An energy dependent partial wave analysis of π+ p→ K+ σ+ between threshold and 2.35 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candlin, D.J.; Lowe, D.C.; Peach, K.J.
1983-11-01
An energy dependent partial wave analysis of the reaction π + p → K + Σ + has been carried out between threshold and 2.35 GeV centre of mass energy using recently published, high statistical precision data. A single solution giving a satisfactory fit to the data has been found. In the region below 2 GeV the resonant features of the solution are compared with the QCD based model of Koniuk and Isgur. Above 2 GeV the states listed in the Particle Data group tables with two or more stars are observed but none of the dubious one star states is confirmed Significant SU(3) breaking is observed in some amplitudes. (author)
Noboru, HIROSHIGE; Faculty of Economics, Hannan University
1996-01-01
An energy-dependent partial-wave analysis of πd elastic scattering has been performed in the region T_L=65～294 MeV for currently available experimental data, including the recent vector analyzing power iT_ and composite observables τ_. We have obtained a solution which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The ^3P_1,^3P_2,^3D_3 and ^3D_2 amplitudes abtained show counter-clockwise rotating behaviors.
Partial wave analysis using graphics processing units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berger, Niklaus; Liu Beijiang; Wang Jike, E-mail: nberger@ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Lu, Shijingshan, 100049 Beijing (China)
2010-04-01
Partial wave analysis is an important tool for determining resonance properties in hadron spectroscopy. For large data samples however, the un-binned likelihood fits employed are computationally very expensive. At the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) III experiment, an increase in statistics compared to earlier experiments of up to two orders of magnitude is expected. In order to allow for a timely analysis of these datasets, additional computing power with short turnover times has to be made available. It turns out that graphics processing units (GPUs) originally developed for 3D computer games have an architecture of massively parallel single instruction multiple data floating point units that is almost ideally suited for the algorithms employed in partial wave analysis. We have implemented a framework for tensor manipulation and partial wave fits called GPUPWA. The user writes a program in pure C++ whilst the GPUPWA classes handle computations on the GPU, memory transfers, caching and other technical details. In conjunction with a recent graphics processor, the framework provides a speed-up of the partial wave fit by more than two orders of magnitude compared to legacy FORTRAN code.
Barrelet zeros in partial wave analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, R.D.
1976-01-01
The formalism of Barrelet zeros is discussed. Spinless scattering is described to introduce the idea, then the more usual case of 0 - 1/2 + → 0 - 1/2 + scattering. The zeros are regarded here only as a means to an end, viz the partial waves. The extraction of these is given in detail, and ambiguities are discussed at length. (author)
SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.
1985-10-01
We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab
Nucleon-nucleon partial-wave analysis to 1100 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.A.; Hyslop, J.S. III; Roper, L.D.
1987-01-01
Comprehensive analyses of nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering data below 1100 MeV laboratory kinetic energy are presented. The data base from which an energy-dependent solution and 22 single-energy solutions are obtained consists of 7223 pp and 5474 np data. A resonancelike structure is found to occur in the 1 D 2 , 3 F 3 , 3 P 2 - 3 F 2 , and 3 F 4 - 3 H 4 partial waves; this behavior is associated with poles in the complex energy plane. The pole positions and residues are obtained by analytic continuation of the ''production'' piece of the T matrix obtained in the energy-dependent solution. The new phases differ somewhat from previously published VPIandSU solutions, especially in I = 0 waves above 500 MeV, where np data are very sparse. The partial waves are, however, based upon a significantly larger data base and reflect correspondingly smaller errors. The full data base and solution files can be obtained through a computer scattering analysis interactive dial-in (SAID) system at VPIandSU, which also exists at many institutions around the world and which can be transferred to any site with a suitable computer system. The SAID system can be used to modify solutions, plan experiments, and obtain any of the multitude of predictions which derive from partial-wave analyses of the world data base
Poles of the Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices
Batinić, M.; Ceci, S.; Švarc, A.; Zauner, B.
2010-09-01
The Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices included in the Review of Particle Physics [by the Particle Data Group (PDG)] contain Breit-Wigner parameters only. As the advantages of pole over Breit-Wigner parameters in quantifying scattering matrix resonant states are becoming indisputable, we supplement the original solution with the pole parameters. Because of an already reported numeric error in the S11 analytic continuation [Batinić , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.57.1004 57, 1004(E) (1997); arXiv:nucl-th/9703023], we declare the old BATINIC 95 solution, presently included by the PDG, invalid. Instead, we offer two new solutions: (A) corrected BATINIC 95 and (B) a new solution with an improved S11 πN elastic input. We endorse solution (B).
Study of NΣ cusp in p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ with partial wave analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, S.; Muenzer, R.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L. [Excellenz Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Hauenstein, F. [FZ Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: Hades and FOPI Collaboration
2016-07-01
In the last years, an analysis of exclusive reaction of p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ has been carried out using Bonn-Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis. In a combined analysis of data from Hades, Fopi, Disto and Cosy-TOF, an energy dependent production process is determined. This analysis has shown that a sufficient description of the p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ is quite challenging due to the presence of resonances N* and interference, which requires Partial Wave Analysis. A pronounced narrow structure is observed in its projection on the pΛ-invariant mass. This peak structure, which appears around the NΣ threshold, has a strongly asymmetric structure and is interpreted a NΣ cusp effect. In this talk, the results from a combined analysis will be shown, with a special focus on the NΣ cusp structure and a description using Flatte parametrization.
Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis
Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.
Baryon Spectroscopy Through Partial-Wave Analysis and Meson Photoproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manley, D. Mark
2016-01-01
The principal goal of this project is the experimental and phenomenological study of baryon spectroscopy. The PI's group consists of himself and three graduate students. This final report summarizes research activities by the PI's group during the period 03/01/2015 to 08/14/2016. During this period, the PI co-authored 11 published journal papers and one proceedings article and presented three invited talks. The PI's general interest is the investigation of the baryon resonance spectrum up to masses of ~ 2 GeV. More detail is given on two research projects: Neutral Kaon Photoproduction and Partial-Wave Analyses of γp → η p, γn → η n, and γp → K"+ Λ.
Baryon Spectroscopy Through Partial-Wave Analysis and Meson Photoproduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manley, D. Mark [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States)
2016-09-08
The principal goal of this project is the experimental and phenomenological study of baryon spectroscopy. The PI's group consists of himself and three graduate students. This final report summarizes research activities by the PI's group during the period 03/01/2015 to 08/14/2016. During this period, the PI co-authored 11 published journal papers and one proceedings article and presented three invited talks. The PI's general interest is the investigation of the baryon resonance spectrum up to masses of ~ 2 GeV. More detail is given on two research projects: Neutral Kaon Photoproduction and Partial-Wave Analyses of γp → η p, γn → η n, and γp → K⁺ Λ.
Partial wave analysis for folded differential cross sections
Machacek, J. R.; McEachran, R. P.
2018-03-01
The value of modified effective range theory (MERT) and the connection between differential cross sections and phase shifts in low-energy electron scattering has long been recognized. Recent experimental techniques involving magnetically confined beams have introduced the concept of folded differential cross sections (FDCS) where the forward (θ ≤ π/2) and backward scattered (θ ≥ π/2) projectiles are unresolved, that is the value measured at the angle θ is the sum of the signal for particles scattered into the angles θ and π - θ. We have developed an alternative approach to MERT in order to analyse low-energy folded differential cross sections for positrons and electrons. This results in a simplified expression for the FDCS when it is expressed in terms of partial waves and thereby enables one to extract the first few phase shifts from a fit to an experimental FDCS at low energies. Thus, this method predicts forward and backward angle scattering (0 to π) using only experimental FDCS data and can be used to determine the total elastic cross section solely from experimental results at low-energy, which are limited in angular range.
Partial wave analysis of anti pp → anti ΛΛ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugg, D.V.
2004-01-01
A partial wave analysis of PS185 data for anti pp → anti ΛΛ is presented. A 3 S 1 cusp is identified in the inverse process anti ΛΛ→ anti p p at threshold, using detailed balance to deduce cross sections from anti pp → anti ΛΛ. Partial wave amplitudes for anti pp 3 P 0 , 3 F 3 , 3 D 3 and 3 G 3 exhibit a behaviour very similar to resonances observed in Crystal Barrel data. With this identification, the anti pp → anti ΛΛ data then provide evidence for a new I=0, J PC =1 - resonance with mass M = 2290 ±20 MeV, Γ= 275 ±35 MeV, coupling to both 3 S 1 and 3 D 1 . (orig.)
Partial wave analysis of the 18O(p,α0)15N reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wild, L.W.J.; Spicer, B.M.
1979-01-01
A partial wave analysis of the differential cross sections for the 18 O(p,α 0 ) 15 N reaction has been carried out applying the formalism of Blatt and Biedenharn (1952), made specific for this reaction. The differential cross sections, measured at 200 keV intervals from 6.6 to 10.4 MeV bombarding energy, were subjected to least-squares fitting to this specific analytic expression. Two resonances were given by the analysis, the 19 F states being at 14.71+-0.07 MeV (1/2 - ) and 14.80 + 0.07 MeV (1/2) +
On continuous ambiguities in model-independent partial wave analysis - 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitin, I.N.
1995-01-01
A problem of amplitude reconstruction in terms of the given angular distribution is considered. Solution of this problem is not unique. A class of amplitudes, correspondent to one and the same angular distribution, forms a region in projection onto a finite set of spherical harmonics. An explicit parametrization of a boundary of the region is obtained. A shape of the region of ambiguities is studied in particular example. A scheme of partial-wave analysis, which describes all solutions in the limits of the region, is proposed. 5 refs., 5 figs
Partial wave analysis of KKPI system in D and E/IOTA region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, S.U.; Fernow, R.; Kirk, H.
1985-01-01
A partial wave analysis and a Dalitz plot analysis of high-statistics data from reaction π - p → K + K/sub S/π - n at 8.0 GeV/c show that the D(1285) is a J/sup PG/ = 1 ++ state and the E(1420) a J/sup PG/ = 0 -+ state both with a substantial deltaπ decay mode. The 1 ++ K*anti K wave exhibits a rapid rise near threshold but no evidence of a resonance in the E region. The assignment of J/sup PG/ = O -+ to the E is confirmed from a Dalitz-plot analysis of the reaction pp → K + K/sub S/π - X 0 . 11 refs., 5 figs
PyPWA: A partial-wave/amplitude analysis software framework
Salgado, Carlos
2016-05-01
The PyPWA project aims to develop a software framework for Partial Wave and Amplitude Analysis of data; providing the user with software tools to identify resonances from multi-particle final states in photoproduction. Most of the code is written in Python. The software is divided into two main branches: one general-shell where amplitude's parameters (or any parametric model) are to be estimated from the data. This branch also includes software to produce simulated data-sets using the fitted amplitudes. A second branch contains a specific realization of the isobar model (with room to include Deck-type and other isobar model extensions) to perform PWA with an interface into the computer resources at Jefferson Lab. We are currently implementing parallelism and vectorization using the Intel's Xeon Phi family of coprocessors.
Partial wave analysis of ι/η(1430) from DM2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augustin, J.E.; Cosme, G.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Grosdidier, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lepeltier, V.; Mane, M.; Szklarz, G.; Jousset, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Falvard, A.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.C.
1989-12-01
A Partial Wave Analysis of the ι/η (1430) region from the study of the radiative decays J/Ψ → γ K S 0 K ± π -+ and J/Ψ → γ K ± K -+ π 0 is presented. Pseudoscalar dominance appears clearly with two dynamical components. The main one which proceeds via δ/a 0 (980) π is centered at 1460 MeV/c 2 , while the second one with K*(892) K dynamics is peaked at a lower mass (1420 MeV/c 2 ) close to its kinematical threshold. In addition, the higher part of the mass spectrum contains a significant contribution from the 1 ++ K*(892)K wave
Partial wave analysis of DM2 data in the η(1430) energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augustin, J.E.; Cosme, G.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Grosdidier, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lepeltier, V.; Szklarz, G.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Pescara, L.; Sartori, P.; Stanco, L.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Falvard, A.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.C.
1990-10-01
Partial Wave Analysis of the J/ψ → γK S 0 K ± π -+ , γK ± K -+ π 0 decays in the ι/η(1430) mass range shows a clear pseudoscalar dominance, with two dynamical components. The main one, centered at ∼ 1460 MeV/c 2 , proceeds via a 0 (980)π dynamics, while the second one with K*(892)K dynamics is peaked at ∼ 1420 MeV/c 2 , close to its threshold. In addition, the higher part of the mass spectrum contains a significant contribution from the 1 ++ K*(892)K wave. In the PWA of the J/ψ → γηπ + π - channel a resonant a 0 π production is observed slightly below 1400 MeV/c 2
General partial wave analysis of the decay of a hyperon of spin 1/2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.D.; Yang, C.N.
1983-01-01
This note is to consider the general problem of the decay of a hyperon of spin 1/2 into a pion and a nucleon under the general assumption of possible violations of parity conservation, charge-conjugation invariance, and time-reversal invariance. The discussion is in essence a partial wave analysis of the decay phenomena and is independent of the dynamics of the decay. Nonrelativistic approximations are not made on either of the decay products. In the reference system in which the hyperon is at rest there are two possible final states of the pion-nucleon system:s/sub 1/2/ and p/sub 1/2/. Denoting the amplitudes of these two states by A and B, one observes that the decay is physically characterized by three real constants specifying the magnitudes and the relative phase between these amplitudes. One of these constants can be taken to be absolute value a 2 + absolute value B 2 , and is evidently proportional to the decay probability per unit time. The other two constants are best defined in terms of experimentally measurable quantities. They discuss three types of experiments: (a) The angular distribution of the decay pion from a completely polarized hyperon at rest. (b) The longitudinal polarization of the nucleon emitted in the decay of unpolarized hyperons at rest. (c) Transverse polarization of the nucleon emitted in a given direction in the decay of a polarized hyperon
Nakkasyan, A
1975-01-01
Cross sections of the reaction K/sup -/p to pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/ Lambda are determined in a bubble chamber study at 10 incoming beam momenta between 1.425 GeV/c and 1.800 GeV/c. For the subsample K /sup -/p to omega Lambda , cross sections and angular distributions are presented together with their legendre polynomial expansions and those of the single and joint density matrix elements. An energy dependent partial-wave analysis is performed including earlier data. The data is well fitted by constant background amplitudes in the outgoing S, P and D waves plus two I=0 resonances in this region, the well established G/sub 7/ Lambda (2100) and the P/sub 3/ Lambda (1870) . (14 refs).
Partial-wave analysis of π-π0π0 events at 18 GeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, D.S.
1998-01-01
A partial-wave analysis has been performed on 170 K π - π 0 π 0 events produced in the reaction π - p→pπ - π 0 π 0 , and the results of the mass-independent fits are presented. The objective was to confirm the existence of the π(1800) and the exotic J PC =1 -+ object, reported by VES. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-04-01
Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.
Almabadi, Huda; Sahay, Peeyush; Nagesh, Prashanth K. B.; Yallapu, Murali M.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Pradhan, Prabhakar
Mesoscopic physics based partial wave spectroscopy (PWS) was recently introduced to quantify nanoscale structural disorder in weakly disordered optical media such as biological cells. The degree of structural disorder (Ld) , defined as Ld = 〈 dn2 〉 ×lc is quantified in terms of strength of refractive index fluctuation (〈 dn2 〉) in the system and its correlation length (lc) .With nanoscale sensitivity,Ldhas been shown to have potential to be used in cancer diagnostics. In this work, we analyze the hierarchy of different stages of prostate cancer cells by quantifying their intracellular refractive index fluctuations in terms of Ld parameter. We observe that the increase in tumorigenicity levels inside these prostate cancer cells results in proportionally higherLdvalues. For a weakly disordered optical media like biological cells, this result suggests that the progression of carcinogenesis or the increase in the tumorigenicity level is associated with increased 〈 dn2 〉 and/or lcvalues for the samples. Furthermore, we also examined the applicability of Ld parameter in analyzing the effect of drug on these prostate cancer cells. In accordance with the hypothesis that the cancer cells which survives the drug, becomes more aggressive, we found increased Ldvalues for all the drug resistant prostate cells studied.
Partial-Wave Analysis of Centrally Produced Two-Pseudoscalar Final States in pp Reactions at COMPASS
Austregesilo, Alexander
2014-01-01
COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS which focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the data taking periods in 2008 and 2009. A world-leading data set was collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target in order to study, inter alia, the central exclusive production of glueball candidates in the light-meson sector. Especially the double-Pomeron exchange mechanism is well suited for the production of mesons without valence quark content. We select centrally produced systems with two pseudo-scalar mesons in the final state from the COMPASS data set recorded with an incoming proton. The decay of this system is decomposed in terms of partial waves, where particular attention is paid to the inherent mathematical ambiguities of the amplitude analysis. Furthermore, we show that simple parametrisations are able to describe the mass dependence of the fit results with sensible Breit-Wigner parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forozani, G.
2004-01-01
The magnitude of four independent amplitudes are obtained pion photoproduction in the energy range of 1300 to 2100 MeV incident photon. Different cross section and three polarization parameters are required for such amplitudes reconstruction at different pion scattering angles. Results of the direct amplitudes reconstruction have been compared with the solution of partial wave analysis SM95 and SM00K at all energies. This analysis indicates that we have a fair agreement between the present work and the results of partial wave analysis at many angles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forozani, G.
2004-01-01
The magnitude of four independent amplitudes are obtained in neutral pion photoproduction in the energy range of 1300 to 2100 MeV incident photon. Differential gross section and three polarization parameters are required for such amplitudes reconstruction at different pion scattering angles. Results of the direct amplitudes reconstruction have been compared with the solution of partial wave analysis SM95 and SM00K at all energies. This analysis indicates that we have a fair agreement between the present work and the results of partial wave analysis at meny angles (Author)
A partial wave analysis of world data for the reaction π-p → K0Λ from threshold to 2350 MeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, R.D.; Blissett, J.A.; Bloodworth, I.J.
1977-06-01
All available world data for the reaction π - p → K 0 Λ up to 2350 MeV/c incident momentum have been analysed using both the Barrelet (Nuovo Cimento; 8A:331 (1972)) zero technique and a conventional energy-dependent fit. The results of the two methods are in good agreement. Resonances are required in the S 11 , P 11 , P 13 and D 13 partial waves. There is also an enhancement in the D 15 wave around 1900 MeV. No other resonances are required. (author)
Litchfield, P J; Baillon, Paul; Putzer, A; Schleich, H
1974-01-01
A partial-wave analysis has been carried out on the reaction K/sup -/p to Lambda (1520) pi to K/sup -/p pi /sup 0/. The Sigma (2030) is observed with an amplitude at resonance of 0.14+or-0.03. Evidence is also presented for the formation of the /sup 3///sub 2//sup -/ Sigma (1940). (14 refs).
Model-independent partial wave analysis using a massively-parallel fitting framework
Sun, L.; Aoude, R.; dos Reis, A. C.; Sokoloff, M.
2017-10-01
The functionality of GooFit, a GPU-friendly framework for doing maximum-likelihood fits, has been extended to extract model-independent {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes in three-body decays such as D + → h + h + h -. A full amplitude analysis is done where the magnitudes and phases of the {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes are anchored at a finite number of m 2(h + h -) control points, and a cubic spline is used to interpolate between these points. The amplitudes for {\\mathscr{P}}-wave and {\\mathscr{D}}-wave intermediate states are modeled as spin-dependent Breit-Wigner resonances. GooFit uses the Thrust library, with a CUDA backend for NVIDIA GPUs and an OpenMP backend for threads with conventional CPUs. Performance on a variety of platforms is compared. Executing on systems with GPUs is typically a few hundred times faster than executing the same algorithm on a single CPU.
Partial wave analysis of the π-π-π+ and π-π0π0 systems and the search for a JPC=1-+ meson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzierba, A.R.; Mitchell, R.; Scott, E.; Shepherd, M.R.; Smith, P.; Swat, M.; Teige, S.; Szczepaniak, A.P.; Denisov, S.P.; Dorofeev, V.; Kachaev, I.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.V.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.
2006-01-01
A partial wave analysis (PWA) of the π - π - π + and π - π 0 π 0 systems produced in the reaction π - p→(3π) - p at 18 GeV/c was carried out using an isobar model assumption. This analysis is based on 3.0 M π - π 0 π 0 events and 2.6 M π - π - π + events and shows production of the a 1 (1260), a 2 (1320), π 2 (1670), and a 4 (2040) resonances. Results of detailed studies of the stability of partial wave fits are presented. An earlier analysis of 250 K π - π - π + events from the same experiment showed possible evidence for a J PC =1 -+ exotic meson with a mass of ∼1.6 GeV/c 2 decaying into ρπ. In this analysis of a higher statistics sample of the (3π) - system in two charged modes we find no evidence of an exotic meson
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Krása, Antonín; Křížek, Filip; Kugler, Andrej; Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Tlustý, Pavel; Wagner, Vladimír
2015-01-01
Roč. 742, MAR (2015), s. 242-248 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG12007; GA ČR GA13-06759S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : kaonic nuclei * anti-kaon-nucleon physics * ppK(-) * low energy * QCD * partial wave analysis Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.787, year: 2015
Litchfield, P J; Baillon, Paul; Albrecht, A; Putzer, A
1974-01-01
A partial-wave analysis has been carried out on the reaction K/sup -/p to K/sup -/ Delta /sup +/(1230) to K/sup -/p pi /sup 0/ in the centre of mass energy region 1915-2170 MeV. The Sigma (2030) is observed with an amplitude at resonance of 0.16+or-0.03. Strong formation of the /sup 3///sub 2//sup -/ Sigma (1940) is also indicated. (9 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichitiu, F.; Falomkin, I.V.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Shcherbakov, Yu.A.; Piragino, G.
1981-06-01
In the 24 MeV-260 MeV kinetic energy interval, the energy dependent phase shift analysis of π 4 He elastic scattering is done. The eneray dependence is given by the rational fraction approximants of the partial S matrix. The search for the stable S matrix zero-pole pairs in the k and √s complex plane give some proofs for the existence of the (π 4 He) excited states in the S, P and probably D partial waves. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tovey, S.N.; Hansen, J.D.; Paler, K.; Shah, T.P.; Borg, A.; Denegri, D.; Pons, Y.; Spiro, M.
1975-01-01
The reactions K - p→K - π + π - and K - p→ antikaon-neutral π - π 0 p at 14.3GeV/c has been studied using respectively 15992 and 3723 events. Partial wave analysis of the region 1.0 + but that the partial wave substrates have very different branching ratios into (rho) and K*π, the K*π component of the 1 + state being similar to the 1 + state of the 3π system produced in the reaction πp→(3π)p [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, Florian
2014-01-01
The dynamics of strong interaction in the regime of low energies, i.e. large distances, is still not understood. Given its simplicity the non-relativistic simple quark model (SQM) describes successfully the observed hadronic spectra. QCD-inspired models, however, predict hadronic states where the gluonic content contributes to the hadron quantum numbers. These so-called hybrids cannot be explained within the SQM. A solid experimental proof of the existence of such systems would be the observation of spin-exotic states, with spin-parity quantum numbers, not allowed in the SQM. The study of mesons, the simplest hadrons, permits to gain insight into the realm of strong interaction where hadrons are the relevant degrees of freedom. The most promising spin-exotic meson candidate is the π 1 (1600), which was claimed in several experiments and in particular in data taken during a previous hadron campaign of the COMPASS experiment. The hadron spectroscopy program of the COMPASS experiment at CERN focuses on the investigation of the light-meson spectrum in order to enlighten this rarely understood regime of strong interaction. During the 2008 data taking an unprecedented statistical precision has been reached in peripheral interactions of 190 GeV/c pions with a proton target leading to the π - π - π + final state. A spin-parity analysis in the kinematical region of the squared fourmomentum transfer 0.1≤t'0≤1.0 GeV 2 /c 2 was carried out based on a model of 88 partial waves up to a total angular momentum of 6. Besides the precise determination of properties of known resonances, a new axial-vector state, the a 1 (1420), was observed for the first time in a mass region where neither model nor lattice calculations predict mesons with this quantum numbers. Noteworthy is the very small intensity of this signal and that it only couples to the f 0 (980) isobar which is assumed to have a large strangeness content. The spin-exotic π 1 (1600) was observed albeit as a
Barrelet zeros and elastic π+p partial waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chew, D.M.; Urban, M.
1976-06-01
A procedure is proposed for constructing low-order partial-wave amplitudes from a knowledge of Barrelet zeros near the physical region. The method is applied to the zeros already obtained for elastic π + p scattering data between 1.2 and 2.2 GeV cm energies. The partial waves emerge with errors that are straight-forwardly related to the accuracy of the data and satisfy unitarity without any constraint being imposed. There are significant differences from the partial waves obtained by other methods; this can be partially explained by the fact that no previous partial-wave analysis has been able to solve the discrete ambiguity. The cost of the analysis is much less
Superconformal partial waves in Grassmannian field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doobary, Reza; Heslop, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE United Kingdom (United Kingdom)
2015-12-23
We derive superconformal partial waves for all scalar four-point functions on a super Grassmannian space Gr(m|n,2m|2n) for all m,n. This family of four-point functions includes those of all (arbitrary weight) half BPS operators in both N=4 SYM (m=n=2) and in N=2 superconformal field theories in four dimensions (m=2,n=1) on analytic superspace. It also includes four-point functions of all (arbitrary dimension) scalar fields in non-supersymmetric conformal field theories (m=2,n=0) on Minkowski space, as well as those of a certain class of representations of the compact SU(2n) coset spaces. As an application we then specialise to N=4 SYM and use these results to perform a detailed superconformal partial wave analysis of the four-point functions of arbitrary weight half BPS operators. We discuss the non-trivial separation of protected and unprotected sectors for the 〈2222〉, 〈2233〉 and 〈3333〉 cases in an SU(N) gauge theory at finite N. The 〈2233〉 correlator predicts a non-trivial protected twist four sector for 〈3333〉 which we can completely determine using the knowledge that there is precisely one such protected twist four operator for each spin.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolbeau, Jean.
1976-01-01
The partial wave analysis of 91314 π + -p→Nππ events at nine CM energies between 1.38 and 1.74GeV was performed using the generalized isobar model and assuming the coherent production of Δ, rho and sigma in the final state. A coupled channel analysis (K-matrix formalism) led to the determination of the arbitrary phase at each energy and to smooth the partial wave amplitudes. The paramaters (mass, total and partial widths, signs of coupling constants) of sixteen resonances, among which two new ones, are determined by two different methods. Those results help in classifying the lower-mass excited states of the nucleon in the frame of unitary symmetries, as SU6 [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drevillon, B.; Borenstein, S.; Chaurand, B.; Gago, J.M.; Salmeron, R.A.; Borg, A.; Denegri, D.; Pons, Y.; Spiro, M.; Comber, C.; Paler, K.; Tovey, S.N.; Shah, T.P.
1975-01-01
A partial wave analysis of spin-parity of the (antikaon-neutral π + π - ) system in the mass range M(antikaon-neutral π + π - ) - and 1 + states is found, the unatural spin-parity accounting for more than 3/4 of the events at 3.95GeV/c and for more than half at 14.3GeV/c. Natural parity exchange is dominant at both energies. A fit of the cross sections of several states to Psub(lab)sup(-n) gives n between 1.5 and 2.0 [fr
A partial wave analysis of the (3π)0 system from the charge exchange reaction π+n→π+π-π0p at 4 GeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emms, M.J.; Jones, G.T.; Kinson, J.B.; Stacey, B.J.; Votruba, M.F.; Woodworth, P.L.; Bell, I.G.; Dale, M.; Major, J.V.; Charlesworth, J.A.; Crennell, D.J.; Sekulin, R.L.
1975-10-01
From a partial wave analysis of the (3π) 0 state in the charge exchange reaction π + n→π + π - π 0 p, strong unnatural parity is observed as well as natural parity production. The observed natural parity states are identified with well-established resonances. The unnatural parity production is consistent with Reggeized Deck model predictions, with the exception of the I = 1 Jsup(p) = 1 + state. Here there is no evidence for A 1 production at approximately 1.1 GeV, but the data could support resonance production at higher masses. (author)
Crichton ambiguities with infinitely many partial waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkinson, D.; Kok, L.P.; de Roo, M.
1978-01-01
We construct families of spinless two-particle unitary cross sections that possess a nontrivial discrete phase-shift ambiguity, with in general an infinite number of nonvanishing partial waves. A numerical investigation reveals that some of the previously known finite Crichton ambiguities are merely special cases of the newly constructed examples
Crichton ambiguities with infinitely many partial waves
Atkinson, D.; Kok, L.P.; de Roo, M.
We construct families of spin less two-particle unitary cross sections that possess a nontrivial discrete phase-shift ambiguity, with in general an infinite number of nonvanishing partial waves. A numerical investigation reveals that some of the previously known finite Crichton ambiguities are
Technique for sensitivity analysis of space- and energy-dependent burn-up calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.L.; White, J.R.
1979-01-01
A practical method is presented for sensitivity analysis of the very complex, space-energy dependent burn-up equations, in which the neutron and nuclide fields are coupled nonlinearly. The adjoint burn-up equations that are given are in a form which can be directly implemented into multi-dimensional depletion codes, such as VENTURE/BURNER. The data sensitivity coefficients can be used to determine the effect of data uncertainties on time-dependent depletion responses. Initial condition sensitivity coefficients provide a very effective method for computing the change in end of cycle parameters (such as k/sub eff/, fissile inventory, etc.) due to changes in nuclide concentrations at beginning of cycle
Corden, M J; Bellamy, E H; Corbett, I F; Dagan, S; Dowell, John D; Esterling, R J; Garvey, J; Gnat, Y; Green, M G; Harnew, N; Jobes, M; Kenyon, I R; Lipman, Norman H; Lister, J B; Lister, J R; Litchfield, P J; Mawson, J; McMahon, T; Robertson, A W; Stacey, B J; Strong, J A; Sumorok, K; Thomas, D H
1978-01-01
Data on the charge-exchange reaction pi /sup -/p to ( pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/)n have been taken at beam momenta of 12 and 15 GeV /c, using the CERN Omega Multiparticle Spectrometer. A partial-wave analysis has been made of the (3 pi )/sup 0/ system. Both natural and unnatural spin-parity production was observed. The natural parity states can be identified with established resonances. In addition a natural spin-parity enhancement is observed at a mass of about 2 GeV/c /sup 2/ with J/sup P/=4/sup +/ preferred. This effect is called the A /sub 2/*(2030). The unnatural spin-parity production found is consistent with reggeized Deck model predictions. No unambiguous A/sub 1/ or A/sub 3/ production is observed. (15 refs).
Cerrada, M; Chaloupka, V; Foster, B; Heinen, P M; Hemingway, R J; Holmgren, S O; Kittel, E W; Losty, Michael J; Massaro, G G G; Metzger, W J; Vergeest, J S M; Wagner, F; Wells, J; Wolters, G F
1977-01-01
A partial-wave analysis of the (3 pi )/sup 0/ system produced peripherally in the reaction K/sup -/p to pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/ Lambda at 4.2 GeV/c is presented. The observation of the weak Lambda decay allows a determination of all the transverse production amplitudes except for two phases. The production of known resonances having decay modes other than 3 pi is used to test the isobar model ansatz. Significant omega (783), phi (1020) and A/sub 2/(1310) production is observed. The spin parity of the omega *(1675) is established as 3/sup -/. No evidence for production of other resonances, such as axial vector-mesons, is found. (23 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Workman, R. L.; Tiator, L.; Wunderlich, Y.; Doring, M.; Haberzettl, H.
2017-01-01
Here, we compare the methods of amplitude reconstruction, for a complete experiment and a truncated partial-wave analysis, applied to the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons. The approach is pedagogical, showing in detail how the amplitude reconstruction (observables measured at a single energy and angle) is related to a truncated partial-wave analysis (observables measured at a single energy and a number of angles).
Energy-Dependent microscopic optical potential for p+{sup 9}Be elastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maridi, H. M., E-mail: h.maridi@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Farag, M. Y. H., E-mail: yehiafarag@cu.edu.eg; Esmael, E. H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen)
2016-06-10
The p+{sup 9}Be elastic scattering at an energy range up to 200 MeV/nucleon is analyzed using the single-folding model. The density- and isospin-dependent M3Y-Paris nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is used for the real part and the NN-scattering amplitude of the high-energy approximation for the imaginary one. The analysis reveals that the cross-section data are reproduced well at energies up to 100 MeV/nucleon by use of the partial-wave expansion. For higher energies, the eikonal approximation give results better than the partial-wave expansion calculations. The volume integrals of the optical-potential parts have systematic energy dependencies, and they are parameterized in empirical formulas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolbeau, J.; Triantis, F.A.; Neveu, M.; Cadiet, F.
1975-01-01
A new partial wave analysis of the three reactions π - p→pπ - π 0 , π - p→nπ + π - , and π + p→pπ + π 0 is presented at nine c.m. energies between 1.36 and 1.76GeV, using about 91300 Nππ events. Within the framework of the generalized isobar model it is possible to describe the data with Δ, rho and sigma(ππ, i=0) production, as well as to reproduce the π - p→nπ 0 π 0 and π + p→nπ + π + cross sections. New prescriptions for the description of sigma and for the centrifugal barrier term are obtained. Furthermore, at the highest energy, there is evidence for N* production and for the presence of a ππ interaction, contributing about 5% to the cross sections of the reaction π - p→pπ - π 0 and π + p→pπ + π 0 . Finally, Argand plots are presented, showing the main inelastic couplings for ten resonances in this energy range [fr
Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd, E-mail: monasr211@gmail.com; Metorima, Kouhei, E-mail: kohei.m2420@hotmail.co.jp; Ohsawa, Takaaki, E-mail: ohsawa@mvg.biglobe.ne.jp; Hashimoto, Kengo, E-mail: kengoh@pp.iij4u.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)
2015-04-29
The changes of delayed neutron yields (ν{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ν{sub d}=∑Y{sub i} • P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ν{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.
Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Ke-Xin; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan
2017-06-01
Poplar (Populus×canadensis) seeds rapidly germinated in darkness at 10, 15, and 20°C and reached 50% seed germination after about 22, 4.5, and 3.5h, respectively. Germination of poplar seeds was markedly inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA) at 50μM and cycloheximide (CHX) at 100μM, and these inhibitive roles were temperature-dependent. In the present study, mature poplar seeds were used to investigate the differentially changed proteome of seeds germinating in water, ABA, and CHX. A total of 130 protein spots showed a significant change (1.5-fold increase/decrease, Pgermination of poplar seeds is closely related with the increase in those proteins involved in amino acid and lipid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway, protein synthesis and destination, cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. ABA and CHX inhibit the germination of poplar seeds by decreasing the protein abundance associated with protein proteolysis, protein folding, and storage proteins. We conclude that poplar seed germination is an energy-dependent active process, and is accompanied by increasing amino acid activation, protein synthesis and destination, as well as cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hemingway, Richard J; Harmsen D M; Kiesling, C; Petersen, J O; Plane, D E; Putzer, A; Wittex, W; Eades, J no 1; Harmsen D M no 1; Hemingway, R J no 1; Kiesling, C no 3; Petersen, J O no 1; Plane, D E no 3; Putzer, A no 2; Wittex, W no 3
1975-01-01
The angular distributions of the reactions K/sup -/p to K/sup -/p and K/sup -/p to K/sup 0/n have been measured at 23 incident K/sup -/ momenta between 1.136 and 1.798 GeV/c using the bubble chamber technique. These data, together with other published data on the same reactions, including K/sup -/p polarisations, KN total cross sections and measurements of Re f(0)/Im f(0), have been analysed in terms of partial-wave amplitudes. Resonance behaviour is confirmed for the P /sub 03/ partial wave at 1890 MeV. The resonance parameters of the F /sub 15/(1915), F/sub 17/(2030) and G/sub 07/(2100) have been redetermined. No evidence has been found for new resonances coupling significantly to KN in the energy region explored. (24 refs).
New results on the Roper resonance and the P-11 partial wave
Sarantsev, A. V.; Fuchs, M.; Kotulla, M.; Thoma, U.; Ahrens, J.; Annand, J. R. M.; Anisovich, A. V.; Anton, G.; Bantes, R.; Bartholomy, O.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Yu.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Ehmanns, A.; Ernst, J.; Fabry, I.; Flemming, H.; Foesel, A.; Funke, Chr.; Gothe, R.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Hoeffgen, St.; Horn, I.; Hoessl, J.; Hornidge, D.; Janssen, S.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Klein, F.; Klempt, E.; Koch, H.; Konrad, M.; Kopf, B.; Krusche, B.; Langheinrich, J.; Loehner, H.; Lopatin, I.; Lotz, J.; McGeorge, J. C.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Matthaey, H.; Menze, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radkov, A.; Rosner, G.; Rost, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schoch, B.; Suft, G.; Sumachev, V.; Szczepanek, T.; Walther, D.; Watts, D. P.; Weinheimer, Chr.
2008-01-01
Properties of the Roper resonance, the first scalar excitation of the nucleon, are determined. Pole positions and residues of the P-11 partial wave are studied in a combined analysis of pion- and photo-induced reactions. We find the Roper pole at {(1371 +/- 7) - i(92 +/- 10)} MeV and an elasticity
Energy dependence of the multiplicity analysis of quark-diquark jets
Biswal, K; Panda, A R; Parida, B K
1980-01-01
Under the assumption of hard scattering, multiplicity analysis of quark-diquark jets is made in a model analogous to the quark-cascade- jet production model developed earlier. In the present approach the diquark is treated as a coherent object consisting of the two quarks which remain after the hard scattering. This is assumed to produce a baryon and an antiquark in the first stage of its fragmentation. The resulting quark-antiquark pair then hadronises as per the cascade model. This picture of quark-diquark fragmentation is adequately supported by the observations made in recent ISR experiments at CERN. The above technique is applied to weak, electromagnetic and strong processes involving quark-diquark hadronisation in a unified manner and with fair agreement with the experimental results. (0 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnham, Shawn D.; Thomas, Edward W.; Doolittle, W. Alan
2006-01-01
A characterization technique is discussed that allows quantitative optimization of doping in epitaxially grown semiconductors. This technique uses relative changes in the host atom secondary ion (HASI) energy distribution from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to indicate relative changes in conductivity of the material. Since SIMS is a destructive process due to sputtering through a film, a depth profile of the energy distribution of sputtered HASIs in a matrix will contain information on the conductivity of the layers of the film as a function of depth. This process is demonstrated with Mg-doped GaN, with the Mg flux slowly increased through the film. Three distinct regions of conductivity were observed: one with Mg concentration high enough to cause compensation and thus high resistivity, a second with moderate Mg concentration and low resistivity, and a third with little to no Mg doping, causing high resistivity due to the lack of free carriers. During SIMS analysis of the first region, the energy distributions of sputtered Ga HASIs were fairly uniform and unchanging for a Mg flux above the saturation, or compensation, limit. For the second region, the Ga HASI energy distributions shifted and went through a region of inconsistent energy distributions for Mg flux slightly below the critical flux for saturation, or compensation. Finally, for the third region, the Ga HASI energy distributions then settled back into another fairly unchanging, uniform pattern. These three distinct regions were analyzed further through growth of Mg-doped step profiles and bulk growth of material at representative Mg fluxes. The materials grown at the two unchanging, uniform regions of the energy distributions yielded highly resistive material due to too high of Mg concentration and low to no Mg concentration, respectively. However, material grown in the transient energy distribution region with Mg concentration between that of the two highly resistive regions yielded low
Burnham, Shawn D.; Thomas, Edward W.; Doolittle, W. Alan
2006-12-01
A characterization technique is discussed that allows quantitative optimization of doping in epitaxially grown semiconductors. This technique uses relative changes in the host atom secondary ion (HASI) energy distribution from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to indicate relative changes in conductivity of the material. Since SIMS is a destructive process due to sputtering through a film, a depth profile of the energy distribution of sputtered HASIs in a matrix will contain information on the conductivity of the layers of the film as a function of depth. This process is demonstrated with Mg-doped GaN, with the Mg flux slowly increased through the film. Three distinct regions of conductivity were observed: one with Mg concentration high enough to cause compensation and thus high resistivity, a second with moderate Mg concentration and low resistivity, and a third with little to no Mg doping, causing high resistivity due to the lack of free carriers. During SIMS analysis of the first region, the energy distributions of sputtered Ga HASIs were fairly uniform and unchanging for a Mg flux above the saturation, or compensation, limit. For the second region, the Ga HASI energy distributions shifted and went through a region of inconsistent energy distributions for Mg flux slightly below the critical flux for saturation, or compensation. Finally, for the third region, the Ga HASI energy distributions then settled back into another fairly unchanging, uniform pattern. These three distinct regions were analyzed further through growth of Mg-doped step profiles and bulk growth of material at representative Mg fluxes. The materials grown at the two unchanging, uniform regions of the energy distributions yielded highly resistive material due to too high of Mg concentration and low to no Mg concentration, respectively. However, material grown in the transient energy distribution region with Mg concentration between that of the two highly resistive regions yielded low
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cutkosky, R E; Hicks, H R; Sandusky, J; Shih, C C [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Kelly, R L [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.; Miller, R C; Yokosawa, A [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)
1976-01-05
K/sup +/p cross-section and polarization data have been analyzed in the momentum range 0.78-2.53 GeV/c. Single energy fits were made using an ACE parametrization which had no cutoff in J, was analytic and has Regge-asymptotic behaviour in the cut cos theta plane, and contained explicit contributions from P, rho, A2, ..lambda.., ..sigma.., and low-mass di-pion exchange. Direct channel analyticity constraints were imposed by a partial wave dispersion relation interpolation procedure, fitting expansions in regulated-norm optimal bases to each partial wave which entered as a search parameter in the single energy fits. Output from these two programs was then used for a simultaneous fit by a linearized least squares program which provided input for another iterative fitting cycle. No strong evidence for the existence of exotic resonances was found. The method of analytic smoothing, in comparison with 'shortest path' methods, is found to allow more significant threshold structure to appear in the amplitudes.
Partial wave analyses of scattering below 2 GeV. Progress report, May 1, 1984-April 30, 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.
1985-08-01
Progress is reported in the partial wave analysis of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering, pion-nucleon elastic scattering, and kaon plus-nucleon elastic scattering. Activities are also reported with respect to the Scattering Analysis Interactive Dial-in (SAID) facility
Two-nucleon Hulthen-type interactions for few higher partial waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Hamiltonian hierarchy problems in SQM lead to the addition of appropriate centrifugal barriers and consequently, higher partial wave potentials are ... the partial waves l > 0 one needs to improve the parameters involved in calculations. The present paper addresses itself to compute higher partial wave scattering phase ...
New results on the Roper resonance and the P{sub 11} partial wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarantsev, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Fuchs, M. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Kotulla, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Basel (Switzerland); II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Thoma, U. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Ahrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Anisovich, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Anton, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Bantes, R. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bartholomy, O. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Beck, R. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Beloglazov, Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Castelijns, R. [KVI, Groningen (Netherlands); Crede, V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Department of Physics, Florida State University (United States); Ehmanns, A.; Ernst, J.; Fabry, I. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Flemming, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Foesel, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Funke, Chr. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany)] (and others)
2008-01-17
Properties of the Roper resonance, the first scalar excitation of the nucleon, are determined. Pole positions and residues of the P{sub 11} partial wave are studied in a combined analysis of pion- and photo-induced reactions. We find the Roper pole at {l_brace}(1371{+-}7)-i(92{+-}10){r_brace} MeV and an elasticity of 0.61{+-}0.03. The largest decay coupling is found for the N{sigma} ({sigma}=({pi}{pi})-S-wave). The analysis is based on new data on {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} for photons in the energy range from the two-pion threshold to 820 MeV from TAPS at Mainz and from 0.4 to 1.3 GeV from Crystal Barrel at Bonn and includes further data from other experiments. The partial wave analysis excludes the possibility that the Roper resonance is split into two states with different partial decay widths.
Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction
Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.
2009-01-01
We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…
Role of peripheral partial waves in the angle scattering of nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleixo, A N.F.; Canto, L F; Carrilho, P; Hussein, M S
1984-12-01
Properties of the elastic excitation function at 180 produced by deviations from the usual strong absorption S-matrix are studied. Deviations S-tilde are considered, with the shape of windows in l-space centered around a value l-tilde corresponding to a peripheral collision, and our analysis is concentrated on the interference of the partial waves neighbouring l-tilde. The conditions for constructive and destructive interference and the effect of odd-even staggering factors are investigated, in the presence and in the absence of Coulomb and nuclear refraction. The consequences of such interference on the anomalous behaviour of the 180 excitation functions for the elastic scattering of some n- nuclei are discussed, in connection with results of other works.
Extracting scattering phase shifts in higher partial waves from lattice QCD calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luu, Thomas; Savage, Martin J.
2011-06-01
Lüscher’s method is routinely used to determine meson-meson, meson-baryon, and baryon-baryon s-wave scattering amplitudes below inelastic thresholds from lattice QCD calculations—presently at unphysical light-quark masses. In this work we review the formalism and develop the requisite expressions to extract phase shifts describing meson-meson scattering in partial waves with angular momentum l≤6 and l=9. The implications of the underlying cubic symmetry, and strategies for extracting the phase shifts from lattice QCD calculations, are presented, along with a discussion of the signal-to-noise problem that afflicts the higher partial waves.
Ambiguous sets of partial wave amplitudes can intersect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kok, L.P.; Roo, M. de
1976-01-01
Continuation in energy as a method to resolve ambiguities in phase-shift analysis is discussed. It is shown that continuity in energy is not in all cases sufficient to resolve ambiguities, and examples are given of such cases for both spin 0 - spin 0 and spin 0 - spin 1/2 scattering. (author)
Partial wave expansions for arbitrary spin and the role of non-central forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.C.
1976-09-01
The partial wave expansion of the amplitudes used by Hooton and Johnson for the scattering of particles of arbitrary spin is derived. A discussion is given of the extent to which effects arising from transition matrix elements that are diagonal and nondiagonal in orbital angular momentum can be distinguished in observables
Partial wave expansions for arbitrary spin and the role of non-central forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.C.
1977-01-01
The partial wave expansion of the amplitudes used by Hooton and Johnson for the scattering of particles of arbitrary spin is derived. A discussion is given of the extent to which effects arising from transition matrix elements that are diagonal and non-diagonal in orbital angular momentum can be distinguished in observables. (Auth.)
Symmetrized partial-wave method for density-functional cluster calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averill, F.W.; Painter, G.S.
1994-01-01
The computational advantage and accuracy of the Harris method is linked to the simplicity and adequacy of the reference-density model. In an earlier paper, we investigated one way the Harris functional could be extended to systems outside the limits of weakly interacting atoms by making the charge density of the interacting atoms self-consistent within the constraints of overlapping spherical atomic densities. In the present study, a method is presented for augmenting the interacting atom charge densities with symmetrized partial-wave expansions on each atomic site. The added variational freedom of the partial waves leads to a scheme capable of giving exact results within a given exchange-correlation approximation while maintaining many of the desirable convergence and stability properties of the original Harris method. Incorporation of the symmetry of the cluster in the partial-wave construction further reduces the level of computational effort. This partial-wave cluster method is illustrated by its application to the dimer C 2 , the hypothetical atomic cluster Fe 6 Al 8 , and the benzene molecule
Elastic meson-nucleon partial wave scattering analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.A.
1986-01-01
Comprehensive analyses of π-n elastic scattering data below 1100 MeV(Tlab), and K+p scattering below 3 GeV/c(Plab) are discussed. Also discussed is a package of computer programs and data bases (scattering data, and solution files) through which users can ''explore'' these interactions in great detail; this package is known by the acronym SAID (for Scattering Analysis Interactive Dialin) and is accessible on VAX backup tapes, or by dialin to the VPI computers. The π-n, and k+p interactions will be described as seen through the SAID programs. A procedure will be described for generating an interpolating array from any of the solutions encoded in SAID; this array can then be used through a fortran callable subroutine (supplied as part of SAID) to give excellent amplitude reconstructions over a broad kinematic range
Exactly solvable energy-dependent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Martinez, J.; Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Pena, J.J.; Schulze-Halberg, A.
2009-01-01
We introduce a method for constructing exactly-solvable Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials. Our method is based on converting a general linear differential equation of second order into a Schroedinger equation with energy-dependent potential. Particular examples presented here include harmonic oscillator, Coulomb and Morse potentials with various types of energy dependence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.; Kjeldsen, T. K.; Madsen, L. B.
2007-01-01
We present a method for spectral (bound and continuum) and partial-wave analysis of a three-dimensional time-dependent wave function, defined on a grid, without projecting onto the field-free eigenstates of the system. The method consists of propagating the time-dependent Schroedinger equation to obtain its autocorrelation function C(t)= after the end of the interaction, at time T, of the system with an external time-dependent field. The Fourier spectrum of this correlation function is directly related to the expansion coefficients of the wave function on the field-free bound and continuum energy eigenstates of the system. By expanding on a spherical harmonics basis we show how to calculate the contribution of the various partial waves to the total photoelectron energy spectrum
Energy dependence of nonlocal optical potentials
Lovell, A. E.; Bacq, P.-L.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Titus, L. J.
2017-11-01
Recently, a variety of studies have shown the importance of including nonlocality in the description of reactions. The goal of this work is to revisit the phenomenological approach to determining nonlocal optical potentials from elastic scattering. We perform a χ2 analysis of neutron elastic scattering data off 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb at energies E ≈5 -40 MeV, assuming a Perey and Buck [Nucl. Phys. 32, 353 (1962), 10.1016/0029-5582(62)90345-0] or Tian et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1550006 (2015), 10.1142/S0218301315500068] nonlocal form for the optical potential. We introduce energy and asymmetry dependencies in the imaginary part of the potential and refit the data to obtain a global parametrization. Independently of the starting point in the minimization procedure, an energy dependence in the imaginary depth is required for a good description of the data across the included energy range. We present two parametrizations, both of which represent an improvement over the original potentials for the fitted nuclei as well as for other nuclei not included in our fit. Our results show that, even when including the standard Gaussian nonlocality in optical potentials, a significant energy dependence is required to describe elastic-scattering data.
The role of peripheral partial waves in the anomalous large angle scattering of n-α nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleixo, A.N.F.; Canto, L.F.; Carrilho, P.; Hussein, M.S.
1984-01-01
Properties of the elastic excitation function at 180 0 produced by deviations from the usual strong absorption S-matrix are studied. Deviations S approx. with the shape of windows in l-space, centered around a value l approx. corresponding to a peripheral collision are considered and the analysis is concentrated in the interference of the partial waves neighbouring l approx.. The conditions for constructive and destructive interference and the effect of odd-even staggering factors are investigated, in the presence and in the absence of Coulomb and nuclear refraction. The consequences of such interference on the anomalous behaviour of the 180 0 excitation function for the elastic scattering of some n-α nuclei are discussed, in connection with results of other works. (Author) [pt
Properties of partial-wave amplitudes in conformal invariant field theories
Ferrara, Sergio; Grillo, A F
1975-01-01
Analyticity properties of partial-wave amplitudes of the conformal group O/sub D,2/ (D not necessarily integer) in configuration space are investigated. The presence of Euclidean singularities in the Wilson expansion in conformal invariant field theories is discussed, especially in connection with the program of formulating dynamical bootstrap conditions coming from the requirement of causality. The exceptional case of D-2 is discussed in detail. (18 refs).
A chiral quark model for meson electroproduction in the S11 partial wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golli, B.; Sirca, S.
2011-01-01
We calculate the meson scattering and electroproduction amplitudes in the S11 partial wave in a coupled-channel approach that incorporates quasi-bound quark-model states. Using the quark wave functions and the quark-meson interaction from the Cloudy Bag Model, we obtain a good overall agreement with the available experimental results for the partial widths of the N(1535) and the N(1650) resonances as well as for the pion, eta and kaon electroproduction amplitudes. Our model is consistent with the N(1535) resonance being dominantly a genuine three-quark state rather than a quasi-bound state of mesons and baryons. (orig.)
Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander; Powell, Cedric J.
2005-01-01
-103) obtained from multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock self-consistent calculations. For comparison purposes, three simple analytical approximations to the electron density of neutral atoms (corresponding to the Thomas-Fermi, the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac and the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater models) are also included. For calculations of elastic scattering by ions, the electron density should be provided by the user. The exchange potential for electron scattering can be selected among three different analytical approximations (Thomas-Fermi, Furness-McCarthy, Riley-Truhlar). The offered options for the correlation-polarization potential are based on the empirical Buckingham potential. The imaginary absorption potential is calculated from the local-density approximation proposed by Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 012708]. Program summaryTitle of program:ELSEPA Catalogue identifier: ADUS Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADUS Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland License provisions: none Computer for which the program is designed and others in which it is operable: Any computer with a FORTRAN 77 compiler Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Windows XP, Windows 2000, Debian GNU/Linux 3.0r0 (sarge) Compilers:Compaq Visual Fortran v6.5 (Windows); GNU FORTRAN, g77 (Windows and Linux) Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 No. of bits in a word: 32 Memory required to execute with typical data: 0.6 Mb No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:135 489 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 280 006 Distribution format: tar.gz Keywords: Dirac partial-wave analysis, electron elastic scattering, positron elastic scattering, differential cross sections, momentum transfer cross sections, transport cross sections, scattering amplitudes, spin polarization, scattering by complex potentials, high-energy atomic screening functions Nature of the physical problem: The code
Two-nucleon higher partial-wave scattering from lattice QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evan Berkowitz
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We present a determination of nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts for ℓ≥0. The S, P, D and F phase shifts for both the spin-triplet and spin-singlet channels are computed with lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics. For ℓ>0, this is the first lattice QCD calculation using the Lüscher finite-volume formalism. This required the design and implementation of novel lattice methods involving displaced sources and momentum-space cubic sinks. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, the calculations were performed in the SU(3-flavor limit where the light quark masses have been tuned to the physical strange quark mass, corresponding to mπ=mK≈800 MeV. In this work, we have assumed that only the lowest partial waves contribute to each channel, ignoring the unphysical partial wave mixing that arises within the finite-volume formalism. This assumption is only valid for sufficiently low energies; we present evidence that it holds for our study using two different channels. Two spatial volumes of V≈(3.5 fm3 and V≈(4.6 fm3 were used. The finite-volume spectrum is extracted from the exponential falloff of the correlation functions. Said spectrum is mapped onto the infinite volume phase shifts using the generalization of the Lüscher formalism for two-nucleon systems.
Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, A.
2003-01-01
As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE), which can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation, which is reducible to a pair of coupled pde's. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, calculated as a function of energy are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.
Calculation of the Full Scattering Amplitude without Partial Wave Decomposition II
Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.
2003-01-01
As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE) can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), and was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation. The resultant equation can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, to which the finite element method can still be applied. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, as a function of angle can be calculated for various energies. The results are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morningstar, Colin; Bulava, John; Singha, Bijit
2017-01-01
An implementation of estimating the two-to-two $K$-matrix from finite-volume energies based on the L\\"uscher formalism and involving a Hermitian matrix known as the "box matrix" is described. The method includes higher partial waves and multiple decay channels. Two fitting procedures for estimating...
Detection unit with corrected energy dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viererbl, L.
1989-01-01
The detection unit consists of a plastic scintillator with a layer of a powder semicrystalline scintillator deposited on its surface. An inorgaic monocrystalline scintillator is placed inside the plastic scintillator and surrounded with an absorption layer, except for the window. The advantage of the detection unit is a reduced energy dependence of response, especially in the energy range 100 to 400 keV. (E.J.). 3 figs
Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donegani, Elena Maria
2017-09-29
Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T{sub fill} =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T{sub fill}<130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B{sub i}O{sub i} defects, or negative contributions from three deep
Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donegani, Elena Maria
2017-01-01
Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10 14 cm -2 . In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T fill =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T fill <130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V 2 , V 3 and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B i O i defects, or negative contributions from three deep acceptors H(116K), H(140K) and H(152K).
Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro
2001-01-01
The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)
Quasifree electron mobility by the method of partial waves in liquid hydrocarbons and in fluid argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertes, A.
1983-01-01
Applicability of the fluctuation model was tested in the case of n-hexane, n-pentane, c-hexane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane, iso-octane, and neopentane. In our model, the quasifree electrons have been assumed to be scattered by the conduction state energy fluctuations of the liquid. These fluctuations are, in turn, described as a consequence of density fluctuations. The scattering potential is supposed to be square well like and the cross section is calculated in terms of partial waves. Averages due to the density fluctuations and the electron kinetic energy distribution are determined numerically. Except for the first three materials, the calculation reproduced the experimental mobilities with reasonable values of the square well radius, which is the only fitting parameters. Further extension of the description concerning the density dependence of the low field mobility of fluid argon has been performed. The estimated fluctuation size as a function of density increases monotonically at the minimum of the mobility in accordance with the monotonic behavior of the isothermal compressibility in the same region
Energy dependence corrections to MOSFET dosimetric sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Crown St, Wollongong
2009-01-01
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) are dosimeters which are now frequently utilized in radiotherapy treatment applications. An improved MOSFET, clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) which utilizes improved packaging for the MOSFET device has been studied for energy dependence of sensitivity to x-ray radiation measurement. Energy dependence from 50 kVp to 10 MV x-rays has been studied and found to vary by up to a factor of 3.2 with 75 kVp producing the highest sensitivity response. The detectors average life span in high sensitivity mode is energy related and ranges from approximately 100 Gy for 75 kVp x-rays to approximately 300 Gy at 6MV x-ray energy. The MOSFET detector has also been studied for sensitivity variations with integrated dose history. It was found to become less sensitive to radiation with age and the magnitude of this effect is dependant on radiation energy with lower energies producing a larger sensitivity reduction with integrated dose. The reduction in sensitivity is however approximated reproducibly by a slightly non linear, second order polynomial function allowing corrections to be made to reading to account for this effect to provide more accurate dose assessments both in phantom and in-vivo.
Energy dependence corrections to MOSFET dosimetric sensitivity.
Cheung, T; Butson, M J; Yu, P K N
2009-03-01
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) are dosimeters which are now frequently utilized in radiotherapy treatment applications. An improved MOSFET, clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) which utilizes improved packaging for the MOSFET device has been studied for energy dependence of sensitivity to x-ray radiation measurement. Energy dependence from 50 kVp to 10 MV x-rays has been studied and found to vary by up to a factor of 3.2 with 75 kVp producing the highest sensitivity response. The detectors average life span in high sensitivity mode is energy related and ranges from approximately 100 Gy for 75 kVp x-rays to approximately 300 Gy at 6 MV x-ray energy. The MOSFET detector has also been studied for sensitivity variations with integrated dose history. It was found to become less sensitive to radiation with age and the magnitude of this effect is dependant on radiation energy with lower energies producing a larger sensitivity reduction with integrated dose. The reduction in sensitivity is however approximated reproducibly by a slightly non linear, second order polynomial function allowing corrections to be made to readings to account for this effect to provide more accurate dose assessments both in phantom and in-vivo.
Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.
Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas
2015-05-01
Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colin Morningstar
2017-11-01
Full Text Available An implementation of estimating the two-to-two K-matrix from finite-volume energies based on the Lüscher formalism and involving a Hermitian matrix known as the “box matrix” is described. The method includes higher partial waves and multiple decay channels. Two fitting procedures for estimating the K-matrix parameters, which properly incorporate all statistical covariances, are discussed. Formulas and software for handling total spins up to S=2 and orbital angular momenta up to L=6 are obtained for total momenta in several directions. First tests involving ρ-meson decay to two pions include the L=3 and L=5 partial waves, and the contributions from these higher waves are found to be negligible in the elastic energy range.
Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savic, Z.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M.
1996-01-01
The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using 60 Co and 137 Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author)
Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egidy, T. von; Bucurescu, D.
2009-01-01
A new method is proposed to determine the energy-dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear-level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter σ as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, σ 2 =0.391 A 0.675 (E-0.5Pa ' ) 0.312 , is proposed up to about 10 MeV that is in very good agreement with experimental σ values and is applied to improve the systematics of level-density parameters.
Partial-wave analysis for positronium-xenon collisions in the ultralow-energy region
Shibuya, Kengo; Saito, Haruo
2018-05-01
We propose a method to convert measured positronium annihilation rates in gaseous xenon into total and differential cross sections of positronium-xenon collisions in an ultralow-energy region of less than 80 meV where their experimental determinations as functions of the positronium kinetic energy are extremely difficult. This method makes it possible to determine not only the s -wave collisional parameters but also the p -wave and d -wave parameters. We have found a small positive value of the scattering length, A0=2.06 ±0.10 a0 , which indicates that the positronium-xenon interaction in this energy region is repulsive and suggests that it is dominated by the scattering amplitude of the positron rather than that of the electron. An extrapolation of the analytical result into the experimentally inaccessible energy regions from 80 meV to 1.0 eV indicates that there should not be a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum but rather a peak in the total cross section at an energy of approximately 0.4 eV.
The energy dependence of neutron-proton charge exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, A.; Diu, R.
1978-01-01
The new Fermilab data on up charge exchange are analysed phenomenologically, to determine the energy dependence of the amplitudes in the corresponding domain (60 2 trajectories. If one imposes the presence of standard rho-A 2 terms (three-component analysis), one has to introduce a pomeronlike contribution, with a trajectory α approximately equal to 1.0+0.25t. In both cases, the resulting parametrization gives a good description of the data from Psub(lab)=1GeV/c up to 300GeV/c
Limit on possible energy-dependent velocities for massless particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Berley, D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Yodh, G.B.
1990-01-01
A basic tenet of special relativity is that all massless particles travel at a constant, energy-independent velocity. Astrophysical data, including observation of the Crab pulsar at ∼100 MeV and the recent detection of the pulsar in Hercules X-1 at energies ≥100 TeV, are used to place new experimental constraints on energy-dependent deviations from constant velocity for massless particles. Previous experiments reached energies ∼10 GeV; this analysis improves the previous constraints by 7 orders of magnitude
Energy dependence of double photoionization in He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berrah, N.; Wehlitz, R.; Levin, J.; Whitfield, S.B.; Viefhaus, J.; Sellin, I.A.; Becker, U.
1993-01-01
The ratio of double-to-single ionization of He has been measured between 280 eV and 1210 eV to investigate its energy dependence in the intermediate region. The new intermediate energy measurement, compared with the most recent theories of Pan and Kelly and of Hino and Hino et al., show the importance of including not only ground state but also final state correlations. They also appear to indicate the importance of including higher-order effects in the theory. The previously reported high energy measurements between 2-12 keV give a ratio of 1.5 (2)% in good agreement with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain and of Aberg, as well as with recent many-body perturbation theory of Ishihara et al., calculations of Dalgarno and Sadeghpour, and of Andersson and Burgdoerfer. In contrast to the intermediate energy behavior, consideration of final state correlations proves inessential as discussed by Dalgarno and Sadeghpour. (orig.)
Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savic, Z. [Military Technical Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation Protection Dept.
1996-10-01
The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ditsche, Christoph; Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Institute for Advanced Simulations, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)
2011-07-01
Starting from (subtracted) hyperbolic dispersion relations for {pi}N scattering, which are based on the general principles of Lorentz invariance, unitarity, crossing and analyticity as well as isospin symmetry, we propose a closed system of (subtracted) hyperbolic partial wave dispersion relations for the partial waves f{sup I}{sub l{+-}}({radical}(s)) of the s-channel reaction {pi}N{yields}{pi}N and the partial waves f{sup J}{sub {+-}}(t) of the t-channel reaction {pi}{pi}{yields} anti NN in the spirit of Roy and Steiner. A key step to the ultimate goal of solving this Roy-Steiner system is to first solve the corresponding (subtracted) Muskhelishvili-Omnes problem with inelasticities and a finite matching point for the lowest t-channel partial waves f{sup 0}{sub +}(t), f{sup 1}{sub {+-}}(t). The recent status of this ongoing effort is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garibotti, C.R.; Grinstein, F.F.
1978-01-01
Previous theorems on the convergence of the [n,n+m] punctual Pade approximants to the scattering amplitude are extended. The new proofs include the cases of nonforward and backward scattering corresponding to potentials having 1/r and 1/r 2 long-range behaviors, for which the partial wave expansions are divergent and oscillatory, respectively. In this way, the ability of the approximation scheme as a summation method is established for all of the long-range potentials of interest in potential scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garibotti, C.R.; Grinstein, F.F.
1978-01-01
Previous theorems on the convergence of the [n, n+m] Punctual Pade Approximants to the scattering amplitude are extended. The new proofs include the cases of non-forward and backward scattering corresponding to potentials having 1/r and 1/r 2 long range behaviours, for which the partial wave expansions are divergent and oscillatory, respectively. In this way, the ability of the approximation scheme as a summation method is established for all of the long range potentials of interest in potential scattering [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wunderlich, Y.; Afzal, F.; Thiel, A.; Beck, R. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)
2017-05-15
This work presents a simple method to determine the significant partial wave contributions to experimentally determined observables in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction. First, fits to angular distributions are presented and the maximum orbital angular momentum L{sub max} needed to achieve a good fit is determined. Then, recent polarization measurements for γp → π{sup 0}p from ELSA, GRAAL, JLab and MAMI are investigated according to the proposed method. This method allows us to project high-spin partial wave contributions to any observable as long as the measurement has the necessary statistical accuracy. We show, that high precision and large angular coverage in the polarization data are needed in order to be sensitive to high-spin resonance states and thereby also for the finding of small resonance contributions. This task can be achieved via interference of these resonances with the well-known states. For the channel γp → π{sup 0}p, those are the N(1680)(5)/(2){sup +} and Δ(1950)(7)/(2){sup +}, contributing to the F-waves. (orig.)
Eikonal Approximation in AdS/CFT: Conformal Partial Waves and Finite N Four-Point Functions
Cornalba, L; Penedones, J; Schiappa, R; Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, Joao; Schiappa, Ricardo
2007-01-01
We introduce the impact-parameter representation for conformal field theory correlators of the form A ~ . This representation is appropriate in the eikonal kinematical regime, and approximates the conformal partial-wave decomposition in the limit of large spin and dimension of the exchanged primary. Using recent results on the two-point function _{shock} in the presence of a shock wave in Anti-de Sitter, and its relation to the discontinuity of the four-point amplitude A across a kinematical branch-cut, we find the high spin and dimension conformal partial- wave decomposition of all tree-level Anti-de Sitter Witten diagrams. We show that, as in flat space, the eikonal kinematical regime is dominated by the T-channel exchange of the massless particle with highest spin (graviton dominance). We also compute the anomalous dimensions of the high-spin O_1 O_2 composites. Finally, we conjecture a formula re-summing crossed-ladder Witten diagrams to all orders in the gravitational coupling.
Eikonal approximation in AdS/CFT: Conformal partial waves and finite N four-point functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, Joao; Schiappa, Ricardo
2007-01-01
We introduce the impact parameter representation for conformal field theory correlators of the form A∼ 1 O 2 O 1 O 2 >. This representation is appropriate in the eikonal kinematical regime, and approximates the conformal partial wave decomposition in the limit of large spin and dimension of the exchanged primary. Using recent results on the two-point function 1 O 1 > shock in the presence of a shock wave in anti-de Sitter, and its relation to the discontinuity of the four-point amplitude A across a kinematical branch cut, we find the high spin and dimension conformal partial wave decomposition of all tree-level anti-de Sitter Witten diagrams. We show that, as in flat space, the eikonal kinematical regime is dominated by the T-channel exchange of the massless particle with highest spin (graviton dominance). We also compute the anomalous dimensions of the high spin O 1 O 2 composites. Finally, we conjecture a formula re-summing crossed-ladder Witten diagrams to all orders in the gravitational coupling
Nuclear three-body problem and energy-dependent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdurakhmanov, A.; Akhmadkhodzhaev, B.; Zubarev, A.L.; Irgaziev, B.F.
1985-01-01
Energy-dependent potentials in the three-body problem are being considered. Three-particle equations for the case of pairing energy-dependent potentials are generalized and the problems related to this ambiguous generalization are investigated. In terms of the equations obtained the tritium binding energy and vertex coupling constants (Tdn) and (Tdν) are evaluated. The binding energy and, especially, coupling constants are shown to be sensitive to a shape of the energy-dependent potential
Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson
2007-07-01
A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)
Energy dependence of contrast-detail-dose and object-detectability-dose curves for CT scanners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, L.K.; Cohen, G.
1982-01-01
The energy dependence of contrast-detail-dose (CdD) and object-detectability-dose (OdD) curves for computed tomographic scanners is investigated. The effects of changes in beam energy on perceptibility are shown to be due to changes in signal-to-noise ratio resulting from changes in contrast and photon statistics. Energy-dependence analysis of OdD curves is shown to depend on the atomic composition of the phantom used to generate the curves, while such an analysis of CdD curves is independent of the atomic composition of the phantom. It is also shown that any OdD curve can be generated from CdD curves and that use of this fact rectifies any potential energy-dependent interpretation of CdD curves
Partial-wave analyses of hadron scattering below 2 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.
1990-01-01
The Center for Analysis of Particle Scattering (CAPS) in the Department of Physics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has analyzed basic two-body hadron reactions below 2 GeV for the last two decades. Reactions studied were nucleon-nucleon, pion-nucleon, K + -nucleon and pion photoproduction systems. In addition to analyses of these systems, a computer graphics system (SAID) has been developed and disseminated to over 200 research institutions using VAX computers. 8 refs
Partial-wave analyses of hadron scattering below 2 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.
1991-01-01
The Center for Analysis of Particle Scattering (CAPS) in the Department of Physics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has analyzed basic two-body hadron reactions below 2 GeV for the last two decades. Reactions studied were nucleon-nucleon, pion-nucleon, K + -nucleon and pion photoproduction systems. In addition to analyses of these systems, a computer graphics system (SAID) has been developed and disseminated to over 250 research institutions using VAX computers. The computer-interactive system for disseminating information on basic scattering reactions is also accessible to the physics community through TELNET on the VPI ampersand SU physics department VAX. 6 refs
Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F.
2013-01-01
We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect
Energy-dependent point interactions in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutinho, F A B; Nogami, Y; Tomio, Lauro; Toyama, F M
2005-01-01
We consider a new type of point interaction in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. It is characterized by a boundary condition at the origin that involves the second and/or higher order derivatives of the wavefunction. The interaction is effectively energy dependent. It leads to a unitary S-matrix for the transmission-reflection problem. The energy dependence of the interaction can be chosen such that any given unitary S-matrix (or the transmission and reflection coefficients) can be reproduced at all energies. Generalization of the results to coupled-channel cases is discussed
Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.
2016-01-01
In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei
The three body problem with energy dependent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.E.; McKay, C.M.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1975-10-01
It is shown how to generalize the three body equations of Faddeev, and of Karlsson and Zeiger, to include the case when the two body potential is energy dependent. Such generalizations will prove useful in the three nucleon problem and in three body models of nuclear reactions. (author)
Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface excitations of the fusing nuclei are found to be ...
Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy- dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional. Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface exci- tations of the fusing nuclei are found to ...
Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da
2014-01-01
This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation
Effects of six-quark bags on the 1D2 NN partial wave and the question of dibaryon resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grach, I.L.; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.
1986-01-01
The coupled 1 D 2 (pp)- 5 S 0 (ΔN) channels are studied in a relativized version of the quark compound bag (QCB) model. The QCB model is a semiphenomenological model that incorporates the important role that the bag dynamics plays at small distances. In this model, the short-range hadron force is given by the energy-dependent and non-local potential and contains few parameters which are defined by the wave function of the six-quark primitive. It is suggested that this force is responsible for the appearance of the S-matrix pole of the dibaryon amplitude. The QCD short-range force is shown to reproduce an energy dependence of the 1 D 2 phase shift and inelasticity in the region T >or approx. 200 MeV. At small energy the effect of the long-range meson force is essential. The values of the QCD parameters found from the fit to the data are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for the MIT bag model
Energy-dependent losses in pulsed-feedback preamplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.
1978-11-01
Energy dependent counting losses occur in most pulsed-feedback preamplifiers due to the loss of those pulses which activate the recharge system. A pulsed-feedback system that overcomes this inefficiency is described. Pulsed-light feedback as used with germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is discussed as used at high energies and high rates where those losses become significant. Experimental results are presented
Possible energy dependence of Θ13 in neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klinkhamer, Frans R.
2005-01-01
A simple three-flavor neutrino-oscillation model is discussed which has both nonzero mass differences and timelike Fermi-point splittings, together with a combined bi-maximal and trimaximal mixing pattern. One possible consequence would be new effects in ν μ →ν e oscillations, characterized by an energy-dependent effective mixing angle Θ 13 . Future experiments such as T2K and NOνA, and perhaps even the current MINOS experiment, could look for these effects
Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yvonne Roed
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32
Ideal gas scattering kernel for energy dependent cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothenstein, W.; Dagan, R.
1998-01-01
A third, and final, paper on the calculation of the joint kernel for neutron scattering by an ideal gas in thermal agitation is presented, when the scattering cross-section is energy dependent. The kernel is a function of the neutron energy after scattering, and of the cosine of the scattering angle, as in the case of the ideal gas kernel for a constant bound atom scattering cross-section. The final expression is suitable for numerical calculations
Computing more proper covariances of energy dependent nuclear data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanhanen, R.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper. • We provide methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances in ENDF-6 format. • We propose methods to find nearby more proper covariances. • The methods can be used as a part of a quality assurance program. - Abstract: We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper in the sense that the covariances are positive, i.e., its eigenvalues are non-negative, and consistent with respect to the sum rules of nuclear data. For the ENDF-6 format covariances we present methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances. These methods would be useful as a part of a quality assurance program. We also propose methods that can be used to find nearby more proper energy dependent covariances. These methods can be used to remove unphysical components, while preserving most of the physical components. We consider several different senses in which the nearness can be measured. These methods could be useful if a re-evaluation of improper covariances is not feasible. Two practical examples are processed and analyzed. These demonstrate some of the properties of the methods. We also demonstrate that the ENDF-6 format covariances of linearly dependent nuclear data should usually be encoded with the derivation rules.
Study of heavy quarkonium with energy dependent potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Pramila; Mehrotra, I
2009-01-01
It is well known that charmonium and bottonium states can be calculated by using a nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation. The basic reasons are: 1) the mass of charm and bottom quarks is much larger than QCD scale, which makes this system free of strong normalization effects and 2) the binding energy is small compared to the mass energy ψ and γ states in terms of nonrelativistic qq system governed by more or less phenomenological potentials. In the present work we have studied mass spectra of charmonium and bottonium using the following energy dependent model in the framework of nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation
Criticality problems in energy dependent neutron transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Victory, H.D. Jr.
1979-01-01
The criticality problem is considered for energy dependent neutron transport in an isotropically scattering, homogeneous slab. Under a positivity assumption on the scattering kernel, an expression can be found relating the thickness of the slab to a parameter characterizing production by fission. This is accomplished by exploiting the Perron-Frobenius-Jentsch characterization of positive operators (i.e. those leaving invariant a normal, reproducing cone in a Banach space). It is pointed out that those techniques work for classes of multigroup problems were the Case singular eigenfunction approach is not as feasible as in the one-group theory, which is also analyzed
Energy-dependent applications of the transfer matrix method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oeztunali, O.I.; Aronson, R.
1975-01-01
The transfer matrix method is applied to energy-dependent neutron transport problems for multiplying and nonmultiplying media in one-dimensional plane geometry. Experimental cross sections are used for total, elastic, and inelastic scattering and fission. Numerical solutions are presented for the problem of a unit point isotropic source in an infinite medium of water and for the problem of the critical 235 U slab with finite water reflectors. No iterations were necessary in this method. Numerical results obtained are consistent with physical considerations and compare favorably with the moments method results for the problem of the unit point isotropic source in an infinite water medium. (U.S.)
Dose energy dependence in proton imaging with thin detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denyak, V.V., E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Akademicheskaya 1, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim 1632, Curitiba 80250-200 (Brazil); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Silva, R.C.L.; Kozuki, C.; Paschuk, S.A.; Milhoretto, E. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil)
2012-07-15
Since the earliest works proposing the use of protons for imaging, the main advantage of protons over X-rays was expected to be a result of the specific property of the proton flux dropping off very steeply at the end of the particle range. This idea was declared but was not checked. In the present work, this assumption was investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation for the case of registration of protons with a thin detector. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Principal idea of proton imaging 'to work at the end of the range' was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The case of thin detector was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dose energy dependence was calculated using computer simulation.
Energy dependence of strangeness production and event-byevent fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rustamov Anar
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We review the energy dependence of strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and contrast it with the experimental observations in pp and p-A collisions at LHC energies as a function of the charged particle multiplicities. For the high multiplicity final states the results from pp and p-Pb reactions systematically approach the values obtained from Pb-Pb collisions. In statistical models this implies an approach to the thermodynamic limit, where differences of mean multiplicities between various formalisms, such as Canonical and Grand Canonical Ensembles, vanish. Furthermore, we report on event-by-event net-proton fluctuations as measured by STAR at RHIC/BNL and by ALICE at LHC/CERN and discuss various non-dynamical contributions to these measurements, which should be properly subtracted before comparison to theoretical calculations on dynamical net-baryon fluctuations.
Density and starting-energy dependent effective interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Norio; Nagata, Sinobu; Kasuga, Teruo
1979-01-01
A new effective potential constructed from the reaction matrix calculation of nuclear matters is proposed, taking three-body effects into account. Starting from the two-body scattering equation for nuclear matters, an equation with averaged momentum is introduced as the definition of effective interaction. The parameters in the equation are the Fermi momentum and the starting energy. The nuclear density dependence and the starting energy dependence are independently treated in the potential. The effective interactions including three-body effects were calculated. The dependence on the starting energy is large. The effective interaction is more attractive in the triplet E state, and assures overall saturation without any artificial renormalization. The reaction matrix calculation can be well reproduced by the calculation with this effective potential. The results of calculation for the binding energy of He-4 and O-16 and the shell model matrix elements of O-16 are represented. (Kato, T.)
Energy-dependent inversion of p+16O scattering data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, S.G.
1997-01-01
A fast iterative procedure is developed to determine potentials by inversion from elastic cross section, analysing powers and reaction cross-section measurements covering a wide energy range. The procedure incorporates both energy and parity dependence. The method is applied to extensive p+ 16 O scattering data for an energy range from 27.3 to 46.1 MeV, giving a solution which simultaneously reproduces the data at all energies. The wide angle data is well reproduced by including parity dependence and a linear energy dependence is established for the real potential, including the parity-dependent component. The real terms agree qualitatively with potentials derived from the single channel RGM, but the central and spin-orbit imaginary components have distinct features strongly suggestive of further non-local contributions, possibly arising from channel coupling. The large data set is found essential to reduce the potential ambiguities present when fitting scattering data. (orig.)
Energy-dependent collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited azulene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, J.; Barker, J.R.
1988-01-01
Collisional energy transfer parameters for highly vibrationally excited azulene have been deduced from new infrared fluorescence (IRF) emission lifetime data with an improved calibration relating IRF intensity to vibrational energy [J. Shi, D. Bernfeld, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 88, XXXX (1988), preceding paper]. In addition, data from previous experiments [M. J. Rossi, J. R. Pladziewicz, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6695 (1983)] have been reanalyzed based on the improved calibration. Inversion of the IRF decay curves produced plots of energy decay, which were analyzed to determine , the average energy transferred per collision. Master equation simulations reproduced both the original IRF decays and the deduced energy decays. A third (simple) method of determination agrees well with the other two. The results show to be nearly directly proportional to the vibrational energy of the excited azulene from ∼8000 to 33 000 cm -1 . At high energies, there are indications that the energy dependence may be slightly reduced
Incident energy dependence of pt correlations at relativistic energies
Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta, M R; Mazumdar; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jedynak, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N
2005-01-01
We present results for two-particle transverse momentum correlations, , as a function of event centrality for Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 20, 62, 130, and 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We observe correlations decreasing with centrality that are similar at all four incident energies. The correlations multiplied by the multiplicity density increase with incident energy and the centrality dependence may show evidence of processes such as thermalization, minijet production, or the saturation of transverse flow. The square root of the correlations divided by the event-wise average transverse momentum per event shows little or no beam energy dependence and generally agrees with previous measurements at the Super Proton Synchrotron.
Energy-dependent effects of resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Canizal-Garcia, Melina; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Nava, Gerardo M; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva
2016-06-01
The metabolic effects induced by resveratrol have been associated mainly with the consumption of high-calorie diets; however, its effects with standard or low-calorie diets remain unclear. To better understand the interactions between resveratrol and cellular energy levels, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Herein it is shown that resveratrol: (a) decreased cell viability in an energy-dependent manner; (b) lessening of cell viability occurred specifically when cells were under cellular respiration; and (c) inhibition of oxygen consumption in state 4 occurred at low and standard energy levels, whereas at high energy levels oxygen consumption was promoted. These findings indicate that the effects of resveratrol are dependent on the cellular energy status and linked to metabolic respiration. Importantly, our study also revealed that S. cerevisiae is a suitable and useful model to elucidate the molecular targets of resveratrol under different nutritional statuses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu-Min, Liu; Zhong-Yuan, Yu; Xiao-Min, Ren
2009-01-01
Calculations of electronic structures about the semiconductor quantum dot and the semiconductor quantum ring are presented in this paper. To reduce the calculation costs, for the quantum dot and the quantum ring, their simplified axially symmetric shapes are utilized in our analysis. The energy dependent effective mass is taken into account in solving the Schrödinger equations in the single band effective mass approximation. The calculated results show that the energy dependent effective mass should be considered only for relatively small volume quantum dots or small quantum rings. For large size quantum materials, both the energy dependent effective mass and the parabolic effective mass can give the same results. The energy states and the effective masses of the quantum dot and the quantum ring as a function of geometric parameters are also discussed in detail. (general)
Electron transfer in organic glass. Distance and energy dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krongauz, V.V.
1992-01-01
The authors have investigated the distance and energy dependence of electron transfer in rigid organic glasses containing randomly dispersed electron donor and electron acceptor molecules. Pulsed radiolysis by an electron beam from a linear accelerator was used for ionization resulting in charge deposition on donor molecules. The disappearance kinetics of donor radical anions due to electron transfer to acceptor was monitored spectroscopically by the change in optical density at the wavelength corresponding to that of donor radical anion absorbance. It was found that the rate of the electron transfer observed experimentally was higher than that computed using the Marcus-Levich theory assuming that the electron-transfer activation barrier is equal to the binding energy of electron on the donor molecule. This discrepancy between the experimental and computed results suggests that the open-quotes inertclose quotes media in which electron-transfer reaction takes place may be participating in the process, resulting in experimentally observed higher electron-transfer rates. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Salvat, F.; Liljequist, D.
1994-09-01
The details of a Monte Carlo code for computing the penetration and energy loss of electrons and positrons in solids are described. The code, intended for electrons and positrons with energies from ∼ 100 eV to ∼ 100 keV, is based on the simulation of individual elastic and inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are simulated using differential cross sections computed by the relativistic partial wave method applied to a muffin-tin Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater potential. Inelastic collisions are simulated by means of a model based on optical and photoelectric data, which are extended to the non-zero momentum transfer region by means of somewhat different algorithms for valence electron excitations and inner-shell excitations. This report focuses on the description of detailed formulae and sampling methods. 10 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs
πN → πN and KN → KN low energy data and partial wave analyses recent results and new directions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, R.L.
1975-07-01
This review deals with πN → πN and KN → KN physics below about 3 GeV/c. An attempt is made to convey the state of the art, and to point out what appear to be promising directions for future research. The situation as of about one year ago is summarized in the 1974 Review of Particle Properties and in London conference talks so more recent developments are considered. A comprehensive survey of πN → πN data between the Δ region and 3 GeV/c is given. Problems associated with spin-rotation experiments are discussed, and the current πN → πN partial wave analyses. I = 1 and I = 0 KN → KN analyses, respectively, are considered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppini, G.; Maltinti, G.; Valli, G.; Baroni, M.; Buchignan, M.; Valli, G.
1986-01-01
The capabilities of energy-dependent imaging in digital radiography are analyzed paying particular attention to digital video systems. The main techniques developed in recent years for selective energy imaging are reviewed following a unified approach. Discussion about advantages and limits of energy methods is carried out by a comparative analysis of computer simulated data and experimental results as obtained by standard x-ray equipments coupled to a digital video unit. Geometric phantoms are used as test object, as also images of a chest phantom are produced. Since signal-to-noise ratio degradation is one of the major problems when dealing with selective imaging, a particular effort is made to investigate noise effects. In this perspective, an original colour encoding display of energy sequences is presented. By mapping the various energy measurements on different colour bands (typically those of an RGB TV-monitor), an increased image conspicuity is obtained without a significant noise degradation: this is ensured by the energy dependence of attenuation coefficients and by the integrating characteristics of the display device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsner, D.
2007-04-01
The reaction p(e, e'p)π 0 has been studied at Q 2 =0.2 (GeV/c) 2 in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of vector q cross section asymmetries ρ LT have been obtained in forward ρ LT (θ π 0 cm =20 )=(-11.68±2.36 stat ±2.36 sys ) and backward ρ LT (θ π 0 cm =160 )=(12.18±0.27 stat ±0.82 sys ) π 0 kinematics, from which R{S 1+ * M 1+ }/ vertical stroke M 1+ vertical stroke 2 and R{S 0+ * M 1+ }/ vertical stroke M 1+ vertical stroke 2 could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E γ ≅1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry Σ has been measured in the reaction p(vector γ, η)p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P γ =49% has been achieved at E γ =1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the η into two photons and 3π 0 . Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)
Does a deformation of special relativity imply energy dependent photon time delays?
Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.
2018-01-01
Theoretical arguments in favor of energy dependent photon time delays from a modification of special relativity (SR) have met with recent gamma ray observations that put severe constraints on the scale of such deviations. We review the case of the generality of this theoretical prediction in the case of a deformation of SR and find that, at least in the simple model based on the analysis of photon worldlines which is commonly considered, there are many scenarios compatible with a relativity principle which do not contain a photon time delay. This will be the situation for any modified dispersion relation which reduces to E=\\vert p\\vert for photons, independently of the quantum structure of spacetime. This fact opens up the possibility of a phenomenologically consistent relativistic generalization of SR with a new mass scale many orders of magnitude below the Planck mass.
Determination of pulse energy dependence for skin denaturation from 585nm fibre laser
Mujica-Ascencio, S.; Velazquez-Gonzalez, J. S.; Mujica-Ascencio, C.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.
2014-05-01
In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis for the determination of pulse energy from a Q-switched Yb3+-doped fibre laser is required in Port Wine Stain (PWS) treatment. The pulse energy depends on average power, gain, volume, repetition rate and pulse duration. In some treatments such as Selective Photothermolysis (SP), the peak power at the end of the optical fibre and pulse duration can be obtained and modified via a cavity design. For that purpose, a 585nm optical fibre laser full design which considers all of the above besides the average losses through the optical devices proposed for the design and the Ytterbium optical fibre overall gain will be presented.
Energy dependence of the optical model of neutron scattering from niobium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.
1985-05-01
Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of niobium were measured from 1.5 to 10.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to200 keV below 4.0 MeV, and of approx. =500 keV from 4.0 to 10.0 MeV. Ten to more than fifty differential-cross-section values were determined at each incident energy, distributed over the angular range approx. =20 to 160 0 . The observed values were interpreted in the context of the spherical optical-statistical model. It was found that the volume integral of the real potential decreased with energy whereas the integral of the imaginary part increased. The energy dependence in both cases was consistent with a linear variation. There is a dispersion relationship between the real and imaginary potentials, and when this was used, in conjunction with the experimental imaginary potential, it was possible to predict the observed energy dependence of the real potential to a good degree of accuracy, thus supporting the consistency of the data and its analysis. The real-potential well depths needed to give the correct binding energies of the 2d/sub 5/2/, 3s/sub 1/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/ and 1g/sub 7/2/ particle states and of the 1g/sub 9/2/ hole state are in reasonable agreement with those given by a linear extrapolation of the scattering potential. However, the well depths needed to give the observed binding of the 2p/sub 3/2/, 1f/sub 5/2/ and 2p/sub 1/2/ hole states are about 10% less than the extrapolated values. 40 refs., 5 figs
Generating energy dependent neutron flux maps for effective ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
For activation analysis and irradiation scheme of miniature neutron source reactor, designers or engineers usually require information on thermal neutron flux levels and other energy group flux levels (such as fast, resonance and epithermal). A methodology for readily generating such flux maps and flux profiles for any ...
Odd and even partial waves of ηπ− and η′π− in π−p→η(′)π−p at 191 GeV/c
Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buechele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Torre, S. Dalla; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Duennweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; jr, M. Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Hohenesche, N. du Fresne von; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Harrach, D. von; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hoeppner, Ch; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu A.; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Koenigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kraemer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W. -D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlueter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schoenning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2015-01-01
Exclusive production of ηπ− and η′π− has been studied with a 191 GeV/cπ− beam impinging on a hydrogen target at COMPASS (CERN). Partial-wave analyses reveal different odd/even angular momentum (L ) characteristics in the inspected invariant mass range up to 3 GeV/c2. A striking similarity between
Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Audouin, L.
2003-09-01
Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to β decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Roy, Pinaki
2017-01-01
We construct energy-dependent potentials for which the Schrödinger equations admit solutions in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. Our method of construction is based on certain point transformations, applied to the equations of exceptional Hermite, Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. We present several examples of boundary-value problems with energy-dependent potentials that admit a discrete spectrum and the corresponding normalizable solutions in closed form.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Roy, Pinaki, E-mail: pinaki@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)
2017-03-15
We construct energy-dependent potentials for which the Schrödinger equations admit solutions in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. Our method of construction is based on certain point transformations, applied to the equations of exceptional Hermite, Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. We present several examples of boundary-value problems with energy-dependent potentials that admit a discrete spectrum and the corresponding normalizable solutions in closed form.
Kellerman, Adam; Makarevich, Roman; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric; Shprits, Yuri
2016-07-01
Energetic electrons in the 10's of keV range precipitate to the upper D- and lower E-region ionosphere, and are responsible for enhanced ionization. The same particles are important in the inner magnetosphere, as they provide a source of energy for waves, and thus relate to relativistic electron enhancements in Earth's radiation belts.In situ observations of plasma populations and waves are usually limited to a single point, which complicates temporal and spatial analysis. Also, the lifespan of satellite missions is often limited to several years which does not allow one to infer long-term climatology of particle precipitation, important for affecting ionospheric conditions at high latitudes. Multi-point remote sensing of the ionospheric plasma conditions can provide a global view of both ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions, and the coupling between magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena can be examined on time-scales that allow comprehensive statistical analysis. In this study we utilize multi-point riometer measurements in conjunction with in situ satellite data, and physics-based modeling to investigate the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption. Quantifying this relationship may be a key to future advancements in our understanding of the complex D-region ionosphere, and may lead to enhanced specification of auroral precipitation both during individual events and over climatological time-scales.
Role of renewable energy policies in energy dependency in Finland: System dynamics approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aslani, Alireza; Helo, Petri; Naaranoja, Marja
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A system dynamics model for evaluating renewable energy policies on dependency is proposed. • The model considers the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply in Finland. • Dependency on imported sources will decrease depends on the defined scenarios in Finland. - Abstract: Objective: We discuss the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply. A system dynamics model with especial focus on the role of renewable energy resources (as a portfolio) on Finland’s energy dependency is developed. The purpose is also to cover a part of research gap exists in the system dynamics modeling of energy security investigations. Methods: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies. The analysis describes the relationship between dynamic factors such as RE encouragement packages, dependency, and energy demand. Results: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate three different Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies by 2020. Conclusion: Analysis shows that despite 7% electricity/heat consumption growth by 2020 in Finland, dependency on imported sources will decrease between 1% and 7% depend on the defined scenarios. Practice Implications: The proposed model not only helps decision makers to test their scenarios related to renewable energy polices, it can be implemented by other countries
Results on the energy dependence of cosmic-ray charge composition
Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.
1973-01-01
Results of measurements by a balloon-borne ionization spectrometer of the energy dependence of high-energy cosmic-ray charge composition. The results presented are greatly improved over those obtained earlier by Ormes et al. (1971) by the use of a multidimensional charge analysis with more efficient background rejection, and a more accurate energy determination. Complex couplings between the charge, energy, and trajectory information were taken into account and are discussed. The spectra of individual elements up to oxygen and of groups of nuclei up through iron were measured up to almost 100 GeV per nucleon. The energy spectrum of the secondary nuclei, B + N, is found to be steeper than that of the primary nuclei, C + O, in agreement with Smith et al. (1973). The most dramatic finding is that the spectrum of the iron nuclei is flatter than that of the carbon and oxygen nuclei by 0.57 plus or minus 0.14 of a power.
Collisional energy dependence of molecular ionization by metastable rare gas atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, R.M.; Parr, T.P.
1979-01-01
The collisional energy dependence of several molecular total ionization cross sections by metastable rare gas atoms was studied over the thermal energy region using the crossed molecular beam time-of-flight method. Results are reported for the collision systems He, Ne, and Ar ionizing the geometric isomers cis- and trans-dichloroethylene and ortho- and para-dichlorobenzene. The He ionization cross sections oscillate about an energy dependence of E/sup -1/2/ over the energy range 0.004--1.0 eV, and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene cross section oscillates about an energy dependence of E/sup -2/5/ over the energy range 0.011--0.64 eV. The remaining systems are characterized by ''bent'' E/sup -m/ dependences with m values of 0.56--0.70 at low energies changing to 0.07--0.29 at higher energies. Comparison with the slopes of the He* systems and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene system shows that the ''bent'' and ''oscillating'' energy dependences are similar except for the form of the cross section functions at the lowest energies. No systematic differences are found between the cross section energy dependences for ionization of different geometric isomers or for ionization by the different metastable rare gas atoms
Energy-dependent microscopic optical potential for scattering of nucleons on light nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)
2014-06-15
We present an energy-dependent microscopic optical model potential for elastic scattering of nucleons on light nuclei. The single-folding model is used for the real part of the optical potential (OP), while the imaginary part is derived within the high-energy approximation theory. The energy dependence of the OP is determined from the parameterization of the volume integrals those calculated from the best-fit OP that fit the experimental data of the cross sections and analyzing powers. This energy-dependent OP is successfully applied to analyze the proton elastic scattering of {sup 4,6,i8}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9,10}Be nuclei at low and intermediate incident energies up to 200MeV/nucleon. (orig.)
Energy dependence of a local equivalent potential for RGM phase shifts for 16O + 16O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ait-Tahar, S.; Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.; Wada, T.
1993-01-01
We have found, using the IP inversion method, the local representation of a potential that in S(l) equivalent to the RGM nonlocal potential of Wada and Horiuchi. Phase shifts corresponding to RGM calculations at laboratory energies 30, 41, 49, 59, 150, 350 and 500 MeV were inverted and the resulting local potentials compared with the local (but l-dependent) potentials obtained previously in the WKB-RGM scheme. The present l-independent potentials exhibit a smooth radial variation and show marked differences from previous results. The energy dependence arises from that of the exchange term and from the conversion of the l-dependence into an additional energy dependence. In particular, we show that the energy dependence of the volume integrals in this energy region is different from earlier WKB-RGM predictions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Griffin Patrick
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A rigorous treatment of the uncertainty in the underlying nuclear data on silicon displacement damage metrics is presented. The uncertainty in the cross sections and recoil atom spectra are propagated into the energy-dependent uncertainty contribution in the silicon displacement kerma and damage energy using a Total Monte Carlo treatment. An energy-dependent covariance matrix is used to characterize the resulting uncertainty. A strong correlation between different reaction channels is observed in the high energy neutron contributions to the displacement damage metrics which supports the necessity of using a Monte Carlo based method to address the nonlinear nature of the uncertainty propagation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schauer, D.A.; Links, J.M.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Le, F.G.; Seltzer, S.M.
1994-01-01
Previous investigators have reported that the radiation-induced EPR signal intensity in compact or cortical bone increases up to a factor of two with decreasing photon energy for a given absorbed dose. If the EPR signal intensity was dependent on energy, it could limit the application of EPR spectrometry and the additive reirradiation method to obtain dose estimates. We have recently shown that errors in the assumptions governing conversion of measured exposure to absorbed dose can lead to similar open-quotes apparentclose quotes energy-dependence results. We hypothesized that these previous results were due to errors in the estimated dose in bone, rather than the effects of energy dependence per se. To test this hypothesis we studied human adult cortical bone from male and female donors ranging in age from 23 to 95 years, and bovine tooth enamel, using 34 and 138 keV average energy X-ray beams and 137 Cs (662 keV) and 60 Co (1250 keV) γ rays. In a femur from a 47-year-old male (subject 1), there was a difference of borderline significance at the α = 0.05 level in the mean radiation-induced hydroxyapatite signal intensities as a function of photon energy. No other statistically significant differences in EPR signal intensity as a function of photon energy were observed in this subject, or in the tibia from a 23-year-old male (subject 2) and the femur from a 75-year-old female (subject 3). However, there was a trend toward a decrease (12-15%) in signal intensity at the lowest energy compared with the highest energy in subjects 1 and 3. Further analysis of the data from subject 1 revealed that this trend, which is in the opposite direction of previous reports but is consistent with theory, is statistically significant. There were no efforts of energy dependence in the tooth samples. 16 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, C; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T
2016-01-01
Purpose: To investigate the energy dependence of Gafchromic EBT3 film over a range of clinically used proton, photon and electron energies. Methods: Proton beam energies of 117 and 204 MeV, corresponding respectively to ranges in water of 10 cm and 27 cm from a Mevion S250 double scatter system unit were used. Electron energies of 6 and 20 MeV and photon energies of 6 and 18 MV from a Varian Clinac 21EX Linac were used. Two pieces of film (5×5 cm"2) were irradiated sequentially for doses of 100, 500, and 1000 cGy for all energies and modalities. Films were placed on the central beam axis for a 10×10 cm"2 field size in the middle of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) for proton and in respective dmax for photon and electron energies. Films were scanned on a flatbed Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner on the central region of the scanning window using 48-bit, 300 dpi, and landscape orientation after 48 hours post-irradiation of film to account for optical density (OD) stabilization. Film analysis of the red channel was performed using ImageJ 1.48v (National Institutes of Health). Results: The energy dependency of EBT3 among all energies and modalities for all doses studied was small within measurement uncertainties (1σ = ± 4.1%). The mean net OD in red channel for films receiving the same dose in the same energy modality had standard deviations within 0.9% for photons, 4.9% for electrons and 1.8% for protons. It was observed that film pieces were activated during proton irradiation, e.g., 7 mR/hr at surface after 30 minutes of irradiation, lasting for 2 hours post irradiation. Conclusion: EBT3 energy dependency was evaluated for clinically used proton, photon, and electron energies. The film self-activation may have contributed to fog and negligible dose.
Haas, Florian
2014-02-19
The dynamics of strong interaction in the regime of low energies, i.e. large distances, is still not understood. Given its simplicity the non-relativistic simple quark model (SQM) describes successfully the observed hadronic spectra. QCD-inspired models, however, predict hadronic states where the gluonic content contributes to the hadron quantum numbers. These so-called hybrids cannot be explained within the SQM. A solid experimental proof of the existence of such systems would be the observation of spin-exotic states, with spin-parity quantum numbers, not allowed in the SQM. The study of mesons, the simplest hadrons, permits to gain insight into the realm of strong interaction where hadrons are the relevant degrees of freedom. The most promising spin-exotic meson candidate is the $\\pi_1(1600)$, which was claimed in several experiments and in particular in data taken during a previous hadron campaign of the COMPASS experiment. The hadron spectroscopy program of the COMPASS experiment at CER...
Partial-wave analysis of the reaction K−p → $\\lambda$ (1815) $\\pi$ between threshold and 2170 MeV
Litchfield, P J; Baillon, Paul; Albrecht, H; Burkhardt, E E; Hemingway, Richard J
1974-01-01
The reaction K/sup -/p to Lambda (1815) pi /sup 0/ to K/sup -/p pi /sup 0/ is found to be dominated by the formation of the 7/2/sup +/ Sigma (2030) with an amplitude at resonance of 0.18+or-0.04. (5 refs).
Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for 137Cs and 60Co
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E.
2009-01-01
38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ( 137 Cs and 60 Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors
Darboux Transformations for Energy-Dependent Potentials and the Klein–Gordon Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel
2013-01-01
We construct explicit Darboux transformations for a generalized Schrödinger-type equation with energy-dependent potential, a special case of which is the stationary Klein–Gordon equation. Our results complement and generalize former findings (Lin et al., Phys Lett A 362:212–214, 2007).
Importance of the energy-dependent geometry in the 16O+ 16O optical model potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pantis, G.; Ioannidis, K.; Poirier, P.
1985-01-01
Optical model potentials with various forms of energy-dependent geometry have been considered for the description of 16 O+ 16 O elastic scattering. It is shown that the variation with energy of the imaginary radius leads to a reasonable fit of the cross-section data, throughout the energy range
Energy dependence of solar-neutrino--electron scattering as a test of neutral currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P.
1992-01-01
The energy dependence of ν-e scattering of solar neutrinos is investigated in the framework of neutrino oscillations and the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. It is shown that, with sufficient data, it will be possible to establish unambiguously whether neutrino oscillations are actually occurring and whether the electron neutrino oscillates into active or inactive (sterile) neutrino flavors
Calculation of the Energy Dependence of Dosimeter Response to Ionizing Photons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.
1982-01-01
Using a program in BASIC applied to a desk-top calculator, simplified calculations provide approximate energy dependence correction factors of dosimeter readings of absorbed dose according to Bragg-Gray cavity theories. Burlin's general cavity theory is applied in the present calculations, and ce...
Energy dependence of commercially available diode detectors for in-vivo dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saini, Amarjit S.; Zhu, Timothy C.
2007-01-01
The energy dependence of commercially available diode detectors was measured for nominal accelerating potential ranging between Co-60 and 17 MV. The measurements were performed in a liquid water phantom at 5 cm depth for 10x10 cm 2 collimator setting and source-to-detector distance of 100 cm. The response (nC/Gy) was normalized to Co-60 beam after corrections for the dose rate and temperature dependences for each diode. The energy dependence, calculated by taking the percent difference between the maximum and minimum sensitivity normalized to Co-60 beam, varied by 39% for the n-type Isorad Red, 26% for the n-type Isorad Electron, 19% for the QED Red (p-type), 15% for the QED Electron (p-type), 11% for the QED Blue (p-type), and 6% for the EDP10 diode for nominal accelerating potential between Co-60 and 17 MV. It varied by 34% for the Isorad-3 Gold 1 and 2, 35% for the Veridose Green, 15% for the Veridose Yellow, 9% for the Veridose Electron, 21% for the n-type QED Gold, 24% for the n-type QED Red, 3% for the EDP2 3G , 2% for the PFD (photon field detector), 7% for the EDP10 3G , and 16% for the EDP20 3G for nominal accelerating potential between Co-60 and 15 MV. The magnitude of the energy dependence is verified by Monte Carlo simulation. We concluded that the energy dependence does not depend on whether the diode is n- or p-type but rather depends mainly on the material around the die such as the buildup and the geometry of the buildup material. As a result, the value of the energy dependence can vary for each individual diode depending on the actual geometry and should be used with caution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szymczak, W.; Wittmaack, K.
1982-01-01
The angular distribution of gold sputtered from a (111) crystal has been investigated in the (1anti 10) plane. The sample was bombarded at 100 and 300 K by normally incident (mass-analysed) Ne and Xe ions at energies between 0.2 and 30 keV. The sputtered material was collected on hemicylindrical aluminium foils. Absolute differential sputtering yields were determined by medium energy He backscattering. The partial yield into the [001] spot, ΔY 001 , determined by angular intergration, exhibits an energy dependence distinctly different from the random yield. Neither assisted focusons nor the directional ejection mechanism suggested by Lehmann and Sigmund seem to play an important role. Instead ejection involving projectile scattering in the top two monolayers appears to be the dominant mechanism for [001] spot production. This mechanism may also account for an energy-dependent fraction of ΔY 110 . Moreover, spot shape analysis suggests a sizeable focuson contribution to the [110] spot which may account for up to 30% of the total backsputtering yield under Ne impact. The [110] spot width decreases with decreasing temperature and increasing ion energy. Minimum spot widths as low as 11 0 (fwhm) have been observed at 100 K. (orig.)
Angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of nucleus-nucleus interaction
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Yamaguchi, S.
1991-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to understand intuitively the origin of the angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction on the basis of the totally- antisymmetrized many-body theory. With the aim of understanding the structure of the nucleus-nucleus interaction, we show first that the nucleus-nucleus interaction can be written by the use of the density-distribution function and the phase-space distribution function instead of using the many-body wave function itself. And we show that the structure change of the density-distribution function with the increase of the angular momentum causes the angular momentum dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction and that the incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction originates from the structure change of the phase-space distribution function
Bohr Hamiltonian with an energy-dependent γ-unstable Coulomb-like potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Budaca, R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)
2016-10-15
An exact analytical solution for the Bohr Hamiltonian with an energy-dependent Coulomb-like γ-unstable potential is presented. Due to the linear energy dependence of the potential's coupling constant, the corresponding spectrum in the asymptotic limit of the slope parameter resembles the spectral structure of the spherical vibrator, however with a different state degeneracy. The parameter free energy spectrum as well as the transition rates for this case are given in closed form and duly compared with those of the harmonic U(5) dynamical symmetry. The model wave functions are found to exhibit properties that can be associated to shape coexistence. A possible experimental realization of the model is found in few medium nuclei with a very low second 0{sup +} state known to exhibit competing prolate, oblate and spherical shapes. (orig.)
Equivalence between deep energy-dependent and shallow angular momentum dependent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiedeldey, H.; Sofianos, S.A.; Papastylianos, A.; Amos, K.A.; Allen, L.J.
1989-01-01
Recently Baye showed that supersymmetry can be applied to determine a shallow l-dependent potential phase equivalent to a deep potential, assumed to be energy-independent and have Panli forbidden states (PFS), for α-α scattering. The PFS are eliminated by this procedure. Such deep potentials are generated as equivalent local potentials (ELP) to the Resonating Group Model (RGM) and are generally energy-dependent. To eliminate this E-dependence as required for the application of Baye's method, l-dependent, but E-independent, deep local potentials were generated by the exact inversion method of Marchenko. Subsequently, the supersymmetric method was used to eliminate the PFS, ensuring that the generalized Levinson theorem is satisfied. As an example, the method was applied to the simple model of two dineutrons scattering in the RGM, where the deep ELP of Horiuchi has a substantial energy-dependence and one PFS only for l=O. 16 refs., 5 figs
Evolving and energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michaelian, K.
1996-01-01
We present the application of a genetic algorithm to the problem of determining an energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering. The problem requires a search for the global best optical model potential and its energy dependence in a very rugged 12 dimensional parameter space of complex topographical features with many local minima. Random solutions are created in the first generation. The fitness of a solution is related to the χ 2 fit of the calculated differential cross sections with the experimental data. Best fit solutions are evolved through cross over and mutation following the biological example. This genetic algorithm approach combined with local gradient minimization is shown to provide a global, complete and extremely efficient search method, well adapted to complex fitness landscapes. These characteristics, combined with the facility of application, should make it the search method of choice for a wide variety of problems from nuclear physics. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, T; Heller, E J; Parrott, R E
2008-01-01
Time-dependent quantum mechanics provides an intuitive picture of particle propagation in external fields. Semiclassical methods link the classical trajectories of particles with their quantum mechanical propagation. Many analytical results and a variety of numerical methods have been developed to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The time-dependent methods work for nearly arbitrarily shaped potentials, including sources and sinks via complex-valued potentials. Many quantities are measured at fixed energy, which is seemingly not well suited for a time-dependent formulation. Very few methods exist to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for complicated potentials without resorting to ensemble averages or using certain lead-in arrangements. Here, we demonstrate in detail a time-dependent approach, which can accurately and effectively construct the energy-dependent Green function for very general potentials. The applications of the method are numerous, including chemical, mesoscopic, and atomic physics
A method for solving a three-body problem with energy-dependent interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safronov, A.N.
1994-01-01
A method is proposed for solving a three-body problem with energy-dependent interactions. This method is based on introducing the dependence of scattering operators and state vectors on an additional external parameter. Effects caused by the energy dependence of the interaction operator are investigated by using the unitary condition for the amplitude of the 2 → 2 and 2 → 3 transitions. It is shown, in particular, that taking this dependence into account leads to a change in the relation between the asymptotic normalization factor of the wave function of the three-body bound state and the vertex constant of virtual dissociation (synthesis) of the system into two fragments. 15 refs
Energy dependence of collective flow of neutrons and charged particles in 197Au+197Au collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaich, T.; Freiesleben, H.; Holzmann, R.; Keller, J.G.; Prokopowicz, W.; Schuetter, C.; Wajda, E.; Zude, E.
1994-01-01
Our contribution focusses on one particular aspect of collective flow of nuclear matter: the so-called ''squeeze-out'', i.e. the preferential emission of mid-rapidity particles perpendicular to the reaction plane. The data were taken for the system 197 Au + 197 Au at 400, 600 and 800 MeV/u. We cover two topics, the comparison of neutrons and protons, and the bombarding energy dependence of the neutrons' squeeze-out. (orig.)
Energy dependence of the 16O + 12C potential of interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. A. Ponkratenko
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The 16O + 12C scattering data originating from various measurements in the energy range from 1 to 100 MeV/nucleon have been analyzed within optical model (OM. As a result the global energy dependent 16O + 12C - OM-potential has been obtained. Satisfactory description of experimental data is achieved. While analyzing differential cross sections of the elastic scattering and fusion cross sections were calculated using var-ious types of optical potentials.
On the energy dependence of the D{sup +}/D{sup −} production asymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cazaroto, E.R., E-mail: cazaroto@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Goncalves, V.P. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, C.P. 354, CEP 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Navarra, F.S.; Nielsen, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-07-09
In this Letter we discuss the origin of the asymmetry present in D meson production and its energy dependence. In particular, we have applied the meson cloud model to calculate the asymmetries in D{sup −}/D{sup +} meson production in high energy pp collisions and find a good agreement with recent LHCb data. Although small, this non-vanishing asymmetry may shed light on the role played by the charm meson cloud of the proton.
Change of energy dependence for X-rays of photodiode detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.F. da; Freitas, L.C. de
1992-01-01
The energy dependence of photodiode Siemens SFH-206 for X-rays beams of 24 kV to 50 kV was studied and compared with the ionization chamber of parallel plates. The photodiode presented 450% of maxim change response for the energy band studied. A study was made, using aluminium, acrylic, mylar aluminized and mylar graphitized filters and showed that the two last reduce this maxim change response to 101% and 108%, respectively. (C.G.C.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, C; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T [University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To investigate the energy dependence of Gafchromic EBT3 film over a range of clinically used proton, photon and electron energies. Methods: Proton beam energies of 117 and 204 MeV, corresponding respectively to ranges in water of 10 cm and 27 cm from a Mevion S250 double scatter system unit were used. Electron energies of 6 and 20 MeV and photon energies of 6 and 18 MV from a Varian Clinac 21EX Linac were used. Two pieces of film (5×5 cm{sup 2}) were irradiated sequentially for doses of 100, 500, and 1000 cGy for all energies and modalities. Films were placed on the central beam axis for a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field size in the middle of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) for proton and in respective dmax for photon and electron energies. Films were scanned on a flatbed Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner on the central region of the scanning window using 48-bit, 300 dpi, and landscape orientation after 48 hours post-irradiation of film to account for optical density (OD) stabilization. Film analysis of the red channel was performed using ImageJ 1.48v (National Institutes of Health). Results: The energy dependency of EBT3 among all energies and modalities for all doses studied was small within measurement uncertainties (1σ = ± 4.1%). The mean net OD in red channel for films receiving the same dose in the same energy modality had standard deviations within 0.9% for photons, 4.9% for electrons and 1.8% for protons. It was observed that film pieces were activated during proton irradiation, e.g., 7 mR/hr at surface after 30 minutes of irradiation, lasting for 2 hours post irradiation. Conclusion: EBT3 energy dependency was evaluated for clinically used proton, photon, and electron energies. The film self-activation may have contributed to fog and negligible dose.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.D.
1976-01-01
This article discusses the partial wave analysis of two, three and four meson systems. The difference between the two approaches, referred to as amplitude and Ascoli analysis is discussed. Some of the results obtained with these methods are shown. (B.R.H.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Discher, Michael; Greiter, Matthias; Woda, Clemens
2014-01-01
Previous studies have shown that glass displays extracted from mobile phones are suitable as emergency dosimeters in case of an accidental radiation overexposure using the thermoluminescence (TL) method. So far these studies have focused only on recovering the absorbed dose to the material. However, dose in air or dose to the victim carrying the device might be significantly different. Therefore the aim of this work was to investigate photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in modern mobile phones. An over-response of about a factor of five is observed for low photon energies compared to the response to Cs-137 (662 keV) which is in reasonable agreement with calculated values mass energy-absorption coefficients of glass and air. Little variation in the energy dependence can be seen for glass displays coming from three different mobile phone models. The angular response for display glass is flat with regard to air kerma within the incident angle of ±60°, independent of the irradiation setup used (with a water phantom or with air kerma reference conditions). For incident angles of 90° the shielding effect of the mobile phones becomes important. With the dosimetric characterization of the photon energy and angular dependencies the absorbed dose in a glass display can be transferred to a reference air kerma dose and provides a useful option for retrospective accident dosimetry. - Highlights: • Determination of the photon energy dependence and angular response for display glass used as an accident dosimeter. • Over-response of about a factor of five for low photon energies. • Flat angular response within incident angles between ±60°
SU-F-T-561: Energy Dependence of a Scintillation Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volotskova, O; Xu, A; Jozsef, G [NYU Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To investigate the response and dose rate dependence of a scintillation detector over a wide energy range. Methods: The energy dependence of W1 scintillation detector was tested with: 1) 50–225 keV beams generated by an animal irradiator, 2) a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion Co-60 source, 3) 6MV, 6FFF, 10FFF and 15MV photon beams, and 4) 6–20MeV electron beams from a linac. Calibrated linac beams were used to deliver 100 cGy to the detector at dmax in water under reference conditions. The gamma-knife measurement was performed in solid water (100 cGy with 16mm collimator). The low energy beams were calibrated with an ion chamber in air (TG-61), and the scintillation detector was placed at the same location as the ionization chamber during calibration. For the linac photon and electron beams, dose rate dependence was tested for 100–2400 and 100–800 MU/min. Results: The scintillation detector demonstrated strong energy dependence in the range of 50–225keV. The measured values were lower than the delivered dose and increased as the energy increased. Therapeutic photon beams showed energy independence with variations less than 1%. Therapeutic electron beams displayed the same sensitivity of ∼2–3% at their corresponding dmax depths. The change in dose-rate of photon and electron beams within the therapeutic energy range did not affect detector output (<0.5%). Measurements acquired with the gamma knife showed that the output data agreed with the delivered dose up to 3%. Conclusion: W1 scintillation detector output has a strong energy dependence in the diagnostic and orthovoltage energy range. Therapeutic photon beams exhibited energy independence with no observable dose-rate dependence. This study may aid in the implementation of a scintillation detector in QA programs by providing energy calibration factors.
Isotope effect with energy-dependent density of states and impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, P.J.; Carbotte, J.P.
1992-01-01
We have calculated the total isotope coefficient β in a model where there is energy-dependent structure in the electronic density of states. We model the structure with a simple Lorentzian. In our calculation, doping has the effect of shifting the Fermi level and broadening the structure in the density of states. We have treated the dopants both as normal and as magnetic impurities. The asymmetry observed in the experimental data is found in our results. However, the complete range of values observed is difficult to reproduce. We question also whether the shifts in Fermi level required in such models are reasonable
A method for reducing energy dependence of thermoluminescence dosimeter response by means of filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bapat, V.N.
1980-01-01
This work describes the application of the method of partial surface shielding for reducing the energy dependence of the X-ray and γ-ray response of a dosimeter containing a CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent phosphor mixed with KCl. in pellet form. Results are given of approximate computation of filter combinations that accomplish this aim, and of experimental verifications. Incorporation of the described filter combination makes it possible to use this relatively sensitive dosimeter for environmental radiation monitoring. A similar approach could be applied to any type of dosimeter in the form of a thin pellet or wafer. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.
2015-01-01
The Instrument Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI - IPEN) performs calibrations of pencil-type ionization chambers (IC) used in measures of dosimetric survey on clinical systems of Computed Tomography (CT). Many users make mistakes when using a calibrated ionization chamber in their CT dosimetry systems. In this work a methodology for determination of factors of correction for quality (Kq) through the calibration curve that is specific for each ionization chamber was established. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate the energy dependence on an pencil-type Ionization Chamber(IC) calibrated at the LCI - IPEN. (author)
Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)
2013-01-15
Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou
1990-01-01
From the study of even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows, we propose a simple picture for charge correlation with nonzero correlation length and calculate the multiplicity distributions and the normalized moments in different rapidity windows at different energies. The results explain the experimentally observed coincidence and separation of even and odd distributions and also the anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows. The reason for the separation of even-odd distributions, appearing first at large multiplicities, is shown to be energy conservation. The special role of no-particle events in narrow rapidity windows is pointed out
Nanoporous metal film: An energy-dependent transmission device for electron waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grech, S.; Degiovanni, A.; Lapena, L.; Morin, R.
2011-01-01
We measure electron transmission through free-standing ultrathin nanoporous gold films, using the coherent electron beam emitted by sharp field emission tips in a low energy electron projection microscope setup. Transmission coefficient versus electron wavelength plots show periodic oscillations between 75 and 850 eV. These oscillations result from the energy dependence of interference between paths through the gold and paths through the nanometer-sized pores of the film. We reveal that these films constitute high transmittance quantum devices acting on electron waves through a wavelength-dependent complex transmittance defined by the porosity and the thickness of the film.
Criticality problems for slabs and spheres in energy dependent neutron transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Victory, H.D. Jr.
1980-01-01
The steady-state equation for energy-dependent neutron transport in isotropically scattering slabs and spheres is formulated as an integral equation. The Perron-Frobenius-Jentzsch theory of positive operators is used to analyze criticality problems for transport in slab and spherical media consisting of core and reflector. In addition, with an adroit selection of diffusion-like solutions, this theory is used to obtain an expression relating the critical radius of a homogeneous sphere to a parameter characterizing fission production. 21 refs
Photon energy dependent intensity variations observed in Auger spectra of free argon clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundwall, M; Lindblad, A; Bergersen, H; Rander, T; Oehrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Peredkov, S; Svensson, S; Bjoerneholm, O
2006-01-01
Photon energy dependent intensity variations are experimentally observed in the L 2,3 M 2,3 M 2,3 Auger spectra of argon clusters. Two cluster sizes are examined in the present study. Extrinsic scattering effects, both elastic and inelastic, involving the photoelectron are discussed and suggested as the explanation of the variations in the Auger signal. The atoms in the first few coordination shells surrounding the core-ionized atom are proposed to be the main targets for the scattering processes
Energy Dependence of Particle Multiplicities in Central Au+Au Collisions
Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.
2002-01-01
We present the first measurement of the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles in Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 200 GeV. For the 6% most central collisions, we obtain dNch/dη\\|\\|η\\|<1 = 650+/-35(syst). Compared to collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV, the highest energy studied previously, an increase by a factor of 1.14+/-0.05 at 90% confidence level, is found. The energy dependence of the pseudorapidity density is discussed in comparison with data from proton-induced collisions and theoretical predictions.
Coherent and incoherent J /ψ photonuclear production in an energy-dependent hot-spot model
Cepila, J.; Contreras, J. G.; Krelina, M.
2018-02-01
In a previous publication, we have presented a model for the photoproduction of J /ψ vector mesons off protons, where the proton structure in the impact-parameter plane is described by an energy-dependent hot-spot profile. Here we extend this model to study the photonuclear production of J /ψ vector mesons in coherent and incoherent interactions of heavy nuclei. We study two methods to extend the model to the nuclear case: using the standard Glauber-Gribov formalism and using geometric scaling to obtain the nuclear saturation scale. We find that the incoherent cross section changes sizably with the inclusion of subnucleonic hot spots and that this change is energy dependent. We propose to search for this behavior by measuring the ratio of the incoherent to coherent cross sections at different energies. We compare the results of our model to results from the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and from run 1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), finding satisfactory agreement. We also present predictions for the LHC at the new energies reached in run 2. The predictions include J /ψ production in ultraperipheral collisions, as well as the recently observed photonuclear production in peripheral collisions.
Ebenau, Melanie; Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus; Sommer, Holger; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion
2016-08-01
Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm(3)) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a (60)Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks' formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks' formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV(-1) cm(-2). The energy response was quantified relative to the response to (60)Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The observed energy dependence could be well explained with the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebenau, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.ebenau@tu-dortmunde.de; Sommer, Holger; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Str. 4a, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Flühs, Dirk [Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen (Germany)
2016-08-15
Purpose: Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm{sup 3}) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Methods: Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a {sup 60}Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks’ formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. Results: The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks’ formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. Conclusions: The energy response was quantified relative to the response to {sup 60}Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The
Energy dependence of event shapes and of $\\alpha_s$ at LEP 2
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G
1999-01-01
Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined using the data taken at ve di erent centre of mass energies above $M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP. From the event shapes, the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$ is extracted in $O(\\alpha^2_s)$, NLLA and a combined scheme using hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as using an analytical power ansatz. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at MZ, the energy dependence (running) of $\\alpha_s$ is accessible. The logarithmic energy slope of the inverse strong coupling is measured to be $d\\alpha_{s}^{-1}/d log(E_{cm}) = 1.39 \\pm 0.34(stat) \\pm 0.17(syst)$, in good agreement with the QCD expectation of 1.27.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, Bernhard
2009-01-01
In this thesis, we have presented the first multi-dimensional models of core-collapse supernovae that combine a detailed, up-to-date treatment of neutrino transport, the equation of state, and - in particular - general relativistic gravity. Building on the well-tested neutrino transport code VERTEX and the GR hydrodynamics code CoCoNuT, we developed and implemented a relativistic generalization of a ray-by-ray-plus method for energy-dependent neutrino transport. The result of these effort, the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, also incorporates a number of improved numerical techniques that have not been used in the code components VERTEX and CoCoNuT before. In order to validate the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, we conducted several test simulations in spherical symmetry, most notably a comparison with the one-dimensional relativistic supernova code AGILE-BOLTZTRAN and the Newtonian PROMETHEUSVERTEX code. (orig.)
ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 4593
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sriram, K.; Agrawal, V. K.; Rao, A. R.
2009-01-01
We investigate the energy-time lag dependence of the source NGC 4593 using XMM-Newton/EPIC pn data. We found that the time lag dependency is linear in nature with respect to the logarithm of different energy bands. We also investigate the frequency-dependent time lags and identify that at some frequency range (5 x 10 -5 Hz to 2 x 10 -4 Hz) the X-ray emission is highly coherent, mildly frequency dependent, and very strongly energy dependent. These observations can be explained in the framework of the thermal Comptonization process, and they indicate a truncated accretion disk very close to the black hole. We discuss the plausible spectral state to explain the phenomenon and conclude that the observed properties bear a close resemblance to the intermediate state or the steep power-law state, found in galactic black hole sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, Y.C.; Huang, Y. F.; Chen, Y.W.
2008-01-01
Full text: Short-term environment dose-rate assessments using real-time digital dosimeters within a Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) are gaining more world-wide uses recently. In the past, conventional ion chamber-type survey-meters are used dominantly in environmental dose rates evaluation. Although it has suffered less gamma energy-dependency, but it is less sensitive in comparison with other digital dosimeters and more bulky in design that can hardly make it into a pocket size application. With modern electronic advancement and its shrinking in physical size, real-time personal dosimeter nowadays has gaining more popular to use a miniature G-M counter or a solid-state diode sensor, or even a NaI(Tl) scintillation device for ambient radiation monitoring. Radiation sensor operated in pulse-mode can never been used in doses or dose rates determination since each digital pulse has carried no energy information of the impinging gamma ray being interactive with, especially in the G-M counter or the diode sensor case. The raw count rates measured from a pulse-mode device are heavily dependent on the packaging of the sensor to make it less energy-sensitive. The doses or dose rates are then calculated by using a built-in conversion factor, based on a Cs-137 beam source calibration data conducted by various manufacturing vendors, to convert its raw counts into a so-called dose or dose-rate unit. In this study, we have focused our interests in the low energy response of the digital dosimeters from several brands currently for our in-house uses. Mainly, Tc-99m and I-131 in point sources and water phantoms detection configurations have been deployed to simulate our NMD outpatients for environment radiation monitoring purpose. The energy-dependent correction factors of the digital dosimeters will be evaluated by using calibrated Tc-99m or I-131 standard sources directly that has much lower gamma energy than the Cs-137 beam source of 661 keV. In the near future, we would
Brede, Jens; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Kuck, Stefan; Lazić, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hoffmann, Germar; Blügel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland
2010-07-23
We investigate the spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single organic molecule (CoPc) adsorbed on a ferromagnetic Fe thin film, spatially resolved by low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Interestingly, the metal ion as well as the organic ligand show a significant spin dependence of tunneling current flow. State-of-the-art ab initio calculations including also van der Waals interactions reveal a strong hybridization of molecular orbitals and substrate 3d states. The molecule is anionic due to a transfer of one electron, resulting in a nonmagnetic (S=0) state. Nevertheless, tunneling through the molecule exhibits a pronounced spin dependence due to spin-split molecule-surface hybrid states.
On the energy dependence of DIS in the diffraction region of low x
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schildknecht, D. [Bielefeld, Univ., Fakultat fur Physik (Germany)
2005-07-01
The energy dependence of the virtual photoabsorption cross-section in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at low x = Q{sup 2}/W{sup 2} < 0.1 may be described in terms of the saturation scale that in our approach depends on the energy, {lambda}{sup 2}{sub sat} = {lambda}{sup 2}{sub sat}(W{sup 2}). We briefly summarize our recent findings that allow us to predict the exponent C{sub 2} of {lambda}{sup 2}{sub sat}(W{sup 2}) {approx} (W{sup 2}){sup C{sub 2}} in agreement with the previous result obtained from fitting the experimental data. The exponent C{sub 2} depending on the relative magnitude of the longitudinal and transverse contribution to the structure function, direct measurements of the longitudinal part are urgently needed. (author)
Energy dependence of the charged multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2008-03-15
The charged multiplicity distributions and the mean charged multiplicity have been investigated in inclusive neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb{sup -1}. The measurements were performed in the current region of the Breit frame, as well as in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The KNO-scaling properties of the data were investigated and the energy dependence was studied using different energy scales. The data are compared to results obtained in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and to previous DIS measurements as well as to leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions. (orig.)
Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)
2010-10-15
The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194
Energy dependence of the charged multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2008-03-01
The charged multiplicity distributions and the mean charged multiplicity have been investigated in inclusive neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb -1 . The measurements were performed in the current region of the Breit frame, as well as in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The KNO-scaling properties of the data were investigated and the energy dependence was studied using different energy scales. The data are compared to results obtained in e + e - collisions and to previous DIS measurements as well as to leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2008-01-01
The gamma photons continue to soften in energy as the number of scatterings increases in the target having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions. The number of multiply scattered photons increases with an increase in target thickness, and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness known as saturation thickness (depth). The present measurements are carried out to study the energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons from targets of various thicknesses. The scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector placed at 90 deg. to the incident beam. We observe that the saturation thickness increases with increasing incident gamma photon energy. Monte Carlo calculations based upon the package developed by Bauer and Pattison [Compton scattering experiments at the HMI (1981), HMI-B 364, pp. 1-106] support the present experimental results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Bernhard
2009-05-07
In this thesis, we have presented the first multi-dimensional models of core-collapse supernovae that combine a detailed, up-to-date treatment of neutrino transport, the equation of state, and - in particular - general relativistic gravity. Building on the well-tested neutrino transport code VERTEX and the GR hydrodynamics code CoCoNuT, we developed and implemented a relativistic generalization of a ray-by-ray-plus method for energy-dependent neutrino transport. The result of these effort, the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, also incorporates a number of improved numerical techniques that have not been used in the code components VERTEX and CoCoNuT before. In order to validate the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, we conducted several test simulations in spherical symmetry, most notably a comparison with the one-dimensional relativistic supernova code AGILE-BOLTZTRAN and the Newtonian PROMETHEUSVERTEX code. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svec, A.; Schrader, H.
2002-01-01
An ionization chamber without and with an iron liner (absorber) was calibrated by a set of radionuclide activity standards of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The ionization chamber is used as a secondary standard measuring system for activity at the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU). Energy-dependent photon-efficiency curves were established for the ionization chamber in defined measurement geometry without and with the liner, and radionuclide efficiencies were calculated. Programmed calculation with an analytical efficiency function and a nonlinear regression algorithm of Microsoft (MS) Excel for fitting was used. Efficiencies from bremsstrahlung of pure beta-particle emitters were calibrated achieving a 10% accuracy level. Such efficiency components are added to obtain the total radionuclide efficiency of photon emitters after beta decay. The method yields differences of experimental and calculated radionuclide efficiencies for most of the photon-emitting radionuclides in the order of a few percent
Energy dependency and sustainable regional development in the Baltic states: A review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Štreimikienė Dalia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Energy security is one of the most important indicators of sustainable regional development and 'green' growth in implementation of EU strategy Europe 2020. It can provide the harmonized development and cohesion of 'old' and 'new' EU member states. Our paper conducts a comparative study of energy dependency and energy security indicators in the Baltic States. The Baltic countries achieved enormous progress in the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency since their EU accession in 2004. The increase of renewable energy capacities in Baltic States also contributed to the reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity of economy and energy import dependency. Our results show that amongst all three states, it was Estonia that had achieved the best results in increased use of renewables and energy efficiency improvements and had distinguished itself with the best indicators and economic and regional policy outcomes.
Energy dependent modulation of the ulf ion flux oscillations observed at small pitch angles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, S.; Konradi, A.; Fritz, T.A.
1979-01-01
The characteristics of the ultralow frequency oscillations in the ion fluxes observed at small pitch angles by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration detector telescopes on board ATS 6 are again examined. The present report concentrates on the dramatic variation of the flux modulations detected in various energy channels during a single event which occurred on February 18, 1975. The wave amplitude is observed to be larger in a higher energy channel with energies from 100 keV to 150 keV and to decrease toward the lower energy channels. The lowest-energy protons (25--33 keV) in general are seldom seen to be oscillating, but in this event they display a low-amplitude oscillation which is 180 0 out of p ase with the adjacent channel. Such energy dependent modulation of the flux oscillation is thought to be a consequence of the wave particle resonant interaction. However, the prediction of the bounce resonant interaction is not consistent with the observations of both the energy dependent variation of the flux amplitudes and a 180 0 change in the oscillation phase in the adjacent low-energy channels that occurred in the February 18, 1975, event. Since the shape of the undisturned particle distribution can also determine the variation of the particle perturbation at various energies, the first-order particle distribution derived in a homogeneous plasma with a uniform magnetic field is examined without any specification of the wave mode. When the average particle distribution during the wave observation is used together with a parallel wave electric field that presumably causes the flux modulation at small pitch angles, a reasonable agreement is found between the variation of flux modulation derived from the slope of the average particle distribution and that from the experimental observation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, Hironobu
1978-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics of polymerization on polymer impregnated concrete (PIC) polymerized by various radiation source which have the peculiar energy respectively as follows; Gamma-rays: 60 Co-1.25MeV, 137 Cs-0.66MeV, X-Ray: 0.88MeV and accelerated electron beam 4.0, 2.0 and 1.2MeV. This experimental program was carried out to investigate the effect of radiation energy, density of cementmortar, optimum irradiating conditions and other factors which have influence upon the polymerization and strength of PIC. The test results shows that the energy dependency on the accelerated electron was remarkable effect for relative absorption energy and strength of specimens (Fig. 5) and it can be estimate that the impregnation depth from the surface of specimens in ordinary mortar MMA-PIC were about 10 mm, 6 mm, and 3 mm as to 4.0, 2.0 and 1.2MeV respectively under curing 50 Mrads (Fig. 2). It is also show that the optimum total exposure dose on magnetic electro wave methods, estimate about 3 MR at 60 Co; 1 x 10 6 R/hr, 2 MR at 137 Cs; 4.5 x 10 4 R/hr and 2 MR at X-ray; 5 x 10 5 R/hr at curing temperature 20 0 C (Fig. 9, Fig. 10). We can see the fact that the energy dependency is noticiable only comparing same kinds of radiation source. (author)
Energy dependence evaluation of a ZnO detector for diagnostic X-ray beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valença, C.P.V.; Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A.; Santos, M.A.
2015-01-01
In the last decades the international organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using X-ray as a diagnosis tool. The current concern is to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can be concluded that, after calibration, the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector. (author)
Evaluation of the energy dependence of a zinc oxide nanofilm X-ray detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valenca, C.P.V.; Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A.; Santos, L.A.P
2015-01-01
International organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using of the X-ray as a diagnosis tool to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, electronic semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can conclude that the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector with an appropriate calibration. (author)
Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hoppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2015-01-01
Exclusive production of $\\eta\\pi^-$ and $\\eta'\\pi^-$ has been studied with a $191\\,\\textrm{GeV}/c$ $\\pi^-$ beam impinging on a hydrogen target at COMPASS (CERN). Partial-wave analyses reveal different odd/even angular momentum ($L$) characteristics in the inspected invariant mass range up to $3\\,\\textrm{GeV}/c^2$. A striking similarity between the two systems is observed for the $L=2,4,6$ intensities (scaled by kinematical factors) and the relative phases. The known resonances $a_2(1320)$ and $a_4(2040)$ are in line with this similarity. In contrast, a strong enhancement of $\\eta'\\pi^-$ over $\\eta\\pi^-$ is found for the $L=1,3,5$ waves, which carry non-$q\\bar q$ quantum numbers. The $L=1$ intensity peaks at $1.7\\,\\textrm{GeV}/c^2$ in $\\eta'\\pi^-$ and at $1.4\\,\\textrm{GeV}/c^2$ in $\\eta\\pi^-$, the corresponding phase motions with respect to $L=2$ are different.
Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R.
2015-01-01
Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity. PMID:26630486
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong Chen
Full Text Available Energy-dependent (qE non-photochemical quenching (NPQ thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity.
Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R
2015-01-01
Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity.
Energy-dependent expansion of .177 caliber hollow-point air gun projectiles.
Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias
2017-05-01
Amongst hundreds of different projectiles for air guns available on the market, hollow-point air gun pellets are of special interest. These pellets are characterized by a tip or a hollowed-out shape in their tip which, when fired, makes the projectiles expand to an increased diameter upon entering the target medium. This results in an increase in release of energy which, in turn, has the potential to cause more serious injuries than non-hollow-point projectiles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, reliable data on the terminal ballistic features of hollow-point air gun projectiles compared to standard diabolo pellets have not yet been published in the forensic literature. The terminal ballistic performance (energy-dependent expansion and penetration) of four different types of .177 caliber hollow-point pellets discharged at kinetic energy levels from approximately 3 J up to 30 J into water, ordnance gelatin, and ordnance gelatin covered with natural chamois as a skin simulant was the subject of this investigation. Energy-dependent expansion of the tested hollow-point pellets was observed after being shot into all investigated target media. While some hollow-point pellets require a minimum kinetic energy of approximately 10 J for sufficient expansion, there are also hollow-point pellets which expand at kinetic energy levels of less than 5 J. The ratio of expansion (RE, calculated by the cross-sectional area (A) after impact divided by the cross-sectional area (A 0 ) of the undeformed pellet) of hollow-point air gun pellets reached values up of to 2.2. The extent of expansion relates to the kinetic energy of the projectile with a peak for pellet expansion at the 15 to 20 J range. To conclude, this work demonstrates that the hollow-point principle, i.e., the design-related enlargement of the projectiles' frontal area upon impact into a medium, does work in air guns as claimed by the manufacturers.
The photon energy dependence of the alanine/EPR dosimetry system, an experimental investigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergstrand, E.S.; Hole, E.O.; Shortt, K.R.; Ross, C.K.
2002-01-01
The energy dependence of a dosimetry system based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of alanine has been studied to determine its suitability for use in dose verification for radiotherapy. A few experiments with high-energy photon irradiation of alanine have been reported in the literature. However, the reported results disagree whether the ratio of dose in alanine to dose in water is independent of the radiation energy or whether there is a small dependence for photon energies of relevance to radiotherapy. The concentration of free radicals in alanine is proportional to the absorbed dose in alanine over a wide dose range covering three decades. The relative number of radicals may be determined by examining the EPR spectrum, and hence it is possible to determine the dose with a system that has been calibrated using a known dose of 60 Co radiation. In the present work, irradiations of alanine dosimeters were performed at the National Research Council (NRC), in Ottawa, Canada. The radiation qualities investigated were 10, 20 and 30 MV x-rays using the NRC linac. For each radiation quality, 30 dosimeters were irradiated in a water phantom with a level of absorbed dose to water ranging from 10 to 50 Gy. For reference purposes, irradiations using the NRC 60 Co source were performed on more or less the same day as the irradiations at each specific linac quality. In all beams, the dose to water was measured using a graphite-walled NE2571 ionisation chamber that was originally calibrated by comparison with a sealed-water calorimeter. The alanine dosimeters were evaluated at the EPR laboratory at the University of Oslo, Norway, using an X-band Bruker ESP300E spectrometer with a rectangular double resonator. One of the resonators contained a Mn 2+ /MgO sample that was read after each dosimeter reading, in order to provide independence from short-term sensitivity fluctuations in the spectrometer. All dosimeters irradiated at one specific linac quality were
An investigation of the photon energy dependence of the EPR alanine dosimetry system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergstrand, Eva Stabell; Shortt, Ken R; Ross, Carl K; Hole, Eli Olaug
2003-01-01
The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) alanine dosimetry system is based on EPR measurements of radicals formed in alanine by ionizing radiation. The system has been studied to determine its energy dependence for photons in the 10-30 MV region relative to those of 60 Co and to find out if the system would be suitable for dosimetry comparisons. The irradiations were carried out at the National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada and the doses ranged from 8 to 54 Gy. The EPR measurements were performed at the University of Oslo, Norway. The ratio of the slope of the alanine reading versus dose-to-water curve for a certain linac photon beam quality and the corresponding slope for a reference 60 Co γ-radiation gives an experimental measure of the relative dose-to-water response of the EPR alanine dosimetry system. For calculating the linear regression coefficients of these alanine reading versus dose curves, the method of weighted least squares was used. This method is assumed to produce more accurate regression coefficients when applied to EPR dosimetry than the common method of standard least squares. The overall uncertainty on the ratio of slopes was between 0.5 and 0.6% for all three linac energies. The relative response for all the linac beams compared to cobalt was less than unity: by about 0.5% for the 20 and 30 MV points but by more than 1% for the 10 MV point. The given standard uncertainties negate concluding that there is any significant internal variation in the measured response as a function of beam quality between the three linac energies. Thus, we calculated the average dose response for all three energies and found that the alanine response is 0.8% (±0.5%) lower for high energy x-rays than for 60 Co γ-rays. This result indicates a small energy dependence in the alanine response for the high-energy photons relative to 60 Co which may be significant. This result is specific to our dosimetry system (alanine with 20% polyethylene binder pressed into a
A Study of the Energy Dependence of the Underlying Event in Proton-Antiproton Collisions
Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Marchese, Luigi; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; Devoto, Francesco; D'Errico, Maria; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; D'Onofrio, Monica; Donati, Simone; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kim, Young-Jin; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucà, Alessandra; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Prokoshin, Fedor; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Sorin, Maria Veronica; Song, Hao; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano
2015-11-23
We study charged particle production in proton-antiproton collisions at 300 GeV, 900 GeV, and 1.96 TeV. We use the direction of the charged particle with the largest transverse momentum in each event to define three regions of eta-phi space; toward, away, and transverse. The average number and the average scalar pT sum of charged particles in the transverse region are sensitive to the modeling of the underlying event. The transverse region is divided into a MAX and MIN transverse region, which helps separate the hard component (initial and final-state radiation) from the beam-beam remnant and multiple parton interaction components of the scattering. The center-of-mass energy dependence of the various components of the event are studied in detail. The data presented here can be used to constrain and improve QCD Monte Carlo models, resulting in more precise predictions at the LHC energies of 13 and 14 TeV.
Wang, Yuheng; Zhang, Yajie; Lu, Guanghao; Feng, Xiaoshan; Xiao, Tong; Xie, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Jiahui; Wei, Zhixiang; Bu, Laju
2018-04-25
Photon absorption-induced exciton generation plays an important role in determining the photovoltaic properties of donor/acceptor organic solar cells with an inverted architecture. However, the reconstruction of light harvesting and thus exciton generation at different locations within organic inverted device are still not well resolved. Here, we investigate the film depth-dependent light absorption spectra in a small molecule donor/acceptor film. Including depth-dependent spectra into an optical transfer matrix method allows us to reconstruct both film depth- and energy-dependent exciton generation profiles, using which short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency of the inverted device are simulated and compared with the experimental measurements. The film depth-dependent spectroscopy, from which we are able to simultaneously reconstruct light harvesting profile, depth-dependent composition distribution, and vertical energy level variations, provides insights into photovoltaic process. In combination with appropriate material processing methods and device architecture, the method proposed in this work will help optimizing film depth-dependent optical/electronic properties for high-performance solar cells.
Energy Dependent Removal Cross-Sections in Fast Neutron Shielding Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groenroos, Henrik
1965-05-01
The analytical approximations behind the energy dependent removal cross-section concept of Spinney is investigated and its predictions compared with exact values calculated by Case's singular integral method. The exact values are obtained in plane infinite geometry for the two absorption ratios Σ a /Σ t = 0. 1 and Σ a /Σ t = 0.7 over a range of 20 mfp and for varying degrees of forward anisotrophy in the elastic scattering. The latter is characterized by choosing a suitable general scattering function. It is shown that Spinney's original definition follows if Grosjean's formalism, i. e. the matching of moments, is applied. The prediction of the neutron flux is remarkably accurate, and mostly within 50 % for the spatial range and cases investigated. A definition of the removal cross-sections based on matching the exact asymptotic solution to the exponential part of the approximate solution is found to give less accurate flux values than Spinney's model. A third way to define a removal cross-section independent of the spatial coordinates is the variational method. The possible uses of this technique is briefly commented upon
Energy Dependent Divisible Load Theory for Wireless Sensor Network Workload Allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiyan Shi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN, consisting of a large number of microsensors with wireless communication abilities, has become an indispensable tool for use in monitoring and surveillance applications. Despite its advantages in deployment flexibility and fault tolerance, the WSN is vulnerable to failures due to the depletion of limited onboard battery energy. A major portion of energy consumption is caused by the transmission of sensed results to the master processor. The amount of energy used, in fact, is related to both the duration of sensing and data transmission. Hence, in order to extend the operation lifespan of the WSN, a proper allocation of sensing workload among the sensors is necessary. An assignment scheme is here formulated on the basis of the divisible load theory, namely, the energy dependent divisible load theory (EDDLT for sensing workload allocations. In particular, the amount of residual energies onboard sensors are considered while deciding the workload assigned to each sensor. Sensors with smaller amount of residual energy are assigned lighter workloads, thus, allowing for a reduced energy consumption and the sensor lifespan is extended. Simulation studies are conducted and results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed workload allocation method.
Energy Dependent Removal Cross-Sections in Fast Neutron Shielding Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groenroos, Henrik
1965-05-15
The analytical approximations behind the energy dependent removal cross-section concept of Spinney is investigated and its predictions compared with exact values calculated by Case's singular integral method. The exact values are obtained in plane infinite geometry for the two absorption ratios {sigma}{sub a}/{sigma}{sub t} = 0. 1 and {sigma}{sub a}/{sigma}{sub t} = 0.7 over a range of 20 mfp and for varying degrees of forward anisotrophy in the elastic scattering. The latter is characterized by choosing a suitable general scattering function. It is shown that Spinney's original definition follows if Grosjean's formalism, i. e. the matching of moments, is applied. The prediction of the neutron flux is remarkably accurate, and mostly within 50 % for the spatial range and cases investigated. A definition of the removal cross-sections based on matching the exact asymptotic solution to the exponential part of the approximate solution is found to give less accurate flux values than Spinney's model. A third way to define a removal cross-section independent of the spatial coordinates is the variational method. The possible uses of this technique is briefly commented upon.
Positive solution of a time and energy dependent neutron transport problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pao, C.V.
1975-01-01
A constructive method is given for the determination of a solution and an existence--uniqueness theorem for some nonlinear time and energy dependent neutron transport problems, including the linear transport system. The geometry of the medium under consideration is allowed to be either bounded or unbounded which includes the geometry of a finite or infinite cylinder, a half-space and the whole space R/subm/ (m=1,2,center-dotcenter-dotcenter-dot). Our approach to the problem is by successive approximation which leads to various recursion formulas for the approximations in terms of explicit integrations. It is shown under some Lipschitz conditions on the nonlinear functions, which describe the process of neutrons absorption, fission, and scattering, that the sequence of approximations converges to a unique positive solution. Since these conditions are satisfied by the linear transport equation, all the results for the nonlinear system are valid for the linear transport problem. In the general nonlinear problem, the existence of both local and global solutions are discussed, and an iterative process for the construction of the solution is given
Study of the energy dependence of the underlying event in proton-antiproton collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nodulman, L.; Aaltonen, T; Albrow, M; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T
2015-11-23
We study charged particle production (p(T) > 0.5 GeV/c, vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) in proton-antiproton collisions at total center-of-mass energies root s = 300 GeV, 900 GeV, and 1.96 TeV. We use the direction of the charged particle with the largest transverse momentum in each event to define three regions of eta - phi space: "toward", "away", and "transverse." The average number and the average scalar pT sum of charged particles in the transverse region are sensitive to the modeling of the "underlying event." The transverse region is divided into a MAX and MIN transverse region, which helps separate the "hard component" (initial and final-state radiation) from the "beam-beam remnant" and multiple parton interaction components of the scattering. The center-of-mass energy dependence of the various components of the event is studied in detail. The data presented here can be used to constrain and improve QCD Monte Carlo models, resulting in more precise predictions at the LHC energies of 13 and 14 TeV.
Monte carlo calculation of energy-dependent response of high-sensitive neutron monitor, HISENS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Keiji; Koide, Hiroaki; Seo, Takeshi; Kawano, Shinji
1988-01-01
A highly sensitive neutron monitor system, HISENS, has been developed to measure leakage neutrons from nuclear facilities. The counter system of HISENS contains a detector bank which consists of ten cylindrical proportional counters filled with 10 atm 3 He gas and a paraffin moderator mounted in an aluminum case. The size of the detector bank is 56 cm high, 66 cm wide and 10 cm thick. It is revealed by a calibration experiment using an 241 Am-Be neutron source that the sensitivity of HISENS is about 2000 times as large as that of a typical commercial rem-counter. Since HISENS is designed to have a high sensitivity in a wide range of neutron energy, the shape of its energy dependent response curve cannot be matched to that of the dose equivalent conversion factor. To estimate dose equivalent values from neutron counts by HISENS, it is necessary to know the energy and angular characteristics of both HISENS and the neutron field. The area of one side of the detector bank is 3700 cm 2 and the detection efficiency in the constant region of the response curve is about 30 %. Thus, the sensitivity of HISENS for this energy range is 740 cps/(n/cm 2 /sec). This value indicates the extremely high sensitivity of HISENS as compared with exsisting highly sensitive neutron monitors. (Nogami, K.)
Studying the collision energy dependence of elliptic and triangular flow with a hybrid model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auvinen, Jussi [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2014-07-01
Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, the elliptic flow is expected to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude within the energy range 7.7-39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann+hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable for investigating the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the production of the collective flow at different beam energies.
Proof and implementation of the stochastic formula for ideal gas, energy dependent scattering kernel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, B.; Dagan, R.; Lohnert, G.
2009-01-01
The ideal gas, scattering kernel for heavy nuclei with pronounced resonances was developed [Rothenstein, W., Dagan, R., 1998. Ann. Nucl. Energy 25, 209-222], proved and implemented [Rothenstein, W., 2004 Ann. Nucl. Energy 31, 9-23] in the data processing code NJOY [Macfarlane, R.E., Muir, D.W., 1994. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System Version 91, LA-12740-M] from which the scattering probability tables were prepared [Dagan, R., 2005. Ann. Nucl. Energy 32, 367-377]. Those tables were introduced to the well known MCNP code [X-5 Monte Carlo Team. MCNP - A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 5 LA-UR-03-1987 code] via the 'mt' input cards in the same manner as it is done for light nuclei in the thermal energy range. In this study we present an alternative methodology for solving the double differential energy dependent scattering kernel which is based solely on stochastic consideration as far as the scattering probabilities are concerned. The solution scheme is based on an alternative rejection scheme suggested by Rothenstein [Rothenstein, W. ENS conference 1994 Tel Aviv]. Based on comparison with the above mentioned analytical (probability S(α,β)-tables) approach it is confirmed that the suggested rejection scheme provides accurate results. The uncertainty concerning the magnitude of the bias due to the enhanced multiple rejections during the sampling procedure are proved to lie within 1-2 standard deviations for all practical cases that were analysed.
Energy Dependence of Synchrotron X-Ray Rims in Tycho's Supernova Remnant
Tran, Aaron; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Ressler, Sean M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.
2015-01-01
Several young supernova remnants exhibit thin X-ray bright rims of synchrotron radiation at their forward shocks. Thin rims require strong magnetic field amplification beyond simple shock compression if rim widths are only limited by electron energy losses. But, magnetic field damping behind the shock could produce similarly thin rims with less extreme field amplification. Variation of rim width with energy may thus discriminate between competing influences on rim widths. We measured rim widths around Tycho's supernova remnant in 5 energy bands using an archival 750 ks Chandra observation. Rims narrow with increasing energy and are well described by either loss-limited or damped scenarios, so X-ray rim width-energy dependence does not uniquely specify a model. But, radio counterparts to thin rims are not loss-limited and better reflect magnetic field structure. Joint radio and X-ray modeling favors magnetic damping in Tycho's SNR with damping lengths approximately 1-5% of remnant radius and magnetic field strengths approximately 50-400 micron G assuming Bohm diffusion. X-ray rim widths are approximately 1% of remnant radius, somewhat smaller than inferred damping lengths. Electron energy losses are important in all models of X-ray rims, suggesting that the distinction between loss-limited and damped models is blurred in soft X-rays. All loss-limited and damping models require magnetic fields approximately greater than 20 micron G, arming the necessity of magnetic field amplification beyond simple compression.
Surface effects on sputtered atoms and their angular and energy dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanein, A.M.
1985-04-01
A comprehensive three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code, Ion Transport in Materials and Compounds (ITMC), has been developed to study in detail the surfaces related phenomena that affect the amount of sputtered atoms and back-scattered ions and their angular and energy dependence. A number of important factors that can significantly affect the sputtering behavior of a surface can be studied in detail, such as having different surface properties and composition than the bulk and synergistic effects due to surface segregation of alloys. These factors can be important in determining and lifetime of fusion reactor first walls and limiters. The ITMC Code is based on Monte Carlo methods to track down the path and the damage produced by charged particles as they slow down in solid metal surfaces or compounds. The major advantages of the ITMC code are its flexibility and ability to use and compare all existing models for energy losses, all known interatomic potentials, and to use different materials and compounds with different surface and bulk composition to allow for dynamic surface composition to allow for dynamic surface composition changes. There is good agreement between the code and available experimental results without using adjusting parameters for the energy losses mechanisms. The ITMC Code is highly optimized, very fast to run and easy to use
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sofianos, S.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.
1980-01-01
We investigate the accuracy of the energy-dependent pole expansion for the (3+1) and (2+2) subamplitudes in the calculation of the binding energy of the α particle, E/sub α/, for separable NN potentials with tensor components. We employ the truncated t-matrix (t 00 ) approximation and compare our results for E/sub α/ to those obtained, independent of any separable expansion, by Gibson and Lehman and to the results for E/sub α/ obtained with the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion of the subamplitudes. It is shown that the energy-dependent pole expansion is both more economical and converges faster than the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion, even one term of the energy-dependent pole approximation already being accurate to better than 1.5%
The Energy Dependence of Flow in Ni Induced Collisions from 400A to 1970A MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chance, J.; Brady, F.; Cebra, D.; Kintner, J.; Partlan, M.; Romero, J.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Insolia, A.; Potenza, R.; Romanski, J.; Russo, G.; Tuve, C.; Bieser, F.; Cebra, D.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.; Symons, T.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Choi, Y.; Elliott, J.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Porile, N.; Scharenberg, R.; Srivastava, B.; Tincknell, M.; Warren, P.; Chacon, A.; Wolf, K.
1997-01-01
We study the energy dependence of collective (hydrodynamic-like) nuclear matter flow in (400 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Au and (1000 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Cu reactions. The flow increases with energy, appears to reach a maximum, and then to decrease at higher energies. A way of comparing the energy dependence of flow values for different projectile-target mass combinations is introduced, which demonstrates a more-or-less common scaling behavior among flow values from different systems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elsner, D.
2007-04-15
The reaction p(e, e'p){pi}{sup 0} has been studied at Q{sup 2}=0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of (vector)q cross section asymmetries {rho}{sub LT} have been obtained in forward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}{sup cm}=20 )=(-11.68{+-}2.36{sub stat}{+-}2.36{sub sys}) and backward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}}{sub {sup 0}}{sup cm}=160)=(12.18{+-}0.27{sub stat}{+-}0.82{sub sys}) {pi}{sup 0} kinematics, from which R{l_brace}S{sub 1+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} and R{l_brace}S{sub 0+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry {sigma} has been measured in the reaction p((vector){gamma}, {eta})p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P{sub {gamma}}=49% has been achieved at E{sub {gamma}}=1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the {eta} into two photons and 3{pi}{sup 0}. Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)
Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.
1981-08-01
Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)
On recoil energy dependent void swelling in pure copper: Theoretical treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golubov, S.I.; Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.
2000-06-01
Over the years, an enormous amount of experimental results have been reported on damage accumulation (e.g. void swelling) in metals and alloys irradiated under vastly different recoil energy conditions. Unfortunately, however, very little is known either experimentally or theoretically about the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation. Recently, dedicated irradiation experiments using 2.5 MeV electrons, 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons have been carried out to determine the effect of recoil energy on the damage accumulation behaviour in pure copper and the results have been reported in Part I of this paper (Singh, Eldrup, Horsewell, Ehrhart and Dworschak 2000). The present paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework within which the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation behaviour can be understood. The damage accumulation under Frenkel pair production (e.g. 2.5 MeV electron) has been treated in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) model whereas the evolution of the defect microstructure under cascade damage conditions (e.g. 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons) has been calculated within the framework of the production bias model (PBM). Theoretical results, in agreement with experimental results, show that the damage accumulation behaviour is very sensitive to recoil energy and under cascade damage conditions can be treated only within the framework of the PBM. The intracascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and the properties of SIA clusters such as one-dimensional diffusional transport and thermal stability are found to be the main reasons for the recoil energy dependent vacancy supersaturation. The vacancy supersaturation is the main driving force for the void nucleation and void swelling. In the case of Frenkel pair production, the experimental results are found to be consistent with the SRT model with a dislocation bias value of 2 %. (au)
Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-01
We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helhammer, R.; Pesic, Z.D.; Sobocinski, P.; Bundesmann, J.; Fink, D.; Stolterfoht, N.; Sulik, B.
2004-01-01
Full text: Recently we reported experiments in which slow highly charged ions are transmitted through nanocapillaries of 100nm diameter in an insulating PET foil of 10μm thickness [1]. The results of this work differ significantly from previous studies, which have been focused on capillaries in metals [2]. We measured the transmission of 3 keV Ne 7+ ions through the capillaries and focused the attention on ions whose charge has not changed during the passage through the capillary. The observation that the angular distribution for PET has a peak maximum whose position is equal to the tilt angle indicates a guiding of the Ne 7+ ion within the capillary. This guiding shows that the inner walls of the capillaries are charged up in a self-organizing process and collisions with the surface are finally prevented. We studied the time evolution of the capillary guiding as well as dependencies on the tilt angle [3]. Our most recent measurements were focussed on the investigation of the energy dependency for the guiding of Ne 7+ through capillaries. The measurements were done in an energy range from 2 keV up to 10 keV.We measured higher guiding efficiency for lower energies consistent with a previously developed model, which predicted an increase of the guiding efficiency with decreasing projectile energy [3]. In addition we found the effect of a narrower width of the angular distribution of transmitted ions. This effect is also well described by the model. However, further work is needed to explain the amount of charges to build up the deflection field at the end of the capillaries
Fermi energy dependence of the G-band resonance Raman spectra of single-wall carbon nanotubes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Park, J. S.; Sasaki, K.; Saito, R.; Izumida, W.; Kalbáč, Martin; Farhat, H.; Dresselhaus, G.; Dresselhaus, M. S.
2009-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 8 (2009), 081402-1-081402-4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk ME09060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Fermi energy dependence * Raman spectroscopy * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009
Bounds on an Energy-Dependent and Observer-Independent Speed of Light from Violations of Locality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2010-01-01
We show that models with deformations of special relativity that have an energy-dependent speed of light have nonlocal effects. The requirement that the arising nonlocality is not in conflict with known particle physics allows us to derive strong bounds on deformations of special relativity and rule out a modification to first order in energy over the Planck mass.
D-Dimensional Dirac Equation for Energy-Dependent Pseudoharmonic and Mie-type Potentials via SUSYQM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikot, A.N.; Hassanabadi, H.; Maghsoodi, E.; Zarrinkamar, S.
2014-01-01
We investigate the approximate solution of the Dirac equation for energy-dependent pseudoharmonic and Mie-type potentials under the pseudospin and spin symmetries using the supersymmetry quantum mechanics. We obtain the bound-state energy equation in an analytical manner and comment on the system behavior via various figures and tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, J.-K.; Nam, Y.-M.; Kim, J.-L.; Chang, S.-Y.; Kim, B.-H.
2001-01-01
The energy dependence of a CaSO 4 :Dy TL phosphor for 21 monoenergetic photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 3 MeV was calculated by using MCNP4A code. The calculation results show good agreement with those of other authors within ± 5% relative error. Calculations and experiments are also performed to determine the energy dependence of CaSO 4 : Dy phosphor with Dy concentrations from 0.01 to 1.5 mol %, and with the compositions of TL-Teflon from 10 to 90 wt %. The calculated energy responses show good agreement with the experiment results within ± 20% relative error except for a concentration lower than 0.1 mol % Dy and the low energy regions of M30 (Eave.=20 keV) and M60 (Eave.=34 keV). For the TL-Teflon mixture, the energy dependence shows an decreasing trend with the increase of Teflon concentration in MCNP calculation but shows no dependence for TL-Teflon mixture proportions in experiment. These differences are due to the non-homogeneous distribution of Dy concentration and the effect of large grain size in the phosphors. The energy dependence of the 30 wt/o CaSO 4 (0.1 mol%;Dy) and 70 wt/o Teflon that is placed behind the filters of plastic, aluminum, copper, tin and lead with a thickness from 0.1 to 2 mm were calculated, respectively
Analysis of NN amplitudes up to 2.5 GeV: an optical model and geometric interpretation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geramb, H.V. von; Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg,; Amos, K.A.; Labes, H.; Sander, M.
1998-01-01
We analyse the SM97 partial wave amplitudes for nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering to 2.5 GeV, in which resonance and meson production effects are evident for energies above pion production threshold. Our analyses are based upon boson exchange or quantum inversion potentials with which the sub-threshold data are fit perfectly. Above 300 MeV they are extrapolations, to which complex short ranged Gaussian potentials are added in the spirit of the optical models of nuclear physics and of diffraction models of high energy physics. The data to 2.5 GeV are all well fit. The energy dependences of these Gaussians are very smooth save for precise effects caused by the known Δ and N* resonances. With this approach, we confirm that the geometrical implications of the profile function found from diffraction scattering are pertinent in the regime 300 MeV to 2.5 GeV and that the overwhelming part of meson production comes from the QCD sector of the nucleons when they have a separation of their centres of 1 to 1.2 fm. This analysis shows that the elastic NN scattering data above 300 MeV can be understood with a local potential operator as well as has the data below 300 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morcelle, Viviane; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes Junior, D.R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Camargo, O.; Faria, P.N. de; Gasquez, L.; Morais, M.C.; Condori, R.P.; Pires, K.C.C.; Scarduelli, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Barioni, A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamora, J.C. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Aguilera, E.; Martinez-Quiroz, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Kolata, J.; Jiang, H. [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bechetti, F.D.; Lamm, L.O. [Michigan University, MI (United States); Lizcano, D. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2012-07-01
Full text: Elastic scattering measurements were performed at energies around the Coulomb barrier at the Tandem Accelerators of the Sao Paulo (USP - Brazil ) and Notre Dame (UND - USA) Universities. The {sup 7}Be is a radioactive nucleus and has been produced by the reaction {sup 6}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 9}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au secondary targets using a double superconducting systems RIBRAS ( USP ) and Twinsol (UND). The elastic scattering angular distributions were analyzed through the optical model calculations, using the Woods- Saxon form factors [1] and the Sao Paulo potential [2] to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross sections were also derived and compared with others presented at the literature for other systems. In addition, a study of the nuclear potential energy dependence has been carried out in this work in the dispersion relation context. Due to the fact that {sup 7}Be has a small breakup threshold energy, the results can provide significant information of the influence of the breakup channel on the reactions involving this projectile. For this purpose, {chi}{sup 2}- data analysis with different kind of potentials were performed to identify the energy dependence of the real (V) and imaginary (W) parts of the potential. [1] L.C. Chamon et al., Phys. Rev. C 66, (2002) 014610. [2] R.D. Wood e D.S. Saxon, Phys. Rev. 95 ( 1954) 577. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Adamczak, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stoilov, Mihail [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Vacchi, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
2015-01-23
The recent PSI Lamb shift experiment and the controversy about proton size revived the interest in measuring the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen as an alternative possibility for comparing ordinary and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy data on proton electromagnetic structure. This measurement critically depends on the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to heavier gases in the epithermal range. The available data provide only qualitative information, and the theoretical predictions have not been verified. We propose a new method by measurements of the transfer rate in thermalized target at different temperatures, estimate its accuracy and investigate the optimal experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Method for measuring the energy dependence of muon transfer rate to higher-Z gases. • Thermalization and depolarization of muonic hydrogen studied by Monte Carlo method. • Optimal experimental conditions determined by Monte Carlo simulations. • Mathematical model and for estimating the uncertainty of the experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogbuu, O.A.; Abah, O.C.; Asomba, G.C.; Okoye, C.M.I.
2011-01-01
We derived the transition temperature and the isotope exponent of two-band superconductor. We employed Bogoliubov-Valatin formalism assuming a three-square-well potential. The effect of linear-energy-dependent electronic DOS in superconductors is considered. The relevance of the studies to MgB 2 is analyzed. We have derived the expressions for the transition temperature and the isotope effect exponent within the framework of Bogoliubov-Valatin two-band formalism using a linear-energy-dependent electronic density of states assuming a three-square-well potentials model. Our results show that the approach could be used to account for a wide range of values of the transition temperature and isotope effect exponent. The relevance of the present calculations to MgB 2 is analyzed.
Energy dependence of ulrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons and high energy X-radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kupfer, T.
1977-02-01
The energy dependence of ultrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons (5-40 MeV) and high energy X-radiation (6 MV, 42 MV) is experimentally determined. The experimental values are compared to values calculted earlier by other authors. The influence of the thickness of the dosemeters have been considered by comparison of experimental values for 0.03 mm thick dosemeters and theoretical values for 0.13 mm and 0.38 mm thick ones. Also different commersially available dosemeters have been compared by experiments. It is difficult to draw any other conclutions about the energy dependence than that the variation of the relative responce is within +- 3 percent (2S). However the results seems to be sulficient for clinical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou
1990-01-01
The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, R.J.; Thomas, D.J.; Bartlett, D.T.; Horwood, N.
1999-01-01
A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields
Tanner, R J; Bartlett, D T; Horwood, N
1999-01-01
A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields.
Energy dependence of photon-induced L-shell x-ray intensity ratios in some high-Z elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shatendra, K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.
1983-12-14
The L-shell x-ray intensity ratios in Au, Pb, Th and U at various photon energies have been measured and their energy dependence is studied. A comparison of the experimental values is made with those calculated using the x-ray emission rates and subshell photoelectric cross sections, subshell fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities and fairly good agreement is observed.
The effect of ν-bar(E) energy dependence at E 239Pu in the lower energy groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusejnov, A.G.; Gusejnov, M.A.; Rabotnov, N.S.
1994-01-01
The effect of the energy dependence of the average number of prompt neutrons on the 239 Pu fission BNAB-26 group cross-sections has been estimated. It was also found that the values of ν-bar(E) are lowered by approximately 1% when the temperature increases from 300 deg. K to 2000 deg. K. Taking this dependence into account may improve the predictability of the plutonium-fueled reactor characteristics. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry in electron beams — energy dependence and improved film read‐out
Ojala, Jarkko; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti
2016-01-01
For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in 60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)‐simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read‐out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose‐dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ±50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read‐out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scanner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read‐out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k=2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC‐simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV–16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beenakker, W.; Martinez, M.; Pietrzyk, B.
1995-02-01
The precision of the calculation of Z-boson-exchange contributions to the luminosity measurements at LEP is studied for both the first and second generation of LEP luminosity detectors. It is shown that the theoretical errors associated with these contributions are sufficiently small so that the high-precision measurements at LEP, based on the second generation of luminosity detectors, are not limited. The same is true for the c.m.s.-energy-dependent theoretical errors of the Z line-shape formulae. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansur, Ralph S.; Moura, Carlos A., E-mail: ralph@ime.uerj.br, E-mail: demoura@ime.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional
2017-07-01
Presented here is an application of the Response Matrix (RM) method for adjoint discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) problems in slab geometry applied to energy-dependent source-detector problems. The adjoint RM method is free from spatial truncation errors, as it generates numerical results for the adjoint angular fluxes in multilayer slabs that agree with the numerical values obtained from the analytical solution of the energy multigroup adjoint SN equations. Numerical results are given for two typical source-detector problems to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered RM computer code. (author)
Energy dependence of the Coulomb-nuclear interference at small momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selyugin, O.V.
1997-01-01
The analyzing power of the elastic proton-proton scattering at small momentum transfers and the effect of the Coulomb-nuclear interference are examined on the basis of the available experimental data at p L from 6 up to 200 GeV/c taking account of a phenomenological analysis at p L =6 GeV/c and of the dynamic high energy spin model. The structure of the spin-dependent elastic scattering amplitude at small momentum transfers is obtained. The predictions for the analyzing power at RHIC energies are made
Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design
Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A
2012-01-01
We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.
Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakaiki, Shuji; Ichida, Hideki; Bamba, Motoaki; Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki; Mizoguchi, Kohji; Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Kanematsu, Yasuo
2014-01-01
We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon
Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: s.wakaiki@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2014-08-01
We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penefsky, H.S.
1985-01-01
Incubation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP with a molar excess of the membrane-bound form of mitochondrial ATPase (F1) results in binding of the bulk of the radioactive nucleotide in high affinity catalytic sites (Ka = 10(12) M-1). Subsequent initiation of respiration by addition of succinate or NADH is accompanied by a profound decrease in the affinity for ATP. About one-third of the bound radioactive ATP appears to dissociate, that is, the [gamma- 32 P]ATP becomes accessible to hexokinase. The NADH-stimulated dissociation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP is energy-dependent since the stimulation is inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and is prevented by respiratory chain inhibitors. The rate of the energy-dependent dissociation of ATP that occurs in the presence of NADH, ADP, and Pi is commensurate with the measured initial rate of ATP synthesis in NADH-supported oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the same submitochondrial particles. Thus, the rate of dissociation of ATP from the high affinity catalytic site of submitochondrial particles meets the criterion of kinetic competency under the conditions of oxidative phosphorylation. These experiments provide evidence in support of the argument that energy conserved during the oxidation of substrates by the respiratory chain can be utilized to reduce the very tight binding of product ATP in high affinity catalytic sites and to promote dissociation of the nucleotide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, T., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Delaunay, R.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Micelotta, E. R. [Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)
2015-04-14
We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H{sub 2} formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H{sub 2} emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H]{sup +} peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H{sub 2}-formation rates.
The energy dependence of photon-flux and efficiency in the NRF measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agar, Osman [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Department of Physics, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Gayer, Udo; Merter, Laura; Pai, Haridas; Pietralla, Norbert; Ries, Philipp; Romig, Christopher; Werner, Volker; Schillling, Marcel; Zweidinger, Markus [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-07-01
The calibration of the detector efficiency and the photon-flux distribution play an important role during the analysis of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements. The nucleus {sup 11}B is a frequently used calibration target with well-known photo-excitation cross sections. The product of photon flux and efficiency is determined exploiting γ-ray transitions of the {sup 11}B monitoring target. Photon-flux calibrations from numerous measurements at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC) are carried out up to the neutron separation threshold, in order to obtain a system check of influences of absorbers on the flux, and to check against different GEANT models as well as parametrizations of the Schiff formula.
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)663936; Dominik, Wojciech; Gaździck, Marek
2016-01-01
This thesis presents inclusive spectra of the negatively charged pions produced in inelastic proton-proton interactions measured at five beam momenta: 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c. The measurements were conducted in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN using a system of five Time Projection Chambers. The negatively charged pion spectra were calculated based on the negatively charged hadron spectra. Contribution of hadrons other than the primary pions was removed using EPOS simulations. The results were corrected for effects related to detection, acceptance, reconstruction efficiency and the analysis technique. Two-dimensional spectra were derived as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum or transverse mass. The spectra were parametrised by widths of the rapidity distributions, inverse slope parameters of the transverse mass distributions, mean transverse masses and the total pion multiplicities. The negatively charged pion spectra in proton-proton interactions belong to a broad NA61/SHINE programme of se...
Models and numerical methods for time- and energy-dependent particle transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olbrant, Edgar
2012-04-13
Particles passing through a medium can be described by the Boltzmann transport equation. Therein, all physical interactions of particles with matter are given by cross sections. We compare different analytical models of cross sections for photons, electrons and protons to state-of-the-art databases. The large dimensionality of the transport equation and its integro-differential form make it analytically difficult and computationally costly to solve. In this work, we focus on the following approximative models to the linear Boltzmann equation: (i) the time-dependent simplified P{sub N} (SP{sub N}) equations, (ii) the M{sub 1} model derived from entropy-based closures and (iii) a new perturbed M{sub 1} model derived from a perturbative entropy closure. In particular, an asymptotic analysis for SP{sub N} equations is presented and confirmed by numerical computations in 2D. Moreover, we design an explicit Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method to the M{sub 1} model of radiative transfer in slab geometry and construct a scheme ensuring the realizability of the moment variables. Among other things, M{sub 1} numerical results are compared with an analytical solution in a Riemann problem and the Marshak wave problem is considered. Additionally, we rigorously derive a new hierarchy of kinetic moment models in the context of grey photon transport in one spatial dimension. For the perturbed M{sub 1} model, we present numerical results known as the two beam instability or the analytical benchmark due to Su and Olson and compare them to the standard M{sub 1} as well as transport solutions.
SU-E-T-96: Energy Dependence of the New GafChromic- EBT3 Film's Dose Response-Curve.
Chiu-Tsao, S; Massillon-Jl, G; Domingo-Muñoz, I; Chan, M
2012-06-01
To study and compare the dose response curves of the new GafChromic EBT3 film for megavoltage and kilovoltage x-ray beams, with different spatial resolution. Two sets of EBT3 films (lot#A101711-02) were exposed to each x-ray beam (6MV, 15MV and 50kV) at 8 dose values (50-3200cGy). The megavoltage beams were calibrated per AAPM TG-51 protocol while the kilovoltage beam was calibrated following the TG-61 using an ionization chamber calibrated at NIST. Each film piece was scanned three consecutive times in the center of Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner in transmission mode, landscape orientation, 48-bit color at two separate spatial resolutions of 75 and 300 dpi. The data were analyzed using ImageJ and, for each scanned image, a region of interest (ROI) of 2×2cm 2 at the field center was selected to obtain the mean pixel value with its standard deviation in the ROI. For each energy, dose value and spatial resolution, the average netOD and its associated uncertainty were determined. The Student's t-test was performed to evaluate the statistical differences between the netOD/dose values of the three energy modalities, with different color channels and spatial resolutions. The dose response curves for the three energy modalities were compared in three color channels with 75 and 300dpi. Weak energy dependence was found. For doses above 100cGy, no statistical differences were observed between 6 and 15MV beams, regardless of spatial resolution. However, statistical differences were observed between 50kV and the megavoltage beams. The degree of energy dependence (from MV to 50kV) was found to be function of color channel, dose level and spatial resolution. The dose response curves for GafChromic EBT3 films were found to be weakly dependent on the energy of the photon beams from 6MV to 50kV. The degree of energy dependence varies with color channel, dose and spatial resolution. GafChromic EBT3 films were supplied by Ashland Corp. This work was partially supported by DGAPA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.
1976-01-01
The role of 2p1h correlations in 17 O is studied within a multiple-scattering formalism. An accurate, energy-dependent reaction matrix with orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states is used to assess the relative importance of particle-particle and particle-hole correlations in the 17 O energies. The effect of energy dependence of the reaction matrix is closely examined. (Auth.)
Richter, Christian; Pawelke, Jörg; Karsch, Leonhard; Woithe, Julia
2009-12-01
The aim of this article is to investigate the energy dependence of the radiochromic film type, Gafchromic EBT-1, when scanned with a flatbed scanner for film readout. Dose response curves were determined for 12 different beam qualities ranging from a 10 kVp x-ray beam to a 15 MVp x-ray beam and include also two high energy electron beam qualities (6 and 18 MeV). The dose responses measured as net optical density (netOD) for the different beam qualities were normalized to the response of a reference beam quality (6 MVp). A strong systematic energy dependence of the film response was found. The lower the effective beam energy, the less sensitive the EBT-1 films get. The maximum decrease in dose for the same film response between the 25 kVp and 6 MVp beam qualities was 44%. Additionally, a difference in energy dependence for different doses was discovered, meaning that higher doses show a smaller dependency on energy than lower doses. The maximum decrease in the normalized netOD was found to be 25% for a dose of 0.5 Gy relative to the normalized netOD for 10 Gy. Moreover, a scaling procedure is introduced, allowing the correction of the energy dependence for the investigated beam qualities and also for comparable x-ray beam qualities within the energy range studied. A strong energy dependence for EBT-1 radiochromic films was found. The films were readout with a flatbed scanner. If the effective beam energy is known, the energy dependence can be corrected with the introduced scaling procedure. Further investigation of the influence of the spectral band of the readout device on energy dependence is needed to understand the reason for the different energy dependences found in this and previous works.
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2015-07-01
We present results of analyses of two-pion interferometry in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 , 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV measured in the STAR detector as part of the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Beam Energy Scan program. The extracted correlation lengths (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii) are studied as a function of beam energy, azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, centrality, and transverse mass (mT) of the particles. The azimuthal analysis allows extraction of the eccentricity of the entire fireball at kinetic freeze-out. The energy dependence of this observable is expected to be sensitive to changes in the equation of state. A new global fit method is studied as an alternate method to directly measure the parameters in the azimuthal analysis. The eccentricity shows a monotonic decrease with beam energy that is qualitatively consistent with the trend from all model predictions and quantitatively consistent with a hadronic transport model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Byung Sik
1999-01-01
The energy dependence of the thermodynamical parameters in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied from 1A to 200A GeV in the framework of the statistical thermal model. The energy and entropy densities, as well as the pressure, of hot and dense hadronic matter are calculated by using the available input parameters of the model. No discontinuity or steep rise in the thermodynamical parameters has been found. The equation of state in terms of the speed of sound is investigated as a function of the energy density, and it increases monotonically up to 200A GeV. The estimated sonic velocities above 10A GeV are very close to that of an ideal ultrarelativistic hadron gas in the presence of resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moebius, E.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Gloeckler, G.
1980-01-01
The energy dependence of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio between 0.44 and 4.1 MeV per nucleon has been studied for six heavy-ion--rich events observed in 1974 and 1976 using the low-energy dE/dx versus E Ultralow-Energy Particle telescope (ULET) on IMP 8. We find that all selected heavy-ion--rich events are also enriched in 3 He, that the 3 He/ 4 He He ratio decreases with decreasing energies, and that a rapid temporal evolution of the 3 He/ 4 He and the Fe/(H+He) ratios is strongly correlated during one event with the maximum value at the onset. These results are discussed in terms of a model which is based on preferential injection of 3 He and Fe resulting from turbulent ion heating and subsequent Fermi acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilcke, W.W.; Schroeder, W.U.; Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.; Randrup, J.
1980-01-01
Although considerable progress has been achieved in the understanding of strongly damped reactions at energies several MeV/u above the Coulomb barrier, some important experimental results are not yet clearly understood. Among these is the degree of correlation between the nucleon exchange and the large energy losses observed. Experimental evidence suggesting nucleon exchange as described by a one-body model to be the major component of the dissipation mechanism is discussed. It is concluded that the previously unexplained bombarding energy dependence between energy loss and fragment charge dispersion can be understood on the basis of a nucleon exchange model, provided the Pauli exclusion principle is taken into account. No necessity is seen to invoke further energy dissipation mechanisms. 7 figures
Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.
Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M
2014-08-01
Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.
Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Separation along the Magnetic Field in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2014-08-01
Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au +Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovtyukh, A.
2007-01-01
The energy dependence of a fraction of ring current protons of i onospheric origin is calculated using the AMPTE/CCE data for a typical magnetic storm (D st = -120 nT). It is shown that at L = 6-7 (L is the Mcllwain parameter) this fraction monotonically decreases from ∼83 to 25-30% with an increase in proton energy from 5 to 315 keV and is 30-40% at energy 40-50 keV corresponding to the maximum of proton energy density at L 6-7. It is evident that the core of the ring current (L = 3.7-4.7) is enriched by solar protons with E∼10-200 keV during storm main phase (the maximum effect is achieved at E∼20-50 keV). (author)
Faussurier, G.; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Decoster, A.; Videau, L.
2017-10-01
We present a model to calculate the electrical and thermal electronic conductivities in plasmas using the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach coupled with the Kramers approximation. The divergence in photon energy at low values is eliminated using a regularization scheme with an effective energy-dependent electron-ion collision-frequency. Doing so, we interpolate smoothly between the Drude-like and the Spitzer-like regularizations. The model still satisfies the well-known sum rule over the electrical conductivity. Such kind of approximation is also naturally extended to the average-atom model. A particular attention is paid to the Lorenz number. Its nondegenerate and degenerate limits are given and the transition towards the Drude-like limit is proved in the Kramers approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batistella, M.A.; Caldas, L.V.E.
1988-09-01
The characteristics of low energy X-radiation standard fields were determined and the energy dependence of a ionization chamber of the superficial type, with parallel plates and fixed volume, normally utilized in the dosimetry at the Radiotherapy level was studied. The possibility of adaptation of this chamber type for use in gamma radiation dosimetry was verified. Different thickness Lucite build-up caps, from 2.0 up to 5.5 mm, were produced and tested in 60 Co and 137 Cs gamma radiation fields. This type of detector, with the adequate build-up cap, presented a performance comparable to that of the thimble type ionization chamber. It was concluded that it is not necessary to use different kinds of chambers for each high and mean energy interval. The superficial chamber, specially produced to detect low energy X-radiation, may be adapted to detect gamma radiation. (author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Mahmoudi
Full Text Available For accurate dose calculations, it is necessary to provide a correct relationship between the CT numbers and electron density in radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy dependence of measured CT numbers on substituted materials used for CT number calibration of radiotherapy TPSs and the resulting errors in the treatment planning calculation doses.In this study, we designed a cylindrical water phantom with different materials used as tissue equivalent materials for the simulation of tissues and obtaining the related CT numbers. For evaluating the effect of CT number variations of substituted materials due to energy changing of scanner (kVp on the dose calculation of TPS, the slices of the scanned phantom at three kVp's were imported into the desired TPSs (MIRS and CorePLAN. Dose calculations were performed on two TPSs.The mean absolute percentage differences between the CT numbers of CT scanner and two treatment planning systems for all the samples were 3.22%±2.57% for CorePLAN and 2.88%±2.11% for MIRS. It was also found that the maximum absolute percentage difference between all of the calculated doses from each photon beam of linac (6 and 15 MV at three kVp's was less than 1.2%.The present study revealed that, for the materials with effective low atomic number, the mean CT number increased with increasing energy, which was opposite for the materials with an effective high atomic number. We concluded that the tissue substitute materials had a different behavior in the energy ranges from 80 to 130 kVp. So, it is necessary to consider the energy dependence of the substitute materials used for the measurement or calibration of CT number for radiotherapy treatment planning systems.
Modelling of OPNMR phenomena using photon energy-dependent 〈Sz〉 in GaAs and InP
Wheeler, Dustin D.; Willmering, Matthew M.; Sesti, Erika L.; Pan, Xingyuan; Saha, Dipta; Stanton, Christopher J.; Hayes, Sophia E.
2016-12-01
We have modified the model for optically-pumped NMR (OPNMR) to incorporate a revised expression for the expectation value of the z-projection of the electron spin, 〈Sz 〉 and apply this model to both bulk GaAs and a new material, InP. This expression includes the photon energy dependence of the electron polarization when optically pumping direct-gap semiconductors in excess of the bandgap energy, Eg . Rather than using a fixed value arising from coefficients (the matrix elements) for the optical transitions at the k = 0 bandedge, we define a new parameter, Sopt (Eph) . Incorporating this revised element into the expression for 〈Sz 〉 , we have simulated the photon energy dependence of the OPNMR signals from bulk semi-insulating GaAs and semi-insulating InP. In earlier work, we matched calculations of electron spin polarization (alone) to features in a plot of OPNMR signal intensity versus photon energy for optical pumping (Ramaswamy et al., 2010). By incorporating an electron spin polarization which varies with pump wavelength into the penetration depth model of OPNMR signal, we are able to model features in both III-V semiconductors. The agreement between the OPNMR data and the corresponding model demonstrates that fluctuations in the OPNMR intensity have particular sensitivity to light hole-to-conduction band transitions in bulk systems. We provide detailed plots of the theoretical predictions for optical pumping transition probabilities with circularly-polarized light for both helicities of light, broken down into illustrative plots of optical magnetoabsorption and spin polarization, shown separately for heavy-hole and light-hole transitions. These plots serve as an effective roadmap of transitions, which are helpful to other researchers investigating optical pumping effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwenk, G.A. Jr.
1980-01-01
The calculation of neutron-nuclei reaction rates in the lower resolved resonance region (167 eV - 1.855 eV) is considered in this dissertation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calculation of these reaction rates for tight lattices where their accuracy is most important. The results of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, VIM, are chosen as reference values for this study. The primary objective of this work is to develop a method for calculating resonance reaction rates which agree well with the reference solution, yet is efficient enough to be used by nuclear reactor fuel cycle designers on a production basis. A very efficient multigroup solution of the two spatial region energy dependent integral transport equation is developed. This solution, denoted the Broad Group Integral Method (BGIM), uses escape probabilities to obtain the spatial coupling between regions and uses an analytical flux shape within a multigroup to obtain weighted cross sections which account for the rapidly varying resonance cross sections. The multigroup lethargy widths chosen for the numerical integration of the two region energy-dependent neutron continuity equations can be chosen much wider (a factor of 30 larger) than in the direct numerical integration methods since the analytical flux shape is used to account for fine structure effects. The BGIM solution is made highly efficient through the use of these broad groups. It is estimated that for a 10 step unit cell fuel cycle depletion calculation, the computer running time for a production code such as EPRI-LEOPARD would be increased by only 6% through the use of the more accurate and intricate BGIM method in the lower resonance energy region
Modelling of OPNMR phenomena using photon energy-dependent 〈Sz〉 in GaAs and InP.
Wheeler, Dustin D; Willmering, Matthew M; Sesti, Erika L; Pan, Xingyuan; Saha, Dipta; Stanton, Christopher J; Hayes, Sophia E
2016-12-01
We have modified the model for optically-pumped NMR (OPNMR) to incorporate a revised expression for the expectation value of the z-projection of the electron spin, 〈S z 〉 and apply this model to both bulk GaAs and a new material, InP. This expression includes the photon energy dependence of the electron polarization when optically pumping direct-gap semiconductors in excess of the bandgap energy, E g . Rather than using a fixed value arising from coefficients (the matrix elements) for the optical transitions at the k=0 bandedge, we define a new parameter, S opt (E ph ). Incorporating this revised element into the expression for 〈S z 〉, we have simulated the photon energy dependence of the OPNMR signals from bulk semi-insulating GaAs and semi-insulating InP. In earlier work, we matched calculations of electron spin polarization (alone) to features in a plot of OPNMR signal intensity versus photon energy for optical pumping (Ramaswamy et al., 2010). By incorporating an electron spin polarization which varies with pump wavelength into the penetration depth model of OPNMR signal, we are able to model features in both III-V semiconductors. The agreement between the OPNMR data and the corresponding model demonstrates that fluctuations in the OPNMR intensity have particular sensitivity to light hole-to-conduction band transitions in bulk systems. We provide detailed plots of the theoretical predictions for optical pumping transition probabilities with circularly-polarized light for both helicities of light, broken down into illustrative plots of optical magnetoabsorption and spin polarization, shown separately for heavy-hole and light-hole transitions. These plots serve as an effective roadmap of transitions, which are helpful to other researchers investigating optical pumping effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Cleber F.
2011-01-01
The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkes, P.
1981-06-01
Uranium supply and demand as projected by the Uranium Institute is discussed. It is concluded that for the industrialized countries, maximum energy independence is a necessity. Hence it is necessary to achieve assurance of supply for uranium used in thermal power reactors in current programs and eventually to move towards breeders
Energy dependent neutron imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kupperman, D.S.; Hitterman, R.L.; Rhodes, E.
1990-01-01
A waste package consisting of a container and high-level nuclear waste is being developed for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential site for the underground high-level nuclear waste repository. A major consideration for choosing Yucca Mountain is the presence of zeolite in tertiary ash-flow tuffs. The presence of zeolites could provide geological barriers to radionuclide migration. The suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain for the repository is being investigated since the properties of the environment around a waste site must be well characterized to reliably predict performance. The results of experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to assess the possibility of imaging water in Nevada Test Site welded tuff samples showed that nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is not viable. This leaves neutron tomography and high-frequency electromagnetic geotomography as possibilities for the practical imaging of distribution and flow of fluids in rock, including tuff specimens. Water tracers are needed in electromagnetic tomography techniques since the contrast for detecting water in cracks of tuff is lower than in granite because of the higher porosity in tuff. The results of preliminary testing with geotomography by LLNL indicates relatively low spatial resolution. More sensitive techniques for detecting water is needed. This paper describes preliminary experiments to apply pulsed neutrons to image water in a sample of tuff. 3 refs., 3 figs
Techniques in meson spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longacre, R.S.
1991-01-01
This report contains lectures on the following topics: the quark model and beyond using quantum chromodynamics; analysis of formation reactions; energy dependence of the partial wave amplitudes; where the data for the t-matrix analysis comes from; and coupled channel analysis of isoscalar mesons
Energy dependence of the stopping power of MeV 16O ions in a laser-produced plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakumi, A.; Shibata, K.; Sato, R.; Tsubuku, K.; Nishimoto, T.; Hasegawa, J.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Katayama, T.
2001-01-01
The energy dependence of the stopping power of 16 O ions in a laser-produced plasma target was experimentally investigated in the projectile energy range of 150-350 keV/u. In order to produce the target plasma a Q-Switched Nd-glass laser was focused onto a small lithium hydride (LiH) pellet. The plasma electron temperature and the electron line density were 15 eV and 2x10 17 cm -2 , respectively. The energy loss of 16 O ions in the plasma was measured by a time-of-flight (TOF) method. We found that the stopping power in the plasma agreed with the theoretical estimation based on a modified Bohr equation with correction at low velocities. In this evaluation, the effective charge of the projectile was calculated by means of rate equations on the loss and capture of electrons. It has been also found that in this projectile energy range the stopping power of the 16 O ions in the plasma still increases with decreasing projectile energy, while it decreases in cold equivalent
Energy dependence of sputtering yields of Be, Be-C and Be-W films by Be{sup +}-ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korshunov, S.N.; Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Neumoin, V.E.; Stoljarova, V.G. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)
1998-01-01
The energy dependence measurements of Be, Be-C and Be-W deposited layer sputtering yields by Be{sup +}-ions were performed. The ion energy was varied in the range (0.3-5.0) keV. The temperature in the process of irradiation was sustained at the level of 670 K. The mixed layers were prepared by simultaneous sputtering of pair targets, Be and C, Be and W, and Be-targets with Ar{sup +}- and Be{sup +}-ions and codeposition of the sputtered atoms on silicon collectors The codeposited layer thickness was changed in the range of (500-1000) nm. The content of oxigen in the Be, Be-C, Be-W deposited layers did not exceed 20 at.%. The mixed layer sputtering yields were compared with the experimental and calculated data, obtained for the self-sputtering yields of beryllium and carbon. It was found that the sputtering yields of the Be-C and Be deposited layers by Be{sup +}-ions in the energy range (0.3-5.0) keV are within the range between the corresponding self-sputtering yields for Be and C. The sputtering yields for the mixture Be-W are close to the corresponding self-sputtering yields of beryllium. (author)
Energy dependence of multiplicity fluctuations in heavy ion collisions at 20A to 158A GeV
Alt, C.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, Helena; Blume, Christoph; Boimska, B.; Botje, Michiel; Bracinik, J.; Bramm, R.; Buncic, P.; Cerny, V.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Zoltan; Foka, P.; Friese, Volker; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, Marek; Genchev, V.; Georgopoulos, G.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hegyi, S.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kikola, D.; Kliemant, M.; Kniege, S.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kornas, E.; Korus, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kraus, I.; Kreps, M.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, Roy A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Levai, P.; Litov, Leandar; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.; Molnar, J.; Mrowczynski, St.; Nicolic, V.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, Apostolos D.; Panayotov, D.; Peryt, W.; Pikna, M.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, Gunther; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, Andres; Schmitz, Norbert; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stock, R.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Szuba, M.; Szymanski, P.; Trubnikov, V.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wetzler, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek, A.; Yoo, I.K.
2008-01-01
Multiplicity fluctuations of positively, negatively and all charged hadrons in the forward hemisphere were studied in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A, 30A, 40A, 80A and 158A GeV. The multiplicity distributions and their scaled variances $\\omega$ are presented in dependence of collision energy as well as of rapidity and transverse momentum. The distributions have bell-like shape and their scaled variances are in the range from 0.8 to 1.2 without any significant structure in their energy dependence. No indication of the critical point fluctuations are observed. The string-hadronic model UrQMD significantly overpredicts the mean, but approximately reproduces the scaled variance of the multiplicity distributions. The predictions of the statistical hadron-resonance gas model obtained within the grand-canonical and canonical ensembles disagree with the measured scaled variances. The narrower than Poissonian multiplicity fluctuations measured in numerous cases may be explained by the impact of conservation laws on f...
Järn, Mikael; Areva, Sami; Pore, Viljami; Peltonen, Jouko; Linden, Mika
2006-09-12
Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate (CaP) on sol-gel derived TiO(2) coatings was investigated in terms of surface topography and surface energy. The topography of the coatings was derived from AFM measurements, while the surface energy was determined with contact angle measurements. The degree of precipitation was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The precipitation of CaP was found to be dependent on both topography and surface energy. A high roughness value when combining the RMS roughness parameter S(q) with the number of local maxima per unit area parameter S(ds) enhances CaP formation. The hydrophilicity of the coating was also found to be of importance for CaP formation. We suggest that the water contact angle, which is a direct measure of the hydrophilicity of the surface, may be used to evaluate the surface energy dependent precipitation kinetics rather than using the often applied Lewis base parameter.
Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.
2006-08-01
The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.
Photon energy dependence of photo-induced inverse spin-Hall effect in Pt/GaAs and Pt/Ge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isella, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.isella@polimi.it; Bottegoni, Federico; Ferrari, Alberto; Finazzi, Marco; Ciccacci, Franco [LNESS-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-06-08
We report the photon energy dependence of photo-induced inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Pt/GaAs and Pt/Ge Schottky junctions. The experimental results are compared with a spin drift-diffusion model, which highlights the role played by the different spin lifetime in the two semiconductors, in determining the energy dependence of the ISHE signal detected in the Pt layer. The good qualitative agreement between experiments and modelling indicates that photo-induced ISHE can be used as a tool to characterize spin lifetime in semiconductors.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sobolev, Yu. G.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Aznabaev, D.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Ivanov, M. P.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.; Kabyshev, A. M.; Knyazev, A.; Kugler, Andrej; Lashmanov, N. A.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Maj, A.; Maslov, V. A.; Mendibayev, K.; Skobelev, N. K.; Slepnev, R. S.; Smirnov, V. V.; Testov, D.
2017-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 6 (2017), s. 922-926 ISSN 1063-7796 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : energy dependence * cross section Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.
1980-08-28
The energy dependence of L-shell photoelectric cross sections for lead in the energy region 17-50 keV has been investigated. The method utilises external conversion x-rays as the source of photons and it yields relative rather than absolute cross sections, but is simpler and more accurate. The results show fairly good agreement with theory.
Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo
2016-01-01
For X-ray inspections by way of general X-ray equipment, it is important to measure an entrance-skin dose. Recently, a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was made commercially available by Landauer, Inc. The dosimeter does not interfere with the medical images; therefore, it is expected to be a convenient detector for measuring personal exposure doses. In an actual clinical situation, it is assumed that X-rays of different energies will be detected by a dosimeter. For evaluation of the exposure dose measured by a dosimeter, it is necessary to know the energy dependence of the dosimeter. Our aim in this study was to measure the energy dependence of the OSL dosimeter experimentally in the diagnostic X-ray region. Metal samples weighing several grams were irradiated and, in this way, characteristic X-rays having energies ranging from 8 to 85 keV were generated. Using these mono-energetic X-rays, the dosimeter was irradiated. Simultaneously, the fluence of the X-rays was determined with a CdTe detector. The energy-dependent efficiency of the dosimeter was derived from the measured value of the dosimeter and the fluence. Moreover, the energy-dependent efficiency was calculated by Monte-Carlo simulation. The efficiency obtained in the experiment was in good agreement with that of the simulation. In conclusion, our proposed method, in which characteristic X-rays are used, is valuable for measurement of the energy dependence of a small OSL dosimeter in the diagnostic X-ray region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reed, J. L.; Micka, J. A.; Culberson, W. S.; DeWerd, L. A.; Rasmussen, B. E.; Davis, S. D.
2014-01-01
Purpose: To determine the intrinsic energy dependence of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) for 125 I and 103 Pd brachytherapy sources relative to 60 Co. Methods: LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs were irradiated with low-energy brachytherapy sources and with a 60 Co teletherapy source. The brachytherapy sources measured were the Best 2301 125 I seed, the OncoSeed 6711 125 I seed, and the Best 2335 103 Pd seed. The TLD light output per measured air-kerma strength was determined for the brachytherapy source irradiations, and the TLD light output per air kerma was determined for the 60 Co irradiations. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the dose-to-TLD rate per air-kerma strength for the brachytherapy source irradiations and the dose to TLD per air kerma for the 60 Co irradiations. The measured and MC-calculated results for all irradiations were used to determine the TLD intrinsic energy dependence for 125 I and 103 Pd relative to 60 Co. Results: The relative TLD intrinsic energy dependences (relative to 60 Co) and associated uncertainties (k = 1) were determined to be 0.883 ± 1.3%, 0.870 ± 1.4%, and 0.871 ± 1.5% for the Best 2301 seed, OncoSeed 6711 seed, and Best 2335 seed, respectively. Conclusions: The intrinsic energy dependence of TLD-100 is dependent on photon energy, exhibiting changes of 13%–15% for 125 I and 103 Pd sources relative to 60 Co. TLD measurements of absolute dose around 125 I and 103 Pd brachytherapy sources should explicitly account for the relative TLD intrinsic energy dependence in order to improve dosimetric accuracy
Reed, J L; Rasmussen, B E; Davis, S D; Micka, J A; Culberson, W S; DeWerd, L A
2014-12-01
To determine the intrinsic energy dependence of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) for (125)I and (103)Pd brachytherapy sources relative to (60)Co. LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs were irradiated with low-energy brachytherapy sources and with a (60)Co teletherapy source. The brachytherapy sources measured were the Best 2301 (125)I seed, the OncoSeed 6711 (125)I seed, and the Best 2335 (103)Pd seed. The TLD light output per measured air-kerma strength was determined for the brachytherapy source irradiations, and the TLD light output per air kerma was determined for the (60)Co irradiations. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the dose-to-TLD rate per air-kerma strength for the brachytherapy source irradiations and the dose to TLD per air kerma for the (60)Co irradiations. The measured and MC-calculated results for all irradiations were used to determine the TLD intrinsic energy dependence for (125)I and (103)Pd relative to (60)Co. The relative TLD intrinsic energy dependences (relative to (60)Co) and associated uncertainties (k = 1) were determined to be 0.883 ± 1.3%, 0.870 ± 1.4%, and 0.871 ± 1.5% for the Best 2301 seed, OncoSeed 6711 seed, and Best 2335 seed, respectively. The intrinsic energy dependence of TLD-100 is dependent on photon energy, exhibiting changes of 13%-15% for (125)I and (103)Pd sources relative to (60)Co. TLD measurements of absolute dose around (125)I and (103)Pd brachytherapy sources should explicitly account for the relative TLD intrinsic energy dependence in order to improve dosimetric accuracy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hopp, G.
1985-07-01
We considered multihadronic events and we studied the energy dependence of the jet-structure of those events. We confirmed the existence of 3-jet and 4-jet events in high energy data as predicted by QCD. In parallel we checked the energy dependence of different jet-measures which is predicted by the fragmentation models. We determined the strong coupling constant αsub(s) using different methods and we found a strong model dependence of the αsub(s) determination in second order QCD. The study of the particle density between the jet-axes resulted in a light preference for the LUND-String model as compared to models with independent jet-fragmentation. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haeusser, O.; Sawafta, R.; Jeppesen, R.G.
1988-01-01
Forward-angle cross sections for 1 + , T = 1 and 1 + , T = 0 states in 28 Si excited by the (p,p') reaction have been measured to determine the energy dependence of important pieces of the effective nucleon-nucleus interaction. The isovector spin-transfer transitions depend on energy as expected from distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations based on the dominant V/sub Σ//sub tau/ part of the Franey-Love interaction. The parts of this interaction responsible for exciting the 9.5 MeV isosca- lar spin-flip transition predict a weaker energy dependence than is observed experimentally. The summed Gamow-Teller strength for isovector transitions below 14.5 MeV is found to be (0.89 +- 0.09) times the result of large-scale shell model calculations
Energy dependence of Lα-to-Ll x-ray intensity ratios for Yb and Pb produced by heavy-ion bombardment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, T.J.
1980-01-01
Measurements of the incident-ion energy dependence of Lα-to-Ll x-ray intensity ratios are reported for protons incident at 0.40 to 2.20 MeV/amu on thin targets of Pb and for 4 He and C ions incident upon Yb. The data are compared to calculations of the Lα-to-Ll ratio which include the effects of alignment of the 2p/sub 3/2/ state of the target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.
1987-05-01
Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of bismuth were measured at 0.5 MeV intervals from 4.5 to 10.0 MeV. At each incident energy ≥40 differential values were obtained, distributed between 18 0 and 160 0 . The measured data were combined with lower-energy results previously reported from this laboratory, and others available in the literature, to provide a detailed data base extending from 1.5 to 10.0 MeV. This data base was interpreted in terms of the conventional optical-statistical model and also a model inclusive of the surface-peaked real potential predicted by the dispersion relation. Particular attention was given to the energy dependence of the volume-integral-per-nucleon of the real potential, J/sub v/, to see if there was evidence of the Fermi Surface Anomaly. In the range 3.0 to 10.0 MeV the present data indicate that dJ/sub v//dE is essentially constant, with a relatively large negative value of -6.0 to -9.0 fm 3 , depending on the model used in the analysis. Below 3.0 MeV, there is some evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of dJ/dE. However, the effect is very small and it is only when this trend is combined with considerations of the J/sub v/ values needed to give correct bound-state energies that evidence for the Fermi Surface Anomaly emerges. J/sub v/ and the geometry of the optical potentials found for 209 Bi become equal to those needed to explain the high-energy 208 Pb data at about 10.0 MeV. Since dJ/sub v//dE for the latter is smaller in magnitude than for 209 Bi, a change in dJ/sub v//dE is clearly indicated near 10.0 MeV. This may effect the extrapolation of higher-energy and charged-particle potentials into the lower-energy neutron domain. 47 refs., 9 figs
Angular analysis of B→φK{sup *} decays and search for CP violation at the Belle experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prim, Michael
2013-11-08
The thesis presents an angular analysis of B → φK{sup *} decays and search for CP violation at the Belle experiment. A partial wave analysis is used to separate individual K{sup *} components and perform a coherent amplitude analysis. Further, multivariate methods are applied to enrich the signal contribution. The thesis also presents methods to optimize numeric integrations in amplitude analysis and discusses methods to quantify correlations in multivariate data sets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradhan, A.S.; Bhatt, R.C.
1979-01-01
Metal filters of aluminium, stainless steel, copper, cadmium, tin and lead were studied for compensation of the photon energy dependence of the response of CaSO 4 : Dy Teflon TLD Discs. It was found that metals such as cadmium and tin (which are normally used for this purpose) with their K absorption edges around 30 keV, are poor compensators of photon energy dependence. However, if either cadmium or tin is used in combination with either copper or stainless steel (with the lower Z filter nearer to the TLD dosimeter disc) a better compensation of photon energy dependence is achieved. Consequently, for personnel monitoring of X and gamma radiations, a TLD badge with CaSO 4 : Dy Teflon TLD discs and two sets of combination filters has been recommended. In the range of 27 keV -1.25 MeV this badge offers a photon energy response which varies within +-15%. This is a considerable improvement on the corresponding limits of +-65% on using a single filter. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwahofer, Andrea [Vivantes Clinic Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy; Feist, Harald [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Georg, Holger [PTW Freiburg (Germany). Calibration Lab.; Haering, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy
2017-05-01
The aim of this study has been the experimental determination of the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescent detectors (Harshaw) in X-ray beams with mean photon energies from about 20 to 200 keV in comparison with {sup 60}Co gamma rays and 6 MV X-rays. Experiments were carried out in collaboration with the German secondary standard laboratory PTW Freiburg. The energy dependent relative responses of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescence detectors were determined at radiation qualities between 30 kV{sub p} and 280 kV{sub p}. The overall uncertainty of the measured values was characterized by standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 3%. The present results agree with previous studies on the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD100. As an application example, the results were used to measure doses associated with X-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piksajkin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.T.; Korolev, G.G.; Roshchenko, V.A.; Tertychnyj, R.G.
2002-01-01
Relative yield and group period of delayed neutrons induced by the 239 Pu fission in the 0.37-4.97 MeV range were measured. Comparative analysis of experimental data was conducted in terms of middle period of half-life of delayed neutron nuclei-precursors. Character and scale of changing values of delayed neutron group parameters as changing excitation energy of fission compound-nucleus have been demonstrated for the first time. Considerable energy dependence of group parameters under the neutron induced 239 Pu fission that was expressed by the decreasing middle period of half-life of nuclei-precursors by 10 % in the 2.85 eV - 5 MeV range of virgin neutrons was detected [ru
A Data Analysis Center for Electromagnetic and Hadronic Interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briscoe, William John [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Studies; Strakovsky, Igor I. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Studies; Workman, Ronald L. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Studies
2015-05-31
The GW Data Analysis Center (DAC) has made significant progress in its program to enhance and expand the partial-wave and multipole analyses of fundamental reactions, while maintaining and expanding each associated database. These efforts provide guidance to national and international experimental and theoretical efforts, and are an important link between theory and experiment. Our principal goals are focused on baryon and meson physics programs and related topics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qu, J. L.; Lu, F. J.; Lu, Y.; Song, L. M.; Zhang, S.; Wang, J. M.; Ding, G. Q.
2010-01-01
We present a study of the centroid frequencies and phase lags of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) as functions of photon energy for GRS 1915+105. It is found that the centroid frequencies of the 0.5-10 Hz QPOs and their phase lags are both energy dependent, and there exists an anticorrelation between the QPO frequency and phase lag. These new results challenge the popular QPO models, because none of them can fully explain the observed properties. We suggest that the observed QPO phase lags are partially due to the variation of the QPO frequency with energy, especially for those with frequency higher than 3.5 Hz.
Zafar,M.; Kumar,S.; Kumar,S.; Dhiman,A. K.; Park,H.-S.
2014-01-01
The dynamics of microbial growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] production in growth/ non-growth phases of Azhohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 were studied using a maintenance-energy-dependent mathematical model. The values of calculated model kinetic parameters were: m s1 = 0.0005 h-1, k = 0.0965, µmax = 0.25 h-1 for glucose; m s1 = 0.003 h-1, k = 0.1229, µmax = 0.27 h-1 for fructose; and m s1 = 0.0076 h-1, k = 0.0694, µmax = 0.25 h-1 for sucrose. The experimental data of biomass growth, sub...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullen, D.E.
1979-01-01
Program RECENT reconstructs energy-dependent neutron total, elastic, capture, and fission cross sections from a combination of resonance parameters and tabulated background cross sections in the ENDF/B format. Entire evaluations, not just cross sections, are written to the result file, which is in ENDF/B format. The output includes the original resonance parameters in a form that can be used in Doppler broadening and self-shielding calculations. A listing of the source deck is available on request. 5 figures, 5 tables
Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.
2005-04-01
This Letter describes the measurement of the energy dependence of elliptic flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Data taken at collision energies of √(sNN)=19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are shown over a wide range in pseudorapidity. These results, when plotted as a function of η'=|η|-ybeam, scale with approximate linearity throughout η', implying no sharp changes in the dynamics of particle production as a function of pseudorapidity or increasing beam energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katz, S.; Nimal, J.C.
In its present version TRIPOLI/1/ is an energy dependent three-dimensional program which treats the slowing down and diffusion of neutrons for source problems. The version presented here is essentially oriented towards reactor shielding problems. It is written in FORTRAN for IBM (series 360) computer. This volume is devoted to a summary of the essential characteristics of the program as well as to a description of the constants required for the description of the chaining together of the work to be carried out
Labudde, R. A.
1972-01-01
An attempt has been made to keep the programs as subroutine oriented as possible. Usually only the main programs are directly concerned with the problem of total cross sections. In particular the subroutines POLFIT, BILINR, GASS59/MAXLIK, SYMOR, MATIN, STUDNT, DNTERP, DIFTAB, FORDIF, EPSALG, REGFAL and ADSIMP are completely general, and are concerned only with the problems of numerical analysis and statistics. Each subroutine is independently documented.
Analysis of the elastic scattering of negative muons from atomic hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muller, R.J.
1977-01-01
The total elastic cross section and the transport cross section for the scattering of negative muons from the hydrogen atom is determined by making a partial wave analysis of the elastic scattering amplitude. An effective Schrodinger equation for the muon-hydrogen system is obtained, using a static model of the field of the hydrogen atom, and its numerical solution allows the phase shifts for fifty partial waves to be obtained over a wide range of energies. A polarization potential term is then included, and the results of the scattering from the effective potential obtained are compared with the results from the static field. The results show a substantial effect of the polarization in the cross sections at low energy. The analysis of the low energy behavior of the phase shifts indicates that a substantial number of bound states for the muon exist in both the static and the static + polarization fields of hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, G G; McEwen, M R; Rogers, D W O; Klassen, N V
2004-01-01
The energy dependence of alanine/EPR dosimetry, in terms of absorbed dose-to-water for clinical 6, 10, 25 MV x-rays and 60 Co rays was investigated by measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. The dose rates were traceable to the NRC primary standard for absorbed dose, a sealed water calorimetry. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of irradiated pellets were measured using a Bruker EMX 081 EPR spectrometer. The DOSRZnrc Monte Carlo code of the EGSnrc system was used to simulate the experimental conditions with BEAM code calculated input spectra of x-rays and γ-rays. Within the experimental uncertainty of 0.5%, the alanine EPR response to absorbed dose-to-water for x-rays was not dependent on beam quality from 6 MV to 25 MV, but on average, it was about 0.6% lower than its response to 60 Co gamma rays. Combining experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations, it is found that the alanine/EPR response per unit absorbed dose-to-alanine is the same for clinical x-rays and 60 Co gamma rays within the uncertainty of 0.6%. Monte Carlo simulations showed that neither the presence of PMMA holder nor varying the dosimeter thickness between 1 mm and 5 mm has significant effect on the energy dependence of alanine/EPR dosimetry within the calculation uncertainty of 0.3%
Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Bunccic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Kresan, D; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, St; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K
2009-01-01
We present recent measurements of the energy dependence of event-by-event fluctuations in the K/pi and (p + \\bar{p})/pi multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions at the CERN SPS. The particle ratio fluctuations were obtained for central Pb+Pb collisions at five collision energies, \\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}, between 6.3 and 17.3 GeV. After accounting for the effects of finite-number statistics and detector resolution, we extract the strength of non-statistical fluctuations at each energy. For the K/pi ratio, larger fluctuations than expected for independent particle production are found at all collision energies. The fluctuations in the (p + \\bar{p})/pi ratio are smaller than expectations from independent particle production, indicating correlated pion and proton production from resonance decays. For both ratios, the deviation from purely statistical fluctuations shows an increase towards lower collision energies. The results are compared to transport model calculations, which fail to describe the energy dependence o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueira, J. M.; Arazi, A.; Carnelli, P.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V.; Lubian, J.; Monteiro, D. S.; Gomes, P. R. S.
2010-01-01
Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of the weakly bound 6,7 Li+ 144 Sm systems were measured with high accuracy at bombarding energies from 85% up to 170% of the Coulomb barrier. An optical model analysis was performed, and the relevant parameters of the real and imaginary parts of the optical potential were extracted. The results are compared with those previously published for the tightly bound 12 C+ 144 Sm and 16 O+ 144 Sm systems. The usual threshold anomaly observed in the behavior of the potential of tightly bound systems was not observed for either weakly bound system. This absence is attributed to the repulsion due to breakup coupling which cancels the attraction arising from couplings with bound channels.
Joshi, Tenzing H. Y.; Quiter, Brian J.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Bandstra, Mark S.; Haefner, Andrew; Eikmeier, Nicole; Wagner, Eric; Luke, Tanushree; Malchow, Russell; McCall, Karen
2017-07-01
The Airborne Radiological Enhanced-sensor System (ARES) includes a prototype helicopter-borne CsI(Na) detector array that has been developed as part of the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office Advanced Technology Demonstration. The detector system geometry comprises two pairs of 23-detector arrays designed to function as active masks, providing additional angular resolution of measured gamma rays in the roll dimension. Experimental measurements, using five radioisotopes (137Cs, 60Co, 241Am, 131I, and 99mTc), were performed to map the detector response in both roll and pitch dimensions. This paper describes the acquisition and analysis of these characterization measurements, calculation of the angular response of the ARES system, and how this response function is used to improve aerial detection and localization of radiological and nuclear threat sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laere, K. van; Bartolotta, A.; Callens, F.
1993-01-01
The intrinsic energy behavior of the radiation chemical yields G(R ·) and G(NH 3 ) which determine the dose response for the alanine/ESR and alanine/Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) system, is an important characteristic for the consistent use in different radiation environments. Therefore, the response of ISS and Gent α-alanine dosimeters in the dose range 0.1 to 700 kGy was examined with 60 Co, bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation. Bremsstrahlung beams with end point energy between 5 and 12 MeV and electron beams with mean energy at the effective point of measurement between 4 and 25 MeV were used. Analysis of the 60 Co calibration results shows that there are no significant differences in dose determination between the two laboratories. The statistical evaluation of 41 sets of independent series of measurements has shown no significant variation with beam energy. The results also confirm good consistency between ISE and ESR measurements. (author)
Coupled channel analysis of s-wave ππ and K anti-K photoproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chueng-Ryong Ji; Szczepaniak, A.; Kaminski, R.; Lesniak, L.; Williams, R.
1997-10-01
We present a coupled channel partial wave analysis of non-diffractive S-wave π + π - and K + K - photoproduction focusing on the K anti-K threshold. Final state interactions are included. We calculate total cross sections, angular and effective mass distributions in both ππ and K anti-K channels. Our results indicate that these processes are experimentally measurable and valuable information on the f 0 (980) resonance structure can be obtained. (author)
Dose and energy dependence of response of Gafchromic XR-QA film for kilovoltage x-ray beams.
Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R
2006-06-07
There is a growing interest in Gafchromic films for patient dosimetry in radiotherapy and in radiology. A new model (XR-QA) with high sensitivity to low dose was tested in this study. The response of the film to different x-ray beam energies (range 28-145 kVp with various filtrations, dose range 0-100 mGy) and to visible light was investigated, together with the after exposure darkening properties. Exposed films were digitized with a commercially available, optical flatbed scanner. A single functional form for dose versus net pixel value variation has been determined for all the obtained calibration curves, with a unique fit parameter different for each of the used x-ray beams. The film response was dependent on beam energy, with higher colour variations for the beams in the range 80-140 kVp. Different sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by the digitalization process, the film response uniformity and the calibration curve fit procedure, have been considered. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the beam energy and decreased with increasing absorbed dose. For doses above 10 mGy and beam energies in the range 80-140 kVp the total uncertainty was less than 5%, whereas for the 28 kVp beam the total uncertainty at 10 mGy was about 10%. The post-exposure colour variation was not negligible in the first 24 h after the exposure, with a consequent increase in the calculated dose of about 10%. Results of the analysis of the sensitivity to visible light indicated that a short exposure of this film to ambient and scanner light during the measurements will not have a significant impact on the radiation dosimetry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R [Struttura Complessa fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Corso Bramante 88, 10126 Turin (Italy)
2006-06-07
There is a growing interest in Gafchromic (registered) films for patient dosimetry in radiotherapy and in radiology. A new model (XR-QA) with high sensitivity to low dose was tested in this study. The response of the film to different x-ray beam energies (range 28-145 kVp with various filtrations, dose range 0-100 mGy) and to visible light was investigated, together with the after exposure darkening properties. Exposed films were digitized with a commercially available, optical flatbed scanner. A single functional form for dose versus net pixel value variation has been determined for all the obtained calibration curves, with a unique fit parameter different for each of the used x-ray beams. The film response was dependent on beam energy, with higher colour variations for the beams in the range 80-140 kVp. Different sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by the digitalization process, the film response uniformity and the calibration curve fit procedure, have been considered. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the beam energy and decreased with increasing absorbed dose. For doses above 10 mGy and beam energies in the range 80-140 kVp the total uncertainty was less than 5%, whereas for the 28 kVp beam the total uncertainty at 10 mGy was about 10%. The post-exposure colour variation was not negligible in the first 24 h after the exposure, with a consequent increase in the calculated dose of about 10%. Results of the analysis of the sensitivity to visible light indicated that a short exposure of this film to ambient and scanner light during the measurements will not have a significant impact on the radiation dosimetry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Audouin, L
2003-09-01
Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to {beta} decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)
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Richter, Christian; Pawelke, Joerg; Karsch, Leonhard; Woithe, Julia
2009-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this article is to investigate the energy dependence of the radiochromic film type, Gafchromic EBT-1, when scanned with a flatbed scanner for film readout. Methods: Dose response curves were determined for 12 different beam qualities ranging from a 10 kVp x-ray beam to a 15 MVp x-ray beam and include also two high energy electron beam qualities (6 and 18 MeV). The dose responses measured as net optical density (netOD) for the different beam qualities were normalized to the response of a reference beam quality (6 MVp). Results: A strong systematic energy dependence of the film response was found. The lower the effective beam energy, the less sensitive the EBT-1 films get. The maximum decrease in dose for the same film response between the 25 kVp and 6 MVp beam qualities was 44%. Additionally, a difference in energy dependence for different doses was discovered, meaning that higher doses show a smaller dependency on energy than lower doses. The maximum decrease in the normalized netOD was found to be 25% for a dose of 0.5 Gy relative to the normalized netOD for 10 Gy. Moreover, a scaling procedure is introduced, allowing the correction of the energy dependence for the investigated beam qualities and also for comparable x-ray beam qualities within the energy range studied. Conclusions: A strong energy dependence for EBT-1 radiochromic films was found. The films were readout with a flatbed scanner. If the effective beam energy is known, the energy dependence can be corrected with the introduced scaling procedure. Further investigation of the influence of the spectral band of the readout device on energy dependence is needed to understand the reason for the different energy dependences found in this and previous works.
Energy dependence of J/ψ production in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN} = 39 , 62.4 and 200GeV
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fujita, J.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, C.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, F.; Liu, P.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, Z.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2017-08-01
The inclusive J / ψ transverse momentum spectra and nuclear modification factors are reported at mid-rapidity (| y | < 1.0) in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN} = 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV taken by the STAR experiment. A suppression of J / ψ production, with respect to the production in p + p scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is observed in central Au + Au collisions at these three energies. No significant energy dependence of nuclear modification factors is found within uncertainties. The measured nuclear modification factors can be described by model calculations that take into account both suppression of direct J / ψ production due to the color screening effect and J / ψ regeneration from recombination of uncorrelated charm-anticharm quark pairs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Federer, W.
1982-01-01
An apparatus for investigations of reaction channels of inelastic ion collisions with a gas target by photon spectroscopy is described. The incoming energy can be varied between 0 and 1800 eV and the emitted light can be observed in the range 2000-9000 A. First the emission spectra of He + -Ar and Ar + -He collisions is measured and interpreted. Then the energy dependence of several line intensities are measured and transformed to absolute emission cross-sections. Several types of cross section versus energy curves are distinguished. They are finally interpreted in the framework of a semiclassical model of a quasi-molecule built from the two colliding partners. (G.Q.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poenitz, W.P.
1980-01-01
The evaluation of several energy-dependent neutron cross sections which are of importance for practical applications is considered. The evaluation process is defined as the procedure which is used to derive the best knowledge of these cross sections based on the available direct experimental data information, and, using theoretical models, on the auxiliary data base. The experimental data base represents a multiple overdetermination of the unknown cross sections with various correlations between the measured values. Obtaining the least-squares estimator is considered as the standard mathematical procedure to derive a consistent set of evaluated cross section values. Various approximations made in order to avoid the monstrous system of normal equations are considered and the feasibility of the exact solution is demonstrated. The variance-covariance of the result, its reliability and the improvements obtained in iterative steps are discussed. Finally, the inclusion of auxiliary, supplementary information is considered. 45 references
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Volkas, R.R.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.
1998-03-01
Energy-dependent solar neutrino flux reduction caused by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect is applied to the Exact Parity Model. Several scenarios are possible, depending on the region of parameter space chosen. The interplay between intergenerational MSW transitions and vacuum 'intragenerational' ordinary-mirror neutrino oscillations is discussed. Expectations for the ratio of charged to neutral current event rates at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) are estimated. The implications of the various scenarios for the Boron neutrino energy spectrum and BOREXINO are briefly discussed. The consequences of MSW-induced solar neutrino depletion within the Exact Parity Model differ in interesting ways from the standard ν e ↔ ν μ,τ and ν e ↔ ν s cases. The physical causes of these differences are determined. (authors)
Tanner, R J; Thomas, D J
2002-01-01
A large set of neutron energy distributions have been classified by workplace to provide a guide to the neutron fields to which workers in particular industries are likely to be exposed. These have been combined (folded) with the results of a major programme of neutron personal dosemeter response function measurements, to provide results for the systematic errors that those dosemeters would give in workplaces. Data for neutron doses recorded for UK classified workers have been taken from the CIDI tables, and related to the results from the folding process. It has hence been possible to draw conclusions about the probable systematic errors that result from the use of the currently available neutron personal dosemeters, which have inherent problems associated with their energy dependence of response.
Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Drees, K A; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N
2003-10-24
We report high statistics measurements of inclusive charged hadron production in Au+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. A large, approximately constant hadron suppression is observed in central Au+Au collisions for 5
energy dependence of the yields and the centrality and p(T) dependence of the suppression provide stringent constraints on theoretical models of suppression. Models incorporating initial-state gluon saturation or partonic energy loss in dense matter are largely consistent with observations. We observe no evidence of p(T)-dependent suppression, which may be expected from models incorporating jet attenuation in cold nuclear matter or scattering of fragmentation hadrons.
Energy dependence of J/ψ production in Au+Au collisions at sNN=39,62.4 and 200GeV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Adamczyk
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The inclusive J/ψ transverse momentum spectra and nuclear modification factors are reported at mid-rapidity (|y|<1.0 in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV taken by the STAR experiment. A suppression of J/ψ production, with respect to the production in p+p scaled by the number of binary nucleon–nucleon collisions, is observed in central Au+Au collisions at these three energies. No significant energy dependence of nuclear modification factors is found within uncertainties. The measured nuclear modification factors can be described by model calculations that take into account both suppression of direct J/ψ production due to the color screening effect and J/ψ regeneration from recombination of uncorrelated charm–anticharm quark pairs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, R.J.; Thomas, D.J.; Bartlett, D.T.
2002-01-01
A large set of neutron energy distributions have been classified by workplace to provide a guide to the neutron fields to which workers in particular industries are likely to be exposed. These have been combined (folded) with the results of a major programme of neutron personal dosemeter response function measurements, to provide results for the systematic errors that those dosemeters would give in workplaces. Data for neutron doses recorded for UK classified workers have been taken from the CIDI tables, and related to the results from the folding process. It has hence been possible to draw conclusions about the probable systematic errors that result from the use of the currently available neutron personal dosemeters, which have inherent problems associated with their energy dependence of response. (author)
Taddeucci, T. N.; Rapaport, J.; Bainum, D. E.; Goodman, C. D.; Foster, C. C.; Gaarde, C.; Larsen, J.; Goulding, C. A.; Horen, D. J.; Masterson, T.; Sugarbaker, E.
1982-02-01
Information concerning the ratio of the isovector effective interaction strengths |JστJτ| may be obtained from the ratio of (p,n) Gamow-Teller and isobaric analog state 0° differential cross sections. We have examined 0° (p,n) data for the energy range 5-200 MeV and find that for energies larger than 50 MeV and for targets with A=7-42 the product of the interaction-strength and distortion-factor ratios |JστJτ|(NστNτ)12 appears to be mass independent and linear as a function of bombarding energy. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 7Li, 13, 14C, 26Mg, 37Cl, 41Ca(p,n), measured σ(θ=0°), GT, IAS transitions, Ep=60-200 MeV. Deduced energy dependence, interaction strength ratio |JστJτ|.
Italy's recurrent energy dependency dilemma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ippolito, F.
1993-01-01
This paper first critically assesses the objectives of Italy's 1988 National Energy Plan which, in light of the moratorium on nuclear energy, called for moderate but steady reductions in imported energy supplies through the implementation of energy conservation programs and the development of available domestic conventional and renewable energy sources. The economics and energy analyses evidence that, in view this nation's current troubled economic situation, the Energy Plan's target for the year 2000 of a 76% dependency on foreign oil is just not good enough and not in line with stricter European environmental normatives limiting carbon dioxide emissions. It is argued that in order to effectively reduce the nation's excessively high energy costs, keep pace with other industrialized countries in a highly competitive market (Italy's energy tariffs are almost 55% greater than those of Germany and France), and to respect new European anti-pollution laws, Italy must restart its nuclear program and take advantage of the recent advances being made in passive reactor safety systems
Fricke xylenol gel energy dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Rosangela T.; Moreira, Marcos V.; Almeida, Adelaide de
2009-01-01
The advancement of technology has increasingly use the of ionizing radiation mainly in the areas of medicine, industry and research. The development of instruments and methods for an effective performance for detection and measurement of each radiation area was crucial. The literature have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) as an adequate chemical sensor to be used for dosimetry, once its effective atomic number and density are near to those of the soft tissue. The use of photon beams for therapeutic purpose requires knowledge of their characteristics that can vary for each equipment. Therefore, is important to know all parameters involved for the patient irradiation as the total geometry involved, type of radiation, target material composition and beam energy, that have to be taken into account in the beam dosimetry for the treatment success being the energy parameter is one of the most important. This work was developed to study the energetic dependence of the FXG dosimeter. This chemical solution is made with gelatine 300 Bloom, ferrous ammonium sulfate, xylenol orange, sulfuric acid and Milli-Q water and is based on the Fe +2 oxidation to Fe +3 , due to the ionizing radiation leading to the xylenol orange - ferric complex formation, that is linear depend on the absorbed dose. The FXG samples were irradiated with photons of different energies and the absorbance measurements were done with the spectrophotometric technique at the 585 nm, FXG highest absorption peak. The energetic dependence results presented a stronger dependence for low energies and almost independence for high energies, as expected by the interaction of radiation with matter. (author)
Analysis of pion production data measured by HADES in proton-proton collisions at 1.25 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agakishiev, G.; Belyaev, A.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ladygin, V.; Vasiliev, T.; Zanevsky, Y.; Balanda, A.; Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Garzon, J.A.; Berger-Chen, J.C.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Muenzer, R.; Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Boehmer, M.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Siebenson, J.; Weber, M.; Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Ramstein, B.; Finocchiaro, P.; Schmah, A.; Spataro, S.; Froehlich, I.; Goebel, K.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Pechenova, O.; Rustamov, A.; Stroebele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Gumberidze, M.; Kornakov, G.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Pechenov, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Schwab, E.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S.; Iori, I.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V.; Kuc, H.; Kuehn, W.; Metag, V.; Spruck, B.; Lebedev, A.; Parpottas, Y.; Tsertos, H.; Stroth, J.; Sarantsev, A.V.; Nikonov, V.A.
2015-01-01
Baryon resonance production in proton-proton collisions at a kinetic beam energy of 1.25 GeV is investigated. The multi-differential data were measured by the HADES Collaboration. Exclusive channels with one pion in the final state (npπ + and ppπ 0 ) were put to extended studies based on various observables in the framework of a one-pion exchange model and with solutions obtained within the framework of a partial wave analysis (PWA) of the Bonn-Gatchina group. The results of the PWA confirm the dominant contribution of the Δ(1232), yet with a sizable impact of the N (1440) and non-resonant partial waves. (orig.)
Analysis of pion production data measured by HADES in proton-proton collisions at 1.25 GeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agakishiev, G.; Belyaev, A.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ladygin, V.; Vasiliev, T.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Balanda, A.; Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Garzon, J.A. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, LabCAF. F. Fisica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berger-Chen, J.C.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Muenzer, R. [' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Excellence Cluster, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [Fisica Experimental de Particulas, LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e, Coimbra (Portugal); Boehmer, M.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Siebenson, J.; Weber, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Ramstein, B. [Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Finocchiaro, P.; Schmah, A.; Spataro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Froehlich, I.; Goebel, K.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Pechenova, O.; Rustamov, A.; Stroebele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K. [Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Gumberidze, M.; Kornakov, G. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Pechenov, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Schwab, E.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Iori, I. [Sezione di Milano, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V. [Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kuc, H. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Kuehn, W.; Metag, V.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II.Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Lebedev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Parpottas, Y.; Tsertos, H. [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stroth, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Sarantsev, A.V.; Nikonov, V.A. [PNPI, NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation); Collaboration: HADES Collaboration
2015-10-15
Baryon resonance production in proton-proton collisions at a kinetic beam energy of 1.25 GeV is investigated. The multi-differential data were measured by the HADES Collaboration. Exclusive channels with one pion in the final state (npπ{sup +} and ppπ{sup 0}) were put to extended studies based on various observables in the framework of a one-pion exchange model and with solutions obtained within the framework of a partial wave analysis (PWA) of the Bonn-Gatchina group. The results of the PWA confirm the dominant contribution of the Δ(1232), yet with a sizable impact of the N (1440) and non-resonant partial waves. (orig.)
Analysis of the reaction π{sup −}Be → π{sup −}π{sup 0}π{sup 0}Be at VES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryabchikov, D.; Dorofeev, V.; Ekimov, A.; Gotman, V.; Ivashin, A.; Kachaev, I.; Kalendarev, V.; Kholodenko, M.; Konstantinov, V.; Matveev, V.; Nazarov, E.; Nikolaenko, V.; Plekhanov, A.; Salomatin, Yu.; Sugonyaev, V.; Volkov, E. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, Y.; Zaitsev, A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Mikhasenko, M. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); now at Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Polyakov, B. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
We present the results of the analysis of diffractive reaction π{sup −}Be → π{sup −}π{sup 0}π{sup 0}Be measured with upgraded VES detector with the statistics of about 16 · 10{sup 6} events. The mass-independent partial-wave analysis is performed using set of 70 partial waves corresponding to natural-parity exchange mechanism and restricting the rank of spin-density matrix N{sub r} = 1. The data is divided into 40 MeV m(3π) bins and in 10 intervals of momentum transfer squared t′. The sub-density-matrix of mass independent PWA is subject to further mass dependent fits using Breit-Wigner resonant terms and coherent non-resonant backgrounds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Zafar
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of microbial growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB] production in growth/ non-growth phases of Azhohydromonas lata MTCC 2311 were studied using a maintenance-energy-dependent mathematical model. The values of calculated model kinetic parameters were: m s1 = 0.0005 h-1, k = 0.0965, µmax = 0.25 h-1 for glucose; m s1 = 0.003 h-1, k = 0.1229, µmax = 0.27 h-1 for fructose; and m s1 = 0.0076 h-1, k = 0.0694, µmax = 0.25 h-1 for sucrose. The experimental data of biomass growth, substrate consumption, and P(3HB production on different carbon substrates were mathematically fitted using non-linear least square optimization technique and similar trends, but different levels were observed at varying initial carbon substrate concentration. Further, on the basis of substrate assimilation potential, cane molasses was used as an inexpensive and renewable carbon source for P(3HB production. Besides, the physico-chemical, thermal, and material properties of synthesized P(3HB were determined which reveal its suitability in various applications.
Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Dogsom, Bolormaa; Lee, Chung Yeol; Lee, Choon-Hwan
2010-05-01
The PsbS protein of photosystem II is necessary for the development of energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (qE), and PsbS-deficient Arabidopsis plant leaves failed to show qE-specific changes in the steady-state 77 K fluorescence emission spectra observed in wild-type leaves. The difference spectrum between the quenched and un-quenched states showed a negative peak at 682 nm. Although the level of qE development in the zeaxanthin-less npq1-2 mutant plants, which lacked violaxanthin de-epoxidase enzyme, was only half that of wild type, there were no noticeable changes in this qE-dependent difference spectrum. This zeaxanthin-independent DeltaF682 signal was not dependent on state transition, and the signal was not due to photobleaching of pigments either. These results suggest that DeltaF682 signal is formed due to PsbS-specific conformational changes in the quenching site of qE and is a new signature of qE generation in higher plants.
Weisel, G. J.; Tornow, W.; Esterline, J. H.
2015-08-01
We present measurements of n-d analyzing power, {A}y(θ ), at En = 21.0 MeV. The experiment produces neutrons via the 2H(d, n)3He reaction and uses a deuterated liquid-scintillator center detector and six pairs of liquid-scintillator neutron side detectors. Elastic neutron scattering events are identified by using time-of-flight techniques and by setting a gate in the center-detector pulse-height spectrum. Beam polarization is monitored by using a high-pressure helium gas scintillator. The n-d {A}y(θ ) data at 21.0 MeV show a significant discrepancy with the results of rigorous three-body calculations and are consistent with data taken previously by us at 19.0 and 22.5 MeV. We review the overall energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle in neutron-deuteron elastic scattering, using the best data available. We find that the relative difference between calculations and data is nearly constant at 25% up to En = 22.5 MeV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotov, A.A.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Vaishnene, L.A.; Vovchenko, V.G.; Poliakov, V.V.; Fedorov, O.Ya.; Chestnov, Yu.A.; Shchetkovskiy, A.I [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad district, Orlova roscha 1, 188300 (Russian Federation); Fukahori, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)
2005-07-01
The results of the total fission cross sections measurements for {sup nat}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu nuclei at the energy proton range 200-1000 MeV are presented. Experiments were carried out at 1 GeV synchrocyclotron of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina). The measurement method is based on the registration in coincidence of both complementary fission fragments by two gas parallel plate avalanche counters, located at a short distance and opposite sides of investigated target. The insensitivity of parallel plate avalanche counters to neutron and light charged particles allowed us to place the counters together with target immediately in the proton beam providing a large solid angle acceptance for fission fragment registration and reliable identification of fission events. The proton flux on the target to be studied was determined by direct counting of protons by scintillation telescope. The measured energy dependence of the total fission cross sections is presented. Obtained results are compared with other experimental data as well as with calculation in the frame of the cascade evaporation model. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Komarov, V I; Kosarev, G E; Reshetnikov, G P; Savchenko, O V; Tesh, Z
1974-12-31
The high energy parts of the spectra of fast deuterons, which are knocked out from Li, Be and C targets by protons at a 5.5 deg lab. angle with proton energies of 666, 578, 484 and 382 MeV were measured. The cross sections of quasi-elastic deuteron knock-out obtained are compared with the corresponding cross sections of elastic pd-scattering at energies mentioned above. The evaluations of the effective number of two-nucleon clusters are discussed, which have been obtained taking into account (in the Glauber approximation) the incident proton and knocked-out deuteron interactions with nuclear nucleons. The results show the common behavior of the scattering mechanism responsible for elastic pd- and quasi-elastic proton backward scattering with large momentum transfer to two-nucleon clusters. The energy dependence of the deuteron production cross section at the energy kinematically corresponding to the p + N yields d + pi process on tanget nucleons is close to that of the cross section for the p + p yields d + pi /sup +/ process. (auth)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aznar, M.C.; Medin, J.; Hemdal, B.
2005-01-01
large energy dependence in low-energy X-ray beams can be expected. In the present work, the energy dependence of Al2O3:C crystals was modelled with the Monte Carlo code EGSnre using three types of X-ray spectra. The results obtained (5.6-7.3%) agree with a previously determined experimental result (9...... to the thickness of the light-protective material, and a somewhat larger effect from reducing the diameter of the crystal. The outcome of this study can be used to improve the future design of the RL/OSI. dosimetry system for use in mammography....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritter, H
2007-03-26
We study the energy dependence of the transverse momentum (pT) spectra for charged pions, protons and anti-protons for Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV. Data are presented at mid-rapidity (lbar y rbar< 0.5) for 0.2< pT< 12 GeV/c. In the intermediate pT region (2< pT< 6 GeV/c), the nuclear modification factor is higher at 62.4 GeV than at 200 GeV, while at higher pT (pT> 7 GeV/c) the modification is similar for both energies. The p/pi+ and pbar/pi- ratios for central collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 GeV peak at pT _~;; 2 GeV/c. In the pT range where recombination is expected to dominate, the p/pi+ ratios at 62.4 GeV are larger than at 200 GeV, while the pbar/pi- ratios are smaller. For pT> 2 GeV/c, the pbar/pi- ratios at the two beam energies are independent of pT and centrality indicating that the dependence of the pbar/pi- ratio on pT does not change between 62.4 and 200 GeV. These findings challenge various models incorporating jet quenching and/or constituent quark coalescence.
Lungu, Bwalya; Saldivar, Joshua C; Story, Robert; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G
2010-05-01
The goal of this study was to characterize the starvation survival response (SSR) of a wild-type Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant strain during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions over 28 days. This study examined the effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the proton motive force, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation on the SSR of L. monocytogenes 10403S and a DeltasigB mutant during multiple-nutrient starvation. The effects of starvation buffer changes on viability were also examined. During multiple-nutrient starvation, both strains expressed a strong SSR, suggesting that L. monocytogenes possesses SigB-independent mechanism(s) for survival during multiple-nutrient starvation. Neither strain was able to express an SSR following starvation buffer changes, indicating that the nutrients/factors present in the starvation buffer could be a source of energy for cell maintenance and survival. Neither the wild-type nor the DeltasigB mutant strain was able to elicit an SSR when exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol within the first 4 h of starvation. However, both strains expressed an SSR when exposed to chloramphenicol after 6 h or more of starvation, suggesting that the majority of proteins required to elicit an effective SSR in L. monocytogenes are likely produced somewhere between 4 and 6 h of starvation. The varying SSRs of both strains to the different metabolic inhibitors under aerobic or anaerobic conditions suggested that (1) energy derived from the proton motive force is important for an effective SSR, (2) L. monocytogenes utilizes an anaerobic electron transport during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions, and (3) the glycolytic pathway is an important energy source during multiple-nutrient starvation when oxygen is available, and less important under anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that the combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms
Gooden, Matthew; Arnold, Charles; Bhike, Megha; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Krishichayan; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry
2017-09-01
Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: rediniz@ipen.b, E-mail: vcsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2009-07-01
38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors
Fu, Bina; Han, Yong-Chang; Bowman, Joel M.; Leonori, Francesca; Balucani, Nadia; Angelucci, Luca; Occhiogrosso, Angela; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio
2012-12-01
The reaction of O(3P) with C2H4, of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, stands out as paradigm reaction involving not only the indicated triplet state potential energy surface (PES) but also an interleaved singlet PES that is coupled to the triplet surface. This reaction poses great challenges for theory and experiment, owing to the ruggedness and high dimensionality of these potentials, as well as the long lifetimes of the collision complexes. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with soft electron ionization detection are used to disentangle the dynamics of this polyatomic multichannel reaction at a collision energy Ec of 8.4 kcal/mol. Five different primary products have been identified and characterized, which correspond to the five exothermic competing channels leading to H + CH2CHO, H + CH3CO, CH3 + HCO, CH2 + H2CO, and H2 + CH2CO. These experiments extend our previous CMB work at higher collision energy (Ec ˜ 13 kcal/mol) and when the results are combined with the literature branching ratios from kinetics experiments at room temperature (Ec ˜ 1 kcal/mol), permit to explore the variation of the branching ratios over a wide range of collision energies. In a synergistic fashion, full-dimensional, QCT surface hopping calculations of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction using ab initio PESs for the singlet and triplet states and their coupling, are reported at collision energies corresponding to the CMB and the kinetics ones. Both theory and experiment find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, as seen from the collision energy dependence of branching ratios of product channels and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC). Further detailed comparisons at the level of angular distributions and translational energy distributions are made between theory and experiment for the three primary radical channel products, H + CH2CHO, CH3 + HCO, and CH2 + H2CO. The very good agreement between theory and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilgers, G.; Bahar-Gogani, J.; Wickman, G.
2002-01-01
ionization liquid exhibit a pronounced energy dependence from about 1 keV / ion pair at about 10 keV to 250 keV / ion pair for 137 Cs γ-radiation. Taking the ion yield of the ionization liquid into account, the deviation between the measured and the calculated response reduces to less than ±10 %. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gooden Matthew
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.
Phase shift analysis of K anti Kπ system in the D and E/IOTA regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, S.U.; Fernow, R.; Kirk, H.
1985-01-01
We have performed a high-statistics experiment on the reaction π - p → K + anti K 0 π - n at 8.0 GeV/c. A partial-wave analysis of the K + anti K 0 π - system finds that the D(1285) is mostly a J/sup PG/ = 1 ++ state coupling predominantly to a deltaπ decay channel, while the E(1420) peak consists mostly of a J/sup PG/ = 0 -+ wave with a substantial deltaπ decay mode. There is little evidence of a 1 ++ resonance at the E mass. 10 refs., 3 figs
Quantum-mechanical analysis of the VRsup(n) ambiguity in the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shastry, C.S.
1982-01-01
Using analytical methods and without adopting numerical calculations or semiclassical arguments, it is shown that the well known VRsup(n), n is approximately equal to 2, parameter ambiguity in the neutron-nucleus optical potential can be attributed to the closeness of the Woods-Saxon potential to the corresponding square well inside the nucleus. This parameter ambiguity is absent in individual partial waves but is more apparent in the differential cross section. The analysis is generalised to the proton-nucleus optical model. The present method clearly pinpoints the mathematical origin of the VRsup(n) ambiguity which is difficult to deduce by purely numerical methods. (author)
Double polarized neutron-proton scattering and nucleon-nucleon tensor force: An alternative analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Walston, J.R.; Raichle, B.W.
2002-01-01
Previous neutron-proton total cross-section difference measurements Δσ L and Δσ T between E n =7.43 and 17.1 MeV have been analyzed in a new way that reduces experimental systematic uncertainties. The results obtained for the 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 mixing parameter ε 1 are very similar to the published values, substantiating the previous conclusion that the nucleon-nucleon tensor force at low energies is stronger than predicted by the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis and, therefore, by all the recent high-precision nucleon-nucleon potential models as well
Kellerman, Adam; Shprits, Yuri; Makarevich, Roman; Donovan, Eric; Zhu, Hui
2017-04-01
Riometers are low-cost passive radiowave instruments located in both northern and southern hemispheres that capable of operating during quiet and disturbed conditions. Many instruments have been operating continuously for multiple solar cycles, making them a useful tool for long-term statistical studies and for real-time analysis and forecasting of space weather. Here we present recent and new analyses of the relationship between the riometer-measured cosmic noise absorption and electron precipitation into the D-region and lower E-region ionosphere. We utilize two techniques: a drift-time analysis in realistic electric and magnetic field models, where a particle is traced from one location to another, and the energy determined by the time delay between similar observations; and a conjunction analysis, where we directly compare precipitated fluxes from THEMIS and Van Allen Probes with the riometer absorption. In both cases we present a statistical analysis of the response of riometer absorption to electron precipitation as a function of MLAT, MLT, and geomagnetic conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roschenko, V.A.; Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.G.; Korolev, G.G.; Tarasko, M.Z.; Tertychnyi, R.G.
2001-01-01
The fundamental role of delayed neutrons in behavior, control and safety of reactors is well known today. Delayed neutron data are of great interest not only for reactor physics but also for nuclear fission physics and astrophysics. The purpose of the present work was the measurement of energy dependence of delayed neutrons (DN) group parameters at fission of nuclei 239 Pu in a range of energies of primary neutrons from 0.37 up to 5 MeV. The measurements were executed on installation designed on the basis of the electrostatic accelerator of KG - 2.5 SSC RF IPPE. The data are obtained in 6-group representation. It is shown, that there is a significant energy dependence of DN group parameters in a range of primary neutrons energies from thermal meanings up to 5 MeV, which is expressed in reduction of the average half-life of nuclei of the DN precursors on 10 %. The data, received in the present work, can be used at creation of a set of group constants for reactors with an intermediate spectrum of neutrons. (authors)
Zhou, Jia; Schlegel, H Bernhard
2008-12-18
The nonstatistical dissociation of acetone radical cation has been studied by ab initio direct classical trajectory calculations at the MP2/6-31G(d) level of theory. A bond additivity correction has been used to improve the MP2 potential energy surface (BAC-MP2). The energy dependence of the branching ratio, dissociation kinetics, and translational energy distribution for the two types of methyl groups have been investigated using microcanonical ensembles and specific mode excitation. In each case, the dissociation favors the loss of the newly formed methyl group, in agreement with the experiments. For microcanonical ensembles, the branching ratios for methyl loss are calculated to be 1.43, 1.88, 1.70, and 1.50 for 1, 2, 10, and 18 kcal/mol of excess energy, respectively. The energy dependence of the branching ratio is seen more dramatically in the excitation of individual modes involving C-C-O bending. For modes 3 and 6, the branching ratio rises to 1.6 and 1.8-2.3 when 1 or 2 kcal/mol are added, respectively, but falls off when more energy is added. For mode 8, the branching ratio continues to rise monotonically from 1.5 to 2.76 when 1-8 kcal/mol of excess energy are added.
Auvinen, Jussi; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.; Karpenko, Iurii
2018-04-01
We determine the probability distributions of the shear viscosity over the entropy density ratio η /s in the quark-gluon plasma formed in Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=19.6 ,39 , and 62.4 GeV , using Bayesian inference and Gaussian process emulators for a model-to-data statistical analysis that probes the full input parameter space of a transport + viscous hydrodynamics hybrid model. We find the most likely value of η /s to be larger at smaller √{sN N}, although the uncertainties still allow for a constant value between 0.10 and 0.15 for the investigated collision energy range.
Analysis of Crystal Barrel data on the reaction p-barp annihilation at rest into π+π-π0η
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matveev, M.
2004-01-01
The preliminary results of partial wave analysis of the Crystal Barrel data on p-barp annihilation at rest into π+π-π0η are presented. The data provide the information about production of meson channels, such as b1π, h1η from 1S0 and 3S1 p-barp state annihilation. The analysis shows the presence of the b 1 * resonance and a possible presence of ρ2 in the mass region around 1600 MeV. The mass of b 1 * was found to be 1620 ± 15 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steve J.; Thakor, Hemang; Fan, Ziling [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Shay, Jerry W. [Department of Cell Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Datta, Kamal, E-mail: kd257@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)
2016-05-01
Purpose: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. Methods and Materials: Male and female APC{sup 1638N/+} mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, {sup 12}C, {sup 28}Si, or {sup 56}Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored. Results: The highest number of tumors was observed after {sup 28}Si, followed by {sup 56}Fe and {sup 12}C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after {sup 28}Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with {sup 28}Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shepard, J R; Zimmerman, W R; Kraushaar, J J [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics
1977-01-04
Strong transitions in the /sup 58/Ni(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 57/Ni reaction were analyzed using both the zero-range and exact finite-range DWBA. Data considered covered a range of bombarding energies from 15 to 205 MeV. The zero-range DWBA described all data well when finite-range and non-locality corrections were included in the local energy approximation. Comparison of zero-range and exact finite-range calculations showed the local energy approximation correction to be very accurate over the entire energy region. Empirically determined D/sub 0/ values showed no energy dependence. A theoretical D/sub 0/ value calculated using an ..cap alpha.. wave function which reproduced the measured ..cap alpha.. rms charge radius and the elastic electron scattering form factor agreed well the empirical values. Comparison was made between these values and D/sub 0/ values quoted previously in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engler, A; Keyes, G; Kraemer, R W; Schlereth, J; Tanaka, M [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Cho, Y; Derrick, M; Lissauer, D; Miller, R J; Smith, R P [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)
1976-07-19
The reactions K/sup 0/sup(L)p..-->..K/sup 0/sub(S)p, ..pi../sup +/..lambda.., ..pi../sup +/..sigma../sup 0/ have been measured for center-of-mass energies from 1540 to 1610 MeV. Channel cross sections and coefficients of the Legendre polynomial expansion of the differential cross sections and hyperon polarizations are presented. No evidence is seen in the ..pi lambda.. channel for the suggested 3/2/sup -/ resonance at 1580 MeV. The cross section for the K/sup 0/sub(S)p channel shows an energy dependence which is not predicted by the existing phase shift solutions based on charged kaon data.
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; S'anchez, M. Calder'on de la Barca; campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2015-08-01
A search for the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) critical point was performed by the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, using dynamical fluctuations of unlike particle pairs. Heavy ion collisions were studied over a large range of collision energies with homogeneous acceptance and excellent particle identification, covering a significant range in the QCD phase diagram where a critical point may be located. Dynamical K π , p π , and K p fluctuations as measured by the STAR experiment in central 0-5% Au + Au collisions from center-of-mass collision energies √{sN N}=7.7 to 200 GeV are presented. The observable νdyn was used to quantify the magnitude of the dynamical fluctuations in event-by-event measurements of the K π , p π , and K p pairs. The energy dependences of these fluctuations from central 0-5% Au + Au collisions all demonstrate a smooth evolution with collision energy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poirier, Yannick; Kuznetsova, Svetlana; Barajas, Eduardo Villarreal [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary AB, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Tom Baker Cancer Center/University of Calgary, Calgary AB (Canada)
2016-08-15
Purpose: To characterize the energy dependence of high-sensitivity MCP-N TLD and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSLD dosimetry systems at low (40–100 kVp) energies for in-vivo dosimetry. Methods: We assessed the variation of response with energy of two detectors in the 40–100 kVp energy range: high-sensitivity MCP-N TLDs (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and OSLDs (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C). The detectors were irradiated with an XRad 320ix biological irradiator under reference conditions. The delivered dose was 10 cGy for 7 beam qualities ranging from 40–100 kVp, 1.7–4.0 mm Al, and effective energies 26.9–37.9 keV. Both sets of detectors were also irradiated under reference conditions at 6 MV using a Varian Clinac 21Ex to assess the change in response from high-energy beams. Results: The MCP-N high-sensitivity TLDs were relatively insensitive to energies in the kV range, as their response varied by ±5%, i.e. well within the reproducibility limits of these detectors. However, the OSLDs exhibited a linearly-decreasing response with energy with a response 18.7% higher at 40 kVp than at 100 kVp for the same nominal dose. Compared to the 6 MV beams used in conventional radiotherapy, OSLDs responded 3.3–3.9 times higher depending on beam quality while the MCP-N TLD response was unchanged within experimental uncertainty. Conclusions: Unlike the more commonly used TLD-100, the high-sensitivity MCP-N TLDs exhibit little to no energy response. OSLDs are shown to be highly energy-dependent, both from MV to kV and within the kV range.
Geopolitics and oil. The new energy dependency
Zeraoui, Zidane
2010-01-01
Este artículo, sobre geopolítica y petróleo, busca analizar la actual geopolítica internacional en función de la variable petrolera. Con el alza del precio del crudo a casi US $150 el barril, el “oro negro” se ha convertido más que nunca en un instrumento de poder global. Por otra parte, la demanda cada vez más apremiante de petróleo, por China e India, está empujando no solamente el precio de los hidrocarburos, sino también la pugna por el control de los yacimientos a nivel mundial o por lo ...
Energy dependence of ion guiding through nanocapillaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiessl, K.; Lemell, C.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Toekesi, K.
2008-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. In this work, we model the transmission of Ne 7+ ions with varying kinetic energies ranging from 2 to 9 keV through Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) nanocapillaries with a diameter of 200 nm (see Fig. 1). We have simulated the ion transmission through insulating nanocapillaries using a mean-field classical-transport theory (see Fig. 2.). Ion trajectories are propagated in the combined fields of charges deposited on the capillary wall, their polarization charges, the projectile image charge, and the macroscopic field from neighboring capillaries. The simulation avoids any freely adjustable parameters in order to be predictive and to provide qualitative insights into underlying mechanisms. We have varied projectile energy and angle of incidence and have tested different models of dielectric shielding. Best agreement with experimental data is found for dielectrically screened surfaces charges. Response and transport employs linear response only. Reasonable agreement with data could be found employing only macroscopic material parameters of PET like dielectric constant, surface and bulk conductivity
Energy Dependent Streaming in Lattice Boltzmann Simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pavlo, Pavol; Vahala, G.; Vahala, L.
2001-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 8 (2001), s. 241 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society/43rd./. Long Beach, CA, 29.10.2001-02.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Lattice Boltzmann Simulations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
European Union concerns with its energy dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Commeau, N.
2001-01-01
European Union (E.U.) produces only half its needs concerning energy. It is expected that by 2030, the energy balance will be 86% for fossil energies, 8% for renewable energies and 6% for nuclear energy. Different scenario show that the dependence of E.U will worsen and reach 70% unless a common strategy is launched to curb the tendency. E.U is elaborating a common policy concerning energy, this policy rests on 4 axis: 1) monitoring the increase of the energy consumption by promoting energy savings in housing and transport, 2) directing the energy demand towards less polluting energy by using taxes, public funding and European regulations as incentive tools, 3) sustaining a constant dialogues with energy exporting countries in order to get a more stable energy market and have a benefiting influence on prices, and 4) developing new routes of importation of energy by for instance contributing to the construction of new oil or gas pipeline networks. (A.C.)
Piebalgs tries to assuage "energy dependence fears"
2007-01-01
Euroopa Komisjoni energeetikavolinik Andris Piebalgs selgitas Läti valitsusele Euroopa energiastrateegiat. Piebalgs peab Venemaad usaldusväärseks partneriks ning suhtub skeptiliselt tuumaelektrijaama ja gaasihoidla projektidesse
The reaction π-p → π-π-π+p: Development of the analysis methods and selected results
Ryabchikov, D.
2016-01-01
We present the description of the analysis methods and results of applying them to the exclusive diffractive reaction π-p → π-π-π+p of 50 . 106 events measured with COMPASS detector. The large statistics of π-π-π+ events enables the two-dimensional partial-wave analysis independently in 100 bins of m(3π) with 0.5 < m(3π) < 2.5 GeV/c2 and in 11 intervals of squared momentum transfer with 0.1 < t' < 1 GeV2/c2. The partial-wave analysis sub-density matrix is the subject to further mass-dependent fits describing the data in terms of resonances in 3π system and coherent background contributions. The novel approach of extracting JPC = 0++(π+π-)S isobar amplitudes as model-free functions, different for several JPC 3π states, is used. It demonstrates the presence of processes π(1800) → f0(980)π and π(1800) → f0(1500)π as well as π2(1880) → f0(980)π and new narrow signal a1(1420) → f0(980)π, without any established shapes used for (π+π-)S isobars. The presented analysis is subject to further development and refinements which currently take place.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almassalha, Luay M; Bauer, Greta M; Chandler, John E
2016-01-01
The organization of chromatin is a regulator of molecular processes including transcription, replication, and DNA repair. The structures within chromatin that regulate these processes span from the nucleosomal (10-nm) to the chromosomal (>200-nm) levels, with little known about the dynamics of ch...
Effect of two-pion exchange in nucleon-nucleon scattering in high partial waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harun ar Rashid, A.M.; Chaudhury, T.K.
1983-01-01
The work of Brown and Durso (Phys. Lett. 35B, 120 (1971)) on the soft-pion determination of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction is extended by using the most general form of the ΔNπ interaction which involves an arbitrary parameter Z. It is shown that both the annihilation channel helicity amplitude fsub(+)sup((O))(t) as well as peripheral proton-proton scattering phase shifts seem to favour Z=1/2. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamolodchikov, A.B.
1984-01-01
An explicit recurrence relation for the conformal block functions is presented. This relation permits one to evaluate the X-expansion of these functions order-by-order and appropriate for numerical calculations. (orig.)
Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Krishichayan; Macri, R.; Rusev, G.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.
2016-01-01
Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gooden, M.E., E-mail: m_gooden@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Arnold, C.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bhatia, C. [McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Bhike, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Fallin, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Fowler, M.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27605 (United States); Krishichayan [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Macri, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rusev, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Tonchev, A.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others
2016-01-15
Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, E.E.B.; Huelser, H.; Witte, R.; Hertel, I.V.
1990-01-01
Rank 4 alignment has been observed in a quasi one electron system. Relative charge transfer cross sections of the Na 4dσ, 4dπ and 4dδ sublevels for the K + +Na(4D)→K * +Na + system have been measured. A strong energy dependence is observed. The results at energies less than 1 keV may be attributed to rotational coupling of the Na 4dπ state to the K 4fδ state. The Na atom is excited in a two-step process, the first step being excitation to the 3 2 P 3/2 level with a two-mode laser to pump from both hyperfine levels of the ground state simultaneously. This two-mode laser is described in detail. The optical pumping problem is solved using rate equations. The general formula for describing the scattering intensity for cylindrical symmetry, in terms of multipole moments, for atoms excited by two linearly polarised lasers is derived and used to evaluate the experimental results. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.C.; Seah, M.P.
1991-01-01
For the use of published general or theoretical sensitivity factors in quantitative AES and XPS the energy dependence of both the spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity must be known. Here we develop simple procedures which allow these dependencies to be determined experimentally. Detailed measurements for a modified VG Scientific ESCALAB II, the metrology spectrometer, operated in both the constant ΔE/E and constant ΔE modes, are presented and compared with theoretical estimates. It is shown that an exceptionally detailed electron-optical calculation, involving proprietary information, would be required to match the accuracy of the experimental procedures developed. Removal of the spectrometer transmission function and the detector sensitivity terms allows the measured spectrum to be converted to the true electron emission spectrum irrespective of the mode of operation. This provides the first step to the provision of reference samples to calibrate the transmission functions and detector sensitivities of all instruments so that they, in turn, may produce true electron emission spectra. This is vital if (i) all instruments are to give consistent results, (ii) theoretical terms are to be used in quantifying either AES or XPS and (iii) reference data banks are to be established for AES or XPS
Gooden, Matthew; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Tonchev, Anton; Stoyer, Mark; Bhike, Megha; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner
2017-09-01
The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi- monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combi- nation of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and -ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ioniza- tion chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin de- posits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activa- tion target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. Î³-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of 2 months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6 and 14.8 MeV. New data in the second chance fission region of 5.5 - 9 MeV are included. Work performed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safronov, A.N.
2007-01-01
dynamical singularities lying far off physical domain (which precisely are not obviously possible for calculating within the framework of concrete dynamic model) so that to provide existence of the solution of a scattering problem in states with arbitrary angular momentum. Obtained discontinuities of partial-wave amplitudes can be used for constructing effective interaction operators in these states. Developed method is applied for analysis of pion-nucleon interactions in S- and P-wave scattering channels at low and intermediate energies (up to kinetic energies of incident pion T=2.0 GeV). With the help of available phase shift data the information on structure of discontinuities at dynamical cuts of the πN partial-wave scattering amplitudes is obtained. The possibility of description of pion-nucleon interactions in considered partial-wave channels with the help of exchange mechanisms in t- and u-channels of scattering and also the contact terms of Lagrangian of the chiral perturbation theory is investigated
Analysis of the radiative decay J/ψ → γωω at BESIII
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albrecht, Malte [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)
2015-07-01
Gluonic bound states like glueballs or hybrids are predicted to be copiously produced in the radiative decays of J/ψ. Especially the radiative decays into two vector mesons, J/ψ → γVV, have been intensively studied, since pseudoscalar (0{sup -}) enhancements have been observed in the ρρ, φφ and ωω final states with low statistics in the past. In this talk we show preliminary results of the analysis of the radiative decay J/ψ → γωω, using the world's largest data sample of ∼ 1.2.10{sup 9} J/ψ events collected with the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII). The data selection, background analysis and preliminary results of a mass-independent partial wave analysis of the selected sample are presented.
Formal analysis of inelastic scattering in the coulomb-projected eikonal approximation
Qian, W J; Yan, S; Yang, Z S; Bo, D Y
1998-01-01
A formal procedure within the frame-work of the eikonal approximation for the inelastic scattering of many-electron atoms is formulated on the basis of the Racah algebra in the non-partial wave version, where an arbitrary complex wavefunction, including the contribution from all partial waves, can be used for the process calculations.
Three-channel K-matrix analysis of dibaryons in JP = 2± and 3- states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiroshige, Noboru
1986-01-01
We have investigated the dibaryon resonances with the quamtum numbers J P = 2 + , 2 - and 3 - in terms of a three-channel K-matrix method using the pp-pp, pp-πd and πd-πd amplitudes obtained by the partial-wave analysis as the input data. We have found many good solutions in each case and all of the solutions have a nearby pole in the lower-half complex energy plane. The obtained resonance masses cluster in the region 2.15 - 2.16 GeV. A remarkable finding of our three-channel analysis is that the dibaryon resonances have very weak coupling to the pp channel. To get more difinite conclusion we need the pp-NΔ and πd-NΔ amplitude as well as a better πd-πd one. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bareyre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-06-01
Experimental results of pion-nucleon elastic scattering below 1.6 GeV (total cross sections, angular distributions of elastic scattering and recoil nucleon polarizations) have been described by a partial wave analysis. This analysis has been developed, one energy at a time, with a method of least squares fits. A single solution is extracted by continuity with energy of the different solutions. Resonating behaviour has been clearly established for several partial waves. In addition to these important effects some phase shifts show rapid variations with energy. Present experimental situation does not permit to say whether these variations are due to experimental biases or to physical effects. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de la diffusion elastique meson {pi} - nucleon au-dessous de 1.6 GeV (sections efficaces totales, distributions angulaires de diffusion elastique et de polarisation du nucleon de recul) sont decrits a l'aide d'une analyse en ondes partielles. Cette analyse est developpee energie par energie au moyen d'une methode d'ajustement en moindres carres. Un critere empirique de continuite des solutions en fonction de l'energie a permis d'isoler une solution unique. Des resonances sont clairement etablies pour plusieurs ondes partielles, ainsi que certains petits effets moins caracteristiques. Pour ceux-ci, la situation experimentale presente ne permet pas d'affirmer s'ils sont dus a des effets physiques ou a des biais experimentaux. (auteur)
Filippi, A; Astrua, M; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Calvo, D; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Feliciello, A; Iazzi, F; Marcello, S; Minetti, B; Mirfakhraee, N; Balestra, F; Busso, L; Denisov, O Yu; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Tosello, F; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Cannata, F; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Poli, M; Cesari, N S; Spighi, R; Vagnoni, V M; Vecchi, S; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Bonomi, G; Bussa, M P; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; De Falco, A; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Usai, G L; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Tretyak, V I; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Petrascu, C; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Tessaro, S
2000-01-01
The results of a search for a possible evidence of a pi /sup +/ pi /sup +/ resonant state in the np to pi /sup +/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ annihilation reaction with data collected by the OBELIX Experiment are presented. The study has been performed by means of a partial wave analysis in the frame of the isobar model. Production fractions for a possible pi /sup +/ pi /sup +/ resonance have been evaluated. The observed effects at the pi /sup +/ pi /sup +/ threshold may be described reasonably well by the contributions of f/sub 2/(1270), f /sub 0/(1500), f/sub 2/(1565) and rho (1450) states and their interferences, but a meaningful statistical indication for a pi /sup +/ pi /sup +/ scalar state at about 1400 MeV emerges from the analysis. (14 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, P.
1977-01-01
The first part of this study is a detailed study of the different sources of distorsions of the flying spot digitizers CRT Paris which measure automatically the bubble chamber pictures, followed by the methods of calibration which correct the distorsions. An original study of the channel K - p→K - pπ + π - , lying on the direct search of the existing structures in the probability density in the phase space is developed in the second part. A first approach consists in a 'projection pursuit' algorithm and a second one is a more direct analysis of the density function (cluster finding). The results of a partial wave analysis of the K - diffraction are presented [fr
Phenomenological analysis of the Δ resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasan, S.S.
1976-01-01
The positions of the poles in the complex energy plane corresponding to the resonances Δ ++ and Δ 0 , and the associated residues, are determined by fitting the π + p and π - p hadronic phase shift data from the CARTER 73 analysis. As an illustration of the use of the Δ pole parameters, their application to the problem of parametrizing the residue function associated with the Δ Regge trajectory is considered. The input for the parametrization is given partly by the pole position and the residue of the Δ(1950), the first recurrence of the Δ(1236). These pole parameters are deduced from fits to the F 37 partial wave data from the AYED 74 phase shift analysis. Together with the Δ(1236) pole parameters, these provide information on the behavior of the Regge residue in the resonance region u less than 0 (in the context of s-channel backward scattering being dominated by u-channel Regge exchanges). Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by means of real and complex functions lead to the conclusion that both the residue and the trajectory are better represented in the resonance region by complex parametrizations
Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments
Battaglieri, M.; Briscoe, B. J.; Celentano, A.; Chung, S.-U.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Döring, M.; Dudek, J.; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, S.; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, D. I.; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, D. G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, F. J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, V.; McKinnon, B.; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, A.; Salgado, C.; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Sato, T.; Schlüter, T.; [Silva]da Silva, M. L. L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, I.; Szczepaniak, A.; Vassallo, A.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Zana, L.
The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.
Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battaglieri, Marco; Briscoe, William; Celentano, Andrea; Chung, Suh-Urk; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Vita, Rafaella; Döring, Michael; Dudek, Jozef; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, Stuart; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; Garcia-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, Derek; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, David G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, Franz J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, Vincent; McKinnon, Brian; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, Alessandro; Salgado, Carlos; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, Andrey V.; Sato, Toru; Schlüter, T.; Da Silva, M. L.L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, Igor; Szczepaniak, Adam; Vassallo, A.; Walford, Natalie K.; Watts, Daniel P.
2015-01-01
The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document
Effective model for in-medium (K)over-barN interactions including the L=1 partial wave
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cieplý, Aleš; krejčiřík, V.
2015-01-01
Roč. 940, AUG (2015), s. 311-330 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04301S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : kaon-nucleon interactions * baryon resonances * in-medium hadron properties Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2015
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fachruddin, Imam, E-mail: imam.fachruddin@sci.ui.ac.id; Salam, Agus [Departemen Fisika, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)
2016-03-11
A new momentum-space formulation for scattering of two spin-half particles, both either identical or unidentical, is formulated. As basis states the free linear-momentum states are not expanded into the angular-momentum states, the system’s spin states are described by the product of the spin states of the two particles, and the system’s isospin states by the total isospin states of the two particles. We evaluate the Lippmann-Schwinger equations for the T-matrix elements in these basis states. The azimuthal behavior of the potential and of the T-matrix elements leads to a set of coupled integral equations for the T-matrix elements in two variables only, which are the magnitude of the relative momentum and the scattering angle. Some symmetry relations for the potential and the T-matrix elements reduce the number of the integral equations to be solved. A set of six spin operators to express any interaction of two spin-half particles is introduced. We show the spin-averaged differential cross section as being calculated in terms of the solution of the set of the integral equations.
Grabmüller, Stefanie; Friedrich, J M
The COMPASS experiment at CERN employs silicon microstrip detectors in the target region which are cooled with liquid nitrogen to 200 K since the beam time 2009. Various extensions around the previously existing setup were required, particularly concerning the stability of the detector modules and the cooling stability. The detector performance has been improved by 15-20 % with respect to the warm operation. During the beam time 2004 with high-energetic pion beam on a lead target, one million exclusive three-pion events were recorded with smallest momentum transfer t'-3 GeV2/c2. Employing partial-wave analysis techniques, Primakoff-produced resonances and the interference between Primakoff and diffractive production have been observed. The absolute cross-section π-γ→π-π-π+ was determined for the first time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mércia Liane de Oliveira
2010-04-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da dependência energética de materiais termoluminescentes na determinação da dose na entrada da pele de pacientes submetidos a exames radiográficos (radiologia geral, mamografia e radiologia odontológica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Três diferentes materiais termoluminescentes foram utilizados: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P e CaSO4:Dy. Estes materiais foram expostos a fontes padronizadas de radiação X e gama, e a feixes clínicos de raios X. RESULTADOS: As curvas de calibração e de dependência energética foram obtidas. Todos os materiais apresentaram resposta linear em função do kerma no ar. Com relação à dependência energética, as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti mostraram maior variação da resposta termoluminescente em função da energia efetiva do feixe de radiação. CONCLUSÃO: Os materiais testados mostraram desempenho adequado para a detecção da radiação X em feixes padronizados e clínicos. Embora as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti apresentem dependência energética significativa no intervalo de energia considerado, este materiais podem ser utilizados para medição da dose de entrada na pele se fatores de correção apropriados forem utilizados.OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of the energy dependence of thermoluminescent materials on the determination of entrance skin dose in patients submitted to conventional radiographic studies (general radiology, mammography and dental radiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different thermoluminescent materials were utilized: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO4:Dy. These materials were exposed to standardized sources of X and gamma radiation and clinical X-ray beams. RESULTS: Calibration and energy dependence curves were obtained. All the materials showed a linear response as a function of the air kerma. As far as energy dependence is concerned, the CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples showed the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sankari, A.; Alitalo, S.; Nikkinen, J.; Kivimaeki, A.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Fritzsche, S.
2007-01-01
The energy dependencies of the intensities and angular distribution parameters β of the resonant Auger final states 4p 4 ( 1 D)np (n=5,6) of Kr were determined experimentally in the excitation-energy region of the overlapping 3d 3/2 -1 5p and 3d 5/2 -1 6p resonances. The experimental results were compared with the outcome of multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Combining experimental and calculated results allowed us to study interference effects between the direct and several resonant channels that populate the 4p 4 ( 1 D)np states. The inclusion of the direct channel was crucial in order to reproduce the observed energy behavior of the angular distribution parameters. It was also important to take into account experimentally observed shake transitions
Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogt, R
2010-03-31
We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.
Personnel β-dosimetry method for reducing energy dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gesell, T.F.; Jones, D.E.; Gupta, V.P.; Kalbeitzer, F.L.; Cusimano, J.P.
1979-03-01
Current practices for the measurement of skin dose are reviewed and found to be inadequate. The current INEL dosimeter was examined for systematic and random error. Systematic (i.e., variation with energy) error was found to range over a factor of 10 while the random error was reasonably small for the larger β/γ ratios. Other designs with thicker windows as is more common would show even larger systematic errors. Various methods for improving beta dosimetry were reviewed. A new dosimeter design utilizing three chips, each having a window of difference thickness, was proposed. According to the calculations, this dosimeter should markedly reduce systematic error but will introduce somewhat more random error. Preliminary measurements were carried out related to angular dependence and charged particle equilibrium. The proposed dosimeter design was tested with betas from a uranium slab. The average of the seven results was in excellent agreement with the known dose rate and the standard deviation of the result was 16%
Energy dependence of radiation interaction parameters of some organic compounds
Singh, Mohinder; Tondon, Akash; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan
2018-04-01
Gamma rays interact with a material through photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering and Pair production in the intermediate energy range. The probability of occurrence of a particular type of process depends on the energy of incident gamma rays, atomic number of the material, scattering angle and geometrical conditions. Various radiological parameters for organic compounds, namely ethylene glycol (C2H6O2), propylene glycol (C3H8O2), glycerin (C3H8O3), isoamyl alcohol (C5H12O), butanone (C4H8O), acetophenone (C8H8O2), cyclohexanone (C6H10O), furfural (C5H4O2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O), cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O), glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2), aniline (C6H7N), benzyl amine (C6H7N), nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2), ethyl benzene (C8H10), ethyl formate (C3H6O2) and water (H2O) are presented at 81, 122, 356 and 511 keV energies employing NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in narrow-beam transmission geometry. The radiation interaction parameters such as mass attenuation, molar extinction and mass energy absorption coefficients, half value layer, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and CT number have been evaluated for these organic compounds. The general trend of values of mass attenuation coefficients, half value layer, molar extinction coefficients, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and mass energy absorption coefficients shows a decrease with increase in incident gamma photon energy. The values of CT number are found to increases linearly with increase of effective atomic number (Zeff). The variation in CT number around Zeff ≈ 3.3 shows the peak like structure with respect to water and the correlation between CT number and linear attenuation coefficient is about 0.99. Appropriate equations are fitted to these experimentally determined parameters for the organic compounds at incident photon energy ranging from 81 keV to 511 keV used in the present study. Experimental values are compared with the theoretical data obtained using WinXcom software package, and are found in good agreement.
Energy dependence of the molecular effect in sputtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliva-Florio, A.R.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.
1979-01-01
Measurements are reported of sputtering yields of Au for Xe + and Xe 2 + impact in the energy range 1 to 50 keV. It was found that non-linear effects exist well outside the range predicted in a recent thermal spike model. (author)
Energy dependence of the molecular effect in sputtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliva-Florio, A.R.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.
1979-01-01
Measurements of sputtering yields of Au for Xe + and Xe + 2 impact in the energy range 1-50 keV are given. It was found that non-linear effects exist well outside the range predicted in a recent thermal spike model. (author)
Energy dependence of the Cronin effect from nonlinear QCD evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albacete, Javier L.; Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Kovner, Alex
2004-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of dense partonic systems has been suggested as a novel physics mechanism relevant for the dynamics of p-A and A-A collisions at collider energies. Here we study to what extent the description of Cronin enhancement in the framework of this nonlinear evolution is consistent with the recent observation in √(s)=200 GeV d-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We solve the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation numerically for several initial conditions encoding Cronin enhancement. We find that the properly normalized nuclear gluon distribution is suppressed at all momenta relative to that of a single nucleon. For the resulting spectrum of produced gluons in p-A and A-A collisions, the nonlinear QCD evolution is unable to generate a Cronin-type enhancement, and it quickly erases any such enhancement which may be present at lower energies
Energy dependences of absorption in beryllium windows and argon gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chantler, C.T.; Staudenmann, J-P.
1994-01-01
In part of an ongoing work on x-ray form factors, new absorption coefficients are being evaluated for all elements, across the energy range from below 100 eV to above 100 keV. These new coefficients are applied herein to typical problems in synchrotron radiation stations, namely the use of beryllium windows and argon gas detectors. Results are compared with those of other authors. The electron-ion pair production process in ionization chambers is discussed, and the effects of 3d-element impurities are indicated. 15 refs., 6 figs
Energy dependence of opaqueness for pp collisions at high energies
Chou, T T
1978-01-01
Opaqueness of pp collisions is evaluated at three CERN-ISR energies. Comparisons with predictions of the factorisable eikonal models and the scaling hypothesis are made. It appears that results are in favour of the factorisable models. (20 refs).
On solving energy-dependent partitioned eigenvalue problem by ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
unknown stationary state wave functions (ψ) are expanded, viz. ψ = ∑N ... λ being a user-defined scalar that takes care of exponential overflow or underflow. Clearly, as ... Two new strings Si and Sk (the children strings) are then created by an.
Neutron-energy-dependent cell survival and oncogenic transformation.
Miller, R C; Marino, S A; Martin, S G; Komatsu, K; Geard, C R; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J
1999-12-01
Both cell lethality and neoplastic transformation were assessed for C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to neutrons with energies from 0.040 to 13.7 MeV. Monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 0.23 to 13.7 MeV and two neutron energy spectra with average energies of 0.040 and 0.070 MeV were produced with a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) in the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University. For determination of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), cells were exposed to 250 kVp X rays. With exposures to 250 kVp X rays, both cell survival and radiation-induced oncogenic transformation were curvilinear. Irradiation of cells with neutrons at all energies resulted in linear responses as a function of dose for both biological endpoints. Results indicate a complex relationship between RBEm and neutron energy. For both survival and transformation, RBEm was greatest for cells exposed to 0.35 MeV neutrons. RBEm was significantly less at energies above or below 0.35 MeV. These results are consistent with microdosimetric expectation. These results are also compatible with current assessments of neutron radiation weighting factors for radiation protection purposes. Based on calculations of dose-averaged LET, 0.35 MeV neutrons have the greatest LET and therefore would be expected to be more biologically effective than neutrons of greater or lesser energies.
Energy Dependence of Near-relativistic Electron Spectrum at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
chronous altitudes during solar energetic proton events of 2005. ... discussed the radiation belt electron drop outs with respect to their local time, radial and ... number density (Nsw), solar wind speed (Vsw), solar wind pressure (Psw), average.
Energy dependence of fast neutron dosimetry using electrochemical etching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, S.J.; Morgan, K.Z.
1978-01-01
Registration of fast-neutron induced recoil tracks by the electrochemical etching technique as applied to sensitive Lexan polycarbonate foils provides a simple and inexpensive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry. The sensitivity (tracks/neutron) of recoil particle registration is given as a function of neutron energy. Neutrons of 7 Li (p,n) 7 Be, 3 T (d,n) 4 He and 9 B, respectively. Results are compared with other studies using other neutron sources and conventional etching method
Interatomic scattering in energy dependent photoelectron spectra of Ar clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patanen, M.; Benkoula, S.; Nicolas, C.; Goel, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Antonsson, E. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Fachbereich Biologie, Chemie, Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Neville, J. J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 6E2 (Canada); Miron, C., E-mail: Catalin.Miron@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), ‘Horia Hulubei’ National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului Street, RO-077125 Măgurele, Jud. Ilfov (Romania)
2015-09-28
Soft X-ray photoelectron spectra of Ar 2p levels of atomic argon and argon clusters are recorded over an extended range of photon energies. The Ar 2p intensity ratios between atomic argon and clusters’ surface and bulk components reveal oscillations similar to photoelectron extended X-ray absorption fine structure signal (PEXAFS). We demonstrate here that this technique allows us to analyze separately the PEXAFS signals from surface and bulk sites of free-standing, neutral clusters, revealing a bond contraction at the surface.
Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Xin-Lin; Ma Jun; Jin Wu-Yin
2015-01-01
A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh–Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. (paper)
Energy dependence of the emittance of damping ring beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stiening, R.
1985-01-01
The energy at which the SLC damping rings are operated was chosen to be 1.21 GeV. At the time that that specification was made, the repetition rate of the SLC was expected to be 180 Hz. It is now anticipated that the repetition rate during the initial year of operation of the SLC will be 120 Hz. The following curves which show the output emittance of the damping rings as a function of input emittance and energy suggest that there is a range of energies over which the rings can be operated without changing the SLC luminosity. It should be noted that in the era of polarized beams, the damping ring energy will be fixed at the design value on account of the spin precession required in the LTR and RTL transport lines. The SLC design output emittance of the damping rings is 3 x 10 -5 radian-meters. Because of space charge disruption and quantum emission downstream of the damping rings, much lower values than the design value may not have a large beneficial effect on the luminosity. 3 figures
Energy Dependence of Proton Radiation Damage in Si-Sensors
AUTHOR|(CDS)2084399; Neubüser, C.
2014-01-01
Irradiation experiments on silicon sensors are used to mimic the radiation environment at collider experiments with the aim to forecast the change of the electrical properties of a detector with irradiation. Measurements on irradiated sensors are invaluable in choosing a material well suited for a silicon tracking detector. This is especially true for the upgraded detectors to be used in the high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), where silicon sensors as currently used would suffer severe loss in signal from irradiation with charged and neutral hadrons.\\\\ The CMS Tracker Collaboration has initiated irradiation studies with protons with energies ranging from 23 MeV to 23 GeV. They are often used instead of charged hadrons, their radiation induced damage to the silicon being rather similar. However, in oxygen rich silicon, NIEL violation concerning the full depletion voltage has been observed.\\\\ In this paper results from investigations on bulk defects compared to the change of the electrical properties of ...
Energy dependence of critical state of single-component systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volchenkova, R.A.
1985-01-01
Equations of critical states of the single-component systems: Psub(cr)(/Psub(o)=(Tsub(cr)/Tsub(o))x0.73, Tsub(cr)=K(Tsub(boil))sup(1.116) and Hsub(cr)(/Hsub(B)=Tsub(sr)/Tsub(B))sup(1.48) where Tsub(B)=1K, Hsub(B)-2 kcal/g-at, K-dimension factor are presented. It is shown that the revealed dependence Hsub(cr)=H(Tsub(cr)) is an energy boundary of a liquid-vapour phase state of the single-component systems beyond limits of which difference between liquid and vapour phases vanishes in increasing the system energy content. The given equations of state are true for all the single-component systems and permit to consider physicomechanical properties of substances in dynamic state depending on external conditions. Critical temperatures and dependences for elements from the most fusible He to infusible W and Re have been calculated
First amplitude analysis of resonant structures in the 5-pion continuum at COMPASS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neubert, Sebastian
2012-01-01
The study of hadronic scattering amplitudes and in particular the spectroscopy of light mesons provide a unique tool to investigate the strong interaction. At very lowenergies the meson spectrum is governed by the spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry of the QCD vacuum. At higher masses a series of resonances appears. Their origin and their relation to chiral symmetry breaking is only partly understood. In particular for masses above ∝ 1.6 GeV/c 2 while a large number of states have been reported they are still poorly known experimentally. One complication are multi-body final states into which heavy mesons can decay. In this thesis a method for the amplitude analysis of the π - π + π - π + π - system is being developed. The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses the diffractive dissociation of a 190 GeV pion beam as a source of meson resonances up to masses of about 3 GeV/c 2 . A partial wave decomposition of the 5π system is presented here which for the first time allows to search for mesonic 5-body resonances. A novel technique based on an evolutionary algorithm is developed to solve the problem of finding a reliable truncation of the partial wave expansion of the hadronic amplitude. The method for the first time allows the investigation of systematic uncertainties introduced by the use truncated isobar model amplitudes. The well known π 2 (1670) and π(1800) states are found with good agreement to measurements in other channels. In addition there is evidence for several other resonant contributions, among them the controversial π 2 (1880) which is being discussed as a hybrid-meson candidate. In the course of the analysis a new software-framework for amplitude analysis has been developed, which is now being used by the COMPASS collaboration for the analysis of several hadronic channels. Future experiments in particle physics will have to collect large amounts of data in order to search for the subtle effects that would indicate new physics beyond the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiliang
2014-01-01
three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in energy production, and the replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, the analysis of these systems must include strategies for integrating renewable sources...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bravim, Amanda; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: abravin@ipen.b, E-mail: rsakuraba@einstein.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sakuraba, Roberto K.; Cruz, Jose Carlos da, E-mail: rsakuraba@einstein.b, E-mail: josecarlosc@einstein.b [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2011-10-26
Yet not so widely applied in radiotherapy, the calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) is used in radioprotection and studies has been demonstrated its great potential for the dosimetry in radiotherapy. This work evaluates the energy dependence of the thermoluminescent answer of the CaSO{sub 4}:D, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) and micro LiF:Mg,Ti in clinical beams of electrons by using water simulators, PMMA and solid water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leyhe, Michael
2013-07-09
The present thesis deals with two experiments, which perform on the field of the hadron spectroscopy fundamental research. These are the existing BES III experiment, from which data from charmonium decay are analyzed and the future PANDA experiment, for which in this thesis the readout of the forward end cap of the electromagnetic calorimeter is developed. In the first part the radiative decays of ψ(2S) and J/ψ into γ(π{sup +}π{sup -}η) are analyzed for the study of the η(1405) meson. This state is considered as possible glueball candidate, because among others the pseudoscalar-meson nonet with the η(1405), η(1295), and η(1475) is overoccupied by one particle and other experiments assign to the η(1405) a large gluonic contribution. The production of the η(1475) can, as confirmed by other experiments, ot be observed in the decay into π{sup +}π{sup -}η.The η(1295) however is identified in the framework of a partial-wave analysis in the decay J/ψ→γπ{sup +}π{sup -}η. This succeeded previously only in the DM2 experiment, indeed with distinctly lower statistics and corresponding uncertainties. A possible solution of the problem of the overoccupation, the non-existence of the η(1295), cannot be confirmed by the results presented in this thesis. Furthermore the branching ratios of different decays are determined. The high event-rate allows to determine some decay probabilities for the first time respectively clearly more precisely. The partial waves contributing in the decay J/ψ→γπ{sup +}π{sup -}η can be determined by a mass-independent partial-wave analysis and brought into connection with known resonances. In the second part of the thesis the development and optimization of the photodetector-preamplifier units used for the readout of the forward end cap of the electromagnetic calorimeter are shown. A manifold of these detector-units were produced for a prototype of the forward end cap and tested in subsequent test-beam times under real
Elastic scattering of 12C by 28Si
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.M.; Maher, J.V.; Chiou, M.S.; Jordan, W.J.; Peng, J.C.; Oelert, W.; Gunn, G.D.; Snyder, F.D.
1979-01-01
12 C + 28 Si elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured at twenty-three bombarding energies over a range 19 MeV 0 in the bombarding energy range 30--40 MeV. No optical potential has been found to give a good account of all the data; the best potential is a surface transparent Woods-Saxon potential which has energy dependences for both real and imaginary well depths. Examination of potentials which give reasonably good fits to the 36 MeV data shows that, although these potentials agree on a real well depth at a reasonable ''strong absorption radius,'' they can have quite different Argand diagrams: even in the range of the most sensitive partial waves. A Regge analysis finds several equally good families of Regge parameters for the same choice of background potential, but larger angle data might allow this ambiguity to be lifted. A Breit-Wigner analysis gives results which are at least partially consistent with the resonance parameters reported by Ost et al. Coupled-channel calculations with a 20% reduction of real and imaginary optical model well depths give a good account of inelastic scattering to the 28 Si 2 + state while leaving the elastic scattering essentially unchanged from the predictions of the unmodified one-channel optical model. In the energy range of this study the grazing partial wave is found to be the same as the most important exit channel partial wave of the 24 Mg( 16 O, 12 C) 28 Si ground state transition
A Data Analysis Center for Electromagnetic and Hadronic Interaction. Products of the DAC members
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briscoe, William John [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Strakovsky, Igor I. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Workman, Ronald L. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
2015-08-31
The Data Analysis Center (DAC) of the Center for Nuclear Studies (CNS) at the George Washington University (GW) has made significant progress in its program to enhance and expand the partial-wave (and multipole) analyses of fundamental two- and three-body reactions (such as pion-nucleon, photon-nucleon, and nucleon-nucleon scattering) by maintaining and augmenting the analysis codes and databases associated with these reactions. These efforts provide guidance to experimental groups at the international level, forming an important link between theory and experiment. A renaissance in light hadron spectroscopy is underway as a continuous stream of polarization data issues from existing precision electromagnetic facilities and the coming Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade. Our principal goals have been focused on supporting the national N* resonance physics program. We have also continued to study topics more generally related to the problems associated with partial-wave analysis. On the Experimental side of the CNS DAC. Its primary goal is the enhancement of the body of data necessary for our analyses of fundamental γ - N reactions. We perform experiments that study the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon and its excitations. Our principal focus is on the N* programs at JLab and MAMI. At JLab we study spin-polarization observables using polarized photons, protons and neutrons and yielding charged final states. Similarly at MAMI we study neutral meson photoproduction off polarized protons and neutrons. We use the Crystal Ball and TAPS spectrometers (CBT) to detect photons and neutrons to measure the photoproduction of π0, η, 2π0, π0η, and K0 off the neutron. The CBT program complements our program at JLab, which studies reactions resulting in charged final states. We are also involved in a renewed effort to make neutral pion photoproduction measurements close to threshold at Mainz. In addition to the programs underway, we are contributing to
Observation of pseudoscalar and tensor resonances in J/psi -> gamma phi phi
Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Tiemens, M.
2016-01-01
Based on a sample of (1310.6 +/- 10.5) x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring, a partial wave analysis of the decay J/psi -> gamma phi phi is performed in order to study the intermediate states. Results of the partial wave analysis show that the
Corden, M J; Bellamy, E H; Corbett, I F; Dagan, S; Dowell, John D; Esterling, R J; Garvey, J; Gnat, Y; Green, M G; Harnew, N; Jobes, M; Kenyon, I R; Lipman, Norman H; Lister, J B; Lister, J R; Litchfield, P J; March, P V; Mawson, J; McMahon, T; Robertson, A W; Stacey, B J; Strong, J A; Sumorok, K; Thomas, D H
1978-01-01
Data on the reaction pi /sup -/p to pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/n have been taken at 12 and 15 GeV/c with the CERN Omega multiparticle spectrometer. In a 3-pion partial-wave analysis strong production of A /sub 2//sup 0/ (1310) and omega * (1675) is observed. Total and differential cross sections are determined and density matrix elements presented as a function of t in the t- and s-channel frames. The energy dependence of A/sub 2//sup 0/ production is studied, and a comparison of omega (780), A/sub 2//sup 0/ (1310) and omega * (1675) production is made. (15 refs).
What is the right formalism to search for resonances?
Mikhasenko, M.; Pilloni, A.; Nys, J.; Albaladejo, M.; Fernández-Ramírez, C.; Jackura, A.; Mathieu, V.; Sherrill, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Szczepaniak, A. P.
2018-03-01
Hadron decay chains constitute one of the main sources of information on the QCD spectrum. We discuss the differences between several partial wave analysis formalisms used in the literature to build the amplitudes. We match the helicity amplitudes to the covariant tensor basis. Hereby, we pay attention to the analytical properties of the amplitudes and separate singularities of kinematical and dynamical nature. We study the analytical properties of the spin-orbit (LS) formalism, and some of the covariant tensor approaches. In particular, we explicitly build the amplitudes for the B→ ψ π K and B→ \\bar{D}π π decays, and show that the energy dependence of the covariant approach is model dependent. We also show that the usual recursive construction of covariant tensors explicitly violates crossing symmetry, which would lead to different resonance parameters extracted from scattering and decay processes.
Eikonal phase shift analyses of carbon-carbon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Townsend, L.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.; Wilson, J.W.
1983-01-01
A high-energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series is used to determine eikonal phase shifts for carbon-carbon scattering at 204.2, 242.7, and 288.6 MeV. The double-folding potentials are obtained by folding the energy-dependent free nucleon-nucleon interaction with densities for the projectile and target obtained by unfolding the finite nucleon charge density from harmonic-well carbon charge distributions. The charge parameters for the latter are taken from the results of electron scattering experiments. Predictions for total, reaction, and elastic differential cross sections, using standard partial wave analysis for the scattering of identical particles, are made and compared with recent experimental results. Excellent agreement is obtained although there are no arbitrarily adjusted parameters in the theory
Dalitz Plot Analysis of the Decay B+ -> K+K+K-
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvoretskii, Alexei; /SLAC /Caltech
2006-05-05
The authors perform an analysis of the three-body charmless decay B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}}K{sup {+-}}K{sup {-+}} using a sample of 226.0 {+-} 2.5 million B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector and measure the total branching fraction and Cp asymmetry to be {beta} = (35.2 {+-} 0.9 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup -6} and A{sub CP} = (-1.7 {+-} 2.6 {+-} 1.5)%. They fit the Dalitz plot distribution using an isobar model and report the measured values of magnitudes and phases of the production coefficients. The decay dynamics is dominated by the K{sup +}K{sup -} S-wave, for which we perform a partial-wave analysis in the region m(K{sup +}K{sup -}) < 2 GeV/c{sup 2}. They find no evidence of CP violation for individual components of the isobar model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vicent Granado, D.; Gutierrez Ramos, S. M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Santos Rubio, A. J.; Herrador Cordoba, M.
2013-07-01
The response of the radiochromic film XRQA2 depends on the peak voltage, as well as filtration and measurement with or without backscatter. The common method of using a calibration from the kerma in air to measure the dose at the entrance of patients is not the most advisable for this film in this dose range. Whenever possible should be the calibration with the spectrum of X rays for which will be the measurement of absorbed dose. (Author)
Tsikas, Dimitrios; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Hanff, Erik; Mitschke, Anja; Beckmann, Bibiana; Tillmann, Hanns-Christian; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Müller, Meike; Bernasconi, Corrado
2017-02-01
GC-MS and GC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of ibuprofen (d 0 -ibuprofen), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in human plasma using α-methyl- 2 H 3 -4-(isobutyl)phenylacetic acid (d 3 -ibuprofen) as internal standard. Plasma (10μL) was diluted with acetate buffer (80μL, 1M, pH 4.9) and d 0 - and d 3 -ibuprofen were extracted with ethyl acetate (2×500μL). After solvent evaporation d 0 - and d 3 -ibuprofen were derivatized in anhydrous acetonitrile by using pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide and N,N-diisopropylethylamine as the base catalyst. Under electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI), the PFB esters of d 0 - and d 3 -ibuprofen readily ionize to form their carboxylate anions [M-PFB] - at m/z 205 and m/z 208, respectively. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of m/z 205 and m/z 208 resulted in the formation of the anions at m/z 161 and m/z 164, respectively, due to neutral loss of CO 2 (44 Da). A collision energy-dependent H/D isotope effect was observed, which involves abstraction/elimination of H - from d 0 -ibuprofen and D - from d 3 -ibuprofen and is minimum at a CE value of 5eV. Quantitative GC-MS determination was performed by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 205 and m/z 208. Quantitative GC-MS/MS determination was performed by selected-reaction monitoring of the mass transitions m/z 205 to m/z 161 for d 0 -ibuprofen and m/z 208 to m/z 164 for d 3 -ibuprofen. In a therapeutically relevant concentration range (0-1000μM) d 0 -ibuprofen added to human plasma was determined with accuracy (recovery, %) and imprecision (relative standard deviation, %) ranging between 93.7 and 110%, and between 0.8 and 4.9%, respectively. GC-MS (y) and GC-MS/MS (x) yielded almost identical results (y=4.00+0.988x, r 2 =0.9991). In incubation mixtures of arachidonic acid (10μM), d 3 -ibuprofen (10μM) or d 0 -ibuprofen (10μM) with ovine cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms 1 and 2, the concentration of d 3
Odd and even partial waves of eta pi(-) and eta 'pi(-) in pi(-) p -> eta(('))pi(-)p at 191 GeV/c
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, A.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d´Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jörg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, A. D.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 740, 5 JAN (2015), s. 303-311 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : eta-pi * annihilation * resonance * systems * state * rest Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.787, year: 2015
Phase shift analysis of pion-nucleon elastic scattering from the threshold to 2.5 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayed, Rachid.
1976-10-01
An energy-independent phase-shift analysis of pion-nucleon elastic scattering is performed from threshold to 2.5 GeV/c 2 masses. It uses a coherent set of data (cross sections and polarizations for the 3 final states: π + p, π - p and π 0 n) constructed from a considerable number (approximately 30000) of experimental points. Empirical criteria of smoothness behavior with energy of the partial waves allowed to obtain a unique solution, i.e. one set of phases shifts (up to I waves) at each energy. The consistency of the solution has been checked by a dispersion relation on the B invariant amplitude. The partial amplitudes obtained have been fitted separately, as a function of energy, in order to extract resonance from background. New resonances of small elasticity have been identified. Parameters (mass, width and elasticity) of all resonant states are given. A dynamical interpretation of the resonance is discussed and their recurrence in the Chew-Frautschi plot are shown [fr
Chiral dynamics, S-wave contributions and angular analysis in D → ππl anti ν
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Yu-Ji; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Shuai [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China)
2017-07-15
We present a theoretical analysis of the D{sup -} → π{sup +}π{sup -}l anti ν and anti D{sup 0} → π{sup +}π{sup 0}l anti ν decays. We construct a general angular distribution which can include arbitrary partial waves of ππ. Retaining the S-wave and P-wave contributions we study the branching ratios, forward-backward asymmetries and a few other observables. The P-wave contribution is dominated by ρ{sup 0} resonance, and the S-wave contribution is analyzed using the unitarized chiral perturbation theory. The obtained branching fraction for D → ρlν, at the order 10{sup -3}, is consistent with the available experimental data. The S-wave contribution has a branching ratio at the order of 10{sup -4}, and this prediction can be tested by experiments like BESIII and LHCb. Future measurements can also be used to examine the π-π scattering phase shift. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasinski, Prometeusz Kryspin
2012-01-01
explanation of cuts applied to the data, quality studies showing the impact by initial state pions are presented. The model of a two-body decay of resonances into the final states is already motivated by observations of resonances in the invariant mass distributions of K - π + and π + π - track combinations as well as the corresponding Dalitz plots. About 270 000 events served finally as an input to PWA. As Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) needs further information on the available K - π + π - phase space and the spectrometer acceptance of it, a detailed MC simulation study was performed as depicted in chapter 6. There, the methods to simulate the signal response of several detectors are presented, used to process in total 44 million MC decays in the range of 0.8≤m(K - π + π - ) [GeV/c 2 ] - π + π - mass spectrum. The continuous momentum basis of final states was expanded in terms of discreet states with spin, parity and orbital angular momentum. A partial wave set was found with the help of mass independent fit algorithms, able to describe the observed K - π + π - spectrum and it's dynamics in narrow bins of the invariant K - π + π - mass. Individual partial wave resonances are discussed and a proposal for a partial wave amplitude parametrization is made. The results of the mass independent analysis studies are the fundamental basis for a prospective mass dependent fit giving finally the information about poles, widths and coupling constants of contributing resonances.
Tornow, W; Witala, H
2002-01-01
Using the existing high-accuracy data for proton-deuteron and deuteron-proton elastic scattering, a phase-shift analysis has been performed in the laboratory proton energy range from E sub p = 4 to 10 MeV The AV 18-based proton-deuteron phase shifts were used as starting values in the phase-shift search procedure. The low-partial wave phase shifts, especially the sup 4 P sub j phase shifts have been determined very precisely, thus providing valuable guidance for theoretical approaches to tackle the quest for a successful description of three-nucleon bound-state and continuum observables in a more efficient and consistent way. Furthermore, it was found that the sup 4 P sub 1 sub / sub 2 phase shift and the mixing parameter epsilon sub 3 sub / sub 2 sub sup - determined in the present analysis cannot be generated by sup 3 P sub j nucleon-nucleon interactions which are consistent with two-nucleon analyzing power data. Therefore, three-nucleon forces must play an essential role in resolving the long-standing thre...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Kievsky, A.; Witala, H.
2002-01-01
Using the existing high-accuracy data for proton-deuteron and deuteron-proton elastic scattering, a phase-shift analysis has been performed in the laboratory proton energy range from E p = 4 to 10 MeV The AV 18-based proton-deuteron phase shifts were used as starting values in the phase-shift search procedure. The low-partial wave phase shifts, especially the 4 P j phase shifts have been determined very precisely, thus providing valuable guidance for theoretical approaches to tackle the quest for a successful description of three-nucleon bound-state and continuum observables in a more efficient and consistent way. Furthermore, it was found that the 4 P 1/2 phase shift and the mixing parameter ε 3/2 - determined in the present analysis cannot be generated by 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions which are consistent with two-nucleon analyzing power data. Therefore, three-nucleon forces must play an essential role in resolving the long-standing three-nucleon analyzing-power puzzle. Refs. 44 (author)
First amplitude analysis of resonant structures in the 5-pion continuum at COMPASS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neubert, Sebastian
2012-07-06
The study of hadronic scattering amplitudes and in particular the spectroscopy of light mesons provide a unique tool to investigate the strong interaction. At very lowenergies the meson spectrum is governed by the spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry of the QCD vacuum. At higher masses a series of resonances appears. Their origin and their relation to chiral symmetry breaking is only partly understood. In particular for masses above {proportional_to} 1.6 GeV/c{sup 2} while a large number of states have been reported they are still poorly known experimentally. One complication are multi-body final states into which heavy mesons can decay. In this thesis a method for the amplitude analysis of the {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system is being developed. The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses the diffractive dissociation of a 190 GeV pion beam as a source of meson resonances up to masses of about 3 GeV/c{sup 2}. A partial wave decomposition of the 5{pi} system is presented here which for the first time allows to search for mesonic 5-body resonances. A novel technique based on an evolutionary algorithm is developed to solve the problem of finding a reliable truncation of the partial wave expansion of the hadronic amplitude. The method for the first time allows the investigation of systematic uncertainties introduced by the use truncated isobar model amplitudes. The well known {pi}{sub 2}(1670) and {pi}(1800) states are found with good agreement to measurements in other channels. In addition there is evidence for several other resonant contributions, among them the controversial {pi}{sub 2}(1880) which is being discussed as a hybrid-meson candidate. In the course of the analysis a new software-framework for amplitude analysis has been developed, which is now being used by the COMPASS collaboration for the analysis of several hadronic channels. Future experiments in particle physics will have to collect large amounts of data in order to
Coupled-channel analysis of nucleon scattering from 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaroche, J.P.; Honore, G.M.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.
1985-05-01
Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron scattering from 40 Ca have been measured at TUNL in the 10-17 MeV energy range. These measurements and other σ(theta) and σsub(T) measurements, as well as available 40 Ca+p data, have been combined together in a coupled-channel analysis in order to trace the properties (energy dependencies, spin-orbit potentials, deformation parameters) of the nucleon + 40 Ca potential up to 80 MeV
Coupled-channel analysis of nucleon scattering from 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaroche, J.-P.; Honore, G.M.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.
1986-01-01
Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron scattering from 40 Ca have been measured at TUNL in the 10-17 MeV energy range. These measurements and other σ(theta) and σsub(T) measurements, as well as available 40 Ca+p data, have been combined together in a coupled-channel analysis in order to trace the properties (energy dependencies, spin-orbit potentials, deformation parameters) of the nucleon + 40 Ca potential up to 80 MeV. (author)
Photoproduction of ω mesons off the proton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Wilson
2015-10-01
These data were included in the Bonn–Gatchina partial wave analysis (PWA. The dominant contribution to ω photoproduction near threshold was found to be the 3/2+ partial wave, which is primarily due to the sub-threshold N(17203/2+ resonance. At higher energies, pomeron-exchange was found to dominate whereas π-exchange remained small. These t-channel contributions as well as further contributions from nucleon resonances were necessary to describe the entire dataset: the 1/2−, 3/2−, and 5/2+ partial waves were also found to contribute significantly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jasinski, Prometeusz Kryspin
2012-01-02
}{sup -} events is shown in chapter 5. Apart from the detailed explanation of cuts applied to the data, quality studies showing the impact by initial state pions are presented. The model of a two-body decay of resonances into the final states is already motivated by observations of resonances in the invariant mass distributions of K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} track combinations as well as the corresponding Dalitz plots. About 270 000 events served finally as an input to PWA. As Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) needs further information on the available K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} phase space and the spectrometer acceptance of it, a detailed MC simulation study was performed as depicted in chapter 6. There, the methods to simulate the signal response of several detectors are presented, used to process in total 44 million MC decays in the range of 0.8{<=}m(K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) [GeV/c{sup 2}]<3.0. Finally all information from event selection and MC studies was combined in the PWA to observe resonances, suspected to contribute to the invariant K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mass spectrum. The continuous momentum basis of final states was expanded in terms of discreet states with spin, parity and orbital angular momentum. A partial wave set was found with the help of mass independent fit algorithms, able to describe the observed K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} spectrum and it's dynamics in narrow bins of the invariant K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mass. Individual partial wave resonances are discussed and a proposal for a partial wave amplitude parametrization is made. The results of the mass independent analysis studies are the fundamental basis for a prospective mass dependent fit giving finally the information about poles, widths and coupling constants of contributing resonances.
K-matrix analysis of the (IJ sup P sup C = 00 sup + sup +)-wave in the mass region below 1900 MeV
Anisovich, V V
2003-01-01
We present the results of the current analysis of the partial wave IJ sup P sup C =00 sup + sup + based on the available data for meson spectra (pi pi, K anti K, eta eta, eta eta sup ' ,pi pi pi pi). In the framework of the K-matrix approach, the analytical amplitude has been reconstructed in the mass region 280 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jasinski, Prometeusz Kryspin
2012-01-02
}{sup -} events is shown in chapter 5. Apart from the detailed explanation of cuts applied to the data, quality studies showing the impact by initial state pions are presented. The model of a two-body decay of resonances into the final states is already motivated by observations of resonances in the invariant mass distributions of K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} track combinations as well as the corresponding Dalitz plots. About 270 000 events served finally as an input to PWA. As Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) needs further information on the available K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} phase space and the spectrometer acceptance of it, a detailed MC simulation study was performed as depicted in chapter 6. There, the methods to simulate the signal response of several detectors are presented, used to process in total 44 million MC decays in the range of 0.8{<=}m(K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) [GeV/c{sup 2}]<3.0. Finally all information from event selection and MC studies was combined in the PWA to observe resonances, suspected to contribute to the invariant K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mass spectrum. The continuous momentum basis of final states was expanded in terms of discreet states with spin, parity and orbital angular momentum. A partial wave set was found with the help of mass independent fit algorithms, able to describe the observed K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} spectrum and it's dynamics in narrow bins of the invariant K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mass. Individual partial wave resonances are discussed and a proposal for a partial wave amplitude parametrization is made. The results of the mass independent analysis studies are the fundamental basis for a prospective mass dependent fit giving finally the information about poles, widths and coupling constants of contributing resonances.
ENERGY RELAXATION OF HELIUM ATOMS IN ASTROPHYSICAL GASES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V.; Zhang, P.
2012-01-01
We report accurate parameters describing energy relaxation of He atoms in atomic gases, important for astrophysics and atmospheric science. Collisional energy exchange between helium atoms and atomic constituents of the interstellar gas, heliosphere, and upper planetary atmosphere has been investigated. Energy transfer rates, number of collisions required for thermalization, energy distributions of recoil atoms, and other major parameters of energy relaxation for fast He atoms in thermal H, He, and O gases have been computed in a broad interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. This energy interval is important for astrophysical applications involving the energy deposition of energetic atoms and ions into atmospheres of planets and exoplanets, atmospheric evolution, and analysis of non-equilibrium processes in the interstellar gas and heliosphere. Angular- and energy-dependent cross sections, required for an accurate description of the momentum-energy transfer, are obtained using ab initio interaction potentials and quantum mechanical calculations for scattering processes. Calculation methods used include partial wave analysis for collisional energies below 2 keV and the eikonal approximation at energies higher than 100 eV, keeping a significant energy region of overlap, 0.1-2 keV, between these two methods for their mutual verification. The partial wave method and the eikonal approximation excellently match results obtained with each other as well as experimental data, providing reliable cross sections in the astrophysically important interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. Analytical formulae, interpolating obtained energy- and angular-dependent cross sections, are presented to simplify potential applications of the reported database. Thermalization of fast He atoms in the interstellar gas and energy relaxation of hot He and O atoms in the upper atmosphere of Mars are considered as illustrative examples of potential applications of the new database.
Direct determinations of the πNN coupling constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, T.E.O.; ); Loiseau, B.
1998-01-01
A novel extrapolation method has been used to deduce directly the charged πNN coupling constant from backward np differential scattering cross sections. The extracted value, g c 2 = 14.52(026)is higher than the indirectly deduced values obtained in nucleon-nucleon energy-dependent partial-wave analyses. Our preliminary direct value from a reanalysis of the GMO sum-rule points to an intermediate value of g c 2 about 13.97(30). (author)
Phase-shift analysis in pion-/sup 4/He elastic scattering. [60 to 260 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falomkin, I V; Nichitiu, F; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shcherbakov, YU A [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR); Balestra, F; Bollini, E [Turin Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica
1978-02-21
An energy-independent phase-shift analysis (PSA) of the elastic scattering of pions on /sup 4/He, in the energy range 60 to 260 MeV has been performed. All possible solutions, arising from the phase-shift analysis ambiguity, have been analyzed. Particular care has been taken in the choice of the physical solution. The calculated phase shifts have been compared with the results of the energy-dependent phase-shift analysis (EDPSA) and with the optical-model predictions.
Development of a novel neutron detector for imaging and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darambara, D.G.; Beach, A.C.; Spyrou, N.M.
1993-01-01
A hardware system employing dynamic Random Access Memory (dRAM) has been designed to make possible the detection of neutrons. One recognised difficulty with dynamic memory devices is the alpha-particle problem. That is alpha-particle 'contamination' present within the dRAM encapsulating material may interact sufficiently as to corrupt stored data. These corruptions, 'known as soft errors', may be induced in dRAMs by the interaction of charged particles with the chip itself as a basis for system function. A preliminary feasibility study has been carried out to use dynamic RAMs as alpha-particle detectors. The initial system tests provide information upon detection efficiency, soft error reading rate, energy dependence of the soft error rate and the soft error reading rate, energy dependence of the soft error rate and the soft error operating bias relationship. These findings highlight the usefulness of such a device in neutron dosimetry, imaging and analysis, by using a neutron converter with a high cross section for the (n, α) capture reaction. (author) 20 refs.; 8 figs
Coupled-channel analysis of nucleon scattering from /sup 40/Ca
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delaroche, J.-P.; Honore, G.M.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.
1986-01-01
Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron scattering from /sup 40/Ca have been measured at TUNL in the 10-17 MeV energy range. These measurements and other sigma(theta) and sigmasub(T) measurements, as well as available /sup 40/Ca+p data, have been combined together in a coupled-channel analysis in order to trace the properties (energy dependencies, spin-orbit potentials, deformation parameters) of the nucleon + /sup 40/Ca potential up to 80 MeV.
Coupled-channel analysis of nucleon scattering from /sup 40/Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaroche, J.P.; Honore, G.M.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.
1985-01-01
Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron scattering from /sup 40/Ca have been measured at TUNL in the 10-17 MeV energy range. These measurements and other σ(θ) and σ/sub T/ measurements, as well as available /sup 40/Ca+p data, have been combined together in a coupled-channel analysis in order to trace the properties (energy dependencies, spin-orbit potentials, deformation parameters) of the nucleon + /sup 40/Ca potential up to 80 MeV
ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda
2013-01-01
We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.
Beam Energy Dependence of the Third Harmonic of Azimuthal Correlations in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, J.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2016-03-01
We present results from a harmonic decomposition of two-particle azimuthal correlations measured with the STAR detector in Au +Au collisions for energies ranging from √{sN N }=7.7 to 200 GeV. The third harmonic v32{2 }=⟨cos 3 (ϕ1-ϕ2)⟩ , where ϕ1-ϕ2 is the angular difference in azimuth, is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity difference between particle pairs Δ η =η1-η2 . Nonzero v32{2 } is directly related to the previously observed large-Δ η narrow-Δ ϕ ridge correlations and has been shown in models to be sensitive to the existence of a low viscosity quark gluon plasma phase. For sufficiently central collisions, v32{2 } persist down to an energy of 7.7 GeV, suggesting that quark gluon plasma may be created even in these low energy collisions. In peripheral collisions at these low energies, however, v32{2 } is consistent with zero. When scaled by the pseudorapidity density of charged-particle multiplicity per participating nucleon pair, v32{2 } for central collisions shows a minimum near √{sN N }=20 GeV .
OPERA-reassessing data on the energy dependence of the speed of neutrinos
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Loret, Niccoló; Mercati, Flavio; Rosati, Giacomo; Lipari, Paolo
2011-01-01
We offer a preliminary exploration of the two sides of the challenge provided by the recent OPERA data on superluminal neutrinos. On one side we stress that some aspects of this result are puzzling even from the perspective of the wild quantum-gravity literature, where arguments in favor of the possibility of superluminal propagation have been presented, but not considering the possibility of such a sizeable effect for neutrinos of such low energies. We feel this must encourage particularly severe scrutiny of the OPERA result. On the other side, we notice that the OPERA result is reasonably consistent with $\\mu$-neutrino-speed data previously obtained at FERMILAB, reported in papers of 2007 and 1979. And it is intriguing that these FERMILAB79 and FERMILAB07 results, when combined with the new OPERA result, in principle provide a window on $\\mu$-neutrino speeds at different energies broad enough to compare alternative phenomenological models. We test the discriminating power of such an approach by using as ill...
The geopolitics of renewables : A mere shift or landslide in energy dependencies?
Scholten, D.J.; Bosman, R.
2013-01-01
Renewable energy sources are often hailed as the panacea for a plethora of challenges associated with the use of fossil fuels. Partly for good reasons; while the utilization of renewables diminishes energy scarcity and lowers various kinds of pollution, their potential to address energy related
Energy Dependence: The $1.4 Trillion Addiction Threatening National Security
2010-02-01
shared by executives from major automobile manufacturers to include General Motors, Honda, Nissan and Toyota .52 Toyota , for example, is currently leasing...going away. The vehicles and fuels people use to travel and move goods will have to change in order to solve the problem. 9 Figure 1: Toyota Motor...the viability of new automobile products. Toyota Motor Company and the DOE National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), for example, used California to
Energy dependent features of X-ray signals in a GridPix detector
Krieger, C.; Kaminski, J.; Vafeiadis, T.; Desch, K.
2018-06-01
We report on the calibration of an argon/isobutane (97.7%/2.3%)-filled GridPix detector with soft X-rays (277 eV to 8 keV) using the variable energy X-ray source of the CAST Detector Lab at CERN. We study the linearity and energy resolution of the detector using both the number of pixels hit and the total measured charge as energy measures. For the latter, the energy resolution σE / E is better than 10% (20%) for energies above 2 keV (0.5 keV). Several characteristics of the recorded events are studied.
Fermi energy dependence of the optical emission in core/shell InAs nanowire homostructures
Möller, M.; Oliveira, D. S.; Sahoo, P. K.; Cotta, M. A.; Iikawa, F.; Motisuke, P.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.
2017-07-01
InAs nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method are investigated by photoluminescence. We observe that the Fermi energy of all samples is reduced by ˜20 meV when the size of the Au nanoparticle used for catalysis is increased from 5 to 20 nm. Additional capping with a thin InP shell enhances the optical emission and does not affect the Fermi energy. The unexpected behavior of the Fermi energy is attributed to the differences in the residual donor (likely carbon) incorporation in the axial (low) and lateral (high incorporation) growth in the VLS and vapor-solid (VS) methods, respectively. The different impurity incorporation rate in these two regions leads to a core/shell InAs homostructure. In this case, the minority carriers (holes) diffuse to the core due to the built-in electric field created by the radial impurity distribution. As a result, the optical emission is dominated by the core region rather than by the more heavily doped InAs shell. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra and the Fermi energy become sensitive to the core diameter. These results are corroborated by a theoretical model using a self-consistent method to calculate the radial carrier distribution and Fermi energy for distinct diameters of Au nanoparticles.
Measurement of the energy dependence of the form factor $f_{+}$ in $K^{0}_{e3}$ decay
Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D
2000-01-01
Neutral-kaon decays to \\pielnu\\ % recorded by the CPLEAR experimentwere analysed to determine the $q^2$ dependence of the \\Kzet\\ electroweak form factor $f_+$. Based on $365\\,612$ events,this form factor was found to have a linear dependence on $q^2$with a slope $\\lambda_+ = 0.0245 \\pm 0.0012_{\\text{stat}} \\pm 0.0022_{\\text{syst}}$.
Research on nitrogen implantation energy dependence of the properties of SIMON materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, E.X.; Sun, J.Y.; Chen, J.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Zh.X.; Li, N.; Zhang, G.Q.; Wang, X.
2006-01-01
With different implantation energies, nitrogen ions were implanted into SIMOX wafers in our work. And then the wafers were subsequently annealed to form separated by implantation of oxygen and nitrogen (SIMON) wafers. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to observe the distribution of nitrogen and oxygen in the wafers. The result of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was suggested by the dandling bonds densities in the wafers changed with N ions implantation energies. SIMON-based SIS capacitors were made. The results of the C-V test confirmed that the energy of nitrogen implantation affects the properties of the wafers, and the optimum implantation energy was determined
Measurement of the energy dependence of X-ray-induced decomposition of potassium chlorate.
Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Sneed, Daniel; Park, Changyong
2013-03-21
We report the first measurements of the X-ray induced decomposition of KClO3 as a function of energy in two experiments. KClO3 was pressurized to 3.5 GPa and irradiated with monochromatic synchrotron X-rays ranging in energy from 15 to 35 keV in 5 keV increments. A systematic increase in the decomposition rate as the energy was decreased was observed, which agrees with the 1/E(3) trend for the photoelectric process, except at the lowest energy studied. A second experiment was performed to access lower energies (10 and 12 keV) using a beryllium gasket; suggesting an apparent resonance near 15 keV or 0.83 Ǻ maximizing the chemical decomposition rate. A third experiment was performed using KIO3 to ascertain the anionic dependence of the decomposition rate, which was observed to be far slower than in KClO3, suggesting that the O-O distance is the critical factor in chemical reactions. These results will be important for more efficiently initiating chemical decomposition in materials using selected X-ray wavelengths that maximize decomposition to aid useful hard X-ray-induced chemistry and contribute understanding of the mechanism of X-ray-induced decomposition of the chlorates.
Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design
Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A; Stanek, R
2012-01-01
We present a study of Single Event Upsets (SEU) performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip for switching power supplies. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and present a solution using external circuitry to effectively eliminate the effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beerten, K.; Vanhavere, F.
2010-01-01
New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to 60 Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity. (authors)
Energy dependence of the analyzing power Ayo in the anti p p elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertini, R.
1991-01-01
The analysing power data A yo of the anti p p elastic scattering at six beam momenta from P lab = 439 MeV/c up to 988 MeV/c are plotted as a function of In(-t). The regularities shown by the data are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thekkayil, Remyamol [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Gopinath, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India)
2014-08-01
Solid films of cube-like polyaniline synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization method have been fabricated in a transparent PMMA host by an in situ free radical polymerization technique, and are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties are studied by open aperture Z-scan technique employing 5 ns (532 nm) and 100 fs (800 nm) laser pulses. At the relatively lower laser pulse energy of 5 μJ, the film shows saturable absorption both in the nanosecond and femtosecond excitation domains. An interesting switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed at 532 nm when the energy of the nanosecond laser pulses is increased. The nonlinear absorption coefficient increases with increase in polyaniline concentration, with low optical limiting threshold, as required for a good optical limiter. - Highlights: • Synthesized cube-like polyaniline nanostructures. • Fabricated polyaniline/PMMA nanocomposite films. • At 5 μJ energy, saturable absorption is observed both at ns and fs regime. • Switchover from SA to RSA is observed as energy of laser beam increases. • Film (0.1 wt % polyaniline) shows high β{sub eff} (230 cm GW{sup −1}) and low limiting threshold at 150 μJ.
Mass- and energy-dependence of (π+,π-) double isobaric analog transitions at low energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderl, T.
1988-01-01
Transitions to double isobaric analog states (DIAT) have been measured in the double charge exchange (DCX) reaction (π + ,π - ) for the nuclei 26 Mg, 56 Fe at Tsub(π+) = 49 MeV and for 18 O at Tsub(π+) = 24 MeV, 33 MeV, 49 MeV, 64 MeV and 79 MeV for several angles. The experiments have been performed at the pion channels M13 and M11 of TRIUMF using the low energy pion spectrometer QQD. The forward angle cross sections for 18 O can be understood in a quark model as well as in conventional models where the reaction is mainly proceeding through intermediate deltas or low lying excited states of the intermediate nucleus. The angular distribution of 26 Mg at 49 MeV is found to be almost identical to those of 14 C and 18 O while the cross section remarkedly drops for 56 Fe. The forward angle excitation function of 18 O exhibits a maximum at around 35 MeV. The present results are compared to theoretical predictions. Two approaches for a unified study of SCX and DCX at energies ranging from 20 MeV up to 300 MeV are presented. The first is carried out in a mean free path model for investigations of geometry effects in the reaction. For the second, the optical model code PIESDEX is employed. Both studies indicate that the observed mass dependence for DCX at 50 MeV can be explained partly by geometry considerations and partly by details in the nuclear matter distributions of core neutrons and valence neutrons. Furthermore, the optical model investigation reveals the need of shifting the free πN-SCX amplitude down by 30 MeV in order to achieve good agreement with experimental data. (orig.)
Beam energy dependence of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otuka, Naohiko; Isse, Masatsugu; Ohnishi, Akira; Pradip Kumar Sahu; Nara, Yasushi
2002-01-01
We study radial flow and elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies from GSI-SIS to BNL-RHIC energies using hadronic cascade model JAM. The excitation function of radial flow shows the softening of hadronic matter from BNL-AGS to CERN-SPS energies. JAM model reproduces transverse mass spectra at BNL-AGS, CERN-SPS at BNL-RHIC energies as well as elliptic flow upto CERN-SPS. For elliptic flow at BNL-RHIC energy (√s=130 GeV), while JAM gives the enough flow at fragment region, it fails at mid rapidity. (author)
Incident energy dependence of collision dynamics in A+A reactions from AGS to SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nara, Yasushi
2000-01-01
Based on the hadronic transport model of JAM, I calculate the time evolution of particles, density, temperature and energy density for the heavy ion collision at the incident energies of AGS(11A GeV), JHF(25A GeV) and SPS(158A GeV). Microscopic calculations show that resonance matter with extremely large baryon density is created at AGS energy, while at JHF energy, quark matter with extremely large baryon density is suggested. At SPS energy, quark matter with large baryon density might be created. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuemmel, R
1980-01-01
In Part I the industrial process is analysed and a functional, quantitative definition of capital, by which (instrumental) capital is related to automation is proposed. In this way capital can be defined and measured precisely in terms of physical work done and information processes by machines. Pollution, defined as entropy increase in the economic system, is considered in its various manifestations and taken into account by a product of specific pollution functions. In Part II the role of creativity as a generator of growth intervals and system-characteristics is discussed. The conditions of integrability of the equation of growth are pointed out, thus elucidating the requirements for the existence of a production function which unequivocally depends upon capital, labor and energy. This results in a set of differential equations for the elasticities of production. The states of total automation and full capital employment are analyzed and the extremum principles which govern the quantitative input of the production factors are given. In Part III the dependence of the elasticities of production on the factors of production are examined with the help of the integrability conditions. The path of balanced economic growth is analyzed along which the growth of production within a growth-interval is described by a Cobb-Douglas production function. Scenarios of energy crises are calculated, and simple estimates are given.
Energy dependence of the 3He(3He,π+)6Li reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Bornec, Y.; Hibou, F.; Bimbot, L.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J.C.; Reide, F.; Tatischeff, B.; Willis, N.; Aslanides, E.; Bergdolt, G.; Fassnacht, P.; Racca, C.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.
1983-01-01
The 3 He( 3 He, π + ) 6 Li reaction has been studied as a function of energy using the 3 He beam at SATURNE. Cross sections for the 6 Li ground state (1 + ) and 2.18 MeV (3 + ) levels have been obtained at 350, 420, 500 and 600 MeV incident energies at angles THETAsub(π)(lab)=15 0 and 40 0 . These results are compared with two theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip
2010-08-01
New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to (60)Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity.
Nuclear Physics——Energy Dependence of String Fragmentation Function and φ Meson Production
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SABen-hao; WANGZhong-qi
2003-01-01
Strangeness enhancement was suggested in the early eighties as one of the most promising signatures for the creation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP) phase in relativistic nuclear collisions.Following the experimental observations on strangeness enhancement in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS energies the WA97 has measured a clear enhancement of multi-strange baryons (Λ, Ξ, Ω )with their strange quark content in 158 AGeV/c Pb+Pb collisions relative to p+Pb collisions.
Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam
Bernabéu, José; Espinoza, Catalina
2008-06-01
The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides | U (e 3) | ≠ 0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) γ = 90 and γ = 195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) γ = 195 and γ = 440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline.
Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernabeu, Jose; Espinoza, Catalina
2008-01-01
The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides |U(e3)|≠0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) γ=90 and γ=195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) γ=195 and γ=440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Uchino, Kiichiro; Muraoka, Katsunori; Maeda, Mitsuo; Akazaki, Masanori; Yamamura, Yasunori.
1986-01-01
The angular distributions of sputtered Fe-atoms were measured using the laser fluorescence technique during Ar-ion bombardment for energies of 0.6, 1, 2 and 3 keV at normal incidence. The measured cosine distribution at 0.6 keV progressively deviated to an over-cosine distribution at higher energies, and at 3 keV the angular distribution was an overcosine distribution of about 20 %. The experimental results agree qualitatively with calculations by a recent computer simulation code, ACAT. The results are explained by the competition between surface scattering and the effects of primary knock-on atoms, which tend to make the angular distributions over-cosine and under-cosine, respectively. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamelander, G.; Sigmar, D.; Woloch, F.
1991-09-01
This report resumes the essential results of a common OEFZS/MIT (Plasma Fusion Center) project to investigate fusion alpha transport. A computer code has been developed going beyond standard FOKKER-PLANCK-codes assuming that the fusion products give their energy to the plasma on the place of their birth. The present transport code admits the calculation of the α-distribution function. By means of the distribution function the energy deposition rates are calculated. The time-evolution of the α-distribution function has been evaluated for an ignited plasma. A description of the transport code, of the subroutines and of the input data as well as a listing is enclosed to this report. (Authors)
Beam energy dependence of d and d ‾ production in Au+Au collisions at RHIC
Yu, Ning; STAR Collaboration
2017-11-01
The binding energy of light nuclei is small compared to the temperature of the system created in heavy-ion collisions. Consequently, the yields of light nuclei can be used to probe the freeze-out properties, such as correlation volume and local baryon density of the medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. In this paper, we report the results of deuteron and anti-deuteron production in Au+Au collision at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV, measured by STAR at RHIC. The collision energy, centrality and transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameter B2 for deuteron and anti-deuteron production are discussed. We find the values of B2 for anti-deuterons are systematically lower than those for deuterons indicating the correlation volume of anti-baryon are larger than that of baryon. In addition, the values of B2 are found to vary with collision energy and show a broad minimum around √{sNN} = 20GeV, implying a change of the equation of state of the medium in these collisions.
In-situ observation of the energy dependence of defect production in Cu and Ni
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, W.E.; Merkel, K.L.; Baily, A.C.; Haga, K.; Meshii, M.
1983-01-01
The damage function, the average number of Frenkel pairs created as a function of lattice atom recoil energy, was investigated in Cu and Ni using in-situ electrical-resistivity damage-rate measurements in the high-voltage electron micrscope (HVEM) at T < 10K. Electron and proton irradiations were performed in-situ on the same polycrystalline specimens using the Argonne National Laboratory HVEM-Ion Beam Interface. Both Ni and Cu exhibit a sharp rise in the damage function above the minimum threshold energy (approx. 18 eV for Cu and approx. 20 eV for Ni) as displacements in the low-threshold energy regions of the threshold energy surface become possible. A plateau is observed for both materials (0.54 Frenkel pairs for Cu and 0.46 Frenkel pairs for Ni) indicating that no further directions become productive until much higher recoil energies. These damage functions show strong deviations from simple theoretical models, such as the Modified Kinchin-Pease damage function. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of defect production that govern the single-displacement regime of the damage function and are compared with results from recent molecular-dynamics simulations
Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monoatomic solids at normal incidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamura, Yasunori; Tawara, Hiro.
1995-03-01
The yields of the ion-induced sputtering from monoatomic solids at normal incidence for various ion-target combinations are presented graphically as a function of the incident ion energy. In order to fill the lack of the experimental data, the sputtering yields are also calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT for some ion-target combinations. Each graph shows available experimental data points and the ACAT data, together with the sputtering yields calculated by the present empirical formula, whose parameters are determined by the best-fit to available data. (author)
Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton Multiplicity Distributions at RHIC
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C.; Aparin, A. A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Barnovská, Zuzana; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Hajková, O.; Pachr, M.; Rusňák, Jan; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David; Vértési, Robert
2014-01-01
Roč. 112, č. 3 (2014), 032302 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20841S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR * heavy ion collisions * proton and antiproton production Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014
Gkouzou, A.; Kokorian, J.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; van Spengen, W.M.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we report on the influence of capillary condensation on the sliding friction of sidewall surfaces in polycrystalline silicon micro-electromechanical
systems (MEMS). We developed a polycrystalline silicon MEMS tribometer, which is a microscale test device with two components
Flux and energy dependence of methane production from graphite due to H+ impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Stangeby, P.C.
1986-06-01
Carbon is in widespread use for limiter surfaces, as well as first wall coatings in current tokamaks. Chemical erosion via methane formation, due to energetic H + impact, is expected to contribute to the total erosion rate of carbon from these surfaces. Experimental results are presented for the methane yield from pyrolytic graphite due to H + exposure, using a mass analyzed ion beam. H + energies of 0.1-3 keV and flux densities of ∼ 5x10 13 to l0 16 H + /cm 2 s were used. The measured methane yield (CH 4 /H + ) initially increases with flux density, then reaches a maximum, which is followed by a gradual decrease. The magnitude of the maximum yield and the flux density at which it occurs depends on the graphite temperature. The yields obtained at temperatures corresponding to yield maxima at specific flux densities also show an initial increase, followed by a shallow maximum and a gradual decrease as a function of flux density; the maximum occurs at ∼10 15 H + /cm 2 s. Also presented are results on the methane production dependence on ion energy over the range 0.1 to 3 keV, and graphite temperature dependence measurements
Calculation of the energy-dependent efficiency of gridded 3He fast-neutron ionization chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prussin, S.G.
1982-01-01
Research and development activities under this contract proceeded along several lines, including development of a gas jet facility for the transport and isolation of fission product activities with half lives in the range T/sub 1/2/ less than or equal to 2 sec, studies on the factors affecting the energy and timing resolution of gridded 3 He ionization detectors for delayed neutron spectroscopy and the development of simple models for calculation of the beta-decay characteristics of short-lived fission products near A = 90. Brief outlines of the activities in the areas are given
Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousef, Hazem
2011-01-01
A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)
Measurement of the energy dependent beta asymmetry in the decay of 8Li
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigelow, R.A.; Quin, P.A.; Freedman, S.J.; Napolitano, J.
1985-01-01
Progress is reported on a new measurement of the beta decay asymmetry in 8 Li. Polarized 8 Li is produced via the reaction 7 Li(d,p) 8 Li using vector polarized deuterons from a crossed beam polarized source. Plastic scintillation electron counters are used to measure asymmetry, tensor polarization correlation and to monitor beam current. Results are graphed and systematic error sources are discussed. 4 refs
Threshold energy dependence as a function of potential strength and the nonexistence of bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aronson, I.; Kleinman, C.J.; Spruch, L.
1975-01-01
The difficulty in attempting to prove that a given set of particles cannot form a bound state is the absence of a margin of error; the possibility of a bound state of arbitrarily small binding energy must be ruled out. At the sacrifice of rigor, one can hope to bypass the difficulty by studying the ground-state energy E(lambda) associated with H(lambda) identical with H/sub true/ + lambda/sub ν/, where H/sub true/ is the true Hamiltonian, ν is an artificial attractive potential, and lambda greater than 0. E(lambda) can be estimated via a Rayleigh-Ritz calculation. If H/sub true/ falls just short of being able to support a bound state, H(lambda) for lambda ''not too small'' will support a bound state of some significant binding. A margin of error is thereby created; the inability to find a bound state for lambda ''not too small'' suggests not only that H(lambda) can support at best a weakly bound state but that H/sub true/ cannot support a bound state at all. To give the argument real substance, one studies E(lambda) in the neighborhood of lambda = lambda 0 , the (unknown) smallest value for lambda for which H(lambda) can support a bound state. A comparison of E(lambda) determined numerically with the form of E(lambda) obtained with the use of a crude bound-state wave function in the Feynman theorem gives a rough self-consistency check. One thereby obtains a believable lower bound on the energy of a possible bound state of H/sub true/ or a believable argument that no such bound state exists. The method is applied to the triplet state of H -
Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki Eskeli; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bornschein, Joerg; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deppman, Airton; Oliveira Valeriano De Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Doenigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gomez Jimenez, Ramon; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard Richard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratyev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexey; Kurepin, Alexander; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz Arkadiusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; 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Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang Hans; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Jihye; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Spacek, Michal; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Maria; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Xiang, Changzhou; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym
2013-12-06
Differential cross sections of charged particles in inelastic pp collisions as a function of $p_T$ have been measured at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV at the LHC. The $p_T$ spectra are compared to NLO-pQCD calculations. Though the differential cross section for an individual $\\sqrt{s}$ cannot be described by NLO-pQCD, the relative increase of cross section with $\\sqrt{s}$ is in agreement with NLO-pQCD. Based on these measurements and observations, procedures are discussed to construct pp reference spectra at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV up to $p_T$ = 50 GeV/c as required for the calculation of the nuclear modification factor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frauke, A.; Wilkens, J.J.; Villagrasa, C.; Rabus, H.
2015-01-01
The BioQuaRT project within the European Metrology Research Programme aims at correlating ion track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation and develops measurement and simulation techniques for determining ion track structure on different length scales from about 2 nm to about 10 μm. Within this framework, we investigate methods to translate track-structure quantities derived on a nanometer scale to macroscopic dimensions. Input data sets were generated by simulations of ion tracks of protons and carbon ions in liquid water using the Geant-4 Monte Carlo tool-kit with the Geant-4-DNA processes. Based on the energy transfer points - recorded with nanometer resolution - we investigated parametrizations of overall properties of ion track structure. Three different track structure parametrizations have been developed using the distances to the 10 next neighbouring ionizations, the radial energy distribution and ionisation cluster size distributions. These parametrizations of nanometer-scale track structure build a basis for deriving biologically relevant mean values which are essential in the clinical situation where each voxel is exposed to a mixed radiation field. (authors)
Brand, M D; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L
1976-01-01
The number of protons ejected during electron transport per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site (the H+/site ratio) was measured in rat liver mitochondria by three different methods under conditions in which transmembrane movements of endogenous phosphate were minized or eliminated. (1) In the Ca2+ pulse method, between 3.5 and 4.0 molecules of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1.75 to 2.0 Ca2+ ions were accumulated per 2 e- per site during Ca2+ induced electron transport in the presence of rotenone, when measured under conditions in which movements of endogenous phosphate were negligible. Since entry of 3-hydroxybutyrate requires its protonation to the free acid these data correspond to an H+/site ratio of 3.5-4.0 (2) In the oxygen pulse method addition of known amounts of oxygen to anaerobic mitochondria in the presence of substrate yielded H+/site ratios of 3.0 when phosphate transport was eliminated by addition of N-ethylmaleimide or by anaerobic washing to remove endogenous phosphate. In the absence of such measures the observed H+/site ratio was 2.0. (3) In the reductant pulse method measurement of the initial steady rates of H+ ejection and oxygen consumption by mitochondria in an aerobic medium after addition of substrate gave H+/site near 4.0 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide; in the absence of the inhibitor the observed ratio was only 2.0. These and other experiments reported indicate that the values of 2.0 earlier obtained for the H+/site ratio by Mitchell and Moyle [Biochem J. (1967) 105, 1147-1162] and others were underestimates due to the unrecognized masking of H+ ejection by movements of endogenous phosphate. The results presented here show that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport is at least 3.0 and may be as high as 4.0. PMID:1061146
Energy dependence of the ionization of highly excited atoms by collisions with excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirai, T.; Nakai, Y.; Nakamura, H.
1979-01-01
Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the ionization cross sections in the high- and low-collision-energy limits using the improved impulse approximation based on the assumption that the electron-atom inelastic-scattering amplitude is a function only of the momentum transfer. Both cases of simultaneous excitation and de-excitation of one of the atoms are discussed. The formulas are applied to the collisions between two excited hydrogen atoms and are found very useful for estimating the cross sections in the wide range of collisions energies
Systematic studies of binding energy dependence of neutron-proton momentum correlation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Y B; Ma, Y G; Shen, W Q; Ma, G L; Wang, K; Cai, X Z; Zhong, C; Guo, W; Chen, J G; Fang, D Q; Tian, W D; Zhou, X F
2004-01-01
Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) results of the neutron-proton correlation function have been systematically investigated for a series of nuclear reactions with light projectiles with the help of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy per nucleon of the projectiles and the strength of the neutron-proton HBT at small relative momentum has been obtained. Results show that neutron-proton HBT results are sensitive to the binding energy per nucleon
Thermoelectrics in Coulomb-coupled quantum dots: Cotunneling and energy-dependent lead couplings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walldorf, Nicklas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Kaasbjerg, Kristen
2017-01-01
We study thermoelectric effects in Coulomb-coupled quantum-dot (CCQD) systems beyond lowest-order tunneling processes and the often applied wide-band approximation. To this end, we present a master-equation (ME) approach based on a perturbative T -matrix calculation of the charge and heat tunneli...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyons, R.G.
1988-01-01
An important parameter in calculating the environmental dose rate for electron spin resonance (ESR) age estimates is the relative effectiveness of alpha and gamma radiation. A small research accelerator is used as a source of alpha particles of various pre-selected energies, corresponding to those found in the environment, to determine the effectiveness of alpha radiation of different energies. Preparation of sample targets is discussed, including the use of absolute ethanol, thorough etching and deposition by centrifuge. Preliminary results show that the alpha/gamma effectiveness ratio, k, depends on the energy of the incident alpha and must therefore be expressed in terms of a reference energy. The effectiveness of an alpha particle in causing ESR damage is found to vary linearly with its range or path length, not with its energy, a fact which must be considered when calculating effective dose-rates from environmental radionuclide concentrations. Failure to do so may lead to serious systematic errors in the effective alpha contribution to environmental dose-rates and consequently in age estimates. (author)
Owens, A. R.; Kópházi, J.; Welch, J. A.; Eaton, M. D.
2017-04-01
In this paper a hanging-node, discontinuous Galerkin, isogeometric discretisation of the multigroup, discrete ordinates (SN) equations is presented in which each energy group has its own mesh. The equations are discretised using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), which allows the coarsest mesh to exactly represent the geometry for a wide range of engineering problems of interest; this would not be the case using straight-sided finite elements. Information is transferred between meshes via the construction of a supermesh. This is a non-trivial task for two arbitrary meshes, but is significantly simplified here by deriving every mesh from a common coarsest initial mesh. In order to take full advantage of this flexible discretisation, goal-based error estimators are derived for the multigroup, discrete ordinates equations with both fixed (extraneous) and fission sources, and these estimators are used to drive an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) procedure. The method is applied to a variety of test cases for both fixed and fission source problems. The error estimators are found to be extremely accurate for linear NURBS discretisations, with degraded performance for quadratic discretisations owing to a reduction in relative accuracy of the "exact" adjoint solution required to calculate the estimators. Nevertheless, the method seems to produce optimal meshes in the AMR process for both linear and quadratic discretisations, and is ≈×100 more accurate than uniform refinement for the same amount of computational effort for a 67 group deep penetration shielding problem.
Energy dependence of the differences between the quark and gluon jet fragmentation
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Jarlskog, Ch; Papadopoulou, Th D
1996-01-01
Three jet events arising from decays of the Z boson, collected by the DELPHI detector, were used to measure differences in quark and gluon fragmentation. Gluon jets were anti-tagged by identifying b quark jets. Unbiased quark jets came from events with two jets plus one photon. Quark and gluon jet properties in different energy ranges were compared for the first time within the same detector. Quark and gluon jets of nearly the same energy in symmetric three jet event topologies were also compared. Using three independent methods, the average value of the ratio of the mean charged multiplicities of gluon and quark jets is \\[ =1.241\\pm 0.015\\ (stat.) \\pm 0.025\\ (syst.). \\] Gluon jets are broader and produce fragments with a softer energy spectrum than quark jets of equivalent energy. The string effect has been observed in fully symmetric three jet events. The measured ratio R_{\\gamma} of the charged particle flow in the q\\overline{q} inter-jet region of the q\\bar{q}g and q\\bar{q}\\gamma samples agrees with the p...
Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Voorma, H.J.; Louis, E.; Bijkerk, F.
1997-01-01
The process of ion bombardment is investigated for the fabrication of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors using e-beam evaporation. The ion treatment is applied immediately after deposition of each of the Si layers to smoothen the layers by removing an additional thickness of the Si layer. In this stu......, the angular dependence of the etch yield, obtained from the in situ reflectivity measurements, is investigated in order o determine the optimal ion beam parameters for the production of multilayer mirrors on curved substrates....
LSND versus MiniBooNE: Sterile neutrinos with energy dependent masses and mixing?
Schwetz, Thomas
2008-01-01
Standard active-sterile neutrino oscillations do not provide a satisfactory description of the LSND evidence for neutrino oscillations together with the constraints from MiniBooNE and other null-result short-baseline oscillation experiments. However, if the mass or the mixing of the sterile neutrino depends in an exotic way on its energy all data become consistent. I explore the phenomenological consequences of the assumption that either the mass or the mixing scales with the neutrino energy as $1/E_\
Searching for the QCD Critical Point with the Energy Dependence of pt Fluctuations
Novak, John; STAR Collaboration
2013-10-01
If systems produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions pass near the QCD critical point while cooling, the correlation length of the system may diverge due to the phenomena of critical opalescence. The transverse momentum distribution, being related to the state variable temperature, might be sensitive to this change in correlation length. Non-monotonic behavior with changing incident energy or centrality of any transverse momentum observable that is sensitive to the correlation length could thus be indicative of the QCD critical point. Accordingly, we report measurements related to transverse momentum fluctuations such as as a function of event centrality and incident energy for Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at RHIC. The results are compared to UrQMD model predictions and previous experimental measurements.
Nuclear-charge and positron-energy dependence of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palathingal, J.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Wu, X.Y.
1995-01-01
We report an experimental study of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons in a number of elements having atomic numbers between 49 and 90, utilizing a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements were made of the differential cross sections for the forward direction for the K, L, and M atomic shells in targets of Th, Pb, Au, Hf, Gd, and In, having thicknesses that vary between 2.7 and 4.4 mg/cm 2 . A shielded HPGe detector of high relative photopeak efficiency was used for recording the photon spectrum. Values for the individual atomic shells were obtained in the positron kinetic-energy range 1.02--2.24 MeV. It was observed that the differential cross sections measured for the forward direction varied with energy for each major shell almost alike so that the shell ratios appeared to remain constant while the positron energy varied. The dependence of the cross section on the atomic number Z of the target element was tested for each of the major shells at various energies of measurement. It was seen that the cross sections follow a Z ν relation with ν∼5.1 as the exponent for the K shell. For the higher shells, the exponent is approximately 6.4, which is significantly larger. It was also noted that this pattern is fairly independent of the positron energy. The results on the Z dependence are seen to be clearly at variance with the most updated theoretical predictions
Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+12C reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vineyard, M.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Beck, C.; Atencio, S.E.; Dennis, L.C.; Frawley, A.D.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Kemper, K.W.; Kovar, D.G.; Maguire, C.F.; Padalino, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Tiede, M.A.; Wilkins, B.D.; Zingarelli, R.A.
1993-01-01
Fusion evaporation-residue cross sections for the 28 Si+ 12 C reaction have been measured in the energy range 18≤E c.m. ≤136 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. Velocity distributions of mass-identified reaction products were used to identify evaporation residues and to determine the complete-fusion cross sections at high energies. The data are in agreement with previously established systematics which indicate an entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of the incomplete-fusion evaporation-residue process. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with earlier measurements and the predictions of existing models
Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+28Si reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S.; Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Rosner, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Ikezoe, H.; Kuhn, W.; Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.D.; Maguire, C.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.
1990-01-01
Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the 28 Si+ 28 Si reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 174, 215, 240, 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and total cross sections were extracted at all six bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with lower energy data and the predictions of existing models
Coherent synchrotron radiation transient effects in the energy-dependent region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geloni, Gianluca; Botman, Jan; Goloviznin, Vladimir; Wiel, Marnix van der
2002-01-01
Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is a well known phenomenon that originates from coherent superposition of electromagnetic waves by ultrarelativistic electrons. CSR longitudinal effects during the passage of a Gaussian beam from a straight to a circular path have often been studied in a regime in which they are energy independent. Nevertheless, the approximations used in such a regime may fail in several practical situations, as in the case of low-energy injectors or for small-wavelength structures within the bunch distribution in CSR-related instability problems. These situations demand a deeper investigation of longitudinal transient effects in the region where the approximations above are no longer valid: a strong γ dependence is found, and described in this paper, in the rate of energy change induced by CSR during the transient of a Gaussian bunch between a straight and a circular path, which was studied with the help of the authors' previous work. Results show that the overall CSR longitudinal effects, in this case, are reduced. One of the outcomes of previous work by Saldin et al. was extended to this situation and very good agreement between the two studies was found
Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yousef, Hazem
2011-05-20
A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)
Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C (p,2p) Scattering
Leksanov, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.
2001-11-01
The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasielastic events was measured at beam momenta ranging from 5.9 to 14.5 GeV/c at 90° c.m. The four-momentum transfer squared (Q2) ranged from 4.7 to 12.7 (GeV/c)2. We present the observed beam momentum dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to obtain the nuclear transparency. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam momentum is increased to 9 GeV/c and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Yurii N; Meleshko, Sergey V; Suriyawichitseranee, Amornrat
2015-01-01
Group analysis of the spatially homogeneous and molecular energy dependent Boltzmann equations with source term is carried out. The Fourier transform of the Boltzmann equation with respect to the molecular velocity variable is considered. The correspondent determining equation of the admitted Lie group is reduced to a partial differential equation for the admitted source. The latter equation is analyzed by an algebraic method. A complete group classification of the Fourier transform of the Boltzmann equation with respect to a source function is given. The representation of invariant solutions and corresponding reduced equations for all obtained source functions are also presented. (paper)
Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory
Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L
2016-01-01
We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.
An analysis of uncertainties in the reference resonance absorption calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.
1997-05-01
A recently appeared generation of design-oriented methods, which allows to compute the space and energy dependence of the resonant absorption inside the fuel rod, induces a new problem of validation of results obtained with improved resonance treatments, Because no experimental results are available on the spatial and energy distribution of resonance absorption, detailed reference calculations were generated with the continuos-energy Monte Carlo and energy pointwise slowing-down codes. The accuracy of these calculations depends>on various in.fluences. In this paper an analysis of some influences, such as differences ;n nuclear data libraries and philosophy of reproducing the cross section data, is presented. Example application is given for a calculation benchmark that consists of determination of resonance absorption by 238 U in typical PWR pin cell geometry (author)
np scattering measurements at 162 MeV and the πNN coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahm, J.; Blomgren, J.; Conde, H.; Dangtip, S.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Roennqvist, T.; Zorro, R.; Ringbom, A.; Tibell, G.; Jonsson, O.; Nilsson, L.; Renberg, P.U.; Ericson, T.E.O.; Loiseau, B.
1999-01-01
The differential np scattering cross sections has been measured at 162 MeV in the angular range θ c.m. = 72 angle - 180 angle, using the neutron beam facility at the Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Special attention was paid to the absolute normalization of the data. In the angular range 150 angle - 180 angle, the data are steeper then those of most previous measurements and predictions from energy-dependent partial-wave analyses, or nucleon-nucleon potentials. Moreover, a value of the charged πNN coupling constant, g π± 2 = 14.52 ± 0.26 (f π± 2 = 0.0803 ± 0.0014), is deduced from the data, using a novel extrapolation method. This is in good agreement with the classical text book value, but higher than those determined in recent partial-wave analyses of the nucleon-nucleon data base. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmann, L.; Azuma, R.E.; Barnes, C.A.; Humblet, J.; Langanke, K.
1997-01-01
Because of the critical importance of the 12 C/ 16 O ratio resulting from helium burning to the later evolution of massive stars, R-matrix fits have been made to the available angular distribution data from radiative α-capture and elastic α-scattering on 12 C to estimate the total 12 C(α,γ) 16 O rate at stellar energies. Largely primary data, i.e. energy-dependent differential cross sections, are used in the analysis with all relevant partial waves being fitted simultaneously (surface fits). It is shown that while the E1 part of the reaction is well constrained by a recent experiment on the β-delayed α-particle decay of 16 N only upper limits can be placed on the E2 ground state transition which we take conservatively as S E2 (300)<140 keV b. Monte-Carlo simulations were subsequently carried out to explore what kind of future data could lead to better restrictions on SE2(300). We find that improved elastic scattering data may be the best candidate for such restrictions while improving S(300) with new radiative capture data seems to be much more difficult. (orig.)
Coupled-channel analysis for heavy-ion scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Byung-Taik.
1978-01-01
A method is given to carry out much faster coupled-channel (CC) calculations including the Coulomb excitation. For this purpose, two approximation techniques were used, namely, the WKB approximation of Alder and Pauli, in handling the effects of Coulomb excitation, and the Pade approximation for handling the large partial wave contribution. The formulation of CC calculations based on these two approximations is briefly discussed and some results of numerical calculations are shown for 16 O scattering with 152 Sm at 72 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-01-01
Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
Semimicroscopic analysis of 6Li+28Si elastic scattering at 76 to 318 MeV
Hassanain, M. A.; Anwar, M.; Behairy, Kassem O.
2018-04-01
Using the α-cluster structure of colliding nuclei, the elastic scattering of 6Li+28Si at energies from 76 to 318 MeV has been investigated by the use of the real folding cluster approach. The results of the cluster analysis are compared with those obtained by the CDM3Y6 effective density- and energy-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction based upon G -matrix elements of the M3Y-Paris potential. A Woods-Saxon (WS) form was used for the imaginary potential. For all energies and derived potentials, the diffraction region was well reproduced, except at Elab=135 and 154 MeV at large angle. These results suggest that the addition of the surface (DWS) imaginary potential term to the volume imaginary potential is essential for a correct description of the refractive structure of the 6Li elastic scattering distribution at these energies. The energy dependence of the total reaction cross sections and that of the real and imaginary volume integrals is also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.H. Hendi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
Computational advances in transition phase analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, K.; Kondo, S.; Tobita, Y.; Shirakawa, N.; Brear, D.J.; Fischer, E.A.
1994-01-01
In this paper, historical perspective and recent advances are reviewed on computational technologies to evaluate a transition phase of core disruptive accidents in liquid-metal fast reactors. An analysis of the transition phase requires treatment of multi-phase multi-component thermohydraulics coupled with space- and energy-dependent neutron kinetics. Such a comprehensive modeling effort was initiated when the program of SIMMER-series computer code development was initiated in the late 1970s in the USA. Successful application of the latest SIMMER-II in USA, western Europe and Japan have proved its effectiveness, but, at the same time, several areas that require further research have been identified. Based on the experience and lessons learned during the SIMMER-II application through 1980s, a new project of SIMMER-III development is underway at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan. The models and methods of SIMMER-III are briefly described with emphasis on recent advances in multi-phase multi-component fluid dynamics technologies and their expected implication on a future reliable transition phase analysis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenspan, E.
1982-01-01
This chapter presents the mathematical basis for sensitivity functions, discusses their physical meaning and information they contain, and clarifies a number of issues concerning their application, including the definition of group sensitivities, the selection of sensitivity functions to be included in the analysis, and limitations of sensitivity theory. Examines the theoretical foundation; criticality reset sensitivities; group sensitivities and uncertainties; selection of sensitivities included in the analysis; and other uses and limitations of sensitivity functions. Gives the theoretical formulation of sensitivity functions pertaining to ''as-built'' designs for performance parameters of the form of ratios of linear flux functionals (such as reaction-rate ratios), linear adjoint functionals, bilinear functions (such as reactivity worth ratios), and for reactor reactivity. Offers a consistent procedure for reducing energy-dependent or fine-group sensitivities and uncertainties to broad group sensitivities and uncertainties. Provides illustrations of sensitivity functions as well as references to available compilations of such functions and of total sensitivities. Indicates limitations of sensitivity theory originating from the fact that this theory is based on a first-order perturbation theory
Evaluation and analysis of nuclear resonance data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohner, F.H.
2000-01-01
A probabilistic foundations of data evaluation are reviewed, with special emphasis on parameter estimation based on Bayes' theorem and a quadratic loss function, and on modern methods for the assignment of prior probabilities. The data reduction process leading from raw experimental data to evaluated computer files of nuclear reaction cross sections is outlined, with a discussion of systematic and statistical errors and their propagation and of the generalized least squares formalism including prior information and nonlinear theoretical models. It is explained how common errors induce correlations between data, what consequences they have for uncertainty propagation and sensitivity studies, and how evaluators can construct covariance matrices from the usual error information provided by experimentalists. New techniques for evaluation of inconsistent data are also presented. The general principles are then applied specifically to the analysis and evaluation of neutron resonance data in terms of theoretical models - R-matrix theory (and especially its practically used multi-level Breit-Wigner and Reich-Moore variants) in the resolved region, and resonance-averaged R-matrix theory (Hauser-Feshbach theory with width-fluctuation corrections) in the unresolved region. Complications arise because the measured transmission data, capture and fission yields, self-indication ratios and other observables are not yet the wanted cross sections. These are obtained only by means of parametrisation. The intervening effects - Doppler and resolution broadening, self-shielding, multiple scattering, backgrounds, sample impurities, energy-dependent detector efficiencies, inaccurate reference data etc - are therefore also discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendi, S.H., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslam Panah, B. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-10
Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kicinska-Habior, M; Decowski, P; Dabrowska, M; Grochulski, W; Jaracz, P; Matulewicz, T; Sikora, B; Toke, J; Somorjai, E
1983-06-01
Differential cross sections for ..gamma..-transitions to 12 states in /sup 28/Si following nonresonant proton capture in /sup 27/Al nuclei (Esub(p)=1.625 keV) were measured and analysed in terms of the direct-semidirect model. The experimental data ar reproduced only when the complex coupling constant with the GDR is enhanced for the f partial wave in the entrance channel.
Decision analysis multicriteria analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombard, J.
1986-09-01
The ALARA procedure covers a wide range of decisions from the simplest to the most complex one. For the simplest one the engineering judgement is generally enough and the use of a decision aiding technique is therefore not necessary. For some decisions the comparison of the available protection option may be performed from two or a few criteria (or attributes) (protection cost, collective dose,...) and the use of rather simple decision aiding techniques, like the Cost Effectiveness Analysis or the Cost Benefit Analysis, is quite enough. For the more complex decisions, involving numerous criteria or for decisions involving large uncertainties or qualitative judgement the use of these techniques, even the extended cost benefit analysis, is not recommended and appropriate techniques like multi-attribute decision aiding techniques are more relevant. There is a lot of such particular techniques and it is not possible to present all of them. Therefore only two broad categories of multi-attribute decision aiding techniques will be presented here: decision analysis and the outranking analysis
Neutron Skin Thickness of 48Ca from a Nonlocal Dispersive Optical-Model Analysis
Mahzoon, M. H.; Atkinson, M. C.; Charity, R. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.
2017-12-01
A nonlocal dispersive optical-model analysis has been carried out for neutrons and protons in 48Ca. Elastic-scattering angular distributions, total and reaction cross sections, single-particle energies, the neutron and proton numbers, and the charge distribution have been fitted to extract the neutron and proton self-energies both above and below the Fermi energy. From the single-particle propagator resulting from these self-energies, we have determined the charge and neutron matter distributions in 48Ca. A best fit neutron skin of 0.249 ±0.023 fm is deduced, but values up to 0.33 fm are still consistent. The energy dependence of the total neutron cross sections is shown to have a strong sensitivity to the skin thickness.