, many different individual grippers for various work piece geometries are used. If one robot has to handle different work pieces, the gripper has to be exchanged and the assembly process is interrupted, which results in higher costs. In this paper, the advantages of using high energy density Shape Memory Alloy actuators in applications of material-handling and gripping-technology are explored. In particular, light-weight SMA actuated prototypes of an adaptive end-effector and a vacuum-gripper are constructed via rapid-prototyping and evaluated. The adaptive end-effector can change its configuration according to the work piece geometry and allows the handling of multiple different shaped objects without exchanging gripper tooling. SMA wires are used to move four independent arms, each arm adds one degree of freedom to the kinematic unit. At the tips of these end-effector arms, SMA-activated suction cups can be installed. The suction cup prototypes are developed separately. The flexible membranes of these suction cups are pulled up by SMA wires and thus a vacuum is created between the membrane and the work piece surface. The self-sensing ability of the SMA wires are used in both prototypes for monitoring their actuation.

  16. Healthcare Energy Efficiency Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Douglas R.; Lai, Judy; Lanzisera, Steven M; Parrish, Kristen D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-01-31

    Hospitals are known to be among the most energy intensive commercial buildings in California. Estimates of energy end-uses (e.g. for heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) in hospitals are uncertain for lack of information about hospital-specific mechanical system operations and process loads. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a benchmarking system designed specifically for hospitals. Version 1.0 featured metrics to assess energy performance for the broad variety of ventilation and thermal systems that are present in California hospitals. It required moderate to extensive sub-metering or supplemental monitoring. In this new project, we developed a companion handbook with detailed equations that can be used toconvert data from energy and other sensors that may be added to or already part of hospital heating, ventilation and cooling systems into metrics described in the benchmarking document.This report additionally includes a case study and guidance on including metering into designs for new hospitals, renovations and retrofits. Despite widespread concern that this end-use is large and growing, there is limited reliable information about energy use by distributed medical equipment and other miscellaneouselectrical loads in hospitals. This report proposes a framework for quantifying aggregate energy use of medical equipment and miscellaneous loads. Novel approaches are suggested and tried in an attempt to obtain data to support this framework.

  17. Energy efficiency in the European Union 1990-2000. Save-Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. This report presents an assessment of energy efficiency progress in the European Union as a whole over the period 1990-2000. This evaluation is based on the indicators produced from the ODYSSEE database. This evaluation completes the assessments made by each country that are published separately in national reports. The report starts with an assessment of the overall energy efficiency trends in the EU. Then the trends are reviewed by sector, at different levels of aggregation, using the ODYSSEE indicators. A first annex presents the recent developments (2000-2001) in energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} and price policies in the EU countries and Norway. A second annex compiles selected graphs with the appropriate comments to summarize the energy efficiency trends, globally and by sector.

  18. Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

    2005-04-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will

  19. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  20. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes key findings and outcomes from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning meeting, held on October 28-29, 2011, in Washington, D.C.

  2. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  3. Energy efficiency analysis of a trapezoidal solar pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, HongSheng; Jiang, Linsong; Wang, Jiansheng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present an investigation of the energy performance of a mini trapezoidal solar pond (with surface of 2.4m×2.4m and depth of 1.5 m) which was built in Dalian, China. The pond was filled with salty water to form the upper convective zone (UCZ), the non-convective zone (UCZ), and the lower convective zone (LCZ). Energy efficiency, the ratio of available energy to the total energy, was defined basing on the first law of thermodynamics at each zone of the solar pond. The energy efficiency of the three layers were analyzed separately accounting to the simulation results of the temperature distribution in the trapezoidal solar pond. It shows that the energy efficiency of the solar pond is relatively high at the beginning of the operation, and the energy efficiency of the UCZ is the lowest while the LCZ is the highest.

  4. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  5. Analysis of a Building Energy Efficiency Certification System in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Joon Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has established a national plan for the promotion of zero energy buildings to respond to climate change and energy crises. To achieve this plan, several energy efficiency policies for new and existing buildings have been developed. The Building Energy Efficiency Certification System (BEECS aims to promote the spread of high energy-efficient buildings by evaluating and certifying building energy performance. This study discussed Korean building energy efficiency policies and analyzed especially the influence of the BEECS on the actual energy consumption of a residential building and calculated energy performance of non-residential buildings. The BEECS was evaluated to have influence on gas and district heating consumption in residential buildings. For non-residential buildings, a decreasing trend was shown in calculated primary energy consumption in the years since the BEECS has been enacted. Appropriate improvements of the certification system were also discussed by analyzing relationship between building characteristics and their energy consumptions.

  6. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability

  7. Energy efficiency indicators of Italy (1970-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Angelo, E.; Perrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia; Bianco, R.

    1996-02-01

    This report is aimed at presenting the results of the energy efficiency evolution in Italy for the 1970-1992 period Results come from the data-base developed under the SAVE/EnR project on `Cross countries comparison on energy efficiency indicators`. In order to be comparable among countries, efforts have been made to harmonize the data collection as well as the definition and the calculation of energy efficiency indicators. Selected indicators are considered in order to illustrate the potentiality of the project (around 200 different energy efficiency indicators can be calculated and presented). Emphasis is put on the interpretation of the so-called `techno-economic indicators` as well as explanatory indicators both for the economic and techno-economic approaches. Industry, transport, tertiary, residential and transformation sectors have been analyzed.

  8. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  9. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  10. Design handbook : energy efficiency and water conservation in NAS facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    This handbook was created to provide definitive energy efficiency and water conservation design criteria for the design of NAS facilities. FAA-HDBK-001 provides implementation strategies and tools to comply with E.O. 12902, Energy and Water Conservat...

  11. Energy Efficiency Management Platform (E2MP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Energy Efficiency Management Platform (E2MP) is a power-aware, "Green" computing technology for managing energy consumption on High End Computing (HEC) systems...

  12. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  13. Optical coatings for energy-efficient fenestration: principles, products and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-02-01

    Buildings use as much as 40% of the world's total primary energy. This huge energy consumption is mainly tied to poor designs and entrenched practices for buildings' envelopes. One major road toward more energy efficient buildings is to employ design principles that are in harmony with the radiation in our natural surroundings. Glass coatings with spectral selectivity can lead to windows and glass facades with good thermal insulation and capability to transmit mainly visible light or, alternatively, across the full solar spectrum. Chromogenic glazings, especially if based on electrochromism, can regulate the inflow of visible light and solar energy between widely separated limits and achieve further energy efficiency. The new fenestration technologies are able to improve indoor comfort.

  14. Occupancy measurement in building: A litterature review, application on an energy efficiency research demonstrated building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caucheteux A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the energy efficiency of buildings and its confrontation with the current Building Energy Simulations now faces knowledge of what is commonly called “occupancy”. This work has been made in order to implement a monitoring system on a research demonstrator building at DLRCA in Angers (France. The goals were first to know the occupancy as input data of models but also to build occupancy models. Occupancy can be defined as all the action of occupants that affect building energy efficiency. The chosen monitoring deals with its presence, lightning, windows opening and internal gains. It seems that the use of an Infra- red detector allows a accuracy of 5 min in the detection of presence. The use of dry contact sensors allows the detection of five different rates of slide windows opening that can affect temperature decrease. Light sensors seem to be efficient to detect artificial lighting states when correctly configured.

  15. Investigation of Electrical Energy Efficiency Use in an Automobile Assembly Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob TSADO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the electrical energy efficiency improvement and cost saving potentials for automobile assembly plant; a case of Peugeot Automobile Nigeria Limited. The study identified lighting system as a major source through which energy is being wasted, hence efficient energy saving lighting systems are being proffered; also saving accrued were determined to justify their deployment. In the course of this work, an energy saving calculating tool was developed to calculate energy saving capabilities using energy efficient lamps. With ample devotion to the implementation of the recommendations made, the cost of energy per car will be drastically reduced while profits are also made simultaneously. In all, more cars will be produced thus translating to more employment opportunities in the industry.

  16. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  17. Optimal shaping and positioning of energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barović Dušan D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the number of variables and the complexity of objective functions, optimal design of an energy-efficient building is hard combinatorial problem of multi-objective optimisation. Therefore, it is necessary to describe structure and its position in surroundings precisely but by as few variables as possible. This paper presents methodology for finding adequate methodology for defining geometry and orientation of a given building, as well as its elements of importance for energy-efficiency analysis.

  18. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenguo, Lin; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore, t......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  19. IX International congress “Energy efficiency. XXI century”

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Yakubson

    2015-01-01

    The congress “Energy efficiency. XXI century. Engineering methods for reducing the energy consumption in buildings” took place in St. Petersburg on 11 November 2015. The article describes the main reports of the plenary meeting, primarily devoted to the Russian laws in the energy saving field. Furthermore, the summary of reports of the section “Building thermophysics: increasing the energy efficiency of residential and public buildings during the major repairs and reconstruction” is given....

  20. Design guidelines for energy-efficient hotels in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bodach, Susanne; Lang, Werner; Auer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It is predicted that the major increase in energy consumption and, thus, carbon emissions, will happen in the developing world. However, in most developing countries the knowledge about energy efficiency, particularly in the building sector, is quite low. Strategies developed for industrialised countries might not be suitable or must be adapted for the very different context of developing countries. This research aims to find energy-efficient and cost-effective building design options for the...

  1. Assessment of Energy Efficient and Model Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    US Army Research Laboratory Autonomous Systems Division Vehicle Technology Directorate (ATTN: RDRL-VTA) Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5069...ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy-Efficient and Model- Based Control by Craig Lennon...originator. ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy-Efficient and Model- Based Control by Craig

  2. Energy efficient maintenance. Project report; Energioptimerende vedligehold. Projektrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerg, J. (Center for Drift og Vedligehold, Frederici (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Skjershede Nielsen, P.; Holt, J. (NRGi Raadgivning A/S, Aarhus (Denmark)); Dam, M. (Energi Horsens, Horsens (Denmark)); Holk Lauridsen, V. (Teknologisk Institut, Energieffektivisering og Ventilation, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Together with four case companies, the project developed and tested a model for energy-efficient maintenance. In each of the companies, the model was adjusted through a cooperation process aiming at combining energy optimisation and maintenance as part of specific production optimisation. When correctly planned, energy-efficient maintenance is interesting for all companies. An overall solution was made, which can facilitate major energy savings and production efficiency improvement. (LN)

  3. A Review of Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Koutitas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of green telecommunication networks and provides information about the power consumption within fixed line and wireless communication networks. It outlines the significance of energy efficiency in modern and future telecommunication networks and suggests directions for optimizing network performance in terms of energy demands. Numerous examples and reviews are also discussed. The aim is to introduce the reader to current green technologies and outline the necessity for energy efficiency in information and communication technology.

  4. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  5. Documentation of and satisfaction with the service delivery process of electric powered scooters among adult users in different national contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Andersen, Mette C

    2013-01-01

    -up design based on a consecutive inclusion of 50 Danish and 86 Norwegian adults as they were about to be provided a scooter. A study-specific structured questionnaire for documentation of the SDP was administered. The Satisfaction with Assistive Technology Services was used for documenting user satisfaction...

  6. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D. [and others

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  7. Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, Jeff

    2002-05-01

    In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

  8. Energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2002. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: The Odyssee and MURE projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2004-08-01

    This report presents an analysis of energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of energy efficiency indicators extracted from the Odyssee data base, maintained and updated in the framework of the SAVE programme. This analysis focuses on the period 1990-2001/2002. It also examines the policies and measures implemented in the field of energy efficiency with a focus on the years 2000-2003. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 2% pr year in the period 1990 to 2002. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.7% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). We have found in total efficiency improvement of approximately 15 TWh from 1990 to 2001. (Author)

  9. Voltage-dependent K+channels improve the energy efficiency of signalling in blowfly photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Francisco J H; Anderson, John; Laughlin, Simon B; Niven, Jeremy E

    2017-04-01

    Voltage-dependent conductances in many spiking neurons are tuned to reduce action potential energy consumption, so improving the energy efficiency of spike coding. However, the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding, by graded potentials in dendrites and non-spiking neurons, remains unclear. We investigate the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding by modelling blowfly R1-6 photoreceptor membrane. Two voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K + conductances (DRs) shape the membrane's voltage response and contribute to light adaptation. They make two types of energy saving. By reducing membrane resistance upon depolarization they convert the cheap, low bandwidth membrane needed in dim light to the expensive high bandwidth membrane needed in bright light. This investment of energy in bandwidth according to functional requirements can halve daily energy consumption. Second, DRs produce negative feedback that reduces membrane impedance and increases bandwidth. This negative feedback allows an active membrane with DRs to consume at least 30% less energy than a passive membrane with the same capacitance and bandwidth. Voltage-dependent conductances in other non-spiking neurons, and in dendrites, might be organized to make similar savings. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Technology for energy efficient passenger cars; Teknik foer energieffektiva personbilar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for the Built Environment

    1999-11-01

    Passenger cars can be more effective and decrease their fuel consumption by switching to alternative drivetrains or by improvements in the conventional drivetrain. The aim of the report is to investigate and compare new energy efficient drivetrains in order to make a strategic assessment on which alternative have the highest potential for energy efficiency in the future. By way of a literature review the energy efficiency is investigated and compared for the electric vehicle, hybrid vehicle with either an otto-engine, diesel-engine or a fuel cell as a primary engine, and improvements in the conventional drivetrain. Each crucial component is investigated and assessed independently. The energy efficiency is calculated as primary energy efficiency all the way from the original energy source. The energy sources is divided into three different resource bases with different prospects for the future. The division is between fossil based energy, bioenergy and renewable electricity as solar, wind or hydropower. The result shows us that the highest efficiency is by using a pure electric drivetrain for all three different resource bases. However, questions can be raised regarding the market potential for the electric vehicle considering the range of an electric vehicle. The fuel cell vehicle have a high potential for energy efficiency but unfortunately the efficiency is strongly linked to using hydrogen as an energy carrier. This commands large investments in infrastructure for hydrogen. At the moment the car industry is focusing on hybrid vehicles with otto- or diesel engines. A reasonable potential for these drivetrains is a doubling of the energy efficiency compared to todays conventional drivetrain. No outstanding winner in the future can be seen today from present knowledge. Future investments in new drivetrains should allow flexibility in order not to lock in the development in a doubtful choice.

  11. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  12. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  13. Total-factor energy efficiency in the EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić-Dizdarević

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the economy-wide energy efficiency changes in the EU countries in the period from 2000 to 2010 and to compare the results with the traditional energy efficiency indicator. The DEA CCR multiple input-oriented model is applied in order to analyze the efficiency of the use of three inputs (capital stock, labor and energy consumption in producing GDP as the output. In order to obtain the dynamics of data as to avoid the use of only a single year in calculating energy efficiency the extended DEA method - window analysis - is adopted. The empirical results confirm that the traditional one-factor energy efficiency indicator is too simplifying and could be misleading. The findings on total-factor energy efficiency scores reflect the possibility of substitution among factors in a medium run and changes in the composition of energy use. Projection values of inputs on efficiency frontier identify the amounts of relative inefficiency and, in that context, suggest improvements for all inefficient countries. The results reveal that all inefficient countries could improve their efficiency by reducing some of the inputs.

  14. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  15. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    contributing about 3/4 of that fraction. Consequently, the focus of this investigation has tilted toward the open, vertical, multi-deck medium temperature case type. Various technologies and control methods are energy efficiency measures (EEMs) that could be applied to display cases and result in the reduction of the refrigeration load and of the energy consumption of the supermarket refrigeration system. An extensive evaluation of the EEMs was conducted in order to select those that met the following criteria: (1) Near-term implementation--All EEMs considered could be implemented with existing refrigeration hardware and technology. (2) Potential for energy-efficiency improvements--Energy savings and/or refrigeration load reduction must be obtained by the implementation of the EEM. (3) Enhancement of the ability to maintain target product temperature--Proper operation of the display case and maintenance of the stored product temperature could not be compromised by the use of the EEM. The energy impact of a number of viable display case EEMs was quantified by performing whole building hourly simulations. A special version of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE-2.3) program was used to develop a model of a supermarket. The model was then calibrated using available end-use monitored data to increase confidence in simulation results.

  16. Energy-efficiency in the retail foodstuffs area; Gewinne steigern mit ganzheitlichen Energiesparkonzepten. Energieeffizienz im Lebensmittel-Einzelhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes how the retail trade could make savings of up to 50% in their electricity consumption for lighting, heating, refrigeration and air-conditioning. The lack of co-ordination between planners, store outfitters and those responsible for building technical services is quoted as being a cause for high energy consumption in food supermarkets. The article summarises the results of the 'Special Offer Energy - Efficiency in the Retail Trade' professional conference held in February 2008 in Stuttgart, Germany. Results obtained in a real-life, energy-efficient supermarket are discussed as is the double effect of improved lighting. Removing the boundaries between the various trades involved in supermarket construction is quoted as being a promising method of improving overall energy efficiency in the retail area.

  17. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-04-06

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  18. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    of a super energy efficient house in which the normal hydronic heating system can be omitted. The savings in investment for a traditional hydronic heating system are spent on energy conserving components such as increased insulation in a super airtight building shell, super efficient windows to produce...... the net positive solar gain, and a ventilation system with very efficient heat recovery. To design a passive house in the way it is defined by Wolfgang Feist, the founder of the Passivhaus Institute, its annual heat demand should not exceed 15 kWh/(m2∙a) and its total primary energy demand should...... usage of an extreme energy efficient building in the Arctic. The purpose of this Ph.D. study is to determine the optimal use of an energy efficient house in the Arctic derived from the fundamental definition of a passive house, investigations of building parameters including the building envelope...

  19. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....

  20. Energy-efficient Trajectory Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Blunck, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    as by validating with a real-world deployment. The results demonstrate that our approach is able to provide considerable savings in the battery consumption compared to a state-of-the-art position tracking system while at the same time maintaining the accuracy of the resulting trajectory, i.e., support of specific......Emergent location-aware applications often require tracking trajectories of mobile devices over a long period of time. To be useful, the tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life of the mobile de vice. Furthermore, when trajectory information needs...... to be sent to a remote server, on-device simplification of the trajectories is needed to reduce the amount of data transmission. While there has recently been a lot of work on energy-efficient position tracking, the energy-efficient tracking of trajectories has not been addressed in previous work...

  1. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  2. Energy Efficiency Challenges of 5G Small Cell Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaohu; Yang, Jing; Gharavi, Hamid; Sun, Yang

    2017-05-01

    The deployment of a large number of small cells poses new challenges to energy efficiency, which has often been ignored in fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. While massive multiple-input multiple outputs (MIMO) will reduce the transmission power at the expense of higher computational cost, the question remains as to which computation or transmission power is more important in the energy efficiency of 5G small cell networks. Thus, the main objective in this paper is to investigate the computation power based on the Landauer principle. Simulation results reveal that more than 50% of the energy is consumed by the computation power at 5G small cell base stations (BSs). Moreover, the computation power of 5G small cell BS can approach 800 watt when the massive MIMO (e.g., 128 antennas) is deployed to transmit high volume traffic. This clearly indicates that computation power optimization can play a major role in the energy efficiency of small cell networks.

  3. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  4. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

  5. Energy-Efficient Probabilistic Routing Algorithm for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future network with Internet of Things (IoT, each of the things communicates with the others and acquires information by itself. In distributed networks for IoT, the energy efficiency of the nodes is a key factor in the network performance. In this paper, we propose energy-efficient probabilistic routing (EEPR algorithm, which controls the transmission of the routing request packets stochastically in order to increase the network lifetime and decrease the packet loss under the flooding algorithm. The proposed EEPR algorithm adopts energy-efficient probabilistic control by simultaneously using the residual energy of each node and ETX metric in the context of the typical AODV protocol. In the simulations, we verify that the proposed algorithm has longer network lifetime and consumes the residual energy of each node more evenly when compared with the typical AODV protocol.

  6. Energy efficiency opportunity guide in the lime industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The lime industry processes limestone, an abundant inorganic mineral, for metallurgical, industrial and chemical, environmental, and construction applications. The energy the industry uses results in greenhouse gas emissions and the Canadian Lime Institute, in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada, sponsored the development of this guidebook which is intended to provide ideas for saving energy in the lime industry. This document is a practical source of information and can be used to develop self-audit and evaluation techniques to monitor energy usage. The report first provides an overview of the lime industry, then presents its energy costs. General energy efficiency methodologies are highlighted and, in conclusion, advice on improving energy efficiency in general and specifically for lime industry operations is given. This guidebook provides useful information for lime industry operators who are trying to improve the energy efficiency of their operations.

  7. A joint U.S.-China demonstration energy efficient office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Mary Beth; Huang, Yu JoeWatson, Rob; Shi, Han; Judkoff, Ron; She rman, Micah

    2000-08-04

    In July 1998, USDOE and China's Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) signed a Statement of Work to develop a demonstration energy-efficient office building and demonstration center in Beijing that will eventually house the Administrative Center for China's Agenda 21 (ACCA21). The statement calls for the Chinese side to be responsible for the basic construction of the 13,000 m{sup 2} 9-story building, the US side for technical assistance and the incremental costs of the energy efficiency improvements, and the joint establishment of a Demonstration Center to provide outreach and exhibit energy-efficient building technologies. The US technical team made several trips to China to meet with ACCA21 and the design team, and used the DOE-2.1E simulation program to analyze the energy performance of a preliminary building design and study alternative designs and energy-efficient strategies. A feasibility study completed in September found the largest and most cost-effective savings potentials in reducing cooling and lighting energy use, and identified eight generic measures in lighting, windows, daylighting, and HVAC systems and controls. Following these and other recommendations from the US team, the design team produced a schematic cross-shaped building design that, based on the DOE-2 analysis, lowered total energy use by 40% compared to standard practice. While the design and analysis were underway, a task force called ACCORD21 (American-Chinese Council Organized for Responsible Development in the 21st Century) was formed in April 1999 under the leadership of NRDC to solicit support and contributions from U.S. industry, A/E firms, and universities. Two design workshops were held, first in Pittsburgh and then in Beijing, that brought together the Chinese and US project participants and produced further refinements and energy-efficiency improvements to the building design. As of June 2000, the authors are completing the final energy analysis and selection of

  8. Marketing energy efficiency: a practical planning guide for the domestic sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkindale, David [Elton Mayo School of Management, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1995-09-01

    The marketing of energy efficient appliances is described in this report. It outlines a step-by-step approach to planning and implementing procedures to gain the initial adoption of energy efficient devices and practices. The issue of targeting those community members who are more likely to adopt the measures is addressed. Much of the advice in the report is based on previous research and the results of specific research on the introduction of compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) into the Australian market. It concludes that the main criteria in the consumers` choice were price first, then design. They preferred globe design that was closest to an incandescent bulb. Preference was for lower prices and to a lesser extent availability at hardware shops, department stores and supermarkets. 4 figs., 2 tables.

  9. KEY ASPECTS OF ENSURING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Abramyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the review of the foreign and national academic literature and intended to emphasize the issues of ensuring energy efficiency of buildings and structures applicable to all the countries as for reconstruction of existing buildings as for erection of new ones . The author highlights the key aspects of the provision of energy efficiency of buildings and structures in some foreign countries. The conclusion is made that the studies are mainly aimed at discovering new heat insulation materials, whereby polystyrene insulation is found to be the most widespread wall insulation material in a number of countries. At the same time, it is observed that the ongoing research is focused on solutions to optimize the structure of walling systems in terms of both insulant thickness and the number and sequence of insulation layers in the walling structure. A conclusion is made that hyper insulation of external walls leads to considerable expenses arising due to cooling during the summer season. The use of prefabricated vacuum panels as a heat insulation layer and off-the-shelf single-layer structures, subject to their heat insulation characteristics, appears a more constructive way to meet the energy efficiency requirements, as the arrangement of ideal air space in multilayered walls proves a significant challenge today. One of the most promising ways to ensure energy efficiency is the use of multifunctional polyvalent walls and provision of polyvalent heat supply from renewable energy sources. Since energy efficiency depends on the spatial arrangement of buildings, construction must ensure a minimum ratio of the area of enclosing structures to the overall building volume (by adding on new facilities in case of reconstruction. It is noted that a systemic approach to ensuring energy efficiency of buildings is impossible without proper regard to the environmental parameters of heat insulation materials.

  10. Three Essays on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Policies in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamtessa, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the "shale gas revolution" on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the "shale gas revolution." We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  11. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  12. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  13. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  14. Dilemmas of energy efficient urban development in three Nordic cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    Energy is high on the agenda of the European Union and in current urban development. In this study we focus on the role of urban planning in energy efficiency in 3 Northern European cities - Turku (FI), Eskilstuna (SE) and Tartu (EE). The case studies were developed in close collaboration between...... the authors and representatives of the cities. The research was carried out by field trips, interviews and analysis of local reports and planning documents. This work was done in the framework of the EU-FP7 project PLEEC (Planning for energy efficient cities), GA no. 314704, www.pleecproject.eu...

  15. Energy Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-01-06

    Two major issues are facing today s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produces 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, an energy efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel is presented.

  16. Energy efficiency in figures. Final report; Energieeffizienz in Zahlen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Verena; Gores, Sabine; Penninger, Gerhard; Zimmer, Wiebke; Cook, Vanessa [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Schlomann, Barbara; Fleiter, Tobias; Strigel, Adrian; Eichhammer, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (FhG-ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2011-07-15

    To examine whether the development of energy productivity and energy efficiency in Germany is in line with targets set by policy, a series of energy efficient indicators and parameters have been developed on the national and sectoral level, the data for which can be regularly updated and documented. It is not sufficient to carry out this analysis on a national macro level; rather it is necessary to use an approach that differentiates between sectors as accurately as possible. Only in this way can the reasons for changes in efficiency and the factors which could have compensated the impact of measures be clearly shown. (orig.)

  17. Energy Efficient Wireless Vehicular-Guided Actuator Network

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2013-06-09

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient vehicular guided system for environmental disaster management using wireless sensor/actuator networks. Sensor nodes within clusters are controlled by a master node that is dynamically selected. Actuators support mobility for every sensor node in the area of interest. The system maintains energy efficiency using statistical, correlation, and confidence for determining actuator actions and implements an adaptive energy scheme to prolong the system lifespan. Experimental results show that the system is capable of saving up to 2.7Watt for every 28KByte of data exchanged. We also show that actuator actions are correct with a 90% confidence.

  18. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has determined that the 2012 edition of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (2012 IECC or 2012 edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2009 IECC. Upon publication of this affirmative final determination, States are required to file certification statements to DOE that they have reviewed the provisions of their residential building code regarding energy efficiency and made a determination as to whether to update their code to meet or exceed the 2012 IECC. Additionally, this Notice provides guidance to States on how the codes have changed from previous versions, and the certification process.

  19. Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Hansen, Line Pyndt; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates different network design considerations with respect to energy-efficiency, under green-field resilient multi-layer network deployment. The problem of energy efficient, reliable multi-layer network design is known to result in different trade-offs between key performance...... in multi-layer networks and performance measures such as network resource utilization, availability, agility to traffic fluctuations and energy consumption. A green-field network deployment scenario is considered, where different resiliency methods, design methodologies and grooming strategies are applied...

  20. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  1. Energy-efficient Renovation of a Real Estate in AUSTRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjenic, Azra; Vašková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    An action have cities worldwide, due to urbanization. More than 70 percent of people in Europe live in cities, where 70 percent of the energy consumed. Without adequate measures, a rapidly growing city is at risk in by overloading the infrastructure, threats to water, energy, pollution, logistical bottlenecks and lack of housing. This paper describes an energy-efficient renovation or expansion planning a real estate in Vorarlberg, Austria. The settlement was analysed in more detail here, it involves the city Dornbirn- part Shor. The study investigated how to extend this settlement energy efficient and what feed for factors in the assessment.

  2. Devising the right energy efficiency strategy for homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, L.; Hull, A. [Eaga Partnership Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Eaga Partnership Ltd. was established in 1990 and has gained a reputation as a national program manager with a specialty in retrofit energy efficiency. Eaga acquired Homeworks in 2003, which motivates homeowners to conserve energy through energy efficiency. This presentation described Eaga's current customer view and how it plans to grow across Canada. Their current markets include paying customers, social landlords, First Nations, remote rural areas, and disadvantaged low income groups. The motivating factors for energy conservation and efficiency include reduced energy costs, time saving, improved home values, better health, better air quality, safety and reduced greenhouse gases. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  4. Energy efficiency in buildings. Further and higher education buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    The booklet presented shows you how to compare the energy efficiency of a group of further or higher education buildings with that of a representative sample of similar types. This comparison will indicate whether the campus is energy efficient or if significant improvements are possible. The booklet also describes the kinds of measures that can be undertaken to save money. Many of these measures cost nothing to implement and can do much to enhance the comfort conditions in which the staff and students work.

  5. Raising the Profile of Energy Efficiency in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Reducing standby power use in China. How much does China stand to gain from greater energy efficiency? The example of improved standby power efficiency in household appliances provides a useful indicator. IEA analysis projects that eight or nine 1-GW power plants could be struck off Chinas list of immediate capacity needs for the period to 2020 if energy-efficient standby devices were vigorously promoted. This impressive finding emerges from this paper. The paper reviews experience with tackling standby power consumption in OECD countries and models implementation of similar action in China and Shanghai. Its scenarios quantify the significant potential gains from standby power conservation campaigns and mandatory regulations.

  6. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles

    2017-06-30

    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  7. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The

  8. Enhancemenent of the energy efficiency by means of the energy efficiency commitment system. Brief: Energy efficiency commitment system (EnEffVSYS); Steigerung der Energieeffizienz mit Hilfe von Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssystemen. Kurz: Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssysteme (EnEffVSys)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agricola, Annegret C.; Joest, Steffen; Czernie, Marc; Heuke, Reemt; Kalinowska, Dominika; Peters, Sebastian [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Perner, Jens; Bothe, David [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The origin of the contribution under consideration is the new EU energy efficiency regulation (EU-EnEff-RL) which is valid since 4th December 2012. This regulation emphasizes the increase of the energy efficiency in Europe. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on (a) the framework conditions for energy efficiency and energy consumption in Europe; (b) the development of the energy consumption and energy efficiency in the past; (c) the economic potentials of energy efficiency in Germany up to the year 2020; (d) whether the advancement of the German, market based approach or the implementation of the energy efficiency commitment system in Germany would be the better way in order to reach the energy efficiency targets derived from the EU energy efficiency regulation.

  9. Development of Pathways to Achieve the SE4ALL Energy Efficiency Objective: Global and Regional Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Balyk, Olexandr; Pérez, Cristian Hernán Cabrera

    This study examines the three objectives of the UN Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative: 1. Ensure universal access to modern energy services by 2030. 2. Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency (from 1.3% to 2.6% annual reduction in energy intensity of GDP) by 2030. 3....... This analysis is conducted on a global and regional scale. The scenarios were constructed to analyze the effect of achieving the SE4ALL energy efficiency objective, the SE4ALL renewable energy objective, both together, and all three SE4ALL objectives. Synergies exist between renewable energy and energy...... efficiency. When the SE4ALL renewable energy objective is achieved, the economically optimal solution produced by ETSAP-TIAM also includes a reduction in energy intensity: globally, the compound annual reduction in energy intensity of GDP is 1.8% when the renewable energy objective is achieved. Likewise...

  10. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1996-1999. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: the ODYSSEE and MURE projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2002-05-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: the ODYSSEE and MURE projects''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-1999. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.6% per year from 1990 to 1999. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.4% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.2% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 8 TWh from 1990 to 1999. (author)

  11. The Inefficiencies of Energy Efficiency: Reviewing the Strategic Role of Energy Efficiency and its Effectiveness in Alleviating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Read, S.A.; Lindhult, Erik; Mashayekhi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Our present economy is high-energy and demand-intensive, demand met through the use of high energy yield fossil fuels. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are proposed as the solution and named the ‘twin pillars’ of sustainable energy policy. Increasing energy efficiencies are expected to reduce energy demand and fossil fuel use and allow renewables to close the ‘replacement gap’. However, the simple fact is that fossil fuel use is still rising to meet increasing global demand and ...

  12. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    According to prior findings of the E4 project, considerable savings potential exists both for lifts and escalators that could be realized if appropriate technology is implemented. However, energy-efficient technology is slowly diffusing the market - a phenomenon that could be explained by barriers present in the market. A barrier is defined as a mechanism that inhibits a decision or behavior that appears to be both energy-efficient and economically efficient and thereby prevents investment in energy-efficient technologies. This document has two aims. First, it will identify influential barriers in the European lift and escalator market. This analysis is based on the literature as well as a study including interviews as well as group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Second, strategies and measures to overcome the barriers identified in the first step are outlined. Major barriers to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies identified in this paper include a lack of monitoring energy consumption of installations and a lack of awareness of as well as knowledge about energy-efficient technology. Thus, installations and components are usually chosen without a (comprehensive) assessment of their energy consumption and without considering life-cycle approaches. On top of this, split incentives are a regularly occurring barrier. Various stakeholders are influential in the decisionmaking process about an installation or its components. However, those who will later pay for the energy consumption often are not involved in this process. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the number of new lifts and escalators installed each year is relatively low compared to the existing stock. Thus, it is very important to discuss enhancement of energy efficiency also for the existing stock. Based on our analyses, several recommendations are developed in this paper that could contribute to a market transformation in the lift and escalator market. First of all, a

  13. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  14. Innovation development for highly energy-efficient housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings account for 40% of EU final energy demand and policy developments like the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive are stimulating the innovation development for nearly zero-energy housing. However, businesses switching to innovative products for highly energy-efficient houses is a

  15. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  16. Airframe technology for aircraft energy efficiency. [economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    The economic factors that resulted in the implementation of the aircraft energy efficiency program (ACEE) are reviewed and airframe technology elements including content, progress, applications, and future direction are discussed. The program includes the development of laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, active controls, and composite structures.

  17. Nature-Inspired and Energy Efficient Route Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders; Christensen, J. B. S.; Feld, T.

    2015-01-01

    an order on the stops, the route can be made shorter. When, for instance, a furniture dealer has to deliver goods, the order of visiting the customers will often be unimportant. We present a prototype app that can make shorter and more energy efficient routes by allowing it to change the order of the stops...

  18. Global energy efficiency governance in the context of climate politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Ivanova, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that energy efficiency and conservation is a noncontroversial, critical, and equitable option for rich and poor alike. Although there is growing scientific and political consensus on its significance as an important option at global and national level, the political momentum for

  19. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research paper set out to explore the following research question: “what shape and form should a building be in order to achieve energy efficiency in the design and construction of the tall office building?” This involved the exploratory case study of a spheroid building, the Greater London Authority (GLA) building.

  20. Preliminary survey on electric energy efficiency in Ethiopia:- Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the significance of electric energy efficiency improvement and major areas of loss in Ethiopia's electric power system are highlighted for further rigorous study. Major electric energy loss areas in the utility transmission and distribution systems and consumer premises are indicated. In the consumer area the loss ...

  1. Investigation of poultry housing capacity on energy efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evaluated energy efficiency and effect of poultry house size on energy productivity in three different capacity. Capacities of houses were 10,000 (3 housings), 20,000 (2 housings) and 28,000 (1 house) birds per production period and were assigned as HI, HII and HIII respectively.

  2. Policies and practices for an energy efficient European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The housing stock has a major energy saving potential and is mostly considered to be the sector in which energy efficiency most cost effectively could be achieved. 30% of all energy use is consumed in the housing stock. The European union has formulated targets for a reduction of CO2 emissions to be

  3. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  4. Energy Efficient and Compact RF High-Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvillo Cortés, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to improve the energy efficiency and physical form-factor of high-power amplifiers in base station applications. As such, the focus of this dissertation is placed on the outphasing amplifier concept, which can offer high-efficiency, good linearity and excellent

  5. Innovative financing for energy-efficiency improvements. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, M.; Schwartz, H.K.; Feder, J.M.; Smith, D.C.; Green, R.H.; Williams, J.; Sherman, J.L.; Carroll, M.

    1982-01-01

    The use of utility-assisted financing, tax-exempt financing, bank financing, leasing, and joint venture financing to promote energy efficiency investments for each of three different categories of buildings (multifamily, commercial, and industrial) is discussed in separate chapters. (MCW)

  6. Energy efficiency optimum strategies for low carbon development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sound energy efficiency policies play a critical role in fighting climate change. They are considered vital to reducing energy bills and reducing emissions and air pollution, while also improving energy security and sovereignty, and increasing access to energy. However, there are still significant barriers to the effective ...

  7. Radon safety in terms of energy efficiency classification of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2017-06-01

    According to the results of survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, indoor radon concentrations above city average level have been found in each of the studied buildings with high energy efficiency class. Measures to increase energy efficiency were confirmed to decrease the air exchange rate and accumulation of high radon concentrations indoors. Despite of recommendations to use mechanical ventilation with heat recovery as the main scenario for reducing elevated radon concentrations in energy-efficient buildings, the use of such systems did not show an obvious advantage. In real situation, mechanical ventilation system is not used properly both in the automatic and manual mode, which does not give an obvious advantage over natural ventilation in the climate of the Middle Urals in Ekaterinburg. Significant number of buildings with a high class of energy efficiency and built using modern space-planning decisions contributes to an increase in the average radon concentration. Such situation contradicts to “as low as reasonable achievable” principle of the radiation protection.

  8. Energy Efficiency for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning. The following topics are examined: how energy conservation pays, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning,…

  9. Towards sustainability through energy efficient buildings' design : Semantic labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, A.A.L.; Hoed, M. den; Giulio, R. Di; Bomhof, F.W.

    2017-01-01

    When designing buildings, it is a challenge to take into account Energy Efficiency in the early design stage. This is especially difficult for hospital designs, because these buildings comprise many different room types and functions. This greatly increases the number of design directions available.

  10. Energy efficiency in commercial offices: who can transform the market?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pett, Jacky; Ramsay, Lotte [Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This work develops themes from earlier research published as 'White Collar CO{sub 2}'. This paper is developed from a scoping study of energy efficiency in offices that was carried out in summer 2002. A number of stakeholders were interviewed to establish views and attitudes to energy efficiency in office properties, addressing the investment, management, occupation and development of such buildings. Stakeholders included fund managers, pensions companies, insurance companies, large corporates whose business is not related to property, valuation surveyors, property agents, facilities managers, architects, consulting engineers and property developers. Results indicated that existing economic instruments could be designed more effectively to promote energy efficiency in offices. The main barriers to investment included perceived lack of demand and poor return on investment. However, investment is promoted by the risk of property losing value as climate change impacts become more obvious. Addressing the costs of energy efficiency in ways that address the realities of lease management and building systems can stimulate demand. Key partners in this are the property managers, institutional investors and responsible large companies. Many of these are beginning to consider risk from climate change as an issue in investment practices, as well as ethical and corporate social responsibility benchmarks.

  11. Energy Efficiency of Higher Education Buildings: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nelson; Pereira, Luísa Dias; Ferreira, João; Conceição, Pedro; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose an energy efficiency plan (with technical and behavioural improvement measures) for a Portuguese higher education building--the Teaching Building of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra (FEUC). Design/methodology/approach: The study was developed in the context of both the "Green…

  12. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  13. Guide to Employing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficient Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Energy and Energy Efficient Technologies NOTE Unless this X-File states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns refer to both men and women...shelter walls. Constructed with non- toxic and non- carcinogenic materials, the RBB is puncture and tear resistant and does not promote the growth of fungi

  14. Assessing Security-Critical Energy-Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Dulman, S.O.; Etalle, Sandro; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In the EYES project (http://eyes.eu.org), we are investigating self-organizing, collaborative, energy-efficient sensor networks. This study is devoted to the security aspects of the project. Our contribution is three-fold: firstly, we present a survey, where we discuss the dominant issues of

  15. Assessing Security in Energy-Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Etalle, Sandro; Dulman, S.O.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Gritzalis, D.; De Capitani di Vimercati, S.; Samarati, P.; Katsikas, S.K.

    In the EYES project, we are investigating self-organizing, collaborative, energy-efficient sensor networks. This study is devoted to the security aspects of the project. Our contribution is three-fold: firstly, we present a survey, where we discuss the dominant issues of energy-security trade-off in

  16. Generic and energy-efficient context-aware mobile sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Yurur, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes novel context-inferring algorithms and generic framework designs to enhance the existing tradeoffs in mobile sensing, especially between accuracy and power consumption. It integrates the significant topics of energy efficient, inhomogeneous, adaptive, optimal context-aware inferring algorithm and framework design. In addition, it includes plenty of examples to help readers understand the theory, best practices, and strategies.

  17. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  18. Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Data Center Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. VanGeet: NREL

    2010-02-24

    This guide provides an overview of best practices for energy-efficient data center design which spans the categories of Information Technology (IT) systems and their environmental conditions, data center air management, cooling and electrical systems, on-site generation, and heat recovery.

  19. Montium - Balancing between Energy-Efficiency, Flexibility and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heysters, P.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Molenkamp, Egbert; Plaks, Toomas P.

    Architectures for mobile multimedia devices need to find a balance between energy-efficiency, flexibility and performance. In this paper it is reasoned that this can be accomplished by way of a System-on-Chip (SoC) that comprises heterogeneous processing tiles. This heterogeneous SoC calls for

  20. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is designed to help state and local governments connect with EPA programs that can help them expand or develop their own energy efficiency/renewable energy (EE/RE) and climate initiatives in ways that benefit low-income communities.