WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy volet utilisation

  1. Part of the air law about rational use of energy; Volet utilisation rationnelle de l`energie de la loi sur l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leteurtrois, J.P. [Ministere de l`Industrie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This document is a compilation of projects of French decrees dealing with the regulation relative to coldness and heat distribution networks (classification demand, expenses and receipts, tariffs, agreement), to the thermal efficiency of liquid- or gas-fueled hot water central heating plants with a 4 to 400 kW power (specifications, labelling, conformity, quality assurance), to the thermal efficiency and equipments of central heating plants with a 400 kW to 50 MW power, to the periodical control of thermal energy consuming installations, and to the energy consumption of refrigerators, freezers, and combined electrical apparatuses of domestic use. (J.S.)

  2. Part of the law on air, concerning the rational use of energy; Volet utilisation rationnelle de l`energie de la loi sur l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leteurtrois, J.P. [Ministere de l`Industrie et de l`Amenagement du Territoire, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de l`Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    1997-12-31

    The revised French law on district heating and cooling networks, concerning their energy sources (promoting the use of renewable energies, recovered heat or cogeneration heat), efficiency and classification for administrative procedures, is presented. Decrees concerning efficiency requirements and conformity-quality marking of hot water boilers from 4 kW to 400 kW using liquid or gaseous fuels, efficiency requirements and equipment of boilers from 400 kW to 50 MW, and periodical controls of plants with boilers for a total power of more than 1 MW, are presented

  3. Utilising geothermal energy in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal energy is generated from the radioactive decay of naturally occurring isotopes and about 20% is generated from primordial heat associated with the formation of the earth. Geothermal project reduce energy and water cost and reduces greenhouse gas emissions

  4. Energy analysis of various grassland utilisation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Ržonca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004 was carried out the energy analysis of the different types of permanent grassland utilization on the Hrubý Jeseník locality. There were estimated values of the particular entrances of additional energy. Energy entrances moved according to the pratotechnologies from 2.17 GJ. ha–1 to 22.70 GJ.ha–1. The biggest share on energy entrances had fertilizers. It was 84.93% by the nitrogen fertilisation. The most energy benefit of brutto and nettoenergy was marked by the low intensive utilisation (33.40 GJ.ha–1 NEL and 32.40 GJ.ha–1 NEV on average. The highest value of energy efficiency (13.23% was marked by the low intensive utilization of permanent grassland. By using of higher doses of industrial fertilizers has energy efficiency decreased. From view of energy benefit and intensiveness on energy entrances it appears the most available utilisation of permanent grassland with three cuts per year (first cut on May 31st at the latest, every next after 60 days or two cuts per year (first cut on July 15th, next cuts after 90 days.

  5. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  6. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  7. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  8. Utilisation of nuclear energy and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Following the views and experiences presented at an International Energy Conference held in November 1980 in Lisbon under the title ''Energy - A challenge for undertakings'', the Energy Commission of the International Chamber of Commerce has prepared a document which details the most important conclusions and makes recommendations. The costs and advantages are evaluated of nuclear energy and of coal. (P.G.R.)

  9. Utilisation of geothermal energy by the municipal works in Neubrandenburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, H.

    1994-01-01

    A long distance energy supply plant has been operated on the basis of geothermal energy in Neubrandenburg since September 1988. At present it is still the largest heat generation plant for the utilisation of low thermal pore storage in Germany. The setup and the function of the plant are explained. After the municipal works of Neubrandenburg took over the plant, it was redesigned in order to give a better guarantee for the supply, to improve the economic efficiency and to minimise the environmental impact. At present long distance energy can be provided at a price of 99,00 DM/Mwh for 2000 utilisation hours per year. (BWI) [de

  10. Biomass energy utilisation - ecological and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamen Gramatikov

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is the world's fourth largest energy source today and it represents about 35% of the primary energy supply in developing countries. Biomass is a versatile source of energy in that it can produce electricity, heat, transport fuel and it can be stored. The problems (technical, economic, etc.) which have to be solved by treatment of biomass are discussed in this work. The average quantities of biomass resources of some European countries are presented and the structure, percentage of products and their calorific values are estimated. Keywords: Biomass Energy Potential, Ecological & Economic Aspects

  11. Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, B.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder the import of crude oil from neighbouring countries and of the fact that Jordan has limited fossil fuel resources, strategies to meet energy demand are being addressed and examined together with their consequences and the ways in which they could be utilised. This paper assesses for the first time, the potential of using alternative energy technologies in Jordan, including the utilisation of solar energy for water heating, for wind towers in rural areas and also for biogas production from waste. Approximately 2% of unconventional renewable energy resources are being utilised. The data and scenarios of this study were presented in a manner that would assist decision makers, funding agencies, researchers and other related parties to establish programmes that will be helpful in meeting the energy demand, while preserving the environment and maintaining sustainability. (author)

  12. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  13. Global perspectives on future nuclear energy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the nuclear sector from a global perspective. The aim is to show that nuclear power does have a future but that this will only be fully realised when the industry is able to demonstrate that it is part of the solution to the world's energy and environmental difficulties rather than part of the problem. The paper looks at the projected world energy demand as the population increases and countries develop, showing that nuclear power is required to meet this demand. In presenting nuclear power as a solution, the paper addresses the challenges facing us such as public confidence, environmental opposition, political issues and finance. It addresses the debate over reprocessing and direct disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and looks at the competition from other fuels. The paper suggests how the industry might approach these issues such that nuclear power is indeed regarded globally as a solution to some of the worlds most pressing problems. (author)

  14. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorová Marína; Pinka Ján; Wittenberger Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from ge...

  15. Current and potential utilisation of biomass energy in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.

    1990-01-01

    Energy from biomass accounts for an average of 43% of the primary energy used in developing countries, with some countries totally dependent on biomass for all their energy needs. The most common use for biomass for energy is the provision of heat for cooking and heating; other uses include steam and electricity generation and crop and food drying. Fiji, a developing country, uses energy from wood and coconut wastes for cooking and copra drying. Bagasse from sugar mills is used to generate process steam as well as some 15 MW of electricity, for mill consumption and for sale to the national grid. Other, relatively small scale uses for biomass include the generation of steam and electricity for industry. This paper attempts to quantify the amount of biomass, in its various forms, available in Fiji and assesses the current potential utilisation of biomass for energy in Fiji. (author)

  16. Developments in the utilisation of wind energy in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Glinou, G.L.; Papachristos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of renewable energy sources, and wind energy in particular, can be described in Greece as a story of high expectations, intense initial entrepreneurial interest, delays in the start-up phase of projects and, some times, disappointments during the implementation procedure. Still, the current situation gives reasons for some optimism. This paper provides a review of the present technological background in wind generators, as found in the Greek market, as well as a detailed analysis of the legislative framework. Moreover, it aims to analyse the development of the process of granting investment and production permissions and their implementation since 1999. Thus, it is possible to identify the main reasons for the problems that occurred since the liberalisation of the electricity market and to account for the interest in wind energy. Finally, comments and proposals are formulated concerning the hidden barriers, the pertinent problems and the promising perspectives of the use of wind energy in Greece. (author)

  17. Energy Efficiency in Logistics: An Interactive Approach to Capacity Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wehner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics operations are energy-consuming and impact the environment negatively. Improving energy efficiency in logistics is crucial for environmental sustainability and can be achieved by increasing the utilisation of capacity. This paper takes an interactive approach to capacity utilisation, to contribute to sustainable freight transport and logistics, by identifying its causes and mitigations. From literature, a conceptual framework was developed to highlight different system levels in the logistics system, in which the energy efficiency improvement potential can be found and that are summarised in the categories activities, actors, and areas. Through semi-structured interviews with representatives of nine companies, empirical data was collected to validate the framework of the causes of the unutilised capacity and proposed mitigations. The results suggest that activities, such as inflexibilities and limited information sharing as well as actors’ over-delivery of logistics services, incorrect price setting, and sales campaigns can cause unutilised capacity, and that problem areas include i.a. poor integration of reversed logistics and the last mile. The paper contributes by categorising causes of unutilised capacity and linking them to mitigations in a framework, providing a critical view towards fill rates, highlighting the need for a standardised approach to measure environmental impact that enables comparison between companies and underlining that costs are not an appropriate indicator for measuring environmental impact.

  18. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorová Marína

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas, agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from geothermal sources are supported. Recently company Slovgeoterm has initiated heating of greenhouses in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in town Galanta. Nowadays, research for the biggest geothermal project in the Middle Europe – construction in Košice basin has started.

  19. Solar energy for buildings: clean energies utilisation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, Abdeen M.

    2015-01-01

    The move towards a de-carbonized world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilization level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and provides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. This article presents a comprehensive review of energy sources, and the development of sustainable technologies to explore these energy sources. It also includes potential renewable energy technologies, efficient energy systems, energy savings techniques and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate changes. The article concludes with the technical status of the ground source heat pumps (GSHP) technologies. (full text)

  20. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  1. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy......This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity...

  2. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    of the implementation programmes has been on development of technologies for joint biogas plants, where more than one farm supplies the animal slurry. The joint biogas plants are dependent on industrial organic wastes to obtain high biogas yields for making the biogas plant economical. The industrial organic waste will......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus......, however, be the scarce factor in a further development of the joint biogas plants in Denmark. The purpose of the present study is related to the discussion on the role of transportation in the biogas fuel chain. Transportation plays a central role in the assessment of environmental advantages of utilising...

  3. Energy productivity of some plantation crops in Malaysia and the status of bioenergy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K.O.; Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin; Ghulam Abdul Quadir; Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah

    2000-01-01

    The paper assesses the energy productivity of the major plantation crops in Malaysia as well as the status of bioenergy utilisation in that country. Of the crops studied and under present local cultivation practices, oil palms and cocoa trees stand out as good trappers of solar energy while paddy plants are the least efficient. Presently, Malaysia consumes roughly 340 million boe of energy per year. Of this amount 14% are contributed by biomass. However of the total amount of biowastes generated in the country roughly 24.5% are already utilised for energy purposes and roughly 75.5% are still unutilised and therefore wasted. (Author)

  4. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  5. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, I.; Asikainen, A.; Jonsell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations. guidelines....... and other synthesis publications on Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages. disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry or the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies...

  6. Broiler breeders utilise body lipid as an energy source | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, where 80 g was allocated daily in Phase 2 this was clearly insufficient to sustain performance, but in this case egg production was considerably higher in birds that had been given larger amounts of food in Phase 1, and which could therefore draw on body lipid reserves as a source of energy. Rate of lay increased ...

  7. Utilisation of coal for energy production in fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a brief characterization of fuel cell technology and its possible application in sustainable energy development was described. Special attention was paid to direct carbon fuel cell technology. The direct carbon fuel cell is an electrochemical device which directly converts the chemical energy of carbonaceous based fuel into electricity without ‘flame burning’. The electrical efficiency of a DCFC is indeed very high (in practice exceeding 80%, and the product of conversion consists of almost pure CO2, eliminating the most expensive step of sequestration: the separation of carbon from flue gases. In this paper the process of electrochemical oxidation of carbon particles on the surface of oxide electrolytes at 8% mol Y2O3 in ZrO2 (8YSZ as well as cermet anode Ni-8YSZ was analysed. The graphite, carbon black powders were considered as reference solid fuels for coal samples. It was found that the main factors contributing to the electrochemical reactivity of carbon particles is not only the high carbon content in samples but also structural disorder. It was found that structurally disordered carbon-based materials are the most promising solid fuels for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells. Special impact was placed on the consideration of coal as possible solid fuels for DC-SOFC. Statistical and economic analyses show that in the coming decades, in developing countries such as China, India, and some EU countries, coal-fuelled power plants will maintain their strong position in the power sector due to their reliability and low costs as well as the large reserves of coal and lignite in the world. Coal is mined in politically stable areas, which guarantees its easy and safe purchase and transport. The impact of the physiochemical properties of raw and purified coal on the performance of the DC-SOFC was studied. An analysis of the stability of electrical parameters was performed for a DC-SOFC operating under a load over an extended

  8. Landfill gas for energy utilisation. A market strategy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Biogas and Landfill Gas Marketing Strategy Group was set up with the objective to advise EU-DG 17 (THERMIE/OPET) on the dissemination strategies for biogas and landfill gas (LFG), a subsector of the Renewable Energy Sector (RES). The Marketing Strategy Group has identified market barriers and users' needs in the biogas and LFG subsector. Subsequently, the group evaluated successful instruments/methods to overcome these market barriers and to satisfy the users' needs. The group investigated the feasibility of transposing these instruments/success stories to other countries. The work of the Marketing Strategy Group resulted in proposals for future dissemination of biogas and LFG technology. After a short introduction into LFG technology and the LFG market, this document describes barriers to landfill gas technology dissemination and gives some examples about how to overcome them. This results in recommendations on a strategy for dissemination of LFG technology and expanding LFG markets. The document is mainly based on experience gained in the United Kingdom, Italy and the Netherlands

  9. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  10. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-01

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  11. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, Bertil

    2003-04-01

    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  12. Energy efficiency improvements utilising mass flow control and a ring topology in a district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laajalehto, Tatu; Kuosa, Maunu; Mäkilä, Tapio; Lampinen, Markku; Lahdelma, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Heating and cooling have a major role in the energy sector, covering 46% of total final energy use worldwide. District heating (DH) is a significant technology for improving the energy efficiency of heating systems in communities, because it enables waste heat sources to be utilised economically and therefore significantly reduces the environmental impacts of power generation. As a result of new and more stringent construction regulations for buildings, the heat demands of individual buildings are decreasing and more energy-efficient heating systems have to be developed. In this study, the energy efficiency of a new DH system which includes both a new control system called mass flow control and a new network design called a ring network is examined. A topology in the Helsinki region is studied by using a commercial DH network modelling tool, Grades Heating. The district heating network is attached to a wood-burning heat station which has a heat recovery system in use. Examination is performed by means of both technical and economic analysis. The new non-linear temperature programme that is required is adopted for supply and return temperatures, which allows greater temperature cooling and smaller flow rates. Lower district heating water temperatures are essential when reducing the heat losses in the network and heat production. Mass flow control allows smaller pressure drops in the network and thus reduces the pumping power. The aim of this study was to determine the most energy-efficient DH water supply temperatures in the case network. If the ring network design is utilised, the district heating system is easier to control. As a result the total heat consumption within the heating season is reduced compared to traditional DH systems. On the basis of the results, the new DH system is significantly more energy-efficient in the case network that was examined than the traditional design. For example, average energy losses within the constraints (which consist of heat

  13. Biogas as a renewable energy fuel – A review of biogas upgrading, utilisation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah Khan, Imran; Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mohd; Hashim, Haslenda; Matsuura, Takeshi; Ismail, A.F.; Rezaei-DashtArzhandi, M.; Wan Azelee, I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • It is attempted to provide critical considerations on various biogas upgrading techniques. • Membrane is an environmentally and economically sound technique for purification. • Purified biogas in compressed form is a substitute of compressed natural gas for vehicles. • Charged mass and compressor input work are the most important factors for storage. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading is a widely studied and discussed topic and its utilisation as a natural gas substitute has gained a significant attention in recent years. The production of biomethane provides a versatile application in both heat and power generation and as a vehicular fuel. This paper systematically reviews the state of the art of biogas upgrading technologies with upgrading efficiency, methane (CH 4 ) loss, environmental effect, development and commercialisation, and challenges in terms of energy consumption and economic assessment. The market situation for biogas upgrading has changed rapidly in recent years, making the membrane separation gets significant market share with traditional biogas upgrading technologies. In addition, the potential utilisation of biogas, efficient conversion into bio-compressed natural gas (bio-CNG), and storage systems are investigated in depth. Two storing systems for bio-CNG at filling stations, namely buffer and cascade storage systems are used. The best storage system should be selected on the basis of the advantages of both systems. Also, the fuel economy and mass emissions for bio-CNG and CNG filled vehicles are studied. There is the same fuel economy and less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission for bio-CNG. Based on the results of comparisons between the technical features of upgrading technologies, various specific requirements for biogas utilisation and the relevant investment, and operating and maintenance costs, future recommendations are made for biogas upgrading.

  14. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate...... that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  15. Electric power supply and the influence of changes on renewable sources' utilisation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    2000-01-01

    Changes expected to occur at the electricity market min the Republic of Croatia will have a considerable influence on the development of renewable sources and on the interest in the rationalisation of electricity consumption. If this area and its significance within the total, not only energy-related but also social relations, is stimulated by the law, the influence will be a positive one. Post-liberalisation experience of developed European countries presented in this paper implies arising problems, which can be partly avoided by means of anticipated legislative alternations. Special attention is paid to the possibility of introducing additional work places through a new market approachz, renewable sources' utilisation and consumption rationalisation. (author)

  16. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Cost efficient utilisation of biomass in the German energy system in the context of energy and environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The possible uses of biomass for energy provision are manifold. Gaseous, liquid and solid bioenergy carriers can be alternatively converted into heat, power or transport fuel. The contribution of the different utilisation pathways to environmental political targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction and energy political targets for the future share of renewable energy vary accordingly to their techno-economic characteristics. The aim of the presented study is to assess the different biomass options against the background of energy and environmental political targets based on a system analytical approach for the future German energy sector. The results show that heat generation and to a lower extent combined heat and power (CHP) production from solid biomass like wood and straw are the most cost effective ways to contribute to the emission reduction targets. The use of energy crops in fermentation biogas plants (maize) and for production of 1st generation transportation fuels, like biodiesel from rapeseed and ethanol from grain or sugar beet, are less favourable. Optimisation potentials lie in a switch to the production of 2nd generation biofuels and the enhanced use of either biomass residues or low production intensive energy crops. - Research Highlights: → Heat generation and CHP generation from biomass can contribute cost efficiently to emission reduction targets. → Biofuel production represenst the least cost efficient option for emission reduction when using biomass energetically. → The energetical use of biomass shows a high potential to contribute to energy and envirnoment political targets.

  18. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (kgDE). Furthermore, literature data on kgDE across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient

  19. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Finn, P.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  20. A review of chemical heat pumps, thermodynamic cycles and thermal energy storage technologies for low grade heat utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.W.; Ling-Chin, J.; Roskilly, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A major cause of energy inefficiency is a result of the generation of waste heat and the lack of suitable technologies for cost-effective utilisation of low grade heat in particular. The market potential for surplus/waste heat from industrial processes in the UK is between 10 TWh and 40 TWh, representing a significant potential resource which has remained unexploited to date. This paper reviews selected technologies suitable for utilisation of waste heat energy, with specific focus on low grade heat, including: (i) chemical heat pumps, such as adsorption and absorption cycles for cooling and heating; (ii) thermodynamic cycles, such as the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), the supercritical Rankine cycle (SRC) and the trilateral cycle (TLC), to produce electricity, with further focus on expander and zeotropic mixtures, and (iii) thermal energy storage, including sensible and latent thermal energy storages and their corresponding media to improve the performance of low grade heat energy systems. - Highlights: ► The review of various thermal technologies for the utilisation of under exploited low grade heat. ► The analyses of the absorption and adsorption heat pumps possibly with performance enhancement additives. ► The analyses of thermal energy storage technologies (latent and sensible) for heat storage. ► The analyses of low temperature thermodynamic cycles to maximise power production.

  1. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Nilsson, Mats

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  2. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  3. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present an economic overview of the opportunities for energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark financed over the long term. The paper focuses on the economic difference between energy savings and the repayment of investment. Taking out the average remaining 20% equity...... in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  4. Evaluation of the effect of different wheats and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient and energy utilisation in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma González-Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism of broiler chicks fed 8 different wheat samples, supplemented or not with xylanase. Seven-hundred sixty eight male broilers (1-day-old were distributed to 16 experimental treatments (6 replicates per treatment. The treatments were in a factorial arrangement with 8 different wheats and 2 levels of xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg. The predicted apparent metabolisable energy (AME of the wheat samples ranged from 13.0 to 13.9 MJ/kg and all diets were formulated to contain the same amount of wheat. Body weight gain (BWG and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 d, as was jejunal digesta viscosity, and feed conversion ratio (FCR calculated. On day 24, one representative bird per pen was selected to calculate whole body energetics. At 21 d, 3 chicks per replicate were randomly allocated to metabolism cages for energy and nutrient utilisation determinations, and were continued on the experimental diets until 24-d-old. No interactions were observed for any performance response variables, ileal nutrient utilisation or digesta viscosity. Xylanase improved BWG and reduced FCR and digesta viscosity (P < 0.05. Wheat influenced dry matter (DM utilisation and xylanase increased ileal digestible energy (P = 0.04. Xylanase also improved (P < 0.05 DM and nitrogen retention. Apparent metabolisable energy and AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn were subject to an interaction whereby wheats 2 and 6, which returned the lowest AME and AMEn values, responded to xylanase supplementation and the remainder did not. Net energy for production and the efficiency of energy use for production were not influenced by xylanase, but were affected by wheat (P < 0.05. Despite the significant differences between wheats with regards to their nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism in birds, xylanase removed this variance and resulted in more homogeneous performance.

  5. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale Saheb Fosoul, Sayed Sadra; Azarfar, Arash; Gheisari, Abbasali; Khosravinia, Heshmatollah

    2018-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on productive performance, intestinal morphometric features, blood parameters and energy utilisation in broiler chickens. A total of 390 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments based on a factorial arrangement (2×3) across 1-15 and 15-35-d periods. Experimental treatments consisted of two basal diets with standard (STD; starter: 12·56 MJ/kg and grower: 12·97 MJ/kg) and reduction (LME; starter: 11·93 MJ/kg and grower: 12·33 MJ/kg) of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) requirement of broiler chickens each supplemented with 0, 0·6 and 1·2 g/kg GAA. Supplemental 1·2 g/kg GAA decreased the negative effects of feed energy reduction on weight gain across starter, growing and the entire production phases (PEnergy retention as fat and total energy retention were increased when birds received LME diets supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA (Penergy for production (NEp) and total heat production increased in birds fed LME diets containing 1·2 g/kg GAA (P<0·05). A significant correlation was observed between dietary NEp and weight gain of broilers (r 0·493; P=0·0055), whereas this relationship was not seen with AME. Jejunal villus height and crypt depth were lower in birds fed LME diets (P<0·05). Serum concentration of creatinine increased in broilers fed LME diets either supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA or without GAA supplementation (P<0·05). Supplemental GAA improved performance of chickens fed LME diet possibly through enhanced dietary NEp. The NEp could be preferred over the AME to assess response of broiler chickens to dietary GAA supplementation.

  6. CO2 abatement potential of wood utilisation. Wood as an energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, G.; Fruehwald, A.

    1994-01-01

    Forests as ecosystems not only supply the raw material wood but also exert an influence on soils, water resources and many other ecological factors; provide animals with a habitat; and offer as humans a place for recreation. Recently, forests and wood have become of interest to human civilisation from yet another aspect: they constitute a carbon storage. This means that forestry and the forest industries can help moderate the increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, which is essentially the result of energetic utilisation of fossil fuels and considered the decisive factor underlying the greenhouse effect. Besides constituting a carbon storage, forests hold an additional CO 2 abatement potential which can be realised by continuous utilisation of wood. (orig./EF) [de

  7. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  8. Energy utilisation of biowaste - Sunflower-seed hulls for co-firing with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raclavska, Helena; Juchelkova, Dagmar; Roubicek, Vaclav; Matysek, Dalibor [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, CZ-70833 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    Sunflower-seed hulls (SSH) represent a source of combustible biomass characterised by high contents of potassium and phosphorus and a low silica content. The relatively high net calorific value of 20 MJ/kg d.m. is mainly influenced by the lignin content. Potassium and phosphorus are very important elements in biomass combustion for fuel, influencing slagging and fouling problems. Mixtures with different ratios of brown coal and sunflower-seed hulls (0-22% SSH) were co-fired in the Olomouc power plant. The behaviour of elements in the fly ash and the bottom ash (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Zn, Cu and Cd) varied in relation to the amount of SSH added to the coal. The fly ash from the co-firing of 20% SSH with coal had a high content of water-leachable sulphates and total dissolved solids. The utilisation of fly ash in civil engineering (land reclamation) should fulfil criteria established by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC for non-hazardous waste. To ensure that the required water-leachable sulphate concentrations are within regulatory limits the fuel may contain a maximum of 14% SSH. (author)

  9. Assessment of the economic effects of financial incentives benefitting certain plants for renewable energy utilisation in Germany. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On account of their low sales figures, technologies for renewable energy utilisation are still rather expensive. A more decided support for their introduction to the market could boost the development in this field. The offer submitted by Fichtner Development Engineering on 21.04.1992 served as a basis for the commission by the Federal Minister for Economic Affairs. It comprised the following individual tasks; drawing up of a list of plants to be promoted; elaboration, assessment, and selection of suitable promotion mechanisms; elaboration of cause-and-effect relationships for estimating stimulus strength; principal executive questions; increase in number of plants sold and cost of promotion. The present report deals with these points. (orig./UA) [de

  10. A Model of Solar Energy Utilisation in the Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashad, El H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of cow manure has a higher destruction of pathogens and weed seeds under thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. To maintain such conditions, solar energy can be used. In this research, the consequences of the use of solar energy under Egyptian conditions

  11. A multi-purpose rural development programme for coastal regions utilising solar energy and the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Sastry, J.S.

    A project primarily designed to meet the energy and fresh-water requirements of isolated coastal communities is presented. It will also help to increase the production of salts and marine chemical and fish (by aquaculture). The design involves...

  12. Dietary utilisation of protein and energy from fresh and ensiled coffee pulp by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Moreau

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and energy utilisation of diets containing fresh and ensiled coffee pulp were studied on 3.2 ± 0.2 g Nile tilapia for 28 days. Diets formulation and feeding were designed on the basis of daily dietary protein and energy allowance. A control diet A (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance corresponding to 15 g CP kg-1 day-1 and 750 kJ kg-1 day-1, a low protein control diet B (80 % protein and 100 % energy allowance, two diets C and E (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance where 20 % of protein were supplied by coffee pulp, and two diets D and F with the same amount of coffee pulp than in C and E and supplementation in non-protein energy. Inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet strongly impaired growth and feed utilisation. Silage process improved overall feed utilisation comparing to fresh coffee pulp. Results showed that fresh or ensiled coffee pulp was not a suitable feedstuff for Nile tilapia. However, better knowledge on modification occurring during silage process could allow finding the way to significantly improve nutritive value of coffee pulp by-products.Polpa de café ensilada foi utilizada na dieta calórica-protéica de Tilápia do Nilo na razão de 3.2 g ± 0,2 durante um período de 28 dias. As dietas calórico-protéica foram formuladas com base na ingestão diária permitida. Uma dieta A controle (100% de proteína e 100% da energia que corresponde a g PC/kg/dia e 750 Kj/Kg/dia, uma dieta B baixa em proteína (80% de proteína e 100% da energia, duas dietas C e E (100% de proteína e 100% da energia onde 20% da proteína foi suplementada com polpa de café e duas dietas D e F com a mesma concentração de polpa de café é prejudicial a dieta de crescimento. O processo de ensilagem melhorou sua utilização como alimento em comparação com a polpa de café fresca. Os resultados demonstraram que a polpa fresca ou ensilada não é para ser usada como alimentação de Tilápia do Nilo. Entretanto, uma melhor

  13. Strategy for utilisation of renewable energy sources in the Republic of Macedonia by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The global commitment to environmental protection and in particular to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, Macedonian's dependence on energy imports, as well as the need to secure greater variety and thereby reliability of energy supply undoubtedly impose increased share of renewable energy sources in the final energy consumption. however, in parallel with activities and measures targeting increased share of renewable energy sources, measures and activities to increase energy efficiency of final energy consumption should be pursued. thus, the target share of renewable energy sources in final consumption will be achieved much easily and faster, but the economy's competitiveness will also be improved due to reduced energy costs. in preparation to transpose and implement the Eu legislation (acquis communautaire) on renewable energy sources into the national legislation, the main objective of the present strategy is to provide information on the potential and possible exploitation of renewable energy sources (hereinafter: res) in the republic of macedonia. quantification of such knowledge shall be made by determining the following: - target share in total energy (res target), which is share of energy generated from res in the total energy consumption; - target share of electricity (res electricity target), which is share of electricity generated from res in the total electricity consumption; - manner and dynamics of attaining res target and res electricity target by addressing the following issues: - relevant types of res in the republic of macedonia and their availability; - primary and secondary legislation and institutional set-up ; - financial implications from the establishment of mechanisms to support use of res (feed-in tariffs); - environmental aspects, by means of analysis on possible greenhouse gas emission reduction. furthermore, in the light of secondary legislation on res, the present strategy undertakes relevant analyses aimed to determine: - installed

  14. Carbon exergy tax (CET): its impact on conventional energy system design and its contribution to advanced systems utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, A.F.; Santarelli, M.; Borchiellini, R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed analytical procedure for a charge on CO 2 emissions is used to determine its impact on the design process of different conventional energy systems. The charge on CO 2 emissions is defined as a Carbon Exergy Tax (CET). The CET utilises the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system coupled with the Index of CO 2 Emissions, which connects the amount of the CO 2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The aim is to reward the efficient use of energy resources, both from a resource and environmental standpoint, and to penalise plants inefficient in this respect. The CET and the conventional Carbon Tax (CT, based on energy policy considerations and imposed on the mass of emitted CO 2 ) are applied to different conventional energy systems (a gas turbine simple cycle; a regenerative cogeneration gas turbine; a three pressure levels combined cycle) in order to determine their impact on the design of the plants. The effects of the CET and CT are investigated for different scenarios (pressure ratio, fuel cost, etc.). The results are presented using useful representations: the cost of electricity vs. efficiency, the cost of electricity vs. specific work, and the cost of electricity vs. plant design parameters (e.g., pressure ratio). Finally, ways that the use of the CET can contribute to the widespread utilization of advanced energy systems, which are more efficient and less polluting, is discussed. In particular, the CET and CT influence is presented and discussed for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine combined cycle

  15. Revenue maximisation and storage utilisation for the Ocean Grazer wave energy converter : A sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Dijkstra, H.T.; Wei, Yanji; van Rooij, Marijn; Meijer, Harmen; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a revenue maximisation strategy for market integration of a novel wave energy converter (WEC), part of the Ocean Grazer platform. In particular, we evaluate and validate the aforementioned revenue maximisation model predictive control (MPC) strategy through extensive simulations

  16. Monitoring growth and energy utilisation of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena in human care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lockyer

    2003-07-01

    The growth of the animals resembles that of wild porpoises in the region. The sudden initial weight losses suggested that the energy reserves of the animals may only be short-term. The large weight increase in the winter months with colder water, correlating with the increase in girth and blubber thickness, suggest that energy reserves and blubber fat may be important for insulation. During the two 24-hour observations, the animals spent most of their time cruising around, although slow swimming and logging at the surface increased at night. Breathing rates were lower in the early morning hours, consistent with diminished activity. Both animals’ movements were influenced by external activities at poolside.

  17. Electrical and engine driven heat pumps for effective utilisation of renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, Lu; Charters, W.W.S

    2003-07-01

    Much of the energy used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes is to provide efficient and effective heating of conditioned spaces and for specialist niche applications in process heat systems. Vapour compression heat pumps driven by electric motors or engines provide the real capability of upgrading low temperature sources of ambient and waste heat to match the desired load temperatures in such heating applications. Major source of ambient heat stem from the storage of solar energy in the ground, in lakes and rivers, and in atmospheric air. Heat pumps can therefore be used to effectively harness indirectly the daily solar radiation input. In addition many industries have major sources of waste low grade heat in the form of air or water discharged from the industrial process heat stream. Heat pumps are generally formally classified therefore as air source, ground source or water source units although there has also been considerable interest recently in hybrid units combining the attributes of two or more of these specific types mentioned above.

  18. Electrical and engine driven heat pumps for effective utilisation of renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Aye [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Charters, W.W.S. [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Much of the energy used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes is to provide efficient and effective heating of conditioned spaces and for specialist niche applications in process heat systems. Vapour compression heat pumps driven by electric motors or engines provide the real capability of upgrading low temperature sources of ambient and waste heat to match the desired load temperatures in such heating applications. Major source of ambient heat stem from the storage of solar energy in the ground, in lakes and rivers, and in atmospheric air. Heat pumps can therefore be used to effectively harness indirectly the daily solar radiation input. In addition many industries have major sources of waste low grade heat in the form of air or water discharged from the industrial process heat stream. Heat pumps are generally formally classified therefore as air source, ground source or water source units although there has also been considerable interest recently in hybrid units combining the attributes of two or more of these specific types mentioned above. (Author)

  19. Effect of maize, rumen-protected fat and whey permeate on energy utilisation and milk fat composition in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of utilisation of diets with different proportions of energy sources (starch, fat, lactose was studied with three pairs of lactating Saanen goats; the animals were fed, in a Latin square design, 3 silage-based diets containing (on DM basis the following energy sources: 32% maize meal (diet M; 4.7% rumen-protected fat (Megalac® and 23.5% maize meal (diet F; 9.8% milk whey permeate powder and 22.3% maize meal (diet W. During each of the three experimental periods, 8 days of total collection balance trials were conducted during which goats were allocated for 72 h (three 24 h cycles in open circuit respiration chambers to determine methane and heat production and, hence, the energy balance. Diet F, in comparison with diets M and W, significantly increased the milk fat content (4.13 vs 3.11 and 3.14%, P<0.001 and the 4%-FCM yield (3367 vs 2927 and 3055 g/d, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, while no relevant changes were observed for milk protein content and yield. Energy digestibility was equal in diets F and W. Megalac® did not decrease fibre digestibility. The partition of the gross energy intake (EI differed significantly between diets: diet M had lower DE (72.4 vs 74.3 and 74.3%; P<0.01 and ME (62.1 vs 64.7 and 63.5%; P<0.05 in comparison with diets F and W, respectively. Energy lost as methane was not significantly decreased by the inclusion of rumen- protected fat in the diet, although a trend for a reduction of methanogenesis was observed. Heat production deter- mined by treatment F was lower in comparison with the other treatments. This difference was almost significant (P=0.056 when expressed as a percentage of the ME. Milk energy output increased significantly (+12%, P<0.001 by including fat in the diet, as compared with treatments M and W: 21.4 vs 19.1 and 19.0% of the EI. The net ener- gy content of the protected fat was 27.94 MJ NEl/kg DM (+340% vs maize meal; its kl value resulted 0.77. The corresponding values for whey

  20. Suburban heat island effect in groundwater energy utilisation in Nordic climate - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Teppo

    2017-04-01

    We present the preliminary results from the initial thermogeological characterization of Finland's first-ever planned large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) facility. The site is located in the Asko area (Lahti), at a latitude of 60°59'N. In particular, emphasis is put on the results from an aquifer's pumping test performed in July / August 2016 to investigate the potential implication of suburban heat island (SUHI) effect to ATES system on the naturally cold groundwater area. The site has been under geological investigation since July 2015. At a regional scale, the groundwater's natural temperature is about 5.8- 6°C. However, preliminary measurements during the investigations revealed that local groundwater temperature ranged between 7.5 to 8.7 °C in Asko area. The highest temperature was observed underneath buildings, suggesting that higher-than-average temperature is most likely influenced due to anthropogenic heat flux into the ground. The pumping test was performed for 39 days, of which 28 days with groundwater withdrawal and 11 days of heads recovery. The pumped volumes range from 350 to 540 m3/d leading the total volume of 10400 m3 of groundwater. Groundwater temperatures were continuously measured from pumping test well and two observation piezometers during the entire test. The results indicated that aquifer's temperature remained nearly constant being between 7.4 to 7.9 °C during the test period. Heat pulses with temperature variation of 0.1 to 0.3 °C were observed in the pumping well and nearest monitoring well (19 meters from pumping well) during the pumping test and recovery phase. We estimate that the pulses were due to rapidly changed groundwater flowing conditions and pulse indicate "new groundwater" flow to the well. Overall, the preliminary test suggests that groundwater temperature are expected to remain elevated during the ATES system operation. Elevated temperature due the SUHI effect increases groundwater heating potential

  1. Use of superconductors for storage and discharge of electrical energy; L'utilisation des supraconducteurs pour le stockage et la decharge de l'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    After recalling the elementary properties which led to superconductors being used for generating very strong magnetic fields, as well as the methods used to attain the required very low temperatures in practice, the author presents in its elementary form the principle of storage and liberation of energy. A more detailed analysis of the successive charging, trapping, storage and discharge operations shows up the different aspects of the problem and is followed by a review of the very small amount of research published up to now and also by a presentation of the original work which has been carried out in this field. It is already possible to use superconducting materials as they are (i.e. although their characteristics have been adjusted with a view only to obtain very strong magnetic fields). Much more will be obtained from superconductors when they have been correctly adapted to this new very promising application to the storage and discharge of electrical energy. (authors) [French] Rappelant les proprietes elementaires qui avaient conduit a utiliser les supraconducteurs pour engendrer des champs mangetiques intenses, ainsi que les moyens utilises pour atteindre pratiquement les tres basses temperatures necessaires, l'auteur presente sous sa forme elementaire le principe du stockage et de la liberation de l'energie. Une analyse plus detaillee des operations successives de charge, piegeage, stockage et decharge de l'energie, faisant apparaitre differents aspects du probleme, permet de faire le point sur les rares travaux connus a ce jour et de presenter le travail original qui a ete effectue dans ce domaine. On peut deja exploiter les materiaux supraconducteurs tels qu'ils sont (c'est-a-dire malgre que leurs caracteristiques n'aient ete ajustees qu'en vue de realiser des champs magnetiques intenses). On obtiendra encore bien davantage des supraconducteurs lorsqu'ils auront ete correctement adaptes a cette nouvelle application pleine de promesses que representent le

  2. Radioisotope Power Sources; Sources d'energie utilisant les radiobotopes; Radioizotopnye istochniki ehnergii; Fuentes radio isotopicas de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culwell, J. P. [USAEC, Washington, D.C (United States)

    1963-11-15

    hazards. (author) [French] Le programme de production d'energie au moyen des radioisotopes, execute par la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis, a donne naissance a toute une technologie nouvelle de l'emploi des radioisotopes comme source d'energie dans des generateurs. Les sources d'energie utilisant des radioisotopes conviennent particulierement pour les applications a distance, qui exigent des alimentations de longue duree, de faibles dimensions et de fonctionnement sur. Ces ''batteries nucleaires'', qui peuvent fonctionner de maniere satisfaisante dans des conditions extremes de temperature et d'exposition aux rayons solaires et aux rayonnements electromagnetiques, constituent des sources d'energie interessantes pour differents types d'engins telecommandes tels que ceux qui sont destines a recueillir des renseignements ou a assurer une surveillance ainsi que les satellites et autres vehicules spatiaux. Les radioisotopes utilises comme sources d'energie sont generalement des emetteuis alpha ou beta. Les emetteurs alpha sont preferables, mais ils sont plus couteux et plus rares et on les reserve generalement pour les applications spatiales. A l'heure actuelle les emetteurs beta, obtenus par separation des dechets de la fission nucleaire, sont utilises exclusivement dans les engins terrestres et marins. On peut neanmoins prevoir que des emetteurs beta, comme le strontium-90, seront eventuellement utilises dans l'espace. On fait actuellement des recherches sur des generateurs qui utiliseront comme sources des melanges de produits de fission. Ces sources seront d'un prix de revient moins eleve qile les radioisotopes purs car les couts de la separation et de la purification seront supprimes. Des prototypes de generateurs thermoelectriques, utilisant le strontium-90 et le cesium-137 comme sources, fonctionnent actuellement ou sont mis au point dans des stations meteorologiques, des engins de balisage et des appareils pour la survellance des profondeurs marines. Le

  3. Wind energy utilisation. 7. enl. and compl. rev. ed.; Nutzung der Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heier, Siegfried [Kassel Univ. (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The use of wind energy register furthermore rapid technological advances. Intensive research efforts in scientific institutions and in industry have led to it that the plants are reliable high technology products today. An overview of these developments give the completely revised BINE reference-book. The focus is on technologies, concepts and the market development of the wind industry. Other topics include network integration, economy and current research perspectives as well as environmental balance and repowering. Planners, investors and students get an overview of the status and development of the technology, the economy and the legal framework. [German] Die Nutzung der Windenergie verzeichnet weiterhin rasante technologische Fortschritte. Intensive Forschungsanstrengungen an wissenschaftlichen Institutionen und in der Industrie haben dazu gefuehrt, dass die Anlagen heute zuverlaessige Hightech Produkte sind. Einen Ueberblick ueber diese Entwicklungen gibt das vollstaendig ueberarbeitete BINE-Fachbuch. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Technologien, Konzepte und die Marktentwicklung der Windbranche. Weitere Themen sind die Netzintegration, Wirtschaftlichkeit und aktuelle Forschungsperspektiven sowie Umweltbilanz und Repowering. Planer, Investoren und Studierende erhalten einen Ueberblick ueber Stand und Entwicklung der Technik, die Wirtschaftlichkeit sowie die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen.

  4. Utilisation of the energy-independent underground gasification-uvea process for carbamide production; Einsatz des energieautarken Untertagevergasungs-Urea-Prozesses zur Carbamid-Herstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas [Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschungszentrum (GFZ) Potsdam (Germany); Schlueter, Ralph [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany). Abt. Geologie und Bohrlochvermessungen; Hamann, Joerg [EPC Industrial Engineering Deutschland GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Islam, Rafiqul [Dhaka Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Azzam, Rafig [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieur- und Hydrogeologie

    2011-08-15

    The worldwide coal resources have an energy supply potential of several hundred years. However, great depths, thin seams and tectonic faults may greatly restrict the utilisation of the coal seams by means of conventional conveyor technologies. With the aim of production of a conveyable synthesis gas underground coal gasification (UCG) offers an environmentally friendly and economically viable possibility of utilisation of previously inaccessible coal deposits. The high-calorific UCG synthesis gas can be used, for example, for the generation of electricity in an integrated gas and steam turbine process (GaS) as well as the production of chemical starting materials. One possibility of product recovery from the UCG synthesis gas is the production of the fertiliser carbamide (CH{sub 6}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The aim of this study is the development of a utilisation concept for coal deposits on the basis of a combined and energy-independent UCG-GaS-urea process. To check the utilisation concept based on an independent electricity supply an economic feasibility study for a selected investigation area in the north of Bangladesh was carried out with consideration of the economic viability and potential of the UCG-GaS-urea process. (orig.)

  5. 3D spectrum imaging of multi-wall carbon nanotube coupled π-surface modes utilising electron energy-loss spectra acquired using a STEM/Enfina system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seepujak, A.; Bangert, U.; Gutierrez-Sosa, A.; Harvey, A.J.; Blank, V.D.; Kulnitskiy, B.A.; Batov, D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have utilised electron energy-loss (EEL) spectra acquired in the plasmon (2-10 eV) regime in order to probe delocalised π-electronic states of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Interpretation of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra of MWCNTs in the 2-10 eV regime. Carbon (accepted for publication); Blank et al. J. Appl. Phys. 91 (2002) 1657). In the present contribution, EEL spectra were acquired from a 2D raster defined on a bottle-shaped MWCNT, using a Gatan UHV Enfina system attached to a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The technique utilised to isolate and sequentially filter each of the volume and surface resonances is described in detail. Utilising a scale for the intensity of a filtered mode enables one to 'see' the distribution of each resonance in the raster. This enables striking 3D resonance-filtered spectrum images (SIs) of π-collective modes to be observed. Red-shift of the lower energy split π-surface resonance provides explicit evidence of π-surface mode coupling predicted for thin graphitic films (Lucas et al. Phys. Rev. B 49 (1994) 2888). Resonance-filtered SIs are also compared to non-filtered SIs with suppressed surface contributions, acquired utilising a displaced collector aperture. The present filtering technique is seen to isolate surface contributions more effectively, and without the significant loss of statistics, associated with the displaced collector aperture mode. Isolation of collective modes utilising 3D resonance-filtered spectrum imaging, demonstrates a valuable method for 'pinpointing' the location of discrete modes in irregularly shaped nanostructures

  6. Stabilising high energy orbit oscillations by the utilisation of centrifugal effects for rotating-tyre-induced energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshun; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters are frequently considered in preference to linear devices because they can potentially overcome the narrow frequency bandwidth limitations inherent to linear variants; however, the possibility of variable harvesting efficiency is raised for the nonlinear case. This paper proposes a rotational energy harvester which may be fitted into an automobile tyre, with the advantage that it may broaden the rotating frequency bandwidth and simultaneously stabilise high-energy orbit oscillations. By consideration of the centrifugal effects due to rotation, the overall restoring force will potentially be increased for a cantilever implemented within the harvester, and this manifests as an increase in its equivalent elastic stiffness. In addition, this study reveals that the initial potential well barriers become as shallow as those for a bistable system. When the rotational frequency increases beyond an identifiable boundary frequency, the system transforms into one with a potential barrier of a typical monostable system. On this basis, the inter-well motion of the bistable system can provide sufficient kinetic energy so that the cantilever maintains its high-energy orbit oscillation for monostable hardening behaviour. Furthermore, in a vehicle drive experiment, it has been shown that the effective rotating frequency bandwidth can be widened from 15 km/h-25 km/h to 10 km/h-40 km/h. In addition, it is confirmed that the centrifugal effects can improve the harvester performance, producing a mean power of 61 μW at a driving speed of 40 km/h, and this is achieved by stabilising the high-energy orbit oscillations of the rotational harvester.

  7. The nuclear energy use in Space; Utilisation de l'energie nucleaire dans l'espace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, X. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Pempie, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 91 - Evry (France)

    2002-07-01

    Two ways of the nuclear energy use are possible in spatial applications. The first one is the electric power production to supply satellites, space vehicles or electric propulsion. The second one, less obvious, is the thermal-nuclear propulsion where the nuclear reactor is a thermal exchanger for a gas. These two applications are presented in this paper, with two examples of projects realized in collaboration of the CNES and the CEA: ERATO as an electrical generator and MAPS as the nucleo-thermal propulsion. (A.L.B.)

  8. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...... of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability...

  9. Physical utilisation and conversion to energy of wastes arising in the wood industry; Stoffliche und energetische Abfallverwertung in der Holz- und Papierindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik; Marutzky, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Holzforschung, Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut (WKI), Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The present paper describes material streams in the paper and wood industry. It also points out possibilities for the physical utilisation and conversion to energy of wood waste and discusses the problems they involve. The authors give a brief overview of the of the plants used for this purpose along with illustrating examples. [Deutsch] Es werden Stoffstroeme in der Papier- und Holzindustrie aufgezeigt. Ferner werden stoffliche und energetische Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Holzabfaellen und Probleme dieser Verwertung beschrieben. Auch die Anlagen zu dieser Verwertung und einige Beispiele werden kurz zusammengefasst vorgestellt. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of agronomical constraints in connection with the utilisation of straw as an energy source. Final report. Analyse des contraintes agronomiques liees a l'utilisation des pailles comme source d'energie. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, P

    1985-01-01

    The main objectives of the researches proposed by several French INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) teams can be outlined in the following manner: Impact evaluations upon the soil properties of a radical modification in the organic stock management (due to the use of by products as energy feedstocks). Definition of an agronomically safe (limited) 'biomass deposit' for energy production and an optimum management of vegetable biomass in terms of both energetic and agricultural purposes. Study of the socio-economic consequences of the introduction of new energy paths within rural areas subject to intensive or extensive farming practices. Development of economic methods for analyzing and forecasting the costs of new energy paths.

  11. Energy efficiency of digestible protein, fat and carbohydrate utilisation for growth in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Johan W; Haidar, Mahmoud N; Geurden, Inge; Heinsbroek, Leon T N; Kaushik, Sachi J

    2018-04-01

    Currently, energy evaluation of fish feeds is performed on a digestible energy basis. In contrast to net energy (NE) evaluation systems, digestible energy evaluation systems do not differentiate between the different types of digested nutrients regarding their potential for growth. The aim was to develop an NE evaluation for fish by estimating the energy efficiency of digestible nutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) and to assess whether these efficiencies differed between Nile tilapia and rainbow trout. Two data sets were constructed. The tilapia and rainbow data set contained, respectively, eight and nine experiments in which the digestibility of protein, fat and energy and the complete energy balances for twenty-three and forty-five diets was measured. The digestible protein (dCP), digestible fat (dFat) and digestible carbohydrate intakes (dCarb) were calculated. By multiple regression analysis, retained energy (RE) was related to dCP, dFat and dCarb. In tilapia, all digestible nutrients were linearly related to RE (Pefficiency of dCP, dFat and dCarb was 49, 91 and 66 %, respectively, showing large similarity with pigs. Tilapia and trout had similar energy efficiencies of dCP (49 v. 57 %) and dFat (91 v. 84 %), but differed regarding dCarb.

  12. Acute effects of exercise intensity on subsequent substrate utilisation, appetite, and energy balance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamlan, Ghalia; Bech, Paul; Robertson, M Denise; Collins, Adam L

    2017-12-01

    Exercise is capable of influencing the regulation of energy balance by acutely modulating appetite and energy intake coupled to effects on substrate utilization. Yet, few studies have examined acute effects of exercise intensity on aspects of both energy intake and energy metabolism, independently of energy cost of exercise. Furthermore, little is known as to the gender differences of these effects. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 40 (19 female), healthy participants (BMI 23.6 ± 3.6 kg·m -2 , V̇O 2peak 34.4 ± 6.8 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) undertook either high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) consisting of 8 repeated 60 s bouts of cycling at 95% V̇O 2peak or low-intensity continuous cycling (LICC), equivalent to 50% V̇O 2peak , matched for energy cost (∼950 kJ) followed by 90 mins of rest, in a randomised crossover design. Throughout each study visit, satiety was assessed subjectively using visual analogue scales alongside blood metabolites and GLP-1. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization were measured over 75 min postexercise via indirect calorimetry. Energy intake was assessed for 48 h postintervention. No differences in appetite, GLP-1, or energy intakes were observed between HIIC and LICC, with or without stratifying for gender. Significant differences in postexercise nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were observed between intensities in both genders, coupled to a significantly lower respiratory exchange ratio following HIIC (P = 0.0028), with a trend towards greater reductions in respiratory exchange ratioin males (P = 0.079). In conclusion, high-intensity exercise, if energy matched, does not lead to greater appetite or energy intake, but may exert additional beneficial metabolic effects that may be more pronounced in males.

  13. Energy wood reserves and the utilisation conditions of them 1/1994 - 4/1997; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskimoeloe, A [Metsaetalouden Kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the D105 project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood by developing a model for establishing the procurable volumes of energy wood. This will be done by using forestry planning data on private forests and numeric road data. Position data (GRASS) and database (Ms Access) programs are used in the model. The project was launched in the beginning of 1994 and will run until April 1997. Basic information needed was collected from pilot areas in co-operation with the PUUHA project launched in Mikkeli. Later the work continued with the Forest Energy Project of Central Finland. The position-data program is used to produce forest and road haulage distances for each forest figure. The distance data is then transferred to the database program. In the database program the procurement costs of energy wood are established by using cost models based on productivity curves. After that, it is possible to establish if the figure is economically worthwhile for energy wood harvesting purposes or not. By using this information, the model calculates first the amount of energy wood on the figure and secondly the procurable volumes of energy wood that can be delivered to the local heating plant. (orig.)

  14. Advances in the utilisation of renewable energy resources and research in the Central and Western Regions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubu, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text. An overview of the renewable energy development and research in the Central and Western regions of Ghana is presented. A focus is made on the growing awareness of a necessary change in the Ghanaian energy scene by the introduction of solar photovoltaic systems into the telecommunication industry, rural health centres and hospitals. A survey of installed solar photovoltaic systems and their impact on the society as a whole is undertaken. Also, attention is drawn to educational and training programmes in renewable energy at the University of Cape Coast, other institutions and NGOs. Finally, the prospects of solar thermal, wind and mini-hydro in the two regions are also discussed. (author)

  15. Modelling the energy and exergy utilisation of the Mexican non-domestic sector: A study by climatic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Kerdan, Iván; Morillón Gálvez, David; Raslan, Rokia; Ruyssevelt, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bottom-up stock model to perform a holistic energy study of the Mexican non-domestic sector. The current energy and exergy flows are shown based on a categorisation by climatic regions with the aim of understanding the impact of local characteristics on regional efficiencies. Due to the limited data currently available, the study is supported by the development of a detailed archetype-based stock model using EnergyPlus as a first law analysis tool combined with an existing exergy analysis method. Twenty-one reference models were created to estimate the electric and gas use in the sector. The results indicate that sectoral energy and exergy annual input are 95.37 PJ and 94.28 PJ, respectively. Regional exergy efficiencies were found to be 17.8%, 16.6% and 23.2% for the hot-dry, hot-humid and temperate climates, respectively. The study concludes that significant potential for improvements still exists, especially in the cases of space conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, and cooking where most exergy destructions occur. Additionally, this work highlights that the method described may be further used to study the impact of large-scale refurbishments and promote national regulations and standards for sustainable buildings that takes into consideration energy and exergy indicators. - Highlights: • A bottom-up physics model was developed to analyse the Mexican commercial stock. • A detailed energy analysis by climate, buildings and end-uses is presented. • The Mexican non-domestic sector as a whole has an exergy efficiency of 19.7%. • The lowest regional exergy efficiency is found at the hot-humid region with 16.6%. • By end use, the highest exergy destructions are caused by HVAC and lighting

  16. Combination of a gas heat pump with geothermal energy and solar heat utilisation; Kombination einer Gaswaermepumpe mit Geothermie und Solarwaermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Andreas [Robur GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A home for handicapped persons in Berlin was modernised. This included the installation of a gas-fuelled absorption heat pump combined with geothermal heat supply and solar heating. CO2 emissions and primary energy consumption were reduced considerably by this concept. (orig.)

  17. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  18. Comparative analysis of possibilities for raising the efficiency in thermal power plant by utilisation of waste heat energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijakovski Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use flue gases waste heat for increasing the efficiency of thermal power plant (TPP explained in this work refers to lignite fired TPP-Bitola in Macedonia (3x233 MW installed electric capacity. Possibility to utilize low-temperature heat energy at the plant’s cold end is also considered in the analysis. Specific fuel consumption is used as an analysis and comparison parameter. Its reduction, compared to the basic power unit ranges between 0.4% and 3.4%. An analysis presenting economic feasibility of the low-temperature heat energy utilization concept for two different refrigerants used in the heat pump is also presented.

  19. Utilisation of biological and secondary raw materials VI. Recycling - conversion to energy; Bio- und Sekundaerrohstoffverwertung VI. Stofflich - energetisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael

    2011-07-01

    In a lot of contributions the Kasseler waste and bio-energy forum reports on a sustainable management of wastes. The organizers hope that this results in a lively dialogue on sustainable activities in waste management corresponding to the responsibility towards future generations. Within the 23rd Kasseler waste and bio-energy forum at 12th to 14th April, 2010 in Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany) lectures were held to the following themes: (1) Perspectives of the waste management; (2) Ressource conservation and securing of raw material; (3) Common capture of packages and high-grade materials; (4) Bin for reusable materials - system trusteeship, material flows, qualities, financing, practical examples; (5) Industrial waste flows, EBS quality assurance and increase of efficiency; (6) New technological developments in the area of fermentation of biological wastes; (7) Perspectives of material and energetical utilization of biological wastes; (8) Renewable Energy Law and direct marketing of 'green' electricity; (9) Technology and experiences with biogas processing; (10) Fermentation of biogenic residues and catering waste; (11) Increase of efficiency of mechanical-biological treatment plants; (12) Mechanical-biological treatment technology in an international environment; (13) Concepts of energetic utilization for landfill sites; (14) Landfill law and landfill after-care; (15) Renaturation of landfills.

  20. A comparative study of health and safety aspects in the utilisation of coal and nuclear energy for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the analysis of the risks associated with nuclear energy systems and coal-fired power stations are discussed and compared. The average dose has been estimated to be less than 5 mrem/a for a fully developed ruclear power programme. This dose is about 5% of the natural dose of 100 mrem/a. On the basis an average of 1500 spontaneous cancer deaths per million per year, the contribution due to 5 mrem/a would be one additional cancer death of the exposed group i.e. 0.066%. On the other hand, effluents from the coal-fired stations have been found to contribute 5.5% to 19% of the total lung cancer deaths. A point often not noticed is the radiological hazards due to the natural radioactive content of coal. The fly-ash contains radium-226 and radium-228. The plumes of the coal-fired stations contain radon and its daughter products. Taking into account the radiological and chemical hazards of coal burning, the nuclear energy systems are far better than coal-fired power stations. (M.G.B.)

  1. Uso de fijador externo en la inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior (volet esternal: Presentación de un caso Use of the external fixative in the instability of the anterior thoraxic wall (sternal volet: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes N Mederos Curbelo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente con inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior y esternón tratado previamente con un dispositivo creado por los autores en 1995 para el volet costal. Las costillas artificiales externas del dispositivo, diseñado para el cerclaje subperióstico, actúan como elemento de fijación y han conseguido resultados satisfactorios. Se presenta un paciente, que producto de un accidente automovilístico, sufre lesiones en cráneo, tórax, abdomen y extremidades, entre las que resaltan contusión cerebral, lesión hepática, fractura de fémur e inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior. Esta última requirió de prioridad extrema, pues habría llevado rápidamente al paciente a la insuficiencia respiratoria de no ser solucionado el problema. Se realizó la estabilización externa mediante un equipo que se utiliza en nuestro hospital, reutilizable y aplicable en cualquier inestabilidad torácica independientemente de la localización de esta. El fijador se confecciona con láminas de duraluminio maleables que permiten su adaptabilidad e introduce una forma de tratamiento en las lesiones torácicas bilaterales con inestabilidad esternal, situación compleja en la que puede resultar un instrumento valioso de tratamientoA patient with instability of the anterior thoracic wall and sternum previously treated with a device created by the authors in 1995 for the costal volet, is presented. The artificial external ribs of the device designed for subperiosteous cerclage act as a fixation element with satisfactory results. The case of a patient that due to a car accident suffers from lesions in the cranium, thorax, abdomen and limbs, among which cerebral contusion, liver lesion, femur fracture and instability of the anterior thoracic wall stand out, is reported. Maximum priority was given to the instability of the anterior thoracic wall, since it could have rapidly led to respiratory failure if the problem would have not been solved. The

  2. Adaptations of hepatic amino acid uptake and net utilisation contributes to nitrogen economy or waste in lambs fed nitrogen- or energy-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Durand, D; Rémond, D; Jardé, T; Bequette, B; Savary-Auzeloux, I

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effect of relative changes in dietary nitrogen (N) and energy supply and the subsequent variations in net portal appearance (NPA) of nitrogenous and energy nutrients on the net amino acid (AA) uptake by the liver and net N supply to the peripheral tissues. Six lambs were catheterised across the splanchnic tissues and received, in a replicated Latin square, one of three dietary treatments. The diets were formulated to either match the requirements of N and energy (C), or supply only 0.8 of the N requirement (LN) or 0.8 of the energy requirement (LE). Net fluxes of AA and urea-N were measured across the portal-drained viscera, and estimation of arterial hepatic flow allowed the estimation of hepatic fluxes. Catheters were implanted into the portal and hepatic veins as well as in the abdominal aorta for the measurement of AA fluxes. Animals fed the LN diet showed more efficient N retention (0.59 of digested N) than did the C and LE diet (0.50 and 0.33, respectively; P < 0.001). The NPA of total AA-N for the LN diet was only 0.60 of the value measured for the control (C) diet (P < 0.01). Despite this, the total estimated AA-N net splanchnic fluxes were not significantly different across the three diets (3.3, 1.9 and 2.6 g total AA-N/day for C, LN and LE, respectively, P = 0.52). Thus, different metabolic regulations must have taken place across the liver between the three experimental diets. A combination of decreased net uptake of total AA-N by the liver of animals in the LN diet (0.61 of the C diet; P = 0.002) and reduced urinary urea-N production (0.52 of the C diet; P = 0.001) spared AA from catabolism in the LN diet relative to the other two diets. For the LE diet, the urinary urea-N output was 1.3 times the value of the C diet (P = 0.01). This may relate to an increased catabolism of AA by the muscle and/or, to a lesser extent, to an increased utilisation of AA for gluconeogenesis in the liver. These effects may explain the reduced whole body

  3. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity; La consommation des sources d'energie: utilisations finales, efficacite et productivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  4. New solutions in the use of energy. Characteristics for a Mediterranean building; Nouvelles solutions dans l'utilisation de l'energie. Caracteristiques pour un batiment mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document is edited by the regional energy agency of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (ARENE) with the participation of the ICAEN (Institut Catala d'Energia) (Barcelona, Spain) and Punto Energia (Milan, Italy) and with the help of the general direction of energy of the European Commission (DG 17, sub-program 'Energy'). It presents the rules for the elaboration of a 'building program' devoted to foremen and which aims at integrating the energy and environmental requirements of a building prior to its construction: 1 - planning (goal, preliminary and feasibility studies); 2 - elaboration of the energy program (environmental context of the project, demand formulation: environmental impact, comfort, electricity and water uses, maintenance, costs..); 3 - characteristics of a Mediterranean building (regional aspect, envelope and passive heating/cooling techniques, active techniques), 4 - energy feasibility study; 5 - evaluation means. (J.S.)

  5. Chemical Utilisation of CO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Chemical Utilisation of CO2: A Challenge for the Sustainable World. Dinesh Jagadeesan Bhaskar Joshi Prashant Parameswaran. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 165-176 ...

  6. CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the energy use; Les emissions de CO{sub 2} dues a l'utilisation de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document brings statistical data on the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the energy use only. Tables and charts present data for the CO{sub 2} emissions in France, in the world (2001-2002), in the OECD (2000-2002), the CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants and refineries in France (1996-1999) and archives of statistics on CO{sub 2} emissions. (A.L.B.)

  7. Salt impregnated desiccant matrices for ‘open’ thermochemical energy conversion and storage – Improving energy density utilisation through hygrodynamic & thermodynamic reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Sean P.; Aydin, Devrim; Elvins, Jon; Riffat, Saffa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A selection of sorbents were tested for open thermochemical heat storage. • Sorbent performances were experimentally compared in two different reactors. • SIM-3a provided the best cyclic behaviour and thermal performance. • Using meshed tube air diffusers improves sorption heat storage performance. • A linear correlation between heat output and moisture uptake was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, the performance of three nano-composite energy storage absorbents; Vermiculite-CaCl_2 (SIM-3a), Vermiculite-CaCl_2-LiNO_3 (SIM-3f), and the desiccant Zeolite 13X were experimentally investigated for suitability to domestic scale thermal energy storage. A novel 3 kWh open thermochemical reactor consisting of new meshed tube air diffusers was built to experimentally examine performance. The results were compared to those obtained using a previously developed flatbed experimental reactor. SIM-3a has the best cyclic behaviour and thermal performance. It was found that 0.01 m"3 of SIM-3a can provide an average temperature lift of room air, ΔT = 20 °C over 180 min whereas for SIM-3f, ΔT < 15 °C was achieved. Zeolite provided high sorption heat in close approximation with SIM-3a, however, the higher desorption temperature requirements coupled with poor cyclic ability remain as obstacles to the roll out this material commercially. The study results clearly show that the concept of using perforated tubes embedded inside the heat storage material significantly improves performance by enhancing the contact surface area between air → absorbent whilst increasing vapour diffusion. The results suggest a linear correlation between thermal performance and moisture uptake, ΔT–Δw. Determining these operating lines will prove useful for predicting achievable temperature lift and also for effective design and control of thermochemical heat storage systems.

  8. Energetic utilisation of biomass in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barotfi, I.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic utilisation of biomass has been known since prehistoric times and was only pushed into the background by the technological developments of the last century. The energy crisis and, more recently, environmental problems have now brought it back to the fore, and efforts are being made worldwide to find modern technical applications for biomass and contribute to its advance. (orig.) [de

  9. Coincidence measurements with the use of detectors measuring the energy of the radiances (proportional meters and scintillation counter); Mesures de coincidences avec utilisation de detecteurs mesurant l'energie des rayonnements (compteurs proportionnels et compteur a scintillations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartory, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    In the setting of the realization of a set of installations permitting of the measures of coincidences between sorted radiances according to their energies, an installation understanding a proportional counter and a scintillation counter has been constructed and optimized. It has been used to do some measures of coincidences between X{sub K} photons and photons {gamma} issued at the time of the radioactive transformation of the selenium 75 (electronic capture). The efficiency of the proportional meter has been determined roughly. Besides, a proportional counter of solid angle neighboring of 4{pi} was able to achieve measures of coincidences while only doing one selection of amplitudes: indeed, the simultaneity of the detection of two radiances appear by an impulse whose amplitude is the sum of the amplitudes of the impulses resulting from each of the studied radiations. This method, applied to the coincidences between X-rays, permitted to bring the information on the diagram of decay of the arsenic 73. Besides, the coefficient of internal conversion of a consecutive transition to this decay has been valued. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de la realisation d'une serie de montages permettant des mesures de coincidences entre rayonnements tries d'apres leurs energies, un montage comprenant un compteur proportionnel et un compteur a scintillations a ete construit et mis au point. Il a ete utilise pour effectuer quelques mesures de coincidences entre photons X{sub K} et photons {gamma} emis lors de la transformation radioactive du selenium 75 (capture electronique). L'efficacite du compteur proportionnel a ete approximativement determinee. De plus, un compteur proportionnel d'angle solide voisin de 4{pi} a pu etre utilise pour realiser des mesures de coincidences en n'effectuant qu'une selection d'amplitudes: en effet, la simultaneite de la detection de deux rayonnements se manifeste par une impulsion dont l'amplitude est la somme des amplitudes des impulsions

  10. Improving awareness for energy conservation in industry by means of the PINCHLENI computer code; Promotion de l'utilisation rationnelle de l'energie dans l'industrie par PINCHLENI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.; Favrat, D.

    2002-07-01

    A computer system for the promotion of the rational use of energy in the industry has been developed. It combines the PINCHLENI software developed by the LENI (Laboratory of Industrial Energy Systems) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne, Switzerland) and the web-based platform EXSYS developed initially by the LASSC (Laboratory for the Analysis and the Synthesis of Chemical Systems) at the University of Liege, Belgium with the support of the European Commission. It represents an efficient platform for solving process integration problems. A web site allowing free download of the tools has been developed. It includes a users' data base, a FAQ (frequently asked questions) and a bug reporting section that will allow a more efficient and easier maintenance of the software tools. The Windows version of PINCHLENI has been stabilized and a communication interface with the EXSYS platform has been developed. This system is an efficient system for computing the process integration including the optimal integration of energy conversion technologies like combustion, gas turbines, steam network, Rankine cycles, heat pumps and refrigeration cycles. This system is particularly well suited for solving site scale problems (as demonstrated in an industrial site application solved during this project). A courseware (in English language) helps learning the utilisation of the software. It is composed of online manuals and teaching materials for the theoretical backgrounds, a FAQ list with a search engine as well as a hypertext tutorial document illustrating the application of the two computer platforms for solving a small example. Results of this research project will be found on the LENI web site at URL http://leniwww.epfl.ch/. (author)

  11. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  12. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  13. Justified requirements in private transportation and a recommendation for improving the efficiency of household energy utilisation through the use of small ecologically-friendly or 'ultralight' vehicles for mass private transportation in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juravic, T.

    1999-01-01

    Needs and ownership are sociobiologically manifested in the alter-ego of a Homo sapiens where the natural progression of events (a household being the fundamental microlevel) and the social order, i.e. globalisation, are based on ownership and needs as sacred rights, and for this reason universal values like energy conservation end up as the waste of the mindless worship of consumption. Justified needs are phenomena of a consumerist (egocentric, pragmatic, voluntary) social conscience and instinctive behaviour - an unpredictable cause resulting from freedom being the foundation of the quality of life, socio-economic and political changes but are mutually exclusive to understanding (expressing and gaining deeper and richer knowledge). Inbuilt limits and/or control of consumption, which are already used in household appliances with aforeset processes (goals) for unknown consumers, to achieve large energy savings in 'routine' functions are more effective than attempts to prevent mistakes (lack of user knowledge through repression). A private vehicle, as a symbol of the freedom and quality of life, is a mechanism for achieving 'justified' needs and presents another means of household energy utilisation. The consumer's desires regarding private transportation are not sufficiently reconciled with intelligent microprocessors (expert systems), which achieve (the most) optimal behaviour in the process of transportation. This detailed consideration (as part of investigating the technical system) cannot be examined on a strictly logical or scientific basis, as it only proposes a method of co-agreement (not co-reponsability) of manufacturers and consumers and an alternative logical way of thinking, or organisation of the interaction between vehicles and traffic in order to form a judgement of really justifiable needs, and to achieve a robotic private vehicle, transportation and traffic. The goal of this consideration is to establish the DIVISION of energy with the help of

  14. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  15. Utilisation of real-scale renewable energy test facility for validation of generic wind turbine and wind power plant controller models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wallen, Robb

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an example of application of a modern test facility conceived for experiments regarding the integration of renewable energy in the power system. The capabilities of the test facility are used to validate dynamic simulation models of wind power plants and their controllers....... The models are based on standard and generic blocks. The successful validation of events related to the control of active power (control phenomena in...

  16. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta[Energie renouvelable ; Zone rurale ; Gaz biologique ; Energie solaire ; Sechoir solaire]; Seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies nouvelles en zone rurale du 24 mars au3 avril 1980 a Reo, Haute Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    volume of transport much more reduced. Mastering these new technologies will help fight efficiently against desertification, and fruits and vegetables rotting. [French] L'acces a l'energie par toutes les populations reste une des preoccupations du Gouvernement de Haute Volta (Burkina Faso). C'est ainsi que sous l'egide de la Communaute Economique de l Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO), de l'Agence Canadienne de Developpement International et du Mouvement Scout, un seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies renouvelables en zone rurale y a ete organise. Il s'agit pour les participants venus de plusieurs pays, d'apprendre a mettre en pratique, l'utilisation des energies nouvelles telles la cuisiniere a feu ferme, le gaz biologique, le chauffe- eau solaire et le sechoir solaire. L'adoption de ces nouvelles sources d'energie par les populations permettrait de pallier les problemes de desertification lies au deboisement intensif dans le pays. Tous les participants a cette rencontre sont donc sensibilises pour qu'ils apportent leur contribution et celle des populations de leurs terroirs respectifs pour une meilleure conservation des ressources naturelles disponibles. Cela passe aussi par la construction de cuisinieres a feu ferme qui permettent d'avoir deux sources d'energie. Ce type de foyer est d'une construction facile et utilisable seulement trois jours apres. Il permet d'eviter la perte d'energie qui caracterisait le foyer traditionnel (pres de 95% de perte d'energie) ; ce qui revient a consommer moins de bois tout en assurant un rendement de l'ordre de 60 a 70%. Il s'est agi pour les participants aux travaux de s'initier a l'installation de gaz suivant des modeles chinois et indien . Ils ont donc ete inities a la realisation des technologies de production de gaz biologique a travers la maitrise du schema de principe du procede de fermentation discontinue. De meme, ils ont acquis le savoir- faire sur les techniques de mise en place du chauffe- eau solaire par insolateur et du

  17. German mires - Utilisation and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderfeld, H.

    1996-01-01

    Mires in Germany are mainly used for agriculture. Peat mining is important regionally, but forest utilisation less so. Twenty years ago in the former West Germany, the first steps from peatland utilisation to peatland protection were taken. Bog protection programmes were developed first. Nowadays research directed to fen protection has begun, prompted by the decreasing importance of agriculture in Central Europe and an increasing environmental awareness. The situation regarding mire protection in Germany is presented for each Federal State individually. A rough estimate suggests 45 000 ha of protected bogs and 25 000 ha of protected fens. These areas include natural and semi-natural mires as well as rewetted mires. (30 refs.)

  18. Development of an integrated energy concept: survey of the potential for reducing emissions of climate-influencing trace gases through efficient utilisation in the old Laender. Sector traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, F.

    1993-11-01

    If CO 2 emissions are to be reduced on account of their major contribution to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, as planned, for example, by the Federal Government, then a key role will have to be assigned to the traffic sector because this is the only sector whose energy consumption and consequent CO 2 emissions is relentlessly increasing. This forms the background to the present study's intent of sketching out possible routes of development of the traffic system in the old Laender. Three scenarios having particular regard to traffic-related CO 2 emissions are presented. The study is based on the reference years 1987, 2005, and 2020; its scope is defined by the so-called inland concept. The scenario calculations are based on, firstly, a detailed quantitative survey of the West German traffic system in 1987 as the starting year and, secondly, a dp-supported traffic model that is capable of generating a scenario and describes traffic systems in terms of parameters such as traffic volume and CO 2 emissions taking interdependencies with other energy consuming sectors into account. Working from a general transsectoral scenario formulation, measures appropriate to the respective framework conditions governing the three scenarios 'Business as usual' (BAU), 'Efficiency', and 'Ecologically structured policy' are defined and the resulting effects on the individual elements of the traffic system are assessed. The results of the subsequently performed scenario calculations largely consist of detailed, absolute, traffic-volume-specific CO 2 emission values for each reference year. (orig.) [de

  19. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  20. Production of biomass on the fields and mires, and utilisation of it for energy production; Biomassan tuotanto pelloilla ja soilla sekae kaeyttoe energiantuotantoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, T.; Hoemmoe, L.; Partala, A. [Agricultural Research Center, Jokioinen (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The research will be carried out as five sub-projects. The first sub-project `Production and breeding of reed canary grass` the biomass production of the reed canary grass will be studied. The breeding material consists of 101 populations collected from various parts of the country in summer 1993, breeder`s lines obtained from Svaloef-Weibull Ab from Sweden (13 populations), and 7 reed canary grass species. A breeding field for reed canary grass was founded in summer 1994. The field was supplemented in the summer 1995. The first selection of the breeding material was made in 1995. The volume of the seed harvest, the germination capacity and development were studied with harvesting time study. Five different plantations were made for the nutrient cycling and nutrient balance of the reed canary grass at Jokioinen in the summer 1995. Two liming and nitrogen-fertilization test areas were made in Northern Ostrobothnia in 1994. The evaporation potential of reed canary grass was studied in connection with drying of a peat production field was studied in the sub-project no. 2, `Cultivation of energy plants at the mire, and the drying of peat production area`, during the summer 1995, and the biomass production using greenhouse-plantations founded in 1994. The plantations evaporated from carex peat bases during the inspection season depending on fertilization 171-450 mm of water, and from the Sphagnum peat base 105-160 mm of water. Average daily evaporations from Carex peat bases were 2.6 - 6.8 mm and from Sphagnum peat bases 1.6 - 2.4 mm

  1. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F.; Menoux, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    fate of radioactive ions in the hydrosphere may be determined. - experiments and studies linked with the possibilities for disposal a underground storage of wastes. All these studies cover a complementary field, that of radioprotection, which forms the necessary link between nuclear safety proper, which concerns the actual operation of nuclear installations and medical supervision which directly concerns the health of the individual and the population. At the same time each one of the Health Physics disciplines possesses an independence which increases their efficiency on the safety level. (authors) [French] Le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire a mis l'accent sur la necessite de promouvoir une doctrine rationnelle et coherente en matiere de securite des installations atomiques et plus particulierement en matiere de securite des sites nucleaires. Le but principal de la securite est de diminuer, voire d'annuler les risques d'irradiation ou de contamination des travailleurs et de la population, consecutifs au fonctionnement normal ou accidentel des installations. La securite est obtenue par la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble complexe de moyens. Parmi ces moyens les auteurs considerent essentiellement ceux qui presentent une certaine independance a l'egard du type d'installation: moyens d'alerte et de mesure et leur mise en oeuvre - preparation psychologique et technique des individus - evaluation de la capacite d'un site a absorber les rejets radioactifs sans dommage pour la population. Il est clair en effet que les consequences d'un accident sont diminuees par l'augmentation de la valeur des moyens de surveillance, de mesure et d'alerte, l'elevation du niveau technique et l'entrainement du personnel, l'education de la population. Ceci est particulierement vrai aupres d'une installation nucleaire ou l'etude des dangers presente un caractere abstrait et

  2. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F; Menoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    fate of radioactive ions in the hydrosphere may be determined. - experiments and studies linked with the possibilities for disposal a underground storage of wastes. All these studies cover a complementary field, that of radioprotection, which forms the necessary link between nuclear safety proper, which concerns the actual operation of nuclear installations and medical supervision which directly concerns the health of the individual and the population. At the same time each one of the Health Physics disciplines possesses an independence which increases their efficiency on the safety level. (authors) [French] Le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire a mis l'accent sur la necessite de promouvoir une doctrine rationnelle et coherente en matiere de securite des installations atomiques et plus particulierement en matiere de securite des sites nucleaires. Le but principal de la securite est de diminuer, voire d'annuler les risques d'irradiation ou de contamination des travailleurs et de la population, consecutifs au fonctionnement normal ou accidentel des installations. La securite est obtenue par la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble complexe de moyens. Parmi ces moyens les auteurs considerent essentiellement ceux qui presentent une certaine independance a l'egard du type d'installation: moyens d'alerte et de mesure et leur mise en oeuvre - preparation psychologique et technique des individus - evaluation de la capacite d'un site a absorber les rejets radioactifs sans dommage pour la population. Il est clair en effet que les consequences d'un accident sont diminuees par l'augmentation de la valeur des moyens de surveillance, de mesure et d'alerte, l'elevation du niveau technique et l'entrainement du personnel, l'education de la population. Ceci est particulierement vrai aupres d'une installation nucleaire ou l'etude des dangers presente un caractere abstrait et ou les moyens technologiques de protection sont multiples et complexes. Les etudes de

  3. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  4. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  5. Prediction of ingredient quality and the effect of a combination of xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase in the diets of broiler chicks. 2. Energy and nutrient utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, A J; Singh, D N; Adeola, O

    2006-08-01

    1. In order to investigate the effects of xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase in the diets of broiler chickens containing graded concentrations of metabolisable energy (ME), two 42-d experiments were conducted using a total of 2208 broiler chicks (8 treatments with 12 replicate pens in each experiment). 2. Four diets including one positive and three negative control diets were used. Three maize/soybean meal-based negative control (NC) diets were formulated to be identical in available phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and amino acids but NC1 contained approximately 0.17 MJ/kg less ME than NC2 and approximately 0.34 MJ/kg less ME than NC3. A positive control (PC) was fed for comparison and was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients, providing approximately 0.63 MJ/kg ME, 0.13% available P, 0.12% Ca and 1 to 2% amino acids more than NC1. 3. The reduction in nutrient density between NC1 and PC was determined using ingredient quality models Avichecktrade mark Corn and Phychecktrade mark that can predict the response to exogenous enzymes in maize/soybean meal-based broiler diets. Supplementation of each diet with or without a cocktail of xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase gave a total of 8 dietary treatments in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The same treatments and diet designs were used in both experiments but conducted in different locations using different batches of maize, soybean meal and minor ingredients. 4. In both experiments, digestibility was improved by the addition of exogenous enzymes, particularly those for P, Ca and certain amino acids. In addition, the supplementation of the PC with enzymes elicited a positive response indicating that over-the-top addition of xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase may offer a nutritionally and economically viable alternative to feed cost reduction. 5. It can be concluded that the digestibility of nutrients by broilers fed on maize/soybean meal-based diets can be improved by the use of a combination of xylanase

  6. Evaluation of radar-derived precipitation estimates using runoff simulation : report for the NFR Energy Norway funded project 'Utilisation of weather radar data in atmospheric and hydrological models'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdella, Yisak; Engeland, Kolbjoern; Lepioufle, Jean-Marie

    2012-11-01

    This report presents the results from the project called 'Utilisation of weather radar data in atmospheric and hydrological models' funded by NFR and Energy Norway. Three precipitation products (radar-derived, interpolated and combination of the two) were generated as input for hydrological models. All the three products were evaluated by comparing the simulated and observed runoff at catchments. In order to expose any bias in the precipitation inputs, no precipitation correction factors were applied. Three criteria were used to measure the performance: Nash, correlation coefficient, and bias. The results shows that the simulations with the combined precipitation input give the best performance. We also see that the radar-derived precipitation estimates give reasonable runoff simulation even without a region specific parameters for the Z-R relationship. All the three products resulted in an underestimation of the estimated runoff, revealing a systematic bias in measurements (e.g. catch deficit, orographic effects, Z-R relationships) that can be improved. There is an important potential of using radar-derived precipitation for simulation of runoff, especially in catchments without precipitation gauges inside.(Author)

  7. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  8. Optimum utilisation of the uranium resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S. E.; Wilson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many challenges, notably to maximise safety, secure an adequate energy supply, manage wastes satisfactorily and achieve political acceptability. One way forward is to optimise together the various interdependent stages of the fuel cycle - the now familiar 'holistic approach'. Many of the issues will demand large R and D expenditure, most effectively met through international collaboration. Sustainable development requires optimum utilisation of energy potential, to which the most accessible key is recycling uranium and the plutonium bred from it. Realising anything like this full potential requires fast-neutron reactors, and therefore BNFL continues to sustain the UK involvement in their international development. Meanwhile, current R and D programmes must aim to make the nuclear option more competitive against fossil resources, while maintaining and developing the necessary skills for more advanced technologies The paper outlines the strategies being pursued and highlights BNFL 's programmes. (author)

  9. Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

    eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

  10. New solutions in the use of energy. Characteristics for a Mediterranean building; Nouvelles solutions dans l'utilisation de l'energie. Caracteristiques pour un batiment mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document is edited by the regional energy agency of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (ARENE) with the participation of the ICAEN (Institut Catala d'Energia) (Barcelona, Spain) and Punto Energia (Milan, Italy) and with the help of the general direction of energy of the European Commission (DG 17, sub-program 'Energy'). It presents the rules for the elaboration of a 'building program' devoted to foremen and which aims at integrating the energy and environmental requirements of a building prior to its construction: 1 - planning (goal, preliminary and feasibility studies); 2 - elaboration of the energy program (environmental context of the project, demand formulation: environmental impact, comfort, electricity and water uses, maintenance, costs..); 3 - characteristics of a Mediterranean building (regional aspect, envelope and passive heating/cooling techniques, active techniques), 4 - energy feasibility study; 5 - evaluation means. (J.S.)

  11. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  12. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A; Engberg Pedersen, T; Joergensen, K [and others

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  13. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A.; Engberg Pedersen, T.; Joergensen, K. (and others)

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  14. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezovska, M.

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  15. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  16. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, L.; Jeppsson, B.; Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A.; Valind, S.; Luts, A.; Wollmer, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of 18 FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. 18 FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  17. Report of the French Energy Regulator on electricity interconnection management and use in 2006; Rapport de la Commission de Regulation de l'Energie sur la gestion et l'utilisation des interconnexions electriques en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report aims at, first, evaluating the congestion management methods in force at interconnected power systems managed by the French transmission system operator RTE as required by article 1.10 of the guidelines of 1228/2003 European regulation which foresees that: 'the national regulation authorities regularly evaluates the congestion management methods, in particular by controlling the respect of rules and principles established by the European regulation, and of trends, modalities and conditions fixed by the regulation authorities according to the above principles and rules'. It aims also at sharing the opinions of the commission of energy regulation (CRE) with other European regulating authorities and with all stakeholders involved in the domestic power market, about the management and use of European power interconnections in 2006. Content: 1 - 2005-2006, the turning point for congestion management; 2 - consequences of 2055-2006 changes in interconnections with Germany, Belgium, Spain and Italy; 3 - further improvements still required: allocation system, capacity bids, short-term trades, capacity management in compliance with European law; 4 - conclusion: an indispensable regional approach. (J.S.)

  18. Effective utilisation of generation Y Quantity Surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together and tested by means of open interview discussions with senior QS professionals. ... employers could better utilise generation Y employees. 2. Literature review .... Literature was reviewed by using search engines (Emerald, Business.

  19. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  20. Enhancing Cloud Resource Utilisation using Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sijin He; Li Guo; Yike Guo

    2014-01-01

    Resource provisioning based on virtual machine (VM) has been widely accepted and adopted in cloud computing environments. A key problem resulting from using static scheduling approaches for allocating VMs on different physical machines (PMs) is that resources tend to be not fully utilised. Although some existing cloud reconfiguration algorithms have been developed to address the problem, they normally result in high migration costs and low resource utilisation due to ignoring the multi-dimens...

  1. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  2. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed. Based on the results, the undergraduates’ utilisation level of smartphones for communication and collaboration tool was at a high level. Meanwhile, utilisation for operations and concepts tool and research and information fluency tool were at moderate level. Finally, smartphones utilisation as digital citizenship tool and critical thinking, problem solving and creativity tool were both at a low level. Hence, more training and workshops should be given to the students in order to encourage them to fully utilise smartphones in enhancing the higher order thinking skills.

  3. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    operation. The market is expected to move forward but the available public information is very limited, especially concerning the technologies used and volumes produced. Woody feedstocks will be the main raw material source. The utilisation rate of forest industry residues and by-products is relatively high in the EU and wood supply in Central Europe remains more or less stable, hence the price of the raw material is at a fairly high level. The utilities' capability to pay for the product depends mainly on the national feed-in tariffs of green electricity. The energy price for the user is at least twice as high as that of coal. (orig.)

  4. [Sarcopenia: toward its clinical utilisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Meskers, Carel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a term that was introduced to describe 'low muscle mass'. There is no consensus definition for sarcopenia; a variety of criteria are being used to establish the diagnosis of 'sarcopenia'. Depending on the criteria used, the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly varies from 7% to over 50%. The presence of sarcopenia often remains unrecognized when the loss of muscle mass is replaced by fat and connective tissue; body weight thus remains stable or even increases. Sarcopenia can be detected by measuring muscle mass with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Besides the generation of strength, muscle tissue is an important internal organ involved in protein storage, glucose regulation, hormonal homeostasis and cellular communication. Systemic, cellular, neuromechanical factors and lifestyle are linked to the pathophysiology of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is associated with higher mortality, dependency in activities of daily living, toxicity of chemotherapy, and disturbed glucose regulation.

  5. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  6. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Missed Opportunities: Emergency Contraception Utilisation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although contraceptives, including emergency contraceptives, are widely available free at public health facilities in South Africa, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy are high. This paper analyses awareness and utilisation of emergency contraception amongst 193 young women (aged 15-24 years) attending public ...

  8. High efficiency pool filtering systems utilising variable frequency drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameiri, Z.; Sproul, A.B. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Spooner, T. [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Over 1 year, private swimming pools in Australia will typically consume 1680 GWh of electricity, producing 2130 kt of CO{sub 2}. Redesigning a pool's filtration system and using it more efficiently can reduce the energy use, and hence the CO{sub 2} production, by a significant amount. This paper describes experimental measurements carried out on a new design of pool pump system. Initial experiments using a variable frequency drive (VFD) with a standard, single phase pump/motor system have achieved energy savings of 40%. Utilising a VFD and a three phase pump/motor energy savings of 61% have been achieved, without degrading the system performance. (author)

  9. Comparison of different strategies of use of on-board imagery (high energy [MV], low energy [kV], cone beam tomography) in radiotherapy; Comparaison des differentes strategies d'utilisation de l'imagerie embarquee (haute energie [MV], basse energie [kV], tomographie conique) en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serre, A.A.; Marchesi, V.; Beckendorf, V.; Peiffert, D. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Alexis-Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [UMR 7039, centre de recherche en automatique de Nancy, Nancy universite, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); UMR 7039, CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the determination of a strategy of use of different available imagery modalities on the Varian 3 On-Board-Imager (OBI): low energy (kV) and high energy (MV) plane imageries, and volume imagery (Kv-CBCT, cone beam computed tomography). The dose delivered by each device has been quantified on a humanoid phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters. A prospective clinical compared the three modalities in terms of patient positioning accuracy. It appears that low-energy imagery provides a good reproducibility, a negligible additional dose and a better image quality. Short communication

  10. Utilisation des "algues-fourrage" en aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Robert, Rene; His, Edouard

    1986-01-01

    Les travaux concernant l'utilisation d'algues unicellulaires pour la nutrtion de larves et de juvéniles de bivalves d'intérêt commercial sont analysés. Sur une cinquantaine d'espèces d'algues testées, un dizaine seulement sont produites en grande quantité dans des écloseries commerciales sous le non "d'algues fourrage". Les principales espèces employées sont décrites et leurs caractéristiques majeures illustrées. Les critères permettant de retenir une espèce pour son utilisation en aquacultur...

  11. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-01-01

    The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S) among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total ...

  12. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  13. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  14. Inflation and capacity utilisation in Nigeria's manufacturing sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the relationship between inflation and capacity utilisation empirically leaning on the model employed by Baylor (2001). It utilised time series secondary data using least square multiple regression technique. The quarterly data utilised were tested for stationarity using ADF test. The multiple regression ...

  15. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  16. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  17. Energy optimised lighting in buildings with simultaneous improvement of quality of life by daylight utilisation and innovative lamps and ballast techniques; Energieoptimierte Beleuchtung bei gleichzeitiger Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet durch Nutzung von Tageslicht und neuer Lampen- und Vorschalttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Aydinli, Sirri; Gramm, Stefan; Thiel, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fakultaet IV Elektrotechnik und Informatik, FG Lichttechnik, Berlin (Germany); De Boer, Jan; Erhorn, Hans [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Kuhn, Tilman; Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Hillmann, Gustav; Korolkow, Margarethe [IBUS GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Piazena, Helmut [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The scientific and technical goals of this project were developed in five parts. The individual topics arising from current issues, they still have a generally applicable nature. The consortium has worked on the following subprojects: (1) Development of a measurement technique to determine energy and photometric key figures of daylight components with a round robin test with three institutes. (2) Implementation of a detailed evaluation and documentation process for daylighting of interior spaces in different climate zones. (3) For lighting control in private living areas a ''Power Line Carrier Communication'' system has been evaluated and the advantages of a wireless transmission system were identified. (4) In a home for elderly quantitative studies on the well-being, for the fulfillment of visual tasks and the capability of melatonin suppression at different scenarios of general lighting with two different color temperatures of lamps (''warm white'' with TCP = 3000 K and ''cold white daylight'' with TCP = 6500 K) and vertical illuminance at the eyes of the subjects between 100 lx and 700 lx were performed. (5) For two school buildings in Berlin, the final energy consumption of the existing lighting system, the reference building and a re-planning were determined. It became clear in both examples that the existing lighting system exceeds the permitted value (EnEV 2009) by far. A good redesign, however, can be significantly less than the maximum allowed value. These studies were accompanied by a one-year monitoring of energy consumption. A cross-sectional analysis of 48 schools with a total of 86 buildings shows a substantial need for renovation of school buildings that were built before 1990.

  18. Substrate utilisation by plant-cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M W

    1982-01-01

    Plant cell cultures have been grown on a wide range of carbon sources in addition to the traditional ones of sucrose and glucose. Biomass yields and growth rates vary greatly between the different carbon sources and there is a variation in response between different cell cultures to individual carbon sources. Some attempts have been made to grow cell cultures on 'waste' and related carbon sources, such as lactose, maltose, starch, molasses and milk whey. Only maltose was found to support growth to anything near the levels observed with glucose and sucrose. In the case of molasses carbon source cell growth was either non-existent or only just measurable. All the data point to glucose as being the most suitable carbon source, principally on the grounds of biomass yield and growth rate. It should be noted, however, that other carbon sources do appear to have a major (positive) influence on natural product synthesis. Uptake into the cell is an important aspect of carbohydrate utilisation. There is strong evidence that from disaccharides upwards, major degradation to smaller units occurs before uptake. In some cases the necessary enzymes appear to be excreted into the culture broth, in others they may be located within the cell wall; invertase that hydrolyses sucrose is a good example. Once the products of carbohydrate degradation and mobilisation enter the cell they may suffer one of two fates, oxidation or utilisation for biosynthesis. The precise split between these two varies depending on such factors as cell growth rate, cell size, nutrient broth composition and carbohydrate status of the cells. In general rapidly growing cells have a high rate of oxidation, whereas cells growing more slowly tend to be more directed towards biosynthesis. Carbohydrate utilisation is a key area of study, underpinning as it does both biomass yield and natural product synthesis. (Refs. 13).

  19. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  20. Optimal Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Trucks Using Route Information Optimisation de la gestion de l’énergie dans des véhicules poids lourds électriques hybrides utilisant le guidage d’itinéraire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen T.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To benchmark a hybrid vehicle’s Energy Management Strategy (EMS usually a given, often certified, velocity trajectory is exploited. In this paper it is reasoned that it is also beneficial to optimize the velocity trajectory. Especially optimizing the vehicle braking trajectories, through maximization of energy recuperation, results in considerable fuel savings on the same traveled distance. Given future route (target velocities as function of traveled distance/location, traffic, and possibly weather information, together with the vehicle’s road load parameters, the future power request trajectory can be estimated. Dynamic Programming (DP techniques can then be used to predict the optimal power split trajectory for the upcoming route, such that a desired state-of-charge at the end of the route is reached. The DP solution is re-calculated at a certain rate in order to adapt to changing conditions, e.g., traffic conditions, and used in a lower level real-time EMS to guarantee both battery state-of-charge as well as minimal fuel consumption. Pour évaluer la Stratégie de Gestion de l’Énergie (SGE d’un véhicule hybride, on exploite généralement un cycle de conduite donné, souvent certifié. Dans cet article, l’optimisation de l’itinéraire apparaît aussi comme nécessaire. L’optimisation, en particulier, des conditions de freinage du véhicule, par la maximisation de la récupération d’énergie, permet des économies considérables de combustible sur une même distance parcourue. Pour un itinéraire donné (vitesses cibles en fonction de la distance parcourue et de la position, compte tenu des conditions de circulation, des éventuelles données météorologiques et des paramètres de perte du véhicule, on peut estimer les besoins en puissance nécessaire pour le parcourir. Des techniques de Programmation Dynamique (PD peuvent alors être employées pour prévoir la répartition de puissance optimale pour un parcours donn

  1. Design of neutron detectors utilising luminescent glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spowart, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Impetus for the development of new neutron detector designs has derived from the worldwide commissioning of neutron spallation sources. The design concepts, and principal methods of utilisation of these major installations, have been recently reviewed. Their principal feature of interest is their broadband neutron emission allowing neutron investigations of all types of structure in materials from biological molecules to steels. Conventional neutron detectors are gas-filled devices, based on BF/sub 3/ or /sup 3/He gas. Their major advantage is their intrinsically low background count. Their principal disadvantage is their slow response time (10-100 μs), high cost and relative lack of flexibility in design to cope with large areas or complex geometry detection. They are, however, long established and the research facilities around the world have a heavy investment in the interpretative hardware for gas detectors

  2. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  3. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...

  4. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Hoi Why

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  5. System factors influencing utilisation of Research4Life databases by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comprehensive investigation of the influence of system factors on utilisation of Research4Life databases. It is part of a doctoral dissertation. Research4Life databases are new innovative technologies being investigated in a new context – utilisation by NARIs scientists for research. The study adopted the descriptive ...

  6. Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. AAG Jimoh. Abstract. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utilisation of antenatal care at the Provincial Specialist Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria, paying close attention to the confounding factors affecting ...

  7. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the influence of globalisation on labour utilisation in Nigeria using the construction industry as a case study. It reveals that the era of globalisation has given rise to profound changes in the way labour is utilised, specifically in terms of employment patterns as well as the related issues of earnings, job ...

  8. Trends, determinants and inequities of 4+ ANC utilisation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Begum, Tahmina; Ahmed, Sayem; Alam, Nurul; Anwar, Iqbal

    2017-01-13

    The objectives of this study are to document the trend on utilisation of four or more (4 + ) antenatal care (ANC) over the last 22 years period and to explore the determinants and inequity of 4 + ANC utilisation as reported by the last two Bangladesh Demographic and Health surveys (BDHS) (2011 and 2014). The data related to ANC have been extracted from the BDHS data set which is available online as an open source. STATA 13 software was used for organising and analysing the data. The outcome variable considered for this study was utilisation of 4 + ANC. Trends of 4 + ANC were measured in percentage and predictors for 4 + ANC were measured through bivariate and multivariable analysis. The concentration index was estimated for assessing inequity in 4 + ANC utilisation. Utilisation of 4 + ANC has increased by about 26% between the year 1994 and 2014. Higher level of education, residing in urban region and richest wealth quintile were found to be significant predictors. The utilisation of 4 + ANC has decreased with increasing parity and maternal age. The inequity indices showed consistent inequities in 4 + ANC utilisation, and such inequities were increased between 2011 and 2014. In Bangladesh, the utilisation of any ANC rose steadily between 1994 and 2014, but progress in terms of 4 + ANC utilisation was much slower as the expectation was to achieve the national set target (50%: 4 + ANC utilisation) by 2016. Socio-economic inequities were observed in groups that failed to attend a 4 + ANC visit. Policymakers should pay special attention to increase the 4 + ANC coverage where this study can facilitate to identify the target groups whom need to be intervened on priority basis.

  9. TOURISM AS A PATHWAY FOR RES UTILISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kulisic, Biljana; Zidar, Margareta; Jelavic, Branka; Domac, Julije; Segon, Velimir

    2008-01-01

    Tourism, due its property of being an “invisible export” sector, has a strong multiplier effect over the economy. Tourists boost demand for numerous goods and services, one of them being energy. Unfortunately, energy sources are scarce for most of the countries in the region. Thus, one could think of another solution to the excess demand for energy than import. Namely, for more than a decade, renewable energy sources are in the central focus of the EU energy policy with an aim to ensure se...

  10. A proposed maintenance strategy for generator sets utilised in biogas applications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M. Ing. The overall purpose of this research project was to develop a proposed maintenance strategy for generator sets utilised in biogas applications. One specific biogas application, involving the use of landfill gas (LFG) to generate electrical energy, was the focal point of the research project. This is due to the fact that the author’s organisation is extensively involved with landfills and power generation through the use of LFG.

  11. SRUNs - sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemetz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it cannot be denied that fossil resources will approach or over-run their maximum global production rate within the 21st century. In addition to this resource constraints climate change has to be considered in parallel, requiring a drastic reduction in carbon emissions. These two trends clearly show that a fundamental shift is needed within the next decades, from fossil towards renewable resources. This transition gives rise to a change in the supply chains: while fossil fuels are typically exploited from point sources, nearly all renewable resources depend, either directly or indirectly, on solar radiation and area is required for their provision. This poses a new challenge for political, economic and social actors who can decide about land use. Within this thesis a conceptual framework of so called SRUNs – sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions - is developed. Regions have a responsibility in providing goods and services for the society within sustainable networks and bring the spatial dimension into consideration as well. The way how these networks are constructed is described in detail covering spatial planning, the stakeholder process, drivers and barriers as well as elements and features for SRUNs. Using the Process Network Synthesis (PNS) as an optimisation tool, the economic optimum of a network can be found and different scenarios compared. To show the ecological pressure of an established network an evaluation with the Sustainable Process Index (SPI) is carried out. Both computer tools are described and their application is shown in several case studies which are the versatility of the methods in practical implementation and application. Decision support tools offer the possibility for regional actors to analyse their region and to get a feeling about SRUNs. These tools provide an insight into the necessary changes which are needed to manage the shift towards a low carbon and sustainable society. (author) [de

  12. Comparative emergency department resource utilisation across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Ellen; Martin-Khan, Melinda G; Gray, Leonard C

    2017-12-11

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess comparative emergency department (ED) resource utilisation across age groups. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected in the National Non-admitted Patient Emergency Department Care Database was undertaken to assess comparative ED resource utilisation across six age groups (0-14, 15-35, 36-64, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 years) with previously used surrogate markers of ED resource utilisation. Results Older people had significantly higher resource utilisation for their individual ED episodes of care than younger people, with the effect increasing with advancing age. Conclusion With ED care of older people demonstrated to be more resource intensive than care for younger people, the projected increase in older person presentations anticipated with population aging will have a magnified effect on ED services. These predicted changes in demand for ED care will only be able to be optimally managed if Australian health policy, ED funding instruments and ED models of care are adjusted to take into account the specific care and resource needs of older people. What is known about the topic? Current Australian ED funding models do not adjust for patient age. Several regional studies have suggested higher resource utilisation of ED patients aged ≥65 years. Anticipated rapid population aging mandates that contribution of age to ED visit resource utilisation be further explored. What does this paper add? The present study of national Australian ED presentations compared ED resource utilisation across age groups using surrogate markers of ED cost. Older people were found to have significantly higher resource utilisation in the ED, with the effect increasing further with advancing age. What are the implications for practitioners? The higher resource utilisation of older people in the ED warrants a review of current ED funding models to ensure that they will continue to meet the needs of an aging population.

  13. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...... by combining different strands of this literature....

  14. Wastewaters from the bioconversion of biomass. Utilisation and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frings, R.M. (Forest Research Inst. (New Zealand)); Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Developed technology for the bioconversion of biomass into energy forms falls into two categories: biogasification and bioliquefaction. Biogasification is the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter by a mixed culture of organisms to produce a gaseous mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Bioliquefaction is the use of a pure culture of organisms (mainly yeasts) to anaerobically ferment sugars into a range of liquid products with acetone, butanol, and ethanol being the most commonly produced. Biological processes have the advantage of occurring at ambient, or relatively low (35-60[sup o]C) temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in dilute substrate, in an aqueous environment. Conversion of raw material to gas or liquid fuel is generally incomplete, leaving the non-convertible residues (organic or inorganic) in solution. Hence, biological processes potentially generate large volumes of wastewater containing significant levels of pollutants. This review briefly describes the two bioconversion process routes and then considers each process separately in relation to the characteristics, utilisation and treatment of the specific wastewaters produced by the process. (author)

  15. Pilot study of nitrogen utilisation in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Vodila, G.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the cooperation between KITE Ltd., Nadudvar, Hungary and the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, the aim was to determine the ideal locations of fertilising, the ideal distance of rows for the ideal production yield. To track the nitrogen utilisation of maize (Zea mays) 15 N enriched NH 4 NO 3 fertiliser was introduced among the usual fertilisers in the maize field of KITE Ltd. Nadudvar, Hungary on 30 th March 2012, before sowing. Four maize samples were taken from different areas of different fertiliser treatment (non-fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and labelled between the rows and fertilised and labelled within the rows) and from different development stages of the plant on 22 nd May, 8 th June, 6 th July and 7 th September being sampling periods 1-4, respectively. The plant samples were subsampled based on organs: root, stem and leaf. Samples were dried to constant mass and pulverised. The 15 N measurements were made by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled with an elemental analyser. In case of non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, all the three organs were getting 15 N depleted with time, most intensively the stem and the less intensively the root (Figure 1). For the leaves and stems of the fertilised and non-labelled plants, the tendency in time is very similar to the ones of the non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, however, the roots of the fertilised and non-labelled plants got significantly enriched in the sample of September. In case of the fertilised and labelled between-the-rows samples, labelling is slightly seen as the delta values are positive. These values are significantly lower than the ones for the fertilised and labelled-within-the-rows plants. It is seen that fertiliser got to the vegetation in the largest extent in this layout. Labelling showed its maximum intensity in the second sampling (8 th June) showing that

  16. Opinion of Energie-Cites on: Proposals for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council; Avis d'Energie-Cites sur la: proposition de directive du parlement europeen et du conseil relative a l'efficacite energetique dans les utilisations finales et aux services energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The Proposal for a Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services, published in December 2003, is intended to develop and encourage energy efficiency on the demand side, in particular that provided by utilities and related services companies in the form of energy services, since promoting energy services is an important element for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This proposal, focusing on the promotion of end-use efficiency, should be regarded as a necessary instrument to complement the recently adopted legislation on the opening of the internal energy market, which mainly leads to efficiency improvements on the supply side. (A.L.B.)

  17. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Eriksson, Erik; Olsson, Olle; Olsson, Mats; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2007-06-01

    the energy input at production (working machines, chipping and transport) and the expected reduction in soil carbon from utilising the residues. This means that biofuels with a short rotation period will result in lower radiative forcing than fuels with a longer rotation period, assuming all other factors equal. In order to estimate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted from a biofuel chain a life cycle analysis is needed. How system boundaries are set in such a life cycle assessment are of significant importance. Examples of important boundary definitions are whether the fuel is regarded as a bi-product or not and how soil emissions from the production area should be treated. Another important system boundary is the time perspective applied. In its fourth report on climate change the IPCC gives no explicit recommendation on what time perspective should be applied when comparing greenhouse gas emissions by the use of GWP-factors (Global Warming Potentials)Within the Kyoto-framework a 100-year perspective has been chosen. A 100-year perspective will include the thermal inertia of the oceans and their impact on global average temperatures. Carbon cycle models also show that within this time frame a considerable part of an emission of CO 2 has left the atmosphere. These facts speak in favour of a long time perspective when comparing different fuel chains. In this study, net greenhouse gas emissions from imported biofuels have also been analysed. Focus was on emissions related to transports and forest legislation of the exporting countries. Sustainability in fuel production systems is of great importance since that ensures a continuous production potential and a continuous circulation of carbon between growing biomass and the atmosphere, which does not increase the atmospheric concentration of the gas. This makes the question of reforestation and sustainable management important. According to reviewed literature, the reforestation policies in Finland and Lithuania seem

  18. A drug utilisation study investigating prescribed daily doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and drug groups. Design. Retrospective drug utilisation study using data .... drugs that were prescribed 20 or fewer times during the period under ... occurs in women and men at different ages and with different severity. group. On average, men ...

  19. Facilitating nurses' knowledge of the utilisation of reflexology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-18

    May 18, 2012 ... scientific evidence on the utilisation of reflexology as CAM modality to promote .... reflexology therapy, zone therapy and foot massage and ...... perceived quality of care and cultural beliefs', Family Pracfice 21(6), 654−660.

  20. Exploring the extent to which ELT students utilise smartphones for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zehra

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT) students utilise ... Given the fact that almost all students have a personal smartphone, and use it ..... ears as a disadvantage for smartphones (Kétyi,.

  1. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  2. Price and utilisation differences for statins between four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc Phuoc; Vitry, Agnes Isabelle; Moss, John Robert

    2018-02-01

    Australia, England, France and New Zealand use different policies to regulate their medicines market, which can impact on utilisation and price. To compare the prices and utilisation of statins in Australia, England, France and New Zealand from 2011 to 2013. Utilisation of statins in the four countries was compared using Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per year. Pairwise Laspeyres and Paasche index comparisons were conducted comparing the price and utilisation of statins. The results showed that the price of statins in New Zealand was the cheapest. The price of statins in Australia was most expensive in 2011 and 2012 but France was more expensive in 2013. There were large differences between the Laspeyres index and Paasche index when comparing the price and utilisation of England with Australia and France. The policies that regulate the New Zealand and England medicines markets were more effective in reducing the price of expensive statins. The relative utilisation of cheaper statins was greatest in England and had a large effect on the differences between the two index results. The pricing policies in Australia have been only partly effective in reducing the price of statins compared to other countries.

  3. Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R.

    2006-01-01

    During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D 9 = 16.21 ± 0.20 μm) is finer than the CCRs (D 9 = 19.72 ± 0.18 μm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 }and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2Fe 2 O 3 SO 3 .5H 2 O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO 2 }, mullite {3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 } and hematite {Fe 2 O 3 }. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26 ± 0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498 ± 0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66 ± 0.18%), sulphur (12.23 ± 0.2%) and zinc (8.243 ± 0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon ( 27.41 ± 0.74%), aluminium (15

  4. Actual situation of knowledge relative to the sanitary risks linked to the production, the transport and the use of various energy sources; Etat actuel des connaissances concernant les risques sanitaires associes a la production, au transport et a l'utilisation des diverses sources d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Faculte de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In order to optimize the energy production it is necessary to evaluate the effects of each energy sources on environment ( essentially pollution and greenhouse effect) and on health. It is the object of this colloquium. The energy sources are coal, petroleum, gas and nuclear power. The comparison is made on three levels: quality of epidemiological data, relevance of modeling, precision of results. It must lead to define studies that should be made to check the validity of hypothesis and models. (N.C.)

  5. Opinion of Energie-Cites on: proposal for a directive of the European parliament and of the council; Avis d'Energie-Cites sur la: proposition de directive du parlement Europeen et du conseil relative a l'efficacite energetique dans les utilisations finales et aux services energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    This proposal, focusing on the promotion of end-use efficiency, should be regarded as a necessary instrument to complement the recently adopted legislation on the opening of the internal energy market, which mainly leads to efficiency improvements on the supply side. Memorandum Considering that the functioning of the energy market does not allow ''market forces to allocate economic and natural resources effectively'' and that measures should be taken to improve this, the Commission draws up a list of the main obstacles and presents objectives. The technical potential for savings is at about 40%. The economic cost-effective savings potential is at about 20%, 22% in the buildings sector. The general target is 1 % savings per year. The 1,5 % target in the public sector is therefore more ambitious that the general target. According to the Commission, energy efficiency is a strategy to deal with scarce public funds while at the same time addressing serious energy and climate challenges, using the concept of leadership by example. It presents also the economic impact of energy savings targets and explains the reasons why the local authorities are affected by the proposed directive (Municipalities are energy consumers, the municipalities are energy distributors and/or retailers, the municipalities are planners/investors, the municipalities are motivators and local growth and employment are of concern to local authorities). (A.L.B.)

  6. Capturing stakeholders´ views on oil palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshini, Dina; Dwivedi, Puneet; Glenk, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is the world′s second largest producer of palm oil and generates surplus palm biomass waste that can be used for bioenergy development. Malaysia aims to diversify its energy portfolio by investing into renewable energy mostly to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels. This paper captures synergetic and conflicting interests of key stakeholders, who play an important role in shaping the regulatory and business environment in Malaysia′s renewable energy sector. Particularly, this research analyses the perceptions of three stakeholder groups (government agencies, industry players, and non-governmental organisations) regarding palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia by combining Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework. Overall, results show a greater sense of optimism among the three stakeholder groups for the development of palm-based biomass utilisation in Malaysia, compared to the development of first generation palm-oil based biodiesel. We discuss the findings in light of on-going debates and policy processes, highlighting some key issues that need to be addressed in order to meet oil-palm related targets set in Malaysia’s ambitious renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • Optimism of stakeholders is greater for palm biomass utilisation than palm biodiesel. • The negative overall outlook for palm biodiesel is perhaps a symptom of hindsight. • Palm biodiesel: strengths (18%), weaknesses (34%), opportunities (23%), and threats (25%). • Palm biomass: strengths (42%), weaknesses (23%), opportunities (15%), and threats (21%). • Views of stakeholder groups are relevant to meeting Malaysia´s renewables target

  7. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K; Oasmaa, A; Arpiainen, V; Solantausta, Y; Leppaemaeki, E; Kuoppala, E; Levander, J; Kleemola, J; Saarimaeki, P [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  8. Utilisation of phosphate by jute from jute growing soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.; Suiha, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    The uptake and utilisation of phosphate from different jute growing soils of West Bengal viz., Humaipur (24-Parganas), Haripal (Hooghly), Panagarh (Burdwan) and the Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barrackpore (24-Parganas) were studied in pot under fertilizer combination of NP, PK and NPK. The soils from 24-Parganas district behaved in a similar manner with respect to dry matter yield, fertilizer P uptake and per cent utilisation of added P. The P deficient between the two, Humaipur soil, showed comparatively higher P utilisation. Other two soils, Haripal and Panagarh, though of different origin behaved similarly, highest soil P has been contributed by the P rich soil (J.A.R.I.) to the crop, though it showed minimum P fixation. (author)

  9. The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Tauchenová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This master´s thesis is called The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing. It presents Youtubers as idols of today´s young people and introduces options of utilization of their power for marketing purposes. The first chapter introduces the reader to the general matters of online marketing and offers basic knowledge about this area. The second chapter is dedicated to social networks and their utilisation in marketing field. The third chapter introduces the topic YouTube. It...

  10. Influence of C-Peptide on Glucose Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, multiple studies demonstrated that C-peptide is not an inert peptide, but exerts important physiological effects. C-peptide binds to cell membranes, stimulates the Na,K-ATPase and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase. Moreover, there is evidence that C-peptide decreases glomerular hyperfiltration and increases glucose utilisation. Nevertheless, there is still limited knowledge concerning mechanisms leading to an increased glucose utilisation either in rats or in humans. The aim of this paper is to give an overview over the published studies regarding C-peptide and glucose metabolism from in vitro studies to longer lasting studies in humans.

  11. The implementing evaluation of the Law on the air and the rational use of the energy of the 30 december 1996; L'evaluation de la mise en oeuvre de la loi sur l'air et l'utilisation rationnelle de l'energie du 30 decembre 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J F [Conseil national de l' air, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-12-01

    This documents aims to evaluate the environmental policy implemented since 1996, by the definition of the Law of the 30 december 1996. The first chapter presents the atmospheric pollution effects on the health, the ecosystems and the buildings, and the installations of the air pollution monitoring to show the necessity of a regulatory action, detailed in chapter two. The third chapter takes stock on the air pollution in France since 1996 to 2000 to propose in chapter four actions for the olfactive nuisances, the rational energy use and the renewable energies and the other pollutant sources than the transport. (A.L.B.)

  12. The implementing evaluation of the Law on the air and the rational use of the energy of the 30 december 1996; L'evaluation de la mise en oeuvre de la loi sur l'air et l'utilisation rationnelle de l'energie du 30 decembre 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.F. [Conseil national de l' air, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-12-01

    This documents aims to evaluate the environmental policy implemented since 1996, by the definition of the Law of the 30 december 1996. The first chapter presents the atmospheric pollution effects on the health, the ecosystems and the buildings, and the installations of the air pollution monitoring to show the necessity of a regulatory action, detailed in chapter two. The third chapter takes stock on the air pollution in France since 1996 to 2000 to propose in chapter four actions for the olfactive nuisances, the rational energy use and the renewable energies and the other pollutant sources than the transport. (A.L.B.)

  13. Conducting research in the middle of the ocean. Platforms FINO 1-3 supply planning data for utilising offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Seas; Forschen mitten im Meer. Plattformen FINO 1-3 liefern Planungsdaten fuer die Offshore-Windenergienutzung in Nord- und Ostsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In the future, a large part of Germany's electricity requirement is intended to come from offshore wind farms in order to utilise the favourable wind conditions there. This represents unknown territory in both technical and ecological terms, and is taking place in sensitive biotopes. Three largely remote-controlled research platforms have therefore been constructed in the North and Baltic Seas (FINO). In particular it is being investigated into how the wind actually behaves above the sea and how much electricity can be generated. The data will be incorporated into the planning, design and certification of future farms. (orig.)

  14. Disposal into the Sea and into Geological Structures of Wastes Resulting from the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy; Rejet en Mer et dans les Formations Geologiques de Dechets Provenant des Utilisations Pacifiques de l'Energie Atomique; 0423 0414 ; Eliminacion en el Mar y en Estructuras Geologicas de Desechos Procedentes del Uso Pacifico de la Energia Atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carritt, Dayton E. [Department of Oceanography, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1960-07-01

    procedures d'evacuation que l'on examine aux Etats-Unis sont elaborees pour faire face a un nombre inconnu d'eventalites, et, bien qu'elles soient considerees comme prudentes, elles ne sont pas restrictives outre mesure vu l'activite des dechets produits a l'heure actuelle. L'utilisation plus efficace et moins dangereuse du milieu marin pour l'evacuation des dechets radioactifs ne pourra etre realisee que grace a une connaissance de base plus approfondie: a) des processus de melange turbulent dans les mers; b) des etats physique et chimique des elements composant les dechets lorsqu'ils se trouvent en etat d'equilibre avec l'eau de mer; c) de l'interaction entre les elements de dechets et la faune et flore marines; des taux de concentration ou d'elimination de ces elements par les organismes marins a tous les niveaux trophiques ainsi que de leur periode biologique. (author) [Spanish] Gracias a los procedimientos de evacuacion sin riesgos de desechos radiactivos se consigue que estos lleguen al hombre en un grado de concentracion inferior al maximo admisible, y no se impide el desarrollo de recursos que podrian contribuir en gran medida al bienestar de la humanidad. Actualmente, la preparacion de procedimientos de evacuacion sin riesgos en una zona marina determinada se ve limitada por el escaso conocimiento que poseemos de algunas de las etapas del proceso mediante el cual la radiactividad pasa del lugar de la evacuacion al hombre. A consecuencia de ello, los procedimientos de evacuacion que se estudian en los Estados Unidos de America se caracterizan por un exceso de prudencia y aunque se les considera moderados, no son exageradamente restrictivos con respecto, al nivel actual de acumulacion de desechos. Para llegar a una utilizacion mas eficaz y sin riesgos del mar como lugar de evacuacion de desechos radiactivos sera preciso conocer mejor: a) los procesos de mezcla turbulenta en los oceanos, b) el estado fisico y quimico de los elementos constitutivos de los productos de

  15. Utilisation of family planning techniques among women: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...

  16. Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

  17. High-performance hybrid-fibre concrete : Development and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Although concrete is the most utilised building material nowdays, this material has a large shortcoming: it has a good resistance against compressive stresses, but a very low resistance against tensile stresses. Usual way to solve this problem is the application of steel reinforcement in concrete

  18. Utilisation of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in Gulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Results: 35% of pregnant women (95% CI 31% - 38%) had utilised ITNs. Factors that promoted ... 0.050) and being single/widow/divorced (AOR 0.22, p-value 0.000). Conclusion: .... being engaged in business (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.08. - 2.26 ...

  19. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  20. Deterrents on the Over Utilisation of Stand Alone Photovoltaic (PV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At inception of the programme, systems were either undersized, or over utilised as clients did not reveal their usage needs in an attempt to reduce costs. This resulted in battery failures and other system breakdowns. The NPVREP categorised systems in order to alleviate the problem of under sizing and/or over utilization of ...

  1. CERN un physicien dénonce des utilisations militaires

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    André Gsponer, ancien chercheur au CERN, a écrit un rapport qui dénone les utilisations militaires développées par certains Etat, dont l'Irak, sur la base des technologies mises au point au CERN (1 page).

  2. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  3. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, for each extra gram of dietary free amino acid content/kg diet, the rate of lay and egg output decreased by 3.0% and 2.5 g per day, respectively, and the efficiency of methionine utilisation decreased by 4.3%. There was no interaction between frequency of feeding and amino acid supplementation. These results ...

  4. Assessment of frog meat utilisation in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frogs are among the most threatened species of wildlife in IUCN red list. Its utilisation in Ibadan, a major depot in western Nigeria was therefore conducted with the aim of assessing the forms and trend of use; and amongst others, reasons for frog meat consumption. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, ...

  5. Utilisation of outpatient services at Red Cross War Memorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for outpatient services continues to grow at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCCH). To determine current utilisation patterns, we conducted a 2-week survey in the outpatient department (OPD). In addition, we reviewed the RCCH Annual Reports for the period 1961 - 1988. Annual outpatient ...

  6. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  7. Acquisition And Utilisation Of Human Resources In Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the acquisition and utilisation of human resources in public secondary schools for students with special needs in Oyo State. The study employed a descriptive research design. The entire 196 teachers and 16 supportive staff formed the sample. The research instrument for the study was a questionnaire ...

  8. Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop improvement. ... smallholder households to obtain improved seed and invest more of their land and labour in the crop. ... is to make a greater contribution to household income and rural development in SSA. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Improving the utilisation of management information systems in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support

  10. Paediatric utilisation of a teaching hospital and a community health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to Red Cross Children's Hospital (RXH) that could be more ... better access and perceived quality. S Atr Med ... tertiary resources, low levels of efficiency and staff ... However, central to improved patterns of utilisation is the .... the modei were: (/) age of the child; (it) duration of residence ... There was no significant association.

  11. Policy framework for utilisation. A pillar of better accessibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The goals and frameworks for traffic and transport policy for the Netherlands to 2020 are described in the Mobility Document. Whereas government policy previously viewed mobility as a problem or as something permissible, the assumption is now that mobility is a must. Mobility, for people as well as goods, is a prerequisite for society and the economy to function well. The Mobility Document contains ambitious goals to deal with current and anticipated traffic and transport problems: door to door, faster, cleaner and safer. Three interrelated pillars are to help achieve these goals: Building, Pricing and Utilisation. Work is being done on the Building and Pricing pillars; Utilisation is elaborated further in this policy framework. The Policy Framework for Utilisation is an elaboration of the Mobility Document for the 2008-2020 period and aims for faster, cleaner, safer travel from door to door. The purpose of this policy framework is to describe the direction of development of utilisation, in terms of content as well as process, to indicate actions that are required and to provide perspective on the expected effects. The policy framework is in line with current developments or plans, caters to new opportunities (technological and otherwise), encourages the innovative potential of the market and provides room for joint ventures between the government and the market. It will result in actions for the short term and provide direction for activities and developments for the longer term

  12. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-12-05

    Dec 5, 2007 ... the firms in the industry is determined solely by the dictates of ... L'étude examine l'impact de la mondialisation sur l'utilisation de la .... globalisation has been the most influential in government policy .... social, and has economic implications for both the individual worker ..... with the payment of low wages.

  13. SUPPLY AND UTILISATION OF FOOD CROPS IN GHANA, 1960 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    Due to that much attention has been placed on sustainable management of agricultural ... Supply (import and export) and utilisation (for food, feed, seed, farm manure, waste and other uses) of food crops have ..... Cassava is mainly used in non-poultry livestock production, i.e., for goats, sheep, pigs and some ruminants.

  14. Utilisation of mobile health by medical doctors in a Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mobile Health is the utilisation of mobile devices like cellphones and tablets for the delivery of health care. It is an up and coming intervention promising to benefit health services. Recent mobile health studies have tended to focus on mHealth for data collection and surveillance rather than on actual patient care ...

  15. The significance of climate change in streams utilised by humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the role of climate change in catchments that are already under pressure of human activities one needs to study past, current and future conditions. Therefore, the catchment of the river Vecht (The Netherlands), representative for many human utilised, medium-sized lowland river

  16. Impacts of high utilisation pressure on biodiversity components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the effects of heavy land utilisation, mainly grazing, on plant species richness and diversity, species abundance, vegetation structure and soil characteristics in a communal area in Colophospermum mopane dominated savanna in southern Africa. The treatment was benchmarked ...

  17. Resource Utilisation and Curriculum Implementation in Community Colleges in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigwilu, Peter Changilwa; Akala, Winston Jumba

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how Catholic-sponsored community colleges in Nairobi utilise the existing physical facilities and teaching and learning resources for effective implementation of Artisan and Craft curricula. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students and 18…

  18. Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate

  19. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  20. The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarolkar, P.B. [Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India); Pitale, U.L. [Geological Survey of India, Nagpur (India)

    1996-12-31

    The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

  1. Small animals bone density and morphometry analysis with a dual energy X-rays absorptiometry bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector; Analyse de la densite osseuse et de la morphometrie de petits animaux avec un osteodensitometre bi-energie utilisant un capteur 2D de radiographie numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudousq, V. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 (France); Bordy, T.; Gonon, G.; Dinten, J.M. [CEA Grenoble (DTBS/STD), Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique, LETI, 38 (France)

    2004-07-01

    LEXXOS (DMS, Montpellier, France) is the first axial and total body cone beam bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector. In previous papers, technical principles and patients' Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement performances were presented. Bone densitometers are also used on small animals for drug development. In this presentation, we show how LEXXOS can be adapted for small animals' examinations and evaluate its performances. At first, in order to take advantage of the whole area of the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} digital radiographic detector, it has been made profit of X-Rays magnification by adapting the geometrical configuration. Secondly, as small animals present low BMD, a specific dual energy calibration has been defined. This adapted system has then been evaluated on two sets of mice: six reference mice and six ovariectomized mice. Each month, these two populations have been examined and the averaged total body BMD has been measured. This evaluation shows that the right order of BMD magnitude is obtained and, as expected, BMD increases on two sets until a period around puberty and the ovariectomized set presents a significant decrease after. Moreover, the bone image obtained by dual energy processing on LEXXOS presents a radiographic image quality providing useful complementary information on bone morphometry and architecture. This study shows that LEXXOS cone beam bone densitometer provides simultaneously useful quantitative and qualitative information for analysis of bone evolution on small animals. In the future, same system architecture and processing methodology can be used with higher resolution detectors in order to refine information on bone architecture. (authors)

  2. Research project ``Geoscientific, geotechnological and process-related research to optimize the available processes for geothermal energy utilisation under the aspect of long-term exploitation``; Forschungsprojekt ``Geowissenschaftliche, geotechnologische und verfahrenstechnische Forschungsarbeiten zur Vervollkommnung des Verfahrens der Nutzung geothermischer Ressourcen im Hinblick auf das Langzeitverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohstock, B; Schneider, H [Geothermie Neubrandenburg GmbH (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The research project was started with the objective of developing the essential geological-technical-technological parts of the utilisation of highly-mineralised thermal waters for heating. It is based on the findings from the drilling and testing of 29 deep geothermal wells, the erection and operation of Geothermal Heating Stations in Northeast Germany until 1990. The operation of the Waren (Mueritz) and Neubrandenburg Geothermal Heating Stations including their modernisation and the solution of problems which occurred sometimes give proof of the principal technical-technological implementability of thermal water utilisation for energetic purposes. Matter of concern is the recirculation of the thermal water after being used for balneological purposes to the main flow of water used for energetic purposes without affecting subsequent reinjection. The conditioning of the thermal water before and after use for bathing and balneo-therapeutic purposes is another problrm. The essential results are presented here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Forschungsvorhaben wurde mit dem Zeit der Vervollkommnung der wesentlichen geologisch-technisch-technologischen Teilbereiche der waermeseitigen Nutzung von hochmineralisierten Thermalwaessern aufgenommen. Die mit dem Niederbringen und Testen von 29 Geothermie-Tiefbohrungen, der Errichtung und dem Betrieb der Geothermischen Heizzentralen in Nordostdeutschland bis 1990 gewonnen Erkentnisse bildeten dabei die Grundlage. der seither fortgesetzte Betrieb der Geothermischen Heizzentralen in Waren (Mueritz) und Neubrandenburg einschliesslich deren Modernisierung sowie die zwischenzeitlich aufgetretenen und im positiven Sinne geloesten Probleme unterstreichen die grundsaetzlich geloeste technisch-technologisce Realisierbarkeit der waermetechnischen Thermalwassernutzung. Zu loesen ist die Problematik der Aufbereitung des stofflich zu nutzenden Thermalwassers vor und nach Einsatz im Bade- und medizinisch-therapeutischen Bereich. Im Vortrag werden die

  3. Sludge utilisation in agriculture: possibilities and prospects in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadakis, A D; Mamals, D; Gavalaki, E; Kampylafka, S

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the prospects for agricultural utilisation of the sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants in Greece and more specifically focuses on a critical review of the legislatory framework, determination of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the produced sludges, examination of possible sludge treatment methods and evaluation of the possibilities and prospects of sludge utilisation on the basis of the above considerations. Landfilling is practically the only route to sludge disposal in Greece. However, in view of the anticipated future restrictions for landfilling within the European Union, this method is clearly a short-term solution and alternative options, including agricultural reuse, must be implemented. The results of a recent survey are presented and discussed in relation to this need.

  4. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  5. Machine utilisation and operation experience with Jet from 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.; Chuilon, P.; Noble, B.; Saunders, R.; Webberley, D.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of JET commenced in June 1983 and is scheduled until the end of 1992. This seemingly long period is actually quite limited when compared with the time needed to implement and commission the planned machine enhancements, and pursue research and developments which result from the experiments. There is an ever-present urgency to make the best use of the machine. 1983-84 was a learning period and only in 1985 was it felt worthwhile to adopt double-shift day working. Data has been compiled and analysed for utilisation of the machine, delays in terms of time lost and systems involved, and number and frequency of machine pulses. This paper presents an overall picture of machine availability and utilisation. It describes the JET operational arrangements and the experience of system faults. Finally, it draws conclusions and identifies lessons learned which may be relevant to the next stage of fusion power development

  6. Machine utilisation and operation experience with JET from 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.; Chuilon, P.; Noble, B.; Saunders, R.; Webberley, D.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of JET commenced in June 1983 and is scheduled until the end of 1992. This seemingly long period is actually quite limited when compared with the time needed to implement and commission the planned machine enhancements, and pursue research and developments which result from the experiments. There is an ever-present urgency to make the use of the machine. 1983-84 was a learning period and only in 1985 was it felt worthwhile to adopt double-shift day working. Data has been compiled and analysed for utilisation of the machine, delays in terms of time lost and system involved, and number and frequency of machine pulses. This paper presents an overall picture of machine availability and utilisation. It describes the JET operational arrangements and the experience of system faults. Finally, it draws conclusions and identifies lessons learned which may be relevant to the next stage of fusion power development. (author). 9 figs

  7. Utilisation des methodes modernes et reversibles de contraception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude descriptive et transversale de 6 ans, allant du 1er Janvier 1999 au 10 Mai 2005 à la clinique de gynécologie obstétrique de l\\'hôpital Donka du CHU de Conakry, a fait ressortir le niveau d\\'utilisation des méthodes modernes de contraception et a permis d\\'élaboré des recommandations pour l\\'amélioration de la ...

  8. Determinants of private healthcare utilisation and expenditure patterns in India

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde

    2014-01-01

    In India, a substantial investment has been made in developing community-based programmes, such as Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), and networks of village-level health workers. In spite of these efforts, growth utilisation of government services has failed to keep pace with the private sector, particularly in the past two decades. The results presented in this paper show that Indian families, even poor families, receive most of their medical care from private practitioners. Mate...

  9. The Utilisation of Music by Casino Managers: An Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.

  10. Barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Maria; Woods, Phil; Norman, Ian

    2004-08-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design to identify barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses. A postal questionnaire was sent to the total population of 88 registered nurses working in a forensic mental health hospital in the UK. Forty-seven responded representing a response rate of 53%. Results showed that the greatest barriers to research utilisation were those related to the characteristics of the setting in which nurses work or the personal characteristics of nurses themselves, which seems to be consistent with previous studies undertaken in the area. However, the nurses reported it especially difficult to trust what research shows because they feel that it is not always possible to apply those findings to their particular work environment. The main implications for policy are a need for an increase in support from management, programmes of advanced education to provide nurses with research skills, an improvement in accessibility and availability of research reports and an increase in time available to read and implement research. The main suggestions for future research are that qualitative studies should be carried out to attain a better understanding of mental health nurses' attitudes towards research utilisation. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  12. Production and use artificial radioelements in France; Production et utilisation des radioelements artificiels en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C; Cassin, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give a picture of the French accomplishment in the field of artificial radioelement production, and to review their uses up to march 31, 1958. The Commissariat a l'Energie atomique plays a major role in this work, accounting for practically the whole of the French production, centralising the imports, helping to control the distribution and contributing to research on, and development of, new applications. (author)Fren. [French] Ce rapport a pour but de presenter l'ensemble des realisations francaises dans le domaine de la production des radioelements artificiels et de faire le point, a la date du 31 mars 1958, de leur utilisation. Le Commissariat a l'Energie atomique joue un role preponderant puisqu'il assure la quasi totalite de la production francaise, centralise les importations, participe au controle de la distribution et contribue a l'etude et au developpement de nouvelles applications. (auteur)

  13. Notification of the French Energy Regulator the 5 june 2001 on the order fixing the purchase conditions of the electricity produced by installations using the wind energy; Avis de la commission de regulation de l'electricite en date du 5 juin 2001 sur l'arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations utilisant l'energie mecanique du vent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This document presents the economic analysis realized by the CRE, French Energy Regulator, to give its opinion on the order concerning the purchase conditions of the electricity produced by wind energy. An operating costs comparison with other energies forms shows that the proposed tariff will lead to a significant increase of the electric power. In consequence, the CRE is opposed to this order. (A.L.B.)

  14. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  15. Reflections on the world energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, B.

    1978-01-01

    After explaining the terms 'useful energy', 'primary energy' and 'end energy' this popular article gives a survey of the available potential and the utilisation of the primary energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, oil shales and oil sands, nuclear energy, solar energy, geophysical processes, chemical-biological processes) as well as of the tendencies and consequences for the energy demand. (GG) [de

  16. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  17. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  18. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of radioactive waste disposal technologies used worldwide in terms of their influence upon natural environment. Typical sources of radioactive waste from medicine and industry were presented. In addition, various types of radioactive waste, both liquid and solid, were described. Requirements and conditions of the waste’s storage were characterised. Selected liquid and solid waste processing technologies were shown. It was stipulated that contemporary methods of radioactive waste utilisation enable their successful neutralisation. The implementation of these methods ought to be mandated by ecological factors first and only then economical ones.

  19. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Senkoro, Kesheni P.; Momburi, Romanus

    2016-01-01

    was also found in the provider–client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used......This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents...

  20. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Atta Kuranchie; Sanjay Kumar Shukla; Daryoush Habibi; Alireza Mohyeddin

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength we...

  1. Utilising employee assistance programmes to reduce absenteeism in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Absenteeism in the organisation is a major problem for many South African organisations and it is a financially crippling factor. It is made worse by the fact that organisations have no proper mechanisms in place to deal with the problem of absenteeism. The goal of the study is to show that the utilisation of an EAP programme will effectively manage and reduce absenteeism for organisations. Use was made of a literature review. Recommendations are made on how to implement and manage EAPs in th...

  2. Donor Blood Procurement and Utilisation at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les dossiers du service de la transfusion sanguine de l\\'hôpital ont été étudiés pour identifier les méthodes d\\'obtention et d\\'utilisation du sang à partir du 1er janvier 2000 jusqu\\'au 31 décembre 2002. Au total, 11,021 unités de sang ont été obtenu dans le service de transfusion sanguine au cours de la période.

  3. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND UTILISATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work carried out by the University of Cape Town has examined the following questions:
    - are industrial engineering techniques being used in industry?
    - what are the reasons for not using the various techniques?
    - what factors that can be addressed by industrial engineers, are inhibiting the improvement of manufacturing productivity?
    - are industrial engineers being utilised in the most effective t"ay? Investigations in South African and overseas companies have indicated some barriers to acceptance that have to be overcome. This paper identifies key elements which, if implemented or adopted, will improve the effectiveness of both industrial engineers, and the intrOduction of industrial engineering techniques.

  4. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  5. Utilising heat from nuclear waste for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A heating unit utilising the decay heat from irradiated material comprises a storage envelope for the material associated with a heat exchange system, means for producing a flow of air over the heat exchange system to extract heat from the material, an exhaust duct capable of discharging the heated air to the atmosphere, and means for selectively diverting at least some of the heated air to effect the required heating. With the flow of air over the heat exchange system taking place by a natural thermosyphon process the arrangement is self regulating and inherently reliable. (author)

  6. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada...... an image of desirability, etc., but not nearly as much on the functionality aspects thereof; for example alternative smaller packaging sizes to the standard 750 ml wine bottle. Originality/value The study uses a multi-dimensional approach to measure the impact of enduring involvement on utilisation...

  7. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  8. Utilisation of VOC in Diesel Engines. Ignition and combustion of VOC released in crude oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, Oeyvin

    2002-01-01

    The emission of VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) is a significant source of hydrocarbon pollution. In Norway, the offshore oil industry represents a major source. This emission represents both an energy loss and an environmental problem. Gas tankers have used boil-off gas from the cargo tanks as fuel for some time. However, for the current VOC project a new fuel injection concept is designed for tankers to take advantage of the energy present in the VOC evaporated from crude oil. The VOC is mixed with inert gas in these tankers, and thus the utilisation of this gas represents new challenges. The VOC project uses the concept of ''Condensate Diesel Process'' with pilot ignition. An experimental study of ignition and combustion of VOC Fuels reported here was initiated by the time it was decided to start a pilot project converting propulsion engines in shuttle tankers to use VOC Fuel. It is an experimental study carried out at the Marine Technology Centre (MTS). The objective was to study ignition and combustion of the chosen process in comparison with an ordinary diesel process. The experimental results have been discussed and compared with theoretical considerations of injection, ignition and combustion. For experiments on combustion, a rapid compression machine ''DyFo'' was redesigned to use VOC Fuel. The DyFo test rig was initially designed to study ignition and early combustion of spark ignited homogeneous gas/air charges. To study the ignition and early combustion of VOC Fuel injected at high pressure and ignited by pilot diesel fuel, a redesign was necessary. An important feature of the DyFo, is the visualisation of the combustion. The advantage of the DyFo test rig over an engine, is its simplicity and controllability. In an engine the visualisation would suffer from combustion deposits disturbing the view through the quartz glasses, making the images more difficult to interpret. The simplicity is on the other side a drawback. Correct thermal conditions inside

  9. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atta Kuranchie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were tested. A controlled mix of concrete was also prepared in similar way using conventional materials and the results were compared with the tailings concrete. It was found that the iron ore tailings may be utilised for complete replacement for conventional aggregates in concrete. The iron ore tailings aggregates concrete exhibited a good mechanical strength and even in the case of compressive strength, there was an improvement of 11.56% over conventional aggregates concrete. The indirect tensile strength did not improve against the control mix due high content of fines in the tailings aggregates but showed 4.8% improvement compared with the previous study where the conventional fine aggregates was partially replaced by 20% with iron ore tailings.

  11. Thermal utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge; Thermische Klaerschlammverwertung -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, H.C. [Emscher Genossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen (Germany). Technischer Vorstand

    2001-07-01

    Sewage sludge combustion - either in an incinerator or for heat or power generation - has always been important and is getting ever more so. From the cost aspect, it makes quite a difference whether sewage sludge is just incinerated or utilised. The author makes it clear that this cost aspect - and what it means to communities and citizens - tends to be neglected by those who favour sewage sludge combustion and utilisation. [German] Die Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm - sei es als Schlammveraschung oder als thermische oder energetische Verwertung - hat schon immer fuer grosse Klaeranlagen einen bedeutenden Stellenwert gehabt. Die Bedeutung der Verbrennung scheint in letzter Zeit sogar zuzunehmen. Unter Kostengesichtspunkten ist es ein grosser Unterschied, ob ein Klaerschlamm nur verascht oder energetisch verwertet wird. Vor dem Hintergrund der allgemeinen Diskussion um die leeren Kassen der Kommunen, um die sogenannte dritte Miete fuer den Buerger und damit die Zumutbarkeit fuer weitere Steigerungen der Abwassergebuehren stoert mich die Bagatellisierung der Kostengesichtspunkte vor allem auf Seiten derer, die die Verbrennung der Klaerschlaemme fordern. (orig.)

  12. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  13. Utilisation of heat and pressure through the whole fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddowes, T.; Moricca, S.; Webb, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The existence of the earth around us is a result of heat and pressure combined to form the very crust we stand on. With such a good model, scientists working throughout the nuclear fuel cycle have used these principles to optimise each particular step. From the fabrication of fuel rods and running of reactors to the final storage of the waste generated; heat and pressure have proved to be vital resources. At ANSTO the concepts of using heat and pressure to consolidate the waste produced for the nuclear fuel cycle have been extensively investigated. Working with collaborators, it has been demonstrated that the intermediate to high level waste can be incorporated into a ceramic or glass-ceramic matrix and immobilised therein, using heat and pressure via the means of a Hot Isostatic Press. This paper touches on how following the simple principles of heat and pressure utilised in the operation of this planet every day, the nuclear fuel cycle can be most efficient. The main focus has been the utilisation of Hot Isostatic Pressing for the production of various durable wasteforms at ANSTO for both Australian and international wastes

  14. An assessment of the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens by nutritional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Selle, Peter H; Raubenheimer, David; Cadogan, David J; Simpson, Stephen J; Cowieson, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design. Energy derived from lipid had a greater impact on feed intake than energy derived from starch and protein. When we compared the influence of starch and protein on feed intake, 'equal distance rule' was observed, which means the animal consumes feed to the point on its respective nutritional rails where the shortage of starch exactly equals the surplus of consumed protein. Increasing the protein-derived energy intake increased weight gain in broiler chickens, whereas energy intake derived from starch and lipid had little impact on weight gain. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) may be reduced by either increasing protein energy intake or decreasing starch energy intake. As the slope of the contours was less than 1, the influence of starch energy intakes on FCR exceeded that of protein energy intakes. In conclusion, energy derived from protein is more important than non-protein energy in terms of weight gain, and a balance between protein and energy supplies is required for efficient muscle protein deposition.

  15. Energy-Cost Optimisation in Water-Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Mahmood; Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Households as well as community water-supply systems for utilisation of underground aquifers are massive consumers of energy. Prevailing energy crisis and focus of the government on demand-side energy policies (i.e., energy conservation) in Pakistan raises need of using energy efficient techniques in almost every aspect of life. This paper analyses performance of community relative to household water-supply system in connection with efficient energy utilisation. Results suggest that total ope...

  16. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  17. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  18. Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    • To reduce the costs of energy towards 2050 This transition faces many challenges from a variety of different perspectives, including: • Technology: The development of new technologies and infrastructures, which will enable us to utilise renewable energy resources. • Business: The design of new markets...

  19. Hospital Resource Utilisation by Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, S

    2017-09-01

    Little data is available on the resource utilisation of patients admitted with Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Ireland. A retrospective review of 50 randomly-selected patients admitted to Beaumont Hospital with CAP was undertaken. The mean length of stay of patients with CAP was 12 days (+\\/- 16 days). All patients were emergency admissions, all had a chest x-ray, a C-reactive protein blood test, and occupied a public bed at some point during admission. Common antimicrobial therapies were intravenous (IV) amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid and oral clarithromycin; 60% received physiotherapy. The estimated mean cost of CAP per patient was €14,802.17. Costs arising from admission to hospital with CAP are substantial, but efforts can be undertaken to ensure that resources are used efficiently to improve patient care such as discharge planning and fewer in-hospital ward transfers

  20. Obstetrics service utilisation by the community in Lebowa, northern Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyirwoth, G P; Itsweng, M D; Mpai, S; Nchabeleng, E; Nkoane, H

    1996-02-01

    A cross sectional cluster survey was done in all health wards of Lebowa in May 1992. The study was based on a recall of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal experience during the last pregnancy of 2940 mothers. Only mothers who delivered within 12 months before the date of interview were included. Antenatal coverage was high at 93.5%, the proportion of health facility deliveries was 74.6% while 26.3% of all births occurred at home. Inaccessibility of maternity services, lack of money, negative staff attitudes and lack of privacy were the common reasons given for preference of home delivery. Mothers who delivered at home were more likely to be of higher parity and unbooked than their counterparts who delivered in a health facility. Postnatal coverage was 50.7% with a 25.4% rate of utilisation of a method of childspacing. The proportion of births attended to by trained personnel needs to be increased.

  1. Montelukast use-a 19-year nationwide drug utilisation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Laursen, Christian B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used in asthma and rhinitis treatment. Despite being marketed nearly two decades ago, little is known about its utilisation pattern. METHODS: Using the Danish National Prescription Registry, we identified subjects filling a montelukast...... montelukast initiators, 60% filled at least one prescription of short-acting beta-2-agonists (SABA) up to a year prior to montelukast initiation, and 49% filled a prescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Only 0.8% (n = 1148) of all individuals initiated montelukast without a redeemed prescription...... of short- or long-term inhalation therapy, systemic antihistamines, or nasal topical anti-allergic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The usage of montelukast has increased over threefold since its market entry in 1998, mainly driven by an increased number of prevalent users. The majority of individuals who initiated...

  2. Sewage sludge treatment, utilisation and disposal; Schlammbehandlung, -verwertung und -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In view of recent events and the resulting emotional and political decisions, the issue of sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. must be seen in a new light. First, a new concept for sewage sludge management must be developed as recent legislation interferes with the 'classic' strategy of utilisation in agriculture, dumping and combustion. Scientists and sewage plant owners must find new ways to implement the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management. This ATV-DVWK training course discusses subjects that may be helpful on the new path. Starting from current legislation, problems, decision criteria and cost of sewage sludge treatment are gone into. Dimensioning fundamentals for sewage treatment plants re presented, and new and established treatment methods, operational problems and pollution problems are discussed. Further subjects are recycling of useful materials from sewage sludge, co-treatment of organic materials in fermenters, and disposal concepts for small and medium-sized communities. (orig.)

  3. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  4. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  6. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  7. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  8. Trends in metformin utilisation and dose appropriateness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J; Kumar, S S; Graham, G G; Baysari, M T; Williams, K M; Chen, W; Viardot, A; Greenfield, J R; Day, R O

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to (1) determine the trends in the utilisation of metformin in Australia, (2) determine the appropriateness of metformin dosing in an Australian teaching hospital and (3) gather the opinions of prescribers on the relationship between metformin dose and renal function. National prescription data between 1990 and 2012 were accessed. A retrospective audit (2008-2012) of metformin doses and patient renal function (20 % random sample of all in-patients prescribed metformin) was conducted at St Vincent's Hospital (SVH), Sydney. Prescribers of metformin were interviewed (semi-structured; consultants at SVH) or surveyed (Australian endocrinologists) to gather their understanding of metformin dosing in relation to renal function. Metformin utilisation increased fivefold nationally between 1995 and 2012. Metformin tended to be under-dosed in SVH patients with normal renal function (83.5 %) and over-dosed in patients with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) metformin doses needed to be reduced in renal impairment. Most endocrinologists (61 %) were comfortable prescribing metformin down to eGFRs around 30 mL/min. The use of metformin increased greatly over the period of the study. Metformin is prescribed frequently for patients with eGFR values below the minimal level approved in the product label (60 mL/min). While prescribers expressed their understanding of the need to reduce metformin doses in patients with renal impairment, we found that metformin doses were higher than appropriate in patients with impaired renal function. Metformin may be used safely when renal function is poor provided dosage is appropriately reduced.

  9. Biocarburants : la Commission propose d’encourager leur utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis longtemps, la Commission, le Parlement et le Conseil encouragent le développement des sources d’énergie renouvelables, et plus particulièrement des biocarburants. Cela s’est traduit, entre autres, par la publication en novembre 2000 d’un livre vert intitulé « Vers une stratégie européenne de sécurité d’approvisionnement énergétique », qui fixe comme objectif, d’ici 2020, le remplacement de 20% des carburants classiques par des carburants de substitution pour le transport routier. Plus récemment, en juin 2001, au sommet de Göteborg, a été souligné le rôle important des biocarburants dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et le développement des énergies propres. Ces encouragements restaient au niveau de la déclaration d’intention faute de moyens administratifs et fiscaux pour bâtir une véritable stratégie. Depuis le 7 novembre 2001, les choses semblent évoluer : en effet, à cette date, le collège des Commissaires a adopté une communication sur les carburants de substitution pour les transports routiers et une série de mesures visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants. De plus - et c’est ce qui est fondamental - cette communication était assortie de deux propositions de directives, l’une visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants dans les transports, l’autre concernant la possibilité d’appliquer un taux d’accises réduit sur certaines huiles minérales qui contiennent des biocarburants et sur les biocarburants.

  10. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Relationship between the utilisation profile of individual joints and their susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two subjects were studied for 1 to 3 weeks during the course of their normal domestic activities. Utilisation profiles were derived for ten joints, using a systematic time-series sampling technique adapted from behavioural biology. At each joint the proportion of the available range utilised was noted. The results were compared with the known regional prevalence of primary osteoarthritis. There was a correlation between the degree to which a joint was incompletely utilised, and its susceptibility to osteoarthritis. The hypothesis is advanced that primary osteoarthritis may be due to incomplete joint utilisation. (orig.)

  12. The Social Acceptance of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: A Review and Research Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Olfe-Kräutlein, Barbara; Naims, Henriette; Armstrong, Katy

    2017-01-01

    CO 2 utilisation technologies—also called carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU)—convert CO 2 via physical, chemical, or biological processes into carbon-based products. CO 2 utilisation technologies are viewed as a means of helping to address climate change and broadening the raw material base for commodities that can be sold to generate economic revenue. However, while technical research and development into the feasibility of CO 2 utilisation options are accelerating rapidly; at present, there has been limited research into the social acceptance of the technology and CO 2 -derived products. This review article outlines and explores three key dimensions of social acceptance (i.e., socio-political, market, and community acceptance) pertaining to innovation within CO 2 utilisation. The article highlights the importance of considering issues of social acceptance as an aspect of the research, development, demonstration, and deployment process for CO 2 utilisation and explores how key stakeholders operating on each dimension might affect the innovation pathways, investment, and siting decisions relating to CO 2 utilisation facilities and CO 2 -derived products. Beyond providing a state-of-the-art review of current research into the social acceptance of CO 2 utilisation, this article also outlines an agenda for future research in the field.

  13. The Social Acceptance of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: A Review and Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher R., E-mail: c.r.jones@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDUUK), University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Environment and Behaviour Research Group (EBRG), Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Olfe-Kräutlein, Barbara; Naims, Henriette [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany); Armstrong, Katy [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDUUK), University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-09

    CO{sub 2} utilisation technologies—also called carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU)—convert CO{sub 2}via physical, chemical, or biological processes into carbon-based products. CO{sub 2} utilisation technologies are viewed as a means of helping to address climate change and broadening the raw material base for commodities that can be sold to generate economic revenue. However, while technical research and development into the feasibility of CO{sub 2} utilisation options are accelerating rapidly; at present, there has been limited research into the social acceptance of the technology and CO{sub 2}-derived products. This review article outlines and explores three key dimensions of social acceptance (i.e., socio-political, market, and community acceptance) pertaining to innovation within CO{sub 2} utilisation. The article highlights the importance of considering issues of social acceptance as an aspect of the research, development, demonstration, and deployment process for CO{sub 2} utilisation and explores how key stakeholders operating on each dimension might affect the innovation pathways, investment, and siting decisions relating to CO{sub 2} utilisation facilities and CO{sub 2}-derived products. Beyond providing a state-of-the-art review of current research into the social acceptance of CO{sub 2} utilisation, this article also outlines an agenda for future research in the field.

  14. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  15. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  16. Crushing of Subglacial Lake Sediment as a Source of Bio-utilisable Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill Olivas, B.; Telling, J.; Michaud, A. B.; Skidmore, M. L.; Priscu, J. C.; Tranter, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research has shown microbial ecosystems exist under glaciers and ice sheets. The sources of energy to support these ecosystems are still not fully understood, particularly beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet, where direct access to the atmosphere and in-washed organic matter and oxidising agents does not occur. Hence, sub-ice sheet energy sources are restricted to those in subglacial environments, except for ice-margin environments. This study focuses on sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), the first subglacial lake to be directly and cleanly sampled. Sediment from three depths in a shallow core extracted from SLW were used to assess the possible energy contributions from mechanochemical reactions to this subglacial ecosystem. To do this, the samples were crushed under an anoxic atmosphere using a ball mill. The sediments were then transferred into serum bottles under anoxic conditions. They were wetted and the headspace gas was subsequently sampled and analysed during a 40 day incubation. Results show the release of substantial amounts of hydrogen, which could potentially serve as an abiotic source of energy to microbes, in particular, methanogenic archaea. Significant amounts of short chain hydrocarbons (including methane and ethylene), possibly from the reactivation of ancient organic carbon, were also observed. Crushed samples showed a significant concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced on contact with water, as well as significant amounts of Si radicals, showing comminution of these sediments unlocks the potential for a wide range of redox conditions and reactions to develop within glacially eroded sediment under ice. This in turn provides a previously overlooked source of nutrients and energy for microbes to utilise.

  17. Future production and utilisation of biomass in Sweden: potentials and CO2 mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, P.; Gustavsson, L.; Christersson, L.; Linder, S.

    1997-01-01

    Swedish biomass production potential could be increased significantly if new production methods, such as optimised fertilisation, were to be used. Optimised fertilisation on 25% of Swedish forest land and the use of stem wood could almost double the biomass potential from forestry compared with no fertilisation, as both logging residues and large quantities of excess stem wood not needed for industrial purposes could be used for energy purposes. Together with energy crops and straw from agriculture, the total Swedish biomass potential would be about 230 TWh/yr or half the current Swedish energy supply if the demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes were the same as today. The new production methods are assumed not to cause any significant negative impact on the local environment. The cost of utilising stem wood produced with optimised fertilisation for energy purposes has not been analysed and needs further investigation. Besides replacing fossil fuels and, thus, reducing current Swedish CO 2 emissions by about 65%, this amount of biomass is enough to produce electricity equivalent to 20% of current power production. Biomass-based electricity is produced preferably through co-generation using district heating systems in densely populated regions, and pulp industries in forest regions. Alcohols for transportation and stand-alone power production are preferably produced in less densely populated regions with excess biomass. A high intensity in biomass production would reduce biomass transportation demands. There are uncertainties regarding the future demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes, the amount of arable land available for energy crop production and future yields. These factors will influence Swedish biomass potential and earlier estimates of the potential vary from 15 to 125 TWh/yr. (author)

  18. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  19. Convention internationale sur l’utilisation pacifique du cyberespace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Roche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Les armes cybernétiques sont à présent une extension du pouvoir de l’Etat. Dans l’espoir de gagner un avantage stratégique, un certain nombre de pays, dont les Etats-Unis, la Russie et la Chine sont en train de développer des cyber-capacités offensives afin de perturber les institutions politiques, économiques, et sociales de nations concurrentes. Ces activités ont conduit à une course aux armes cybernétiques qui se développe de manière incontrôlable. L’imminence de cette menace globale incite la communauté internationale à la pro-activité. L’objectif de cet article est de proposer une convention internationale afin de mettre un terme au développement, à la prolifération, et à l’utilisation d’armes cybernétiques avant qu’elles ne causent un Armageddon électronique. Nous commencerons d’abord par l’examen de trois efforts successifs de contrôle des armements, puis en utiliserons les leçons retenues pour rédiger une convention pouvant servir de point de départ à des négociations multilatérales.

  20. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  1. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  2. Research utilisation in sonographic practice: Attitudes and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Vicki; Wilson, Stephanie E.; Svensson, Jon; Brennan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Statutory agents have stipulated that research activity is a fundamental component of the healthcare professional's activity. Whilst the College of Radiographers have emphasised the importance of imaging personnel embracing this research ethos, there is little available data on the level of research activity within sonographic practice or on the factors that influence a sonographer's involvement in research activities. This work attempts to address these deficiencies. A questionnaire was sent to 300 UK-based sonographers of whom 218 responded (72%). The questionnaire was specifically designed to establish the level of involvement in research, the utilisation of research findings, attitudes towards research and perceived barriers to active research involvement. Responses were analysed investigating any correlations with the population demographics. The data collected showed the majority of sonographers (89%) were enthusiastic about research but with only 33% and 60% currently or previously performing research, respectively, and 73% using research findings to modify their clinical practice. Certain barriers to an active research involvement were shown, with 63%, 55% and 40% citing lack of time, education and collegial support, respectively. A range of statistical findings were linked to particular sonographer groups. The importance of good organisational structures and effective support from fellow health professionals was highlighted. The results confirm sonographers' appreciation of the benefits of research and it is suggested that if this enthusiasm is translated into effective research strategies, research output from ultrasound and other clinical departments should be enhanced.

  3. Overall concepts for utilisation of slow pyrolysis products - Hidaspyro II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L.; Kuoppala, E.; Ranta, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi; Setaelae, H.; Hagner, M. (University of Helsinki, Lahti (Finland), Dept. of Ecological and Environmental Sciences), e-mail: heikki.setala@helsinki.fi; Tiilikkala, K.; Palojaervi, A.; Lindqvist, B. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: kari.tiilikkala@mtt.fi

    2011-11-15

    The project aims at developing new distributed biorefineries and comprehensive concepts based on slow pyrolysis for SMEs. The research carried out in the project 'Hidaspyro' will be continued in the new project. The goal is an optimised slow pyrolysis process for new applications of the products. The objective is to determine the effects of biochar and distillates on growth of plants, soil improvement, carbon sequestration and emissions of cultivation, to define the quality criteria of biochar, to determine the potential of distillates in odour prevention and to assess the environmental impacts of the products. Optimal process parameters to produce distillates and biochar of high quality will be determined by well-controlled laboratory-scale slow pyrolysis testing facility to be constructed. The main feedstock material will be birchwood, but comparisons with other biomass feedstocks will also be carried out. The efficacy tests will show the effect of biochars and distillates on growth of plants, use of water and nutrients, and biological activity of soil. Demonstrations of soil improvement and odour prevention will be done in co-operation with the partner enterprises. The environmental effects of different biochars will be compared by following the changes in the activity of microbes and the composition of nematode community. The amount and quality of distillate and biochar safe to the environment will be defined. All the results will be utilised in the techno-economic assessment of different concepts. (orig.)

  4. Novel Wine Yeast for Improved Utilisation of Proline during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Long

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proline is the predominant amino acid in grape juice, but it is poorly assimilated by wine yeast under the anaerobic conditions typical of most fermentations. Exploiting the abundance of this naturally occurring nitrogen source to overcome the need for nitrogen supplementation and/or the risk of stuck or sluggish fermentations would be most beneficial. This study describes the isolation and evaluation of a novel wine yeast isolate, Q7, obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenesis. The utilisation of proline by the EMS isolate was markedly higher than by the QA23 wild type strain, with approximately 700 and 300 mg/L more consumed under aerobic and self-anaerobic fermentation conditions, respectively, in the presence of preferred nitrogen sources. Higher intracellular proline contents in the wild type strain implied a lesser rate of proline catabolism or incorporation by this strain, but with higher cell viability after freezing treatment. The expression of key genes (PUT1, PUT2, PUT3, PUT4, GAP1 and URE2 involved in proline degradation, transport and repression were compared between the parent strain and the isolate, revealing key differences. The application of these strains for efficient conduct for nitrogen-limited fermentations is a possibility.

  5. Resource Utilisation and Curriculum Implementation in Community Colleges in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Changilwa Kigwilu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated how Catholic-sponsored community colleges in Nairobi utilise the existing physical facilities and teaching and learning resources for effective implementation of Artisan and Craft curricula. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students and 18 teachers while four directors of community colleges were purposively selected. Questionnaires were administered to students and teachers, while directors were interviewed. Teaching and learning resources, such as workshops, equipment, lecture rooms, laboratories, raw materials for practical training and reference books, were found to be adequate, although underutilised. However, sports grounds, libraries and course texts were inadequate. Resource inadequacies were often mitigated by signing equipment co-sharing agreements with peer institutions and local firms. Teachers rated highly the influence of physical facilities on curriculum implementation. Both students and teachers rated highly the influence of teaching and learning resources on curriculum implementation. The study concludes that, while some physical facilities and teaching and learning resources are adequate, their underutilisation and the inadequacy of other core facilities and resources, such as libraries and course textbooks, hinder effective teaching and learning in these community colleges.

  6. Power generation from wind energy: An ancient dream can come true

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarass, L

    1978-06-01

    In the first part of the article, the physical fundamentals of wind energy utilisation are explained. After this, a survey is given on wind energy utilisation in the part and on modern wind energy projects. The following countries are considered: Denmark, France, Soviet Union, Great Britain, Netherlands, Sweden, West Germany. The main plants are listed in a detailed table.

  7. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Soares, Isabel; Ferreira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries...... and presented at The 1st International Congress on Energy & Environment ranging from electricity end-use analyses, electricity production analyses to socio-economic assessment and large-scale energy scenarios....

  8. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  9. Utilisation of prompt fission neutron technology in Greenfields uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutz, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally, gamma detection technology has been used in uranium exploration programs for the initial detection of uranium as well as for a determination of uranium concentration. Geophysical logging companies use wireline gamma probes to measure uranium within boreholes, and field technicians utilise hand held gamma meters to detect uranium in rock samples, drill cuttings and cores. Borehole geophysical logging equipment typically records the uranium concentration as %eU 3 O8, where e represents an equivalent determination of uranium concentration as opposed to a laboratory assay. This method of uranium determination is an indirect method, as it measures gamma radiation from uranium-238 (U-238) isotope decay chain progeny; principally the bismuth-214 (Bi-214) isotope. Consequently, the uranium determination can be inaccurate due to natural disequilibrium between the U-238 parent and the decay chain progeny. This is especially true in sedimentary hosted uranium deposits, where the uranium and daughter progeny may have been geochemically separated. The gamma detection method for uranium can also be rendered inaccurate by detecting the gamma signature from potassium in clays as well as from thorium; both of which can provide a false (enhanced) eU 3 O8 determination. Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) technology is a geophysical wireline logging technology used in the same manner as conventional gamma logging. The difference is that PFN provides a direct determination of uranium within a borehole, irrespective of natural disequilibrium or the presence of other radioactive elements. This paper provides a brief description of natural uranium and radioactivity as a basis for explaining the conventional use of gamma radiation detectors for the detection and determination of uranium concentration in exploration boreholes, including the potential pitfalls of this technology. A detailed description of prompt fission neutron technology is also presented, along with a discussion

  10. Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C Pitts

    Full Text Available Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal β-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin β-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen.

  11. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  12. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  13. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-03-22

    While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Determinants of Antenatal Healthcare Utilisation by Pregnant Women in Third Trimester in Peri-Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Asafo Akowuah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to quality healthcare still remains a major challenge in the efforts at reversing maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of established maternal health interventions, the health of the expectant mother and the unborn child remains poor due to low utilisation of interventions. The study examined the socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation in peri-urban Ghana using pregnant women who are in their third trimester. Two-stage sampling technique was used to sample 200 pregnant women who were in their third trimester from the District Health Information Management System software. Well-structured questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data from respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including binary logit regression model were used to analyse the data with the help of SPSS and STATA software. The results showed varying utilisation levels of ANC. From the regression result, age, household size, and occupational status were identified as the important socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation among the respondents. The important system factors which influence antenatal care utilisation by the respondents are distance to ANC, quality of service, and service satisfaction. The study concludes that socioeconomic and health system factors are important determinants of antenatal care utilisation. Stepping up of interventions aimed at improving the socioeconomic status and addressing health system and proximity challenges could be helpful in improving antenatal care utilisation by pregnant women in Ghana.

  15. Outpatient echocardiography in the evaluation of innocent murmurs in children: utilisation benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Patricio A; Oster, Matthew; Daley, Patricia A; Boris, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-01

    We sought to benchmark the utilisation of echocardiography in the outpatient evaluation of heart murmurs by evaluating two large paediatric cardiology centres. Although criteria exist for appropriate use of echocardiography, there are no benchmarking data demonstrating its utilisation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of outpatients aged between 0 and 18 years at the Sibley Heart Center Cardiology and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology, given a sole diagnosis of "innocent murmur" from 1 July, 2007 to 31 October, 2010. Using internal claims data, we compared the utilisation of echocardiography according to centre, patient age, and physician years of service. Of 23,114 eligible patients (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 12,815, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 10,299), 43.1% (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 45.2%, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 40.4%; p1-5 years had the lowest utilisation (32.7%). In two large paediatric cardiology practices, the overall utilisation of echocardiography by physicians with a sole diagnosis of innocent murmur was similar. There was significant and similar variability in utilisation by provider at both centres. Although these data serve as initial benchmarking, the variability in utilisation highlights the importance of appropriate use criteria.

  16. Promotion of energy conservation and renewable energy sources in Bavaria; Foerderung von Energiesparen und Erneuerbaren Energien in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, D. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The present article gives an overview of the measures taken in Bavaria (Federal German Republic) for promoting energy conservation. There include: Efficient energy utilisation; communal energy saving concepts; utilisation of renewable energy sources; small-scale hydropower plants; modernisation measures; and cultivable raw materials. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Artikel liefert einen Ueberblick ueber die Foerdermassnahmen zur Energieeinsparung im Freistaat Bayern (Bundesrepublik Deutschland): - Rationelle Energieverwendung - kommunale Energieeinsparkonzepte - Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien - Kleinwasserkraftanlagen - Modernisierungsmassnahmen - nachwachsende Rohstoffe. (HW)

  17. Queensland Energy Advisory Council 1984 annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Council consists of senior officials of Government Departments involved with various aspects of assessment, production, distribution and utilisation of energy resources. Noted in the annual review are functions of QEAC; activities; overview of Queensland's energy position; non renewable resources; coal; electricity; crude oil; natural gas; PGL; oil shale; uranium; renewable resources; solar energy; wind energy and biomass.

  18. Effects of target bias voltage on indium tin oxide films deposited by high target utilisation sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, Sonya; Upadhyaya, Hari M.; Dann, Sandra E.; Thwaites, Mike J.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by reactive High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS) onto glass and polyimide substrates. The ion plasma was generated by an RF power source while the target bias voltage was varied from 300 V to 500 V using a separate DC power supply. The deposition rate, at constant target power, increased with DC target voltage due to increased ion energy reaching 34 nm/min at 500 V. All the films were polycrystalline and showed strong (400) and (222) reflections with the relative strength of latter increasing with target bias voltage. The resistivity was lowest at 500 V with values of 1.8 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 2.4 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass and polyimide, respectively but was still less than 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 400 V. All films were highly transparent to visible light, (> 80%) but the NIR transmittance decreased with increasing target voltage due to higher free carrier absorption. Therefore, ITO films can be deposited onto semiconductor layers such as in solar cells, with minimal ion damage while maintaining low resistivity

  19. Industrial uses of radioelements in France; Utilisation industrielle des radioelements en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The birth of a nuclear industry has permitted the use of radioelements in an increasing number of domains. Currently, the majority of radioelements applications in industrial problematic are essentially on nondestructive control and on problems of static electricity, as well as in a least way for the use of the intense radiation sources, on agronomic problems, for hydrology or chemical analyses. In order to promote the industrial applications, The CEA took to this purpose several sets of decisions: 1 - institution of teachings and collaboration; 2 - encourage the constructors of devices; 3 - creation of a help service to the users. (M.B.) [French] La naissance d'une industrie nucleaire a permit l'emploi des radioelements dans un nombre croissant de domaines. Actuellement, la majorite des applications industrielles de radioelements porte essentielement sur le controle non destructif et les problemes d'electricite statique, ainsi que dans une moindre mesure l'utilisation des rayonnements intenses, les problemes agronomiques, les questions d'hydrologie, les analyses chimiques. Afin de promouvoir les applications industrielles, Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a pris a cet effet plusieurs series de mesures: 1- institution d'enseignements et de collaboration; 2- encouragement aux constructeurs d'appareils; 3- creation d'un service de consultation aux usagers. (M.B.)

  20. Sustainable management and utilisation of concrete slurry waste: A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Xuan, Dongxing; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-03-01

    With the promotion of environmental protection in the construction industry, the mission to achieve more sustainable use of resources during the production process of concrete is also becoming important. This study was conducted to assess the environmental sustainability of concrete slurry waste (CSW) management by life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, with the aim of identifying a resource-efficient solution for utilisation of CSW in the production of partition wall blocks. CSW is the dewatered solid residues deposited in the sedimentation tank after washing out over-ordered/rejected fresh concrete and concrete trucks in concrete batching plants. The reuse of CSW as recycled aggregates or a cementitious binder for producing partition wall blocks, and the life cycle environmental impact of the blocks were assessed and compared with the conventional one designed with natural materials. The LCA results showed that the partition wall blocks prepared with fresh CSW and recycled concrete aggregates achieved higher sustainability as it consumed 59% lower energy, emitted 66% lower greenhouse gases, and produced lesser amount of other environmental impacts than that of the conventional one. When the mineral carbonation technology was further adopted for blocks curing using CO 2 , the global warming potential of the corresponding blocks production process was negligible, and hence the carbonated blocks may be considered as carbon neutral eco-product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotechnological applications for the utilisation of wastes from palm oil mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheah, S C; Ma, A N; Ooi, L C.L.; Ong, A S.H.

    1988-05-01

    The milling of oil palm fruits produces about two-and-a-half to three times as much effluent as oil does. It also generates a large amount of lignocellulosic wastes, mainly in the form of empty fruit bunches, press cake fibres and nut shell. Research efforts at PORIM have been directed towards the utilisation of these wastes as a means to solve the problem of environmental pollution as well as for the generation of economic returns for the mills. We have studied a thermophilic contact process for the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent and its potential for generating biogas for energy uses. Our work has also shown that the condensate derived from the fruit sterilisation process during milling is amenable to fermentation for the production of single cell protein (SCP) and exo-enzymes. The enzymes produced have been applied for oil clarification, oil recovery from press cake fibers and saccharification of the fibers for the production of sugar feedstocks. This paper will also introduce the concept of integrated waste management for the palm oil mill through the implementation of these technologies.

  2. Assessing potential forest and steel inter-industry residue utilisation by sequential chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makela, M.

    2012-10-15

    Traditional process industries in Finland and abroad are facing an emerging waste disposal problem due recent regulatory development which has increased the costs of landfill disposal and difficulty in acquiring new sites. For large manufacturers, such as the forest and ferrous metals industries, symbiotic cooperation of formerly separate industrial sectors could enable the utilisation waste-labeled residues in manufacturing novel residue-derived materials suitable for replacing commercial virgin alternatives. Such efforts would allow transforming the current linear resource use and disposal models to more cyclical ones and thus attain savings in valuable materials and energy resources. The work described in this thesis was aimed at utilising forest and carbon steel industry residues in the experimental manufacture of novel residue-derived materials technically and environmentally suitable for amending agricultural or forest soil properties. Single and sequential chemical extractions were used to compare the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements in the manufactured amendment samples to relevant Finnish statutory limit values for the use of fertilizer products and to assess respective potential availability under natural conditions. In addition, the quality of analytical work and the suitability of sequential extraction in the analysis of an industrial solid sample were respectively evaluated through the analysis of a certified reference material and by X-ray diffraction of parallel sequential extraction residues. According to the acquired data, the incorporation of both forest and steel industry residues, such as fly ashes, lime wastes, green liquor dregs, sludges and slags, led to amendment liming capacities (34.9-38.3%, Ca equiv., d.w.) comparable to relevant commercial alternatives. Only the first experimental samples showed increased concentrations of pseudo-total cadmium and chromium, of which the latter was specified as the trivalent Cr(III). Based on

  3. Policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nhemachena, C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study crafts a policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa. The district, being predominantly agricultural and rural, faces contention in terms of land allocation...

  4. Hydrocarbon-utilising micro-organisms from Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Twenty-three hydrocarbon-utilising bacteria and one yeast were isolated, using enrichment techniques, from water and sediment samples. Vibrio and Pseudomonas were the predominant genera. Of the different organisms screened, Bacillus, Candida...

  5. Utilisation of factorial experiments for the UV/H O process in a batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... The predictions given by the factorial experiments model were confirmed by the ... studies have given the effect of initial H2O2 concentration, initial concentration of the ... This mathematical model may be utilised to explain.

  6. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah

    2004-07-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l{sup -1} was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l{sup -1}) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l{sup -1}. The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l{sup -1}. The N level of 400 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high

  7. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l -1 was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l -1 ) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l -1 . The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l -1 . The N level of 400 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high unused N nutrient

  8. Biomass production and utilisation. Policy implications for LDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of biomass in the energy sector of LDCs and in Africa in particular is illustrated so as to provide the background to the policy importance on the production and use of this energy source. The main areas for policy attention discussed are: biomass for power generation, biomass use in the transport sector, urban energy supply and the interactions with agricultural policies. The roles of the major institutions the government, private sector institutions, educational institutions and non-governmental organizations are identified. It is concluded that with the necessary policy shift that is being advocated, biomass can contribute to a more equitable supply of high quality and efficient energy services in the future of African countries. (K.A.)

  9. Utilisation of low grade fuels influidised bed combustors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available of greenhouse and acid gases formed by spontaneous heating and combustion of coal discard, and providing energy from materials that are currently discarded and have already been mined/recovered....

  10. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

    2012-02-01

    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  11. Ecological concepts and strategies with relevance to energy-conscious spatial planning and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable systems utilise renewable energy sources and recycle materials effectively. In theory, solar radiation provides abundant energy to sustain humanity. Our capacity to utilise available sources, however, is limited and competition for resources is expected to increase in the future. Spatial

  12. The project 'nuclear long-distance energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harth, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Kernforschungsanlage Juelich is intensively involved in research work with the aim of developing new technological skills for the future supply of energy and to lead the way in industry. In the forefront are a rational utilisation of primary energy and a better adjustment of the energy available, to fulfil requirements. In addition, the supply from nuclear power plants was analysed and a new energy supply system was achieved. It offers the possibility of giving nuclear-produced power to a large proportion of consumers fulfilling their heat and electricity needs, in which the accessible degrees of utilisation lie between 49% and 67%. The project 'nuclear long distance energy' is the theme of a report included in the Congress on Rational Utilisation of Energy, held from 20th to 23rd. september 1976 in Berlin. (orig.) [de

  13. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  14. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Al Seadi, Teodorita; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2009-01-01

      One of the common tendencies of animal production activities in Europe and in developed countries in general is to intensify the animal production and to increase the size of the animal production units. High livestock density is always accompanied by production of a surplus of animal manure...... and to redistribute the excess of nutrients from manure and to optimize their recycling. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries offers several benefits by improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel - the biogas. The EU policies concerning renewable...... energy systems (RES) have set forward a fixed goal of supplying 20% of the European energy demands from RES by year 2020. A major part of the renewable energy will originate from European farming and forestry. At least 25% of all bioenergy in the future can originate from biogas, produced from wet...

  15. Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of

  16. Utilisation of biological and secondary raw materials IX. Recycling - conversion to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The book on the utilization of biological and secondary raw materials covers the following issues: Perspectives of the circular flow and resource economy, waste avoidance, closed substance cycle waste management law and biowaste assessment, economic evaluation and usage alternatives for biogas, consequences of the 4th BlmschV, the BioAbfV and the DueV for the biowaste treatment, alternative techniques of the Biowaste collection, alternative models of the recyclable substance assessment, future of the packaging and recyclable substance utilization, ElectroG and E-scrape recycling, innovative concepts for the municipal waste management, future of the MBA, MVA and EBS management.

  17. Greening of wastelands. Proceedings of the national workshop on utilisation of wastelands for bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, N G; Abhiyankar, P D [eds.

    1986-01-01

    After eight introductory and concluding papers, there are 48 short papers by various authors on topics including legal and social aspects, the afforestation of saline and alkaline soils, tree species selection, subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) production and economics, biomass production for fuel, cultivation of fruit trees, use of fertilizers and irrigation, and projects in Madhya Pradesh, the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.

  18. Contextual and individual factors associated with dental services utilisation by Brazilian adults: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkrath, Fernando José; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    Inequalities in the utilisation of dental services in Brazil are remarkable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of contextual and individual factors with the utilisation of dental services by Brazilian adults using the Andersen's behavioural model. Individual-level data from 27,017 adults residents in the State capitals who were interviewed in the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey were pooled with contextual city-level data. The outcomes were non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. Individual predisposing variables were age, sex, race/skin colour, schooling and social network. Individual enabling variables included income, health insurance and registration in primary health care. Individual need variables were self-perceived dental health and self-reported missing teeth. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of the association of contextual and individual predisposing, enabling and need-related variables with dental services outcomes. Predisposing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and enabling (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.85-0.96) contextual factors were associated with non-utilisation of dental services. Individual predisposing (sex, race/skin colour, schooling), enabling (income, health insurance) and need (self-perceived oral health, missing teeth) were associated with non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. The latter was also associated with other individual predisposing (age, social network) and need (eating difficulties due to oral problems) characteristics. Individual and contextual determinants influenced dental services utilisation in Brazilian adults. These factors should be on the policy agenda and considered in the organisation of health services aiming to reduce oral health inequalities related to access and utilisation of dental services.

  19. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mielck Andreas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Methods Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. Results People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases.

  20. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2011-10-31

    The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany) compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases. © 2011 Stirbu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. From fossil fuels to energies-of-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, C.J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Energon - Winter (C.J.) GmbH, Leonberg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Energies-of-light are the final result on the ongoing decarbonisation of carbonaceous fuels, their hydrogenation and, thus, dematerialization (coal -> petroleum -> natural gas -> hydrogen). Energies-of-light utilise all sorts of renewable energies and the chemical secondary energy carrier hydrogen for energy storage and transport, as well as a transportation fuel.

  2. Determinants of utilisation differences for cancer medicines in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Little comparative evidence is available on utilisation of cancer medicines in different countries and its determinants. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to test the correlation between utilisation and possible determinants in selected European countries. A sample of 31 medicines for cancer treatment that obtained EU-wide marketing authorisation between 2000 and 2012 was selected. Annual data on medicines' utilisation covering the in- and out-patient public sectors were obtained from national authorities between 2008 and 2013. Possible determinants of utilisation were extracted from HTA reports and complemented by contacts with key informants. A longitudinal mixed effect model was fitted to test possible determinants of medicines utilisation in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden. In the all-country model, the number of indications reimbursed positively correlated with increased consumption of medicines [one indication 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.6); two indications 2.4, 95% CI (1.4-4.3); three indications 4.9, 95% CI (2.2-10.9); all P marketing authorisation [1.2, 95% CI (1.02-1.4); p marketing authorisation. Prices had a negative effect on consumption in Belgium and Sweden. The positive impact of financial MEAs in Scotland suggests that the latter may remove the regressive effect of list prices on consumption.

  3. Electron transfer rates and energy releases during denitrification of municipal wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Talib, S.; Ujang, Z; Vollertsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    could be simplified by a two-stage process. In the first stage, nitrate was utilised with significant accumulation of nitrite. In the second stage nitrite was utilised when nitrate depleted. Denitrification rates during the two stages were expressed in terms of electron equivalents (e-eq.) in order...... to compare the process when differennt electron acceptors namlely, nitrate and nitrite were utilised. The energy release rates during the two stages were calculated and compared....

  4. Glazing for intelligent daylight utilisation; Verglasungen fuer die intelligente Tageslichtnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubbert, F. [VEGLA Vereinigte Glaswerke GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Daylight, a part of the solar energy incident on the Earth`s surface, is available to us for free and usually in sufficient quantity. Nevertheless, in office and administration buildings artificial lighting is used for an average 60% of total occupancy time. This figure refers not only those times of the year and day when daylight intensity is naturally weak but also includes periods when sunlight is available in excess. To minimise buildings` absorption of solar energy (and so reduce the cooling load) and shield workplaces against direct sunlight, frequent use is made of mechanical shading systems which necessitate the use of artificial lighting, this in turn adding to the cooling load. Several daylight systems have been developed and are now increasingly being used to resolve this paradoxical situation. [Deutsch] Tageslicht, als Bestandteil der Sonnenenergie, steht uns taeglich kostenlos und meistens in ausreichender Menge zur Verfuegung. Dennoch wird in Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden die kuenstliche Beleuchtung im Durchschnitt waehrend etwa 60% der Nutzungszeit eingeschaltet. Dies jedoch nicht nur waehrend der tages- und jahreszeitlich bedingten Phasen mit einer geringen natuerlichen aeusseren Beleuchtungsstaerke, sondern gerade auch zu den Zeiten in denen Sonnenlicht im Uebermass zur Verfuegung steht. Denn zur Minimierung der in die Gebaeude eingebrachten solaren Energie (Reduzierung der Kuehllasten) und zur Erzielung eines Blendschutzes an den betroffenen Arbeitsplaetzen werden sehr haeufig mechanische Verschattungssysteme benutzt, die ein Zuschalten der kuenstlichen Beleuchtung erforderlich machen und somit wieder zu einer Erhoehung der Kuehllasten fuehren. Um dieser Parodoxie aufzuloesen, wurden einige Tageslichtsysteme entwickelt, die im zunehmenden Masse auch praktisch angewandt werden. (orig.)

  5. Assesment of opportunities for landfill gas utilisation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, S.; Iliev, I.; Andreev, S.; Hristoskov, I.

    2011-01-01

    In Bulgaria, about 14 million tons annually of municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and disposed of in landfills - about 618 kg/capita annually. The implementation of Landfill Gas (LFG) energy recovery/utilization projects in Bulgaria serves as an essential landfill management strategy, and can also reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to improved local air quality and reduced health risks. Results of assesment landfill tests of several municipalities, made by the team of Encon Services for estimation of the potential of their sites are shown in this paper. (authors)

  6. Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    their general practitioner and reporting subjective memory complaints (SMC). METHODS: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort survey in general practice with three-year follow-up. Selected health care utilisation or costs relative to SMC adjusted for potential confounders were analyzed in a two......BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among elderly patients and little is know about the association between SMC and health care utilisation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate health care utilisation during a three-year follow-up among elderly patients consulting......-part model where the incidence of use of a selected health care service were analyzed separately from the quantity of use for those that use the service. The former analyzed in a Poisson regression approach, the latter in a generalized linear regression model. RESULTS: A total 758 non-nursing home residents...

  7. The effect of non-response on estimates of health care utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, Jens; Ekholm, Orla; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-response in health surveys may lead to bias in estimates of health care utilisation. The magnitude, direction and composition of the bias are usually not well known. When data from health surveys are merged with data from registers at the individual level, analyses can reveal non......-response bias. Our aim was to estimate the composition, direction and magnitude of non-response bias in the estimation of health care costs in two types of health interview surveys. METHODS: The surveys were (1) a national personal interview survey of 22 484 Danes (2) a telephone interview survey of 5000 Danes...... living in Funen County. Data were linked with register information on health care utilisation in hospitals and primary care. Health care utilisation was estimated for respondents and non-respondents, and the difference was explained by a decomposition method of bias components. RESULTS: The surveys...

  8. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  9. Sewage sludge utilisation and disposal alternatives and their comparison; Puhdistamolietteiden hyoedyntaemis- ja loppusijoitusvaihtoehdot sekae niiden vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, P.

    2001-07-01

    Sludge production will presumably not decrease in future. At present agricultural use of sludge is unstable and landfilling will most probably be restricted in the following years. The objective of this thesis is to gather information on options for sludge treatment and utilisation and to compare these options in order to find the best possible solution for future alternatives of sludge utilisation. Finnish and international literature as well as Finnish and EU legislation have been reviewed. Furthermore the mentoring group of this thesis as well as other experts in Finland have been used as a source of information. Sludge contains not only plant nutrients and organic matter but also varying quantities of a number of more or less hazardous substances. The quality and quantity of sewage sludge are described and possible health and environmental risks caused by sewage sludge are pointed out. The legislation linked to sludge utilisation and its demands are also presented. The sludge processing methods reviewed are: thickening, lime stabilisation, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting and mechanical and thermal drying. In addition, the positive and negative sides of the stabilisation processes are looked at in greater detail. Agricultural use, landscaping, forestry, landfill, incineration, sludge derived products and newer processing technologies are reviewed as sludge utilisation options. Their environmental impacts, positive and negative sides and practical feasibility are evaluated. Various treatment utilisation combinations are also compared. Furthermore a rough cost assessment is presented. The optimal utilisation alternative has to be chosen case by case. The best use of plant nutrients and valuable organic matter is obtained in agricultural use or in landscaping. In the present situation it is difficult to enhance the portion of agricultural use, and landscaping is restricted by a low demand on the market. Incineration is an expensive option and can

  10. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  11. Adolescents' utilisation of psychiatric care, neighbourhoods and neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Ivert

    Full Text Available Mental health problems among adolescents have become a major public health issue, and it is therefore important to increase knowledge on the contextual determinants of adolescent mental health. One such determinant is the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The present study has two central objectives, (i to examine if neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated to individual variations in utilisation of psychiatric care in a Swedish context, and (ii to investigate if neighbourhood boundaries are a valid construct for identifying contexts that influence individual variations in psychiatric care utilization. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania (LOMAS database. The study population consists of all boys and girls aged 13-18 years (N=18,417, who were living in the city of Malmö, Sweden, in 2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the probability of psychiatric care utilisation. The results from the study indicate that the neighbourhood of residence had little influence on psychiatric care utilisation. Although we initially found a variation between neighbourhoods, this general contextual effect was very small (i.e. 1.6%. The initial conclusive association between the neighbourhood level of disadvantage and psychiatric care utilisation (specific contextual effect disappeared following adjustment for individual and family level variables. Our results suggest the neighbourhoods in Malmö (at least measured in terms of SAMS-areas, do not provide accurate information for discriminating adolescents utilisation of psychiatric care. The SAMS-areas appears to be an inappropriate construct of the social environment that influences adolescent utilisation of psychiatric care. Therefore, public health interventions should be directed to the whole city rather than to specific neighbourhoods. However, since geographical, social or cultural contexts may be important for our

  12. UTILISATION OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURING OF MUD BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi BİNİCİ

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The population in the rural area of Turkey has increased due to KKP (in Turkish Köy-Kent Proje. Most of the buildings in the area are made out of limestone and adobe. But this material does not have sufficient resistance to earthquakes. The research in the field of construction at The University of Cukurova elaborates on the mechanical properties and workability of raw materials such as fibre, wheat stem, strafor, basaltic pumice and clay. The production of bricks using a significant fraction of mixed waste from wheat and different ratios of clay mixed with fibre, strafor, cement, gypsum, lime and basaltic pumice was investigated. This paper presents the use of waste in the construction of soft bricks at the KKP. The results of this study suggests that using these materials have many advantages such as energy savings, low cost and improvements in the final properties of products.

  13. Economic methods for the utilisation of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałęzia Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several ways of using logging residues, and the two most common ones in the State Forests are wood chip production for energy purposes by mobile machinery and crushing by tractor-powered crushers. In this research, an economy-based approach was used to compare these methods and assess whether chip production is superior to crushing for clearing a felling area. The average revenues from the sale of wood biomass in the form of wood chips and the average costs of crushing in the Pomorze Forest District were analysed for the period from January 2012 until June 2014. Both revenues and costs (such as fuel, operator’s wage, piling costs, depreciation, insurance and garaging costs were extracted from the State Forests’ database using data-mining software.

  14. CO{sub 2}-balance in the athmosphere and CO{sub 2}-utilisation : an engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, H.

    2012-07-01

    The subject of the thesis was to analyze by an engineering approach the global CO{sub 2} balance and CO{sub 2} utilisation. The aim was to apply methods and knowledge used in engineering sciences to describe the global CO{sub 2} balance and the role of CO{sub 2} in anthropogenic utilisation applications. Moreover barriers restricting commercialisation of new applications are discussed. These subjects were studied by literature reviews and calculations based on thermodynamics models. Engineering methods have shown to be applicable to describe the global balance of CO{sub 2} and to define by a numerical way the Earth's system carrying capacity. Direct and indirect actions, which mitigate the overload situation, were derived from the results. To screen out the attractive CO{sub 2} properties in utilisation applications a mapping analysis was carried out. Properties, which enhance mass and heat transfer, are one of the most meaningful characteristics from the chemical engineering point of view. Attractive properties are often achieved at the supercritical state. Engineering thermodynamic methods were used in fluid phase determination of the case studies. Even simple methods are sufficient to advice experimental research work. The thermodynamic knowledge is the basement in creation of industrial scale chemical processes. If detailed information on system properties is needed, a model development due to the special requirements of high pressure systems and CO{sub 2} features is required. This knowledge covers property information from all the components involved in chemical reactions. In addition to engineering knowledge successful technology transfer requires positive social structure as well. Finally, if the humankind is willing to mimic Nature and use light of the Sun as an energy source in engineering systems, development of thermodynamic methods is required also in this area. Especially the work terms, originally defined in classical mechanical thermodynamics

  15. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  17. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  18. Zinc uptake and utilisation in wetland rice as influenced by zinc sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Rajan, A.

    1994-01-01

    Soil application of Zn is by far the most common and generally successful method of application to rice. Comparison of the effectiveness of soil applications of Zn necessarily involves simultaneous comparison of different sources. Applying Zn in combination with macronutrient fertilizers is convenient and allows more uniform distribution. Studies have indicated marked differences in Zn availability, uptake and utilisation resulting from the macronutrient fertilizer with which it is applied. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a few sources of Zn on the yield, Zn uptake and utilisation in rice in two major rice grown soil series of Tamil Nadu. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Mind control: The secret weapon utilised by religious cults to control their followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Pretorius

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to create awareness of the dangers of religious cults. The process utilised by these cults to recruit members and to control their lives is so subtle that members are led to believe that they joined out of their own free will. A brief discussion of what religious cults are as well as how they function is followed by an explanation of mind control and how it is utilised by cults. This article maintains that mind control is the secret weapon with which leaders of cults lure their followers under false pretences to mislead, control and make them dependent on the cult.

  20. Volet vietnamien de l'étude internationale pour la lutte contre l'usage ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  1. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  2. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals - pattern and development and utilisation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iya, V.K.; Mani, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of research reactors at an early stage of India's Atomic Energy Programme led to developemental efforts in the field of radiopharmaceuticals. The use of several 125 I-labelled compounds like Rose-Bengal, hippuran, etc. for imaging has been replaced over the years by 99m Tc compounds; the final formulations are prepared at the hospital using generators and cold kits supplied by the Board of Radioisotope Technology. Parallel with the development of short-lived generators in radiopharmaceuticals came advances in imaging and instrumentation techniques, the scanners being replaced by sophisticated gamma cameras, with capabilities for tomography and computerisation. About 40 centres in India have the modern instrumentation and equipment needed for carrying out nuclear medicine procedures. Further growth of nuclear medicine centres in the country has, however, been limited by the need to import such advanced high cost instumentation not currently available from indigeneous sources. Regarding in-vitro radiopharmaceuticals, some RIA and IRMA kits and procedures have been developed. These include assay of T 3 , T 4 and TSH in the thyroid group of hormones. There are over a hundred and fifty medical laboratories carrying out RIA procedures. (author)

  4. Superconducting magnetic energy storage, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Knapp, V.

    1981-01-01

    Energy storage is of great importance for the exploitation of new energy sources as well as for the better utilisation of conventional ones. Several proposals in recent years have suggested that superconducting magnets could be used as energy storage in large electricity networks. It is a purpose of this note to point out that the requirements which have to be met by energy storage in a large electricity network place serious limitation on the possible use of superconducting energy storage. (author)

  5. Energy supply and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.; Geiger, B.; Rudolph, M.

    1995-01-01

    Today we know that there is no such thing as an ecologically harmless energy source. This applies also to the industrial-scale utilisation of alternative energy sources. In the case of nuclear power, a reevaluation of its risks may be useful in view of the impending global climate change which, however, the author denies. It is an illusion to think that the causes of the exorbitant increase in energy consumption can be remedied on a medium-term basis, so the only possible solution is an optimum utilisation of energy and maximum energy conservation. The book discusses key problems of environmental protechtion and environmental policy from a global point of view. (orig./UA) [de

  6. MOX fuel fabrication and utilisation in LWRs worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.-L.; Schrader, M.; Nomura, S.

    2000-01-01

    Early in the development of the nuclear programme, a large part of the countries using nuclear energy has studied the reprocessing and recycling option in order to develop a safe conditioning of fission products and to recycle fissile materials in reactors. In the sixties, the feasibility of recycling plutonium in LWRs has been successfully demonstrated by several experimentations of MOX rod irradiations in different countries. Based on the background of the MOX behaviour collected during the seventies and on the results of the important MOX experimentation program implemented during this period, a large part of the European utilities decided at the beginning of the eighties to use MOX fuel in LWRs on an industrial scale. The main goals of the utilities were to use as a fuel an available fissile material and to control the stockpile of separated plutonium. Today, the understanding of the behaviour of plutonium fuel has grown significantly since the launch of the first R and D programmes on LWR and FR MOX fuels. Plutonium oxide physical and neutron behaviour is well known, its modelling is now available as well as experimentally validated. Up to now, more than 750 tHM MOX fuel (more than 2000 FAs) have been loaded in 29 PWRs and in 2 BWRs in Europe, corresponding to the recycling of about 35 t of plutonium. Reprocessing/recycling technology has reached maturity in the main nuclear industry countries. Spent fuel reprocessing and recycling of the separated fissile materials remains the main option for the back-end cycle. Today, the operation of MOX-recycling LWRs is considered satisfactory. Experience feedback shows that, in global terms, MOX cores behaviour is equivalent to that of UO 2 cores in terms of operation and safety. (author)

  7. Experimental investigation of electron beam wave interactions utilising short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, Samuel Mark

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have investigated the production of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses and their interaction with electrons in various resonant structures. Diagnostic systems used in the measurements included large bandwidth detection systems for capturing the short pulses. Deconvolution techniques have been applied to account for bandwidth limitation of the detection systems and to extract the actual pulse amplitudes and durations from the data. A Martin-Puplett interferometer has been constructed for use as a Fourier transform spectrometer. The growth of superradiant electromagnetic spikes from short duration (0.5-1.0 ns), high current (0.6-2.0 kA) electron pulses has been investigated in a Ka-band Cherenkov maser and Ka- and W-band backward wave oscillators (BWO). In the Cherenkov maser, radiation spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 3 MW, a duration ≥ 70 ps and a bandwidth ≤ 19 %. It is shown that coherent spontaneous emission from the leading edge of the electron pulse drives these interactions, giving rise to self-amplified coherent spontaneous emission (SACSE). BWO spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 63 MW and a pulse duration ∼ 250 ps in the Ka-band and ≤ 12 MW and ∼ 170 ps in the W-band. Evidence of superradiant evolution has been observed in the measurements of scaling laws such as power scaling with the current squared and duration scaling inversely with the fourth root of the power. An X-band free-electron maser amplifier, in which a short (1.0ns) injected radiation pulse interacts with a long (∼ 140 ns) electron beam, has been investigated. The interaction is shown to evolve in the linear regime. The peak output power was 320 kW, which corresponded to a gain, approximately constant across the band, of 42 dB. Changes to the spectrum, that occur when the input radiation pulse is injected into electrons with an energy gradient, have been analysed. (author)

  8. Utilisation du test GeneXpert pour le diagnostic de la tuberculose au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation du test GeneXpert pour le diagnostic de la tuberculose au service des maladies infectieuses du CHNU de Fann. Sylvie Audrey Diop, Aminata Massaly, Daye Ka, Noel Magloire Manga, Louise Fortes-Déguénonvo, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse, Moussa Seydi ...

  9. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  10. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W.; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, Francois; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  11. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  12. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  13. Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le contrôle de Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae), une espèce envahissante dans la réserve communautaire de la forêt d'Analalava-Foulpointe (Madagascar)

  14. Approches de l'utilisation des eaux usées urbaines dans l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 févr. 2011 ... Quant aux systèmes de traitement des eaux financés par le CRDI qui utilisent la laitue d'eau à Dakar ... les eaux usées dans les cultures de salade, produit qui se mange cru. » .... Rompre le cycle de la pauvreté urbaine.

  15. Science Teachers' Utilisation of Innovative Strategies for Teaching Senior School Science in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelekan, Oloyede Solomon; Igbokwe, Emoyoke Faith; Olorundare, Adekunle Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria, yet, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects. Many innovative teaching strategies have been developed by educators and found to impact significantly on students' academic performance when utilised. Hence, this study was aimed at examining science…

  16. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or

  17. Optimiser l'utilisation d'un volume minimal d'eau | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Naser I. Faruqui, Water Management in Islam ... Il y a tout lieu de s'attendre à ce que l'évolution démographique et les tendances du ... Souvent, ils consistent à utiliser de l'eau de moins bonne qualité à des fins particulières ...

  18. Utilisation de la Technique D\\'électrophorèse des Protéines Totales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation de la Technique D\\'électrophorèse des Protéines Totales sur Gel de Polyacrylamide-SDS (SDS-PAGE) pour L\\'étude de la Diversité des Rhizobiums D\\'Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne Subsp. Raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

  19. Investigating the impact of poor utilisation of quality management system in a South African foundry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mpanza, Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . This research paper focusses on the impact of defects on productivity and monetary losses due to poor utilisation of the quality management system in sand casting. Data was gathered on defects and productivity and the company’s quality control records were used...

  20. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  1. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  2. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  3. Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in Nigeria. ... The media have the ability to communicate religious messages that will enable ... to promote moral attitudes in our people, which will in turn, lead to development in ...

  4. Public Health Knowledge Utilisation by Policy Actors: An Evaluation Study in Midden-Holland, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Joyce; Steenkamer, Betty; Treurniet, Henriëtte; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive report has been prepared on the state of public health and healthcare in the Midden-Holland region of the Netherlands. This study describes the development of the report and the mechanisms behind public health knowledge utilisation by three groups of health policy actors: local authorities, public health professionals and regional…

  5. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Willems, FH

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and

  6. Tailoring Spectator Experiences for Non-Regular Attendants to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  7. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  8. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the. Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (fanns) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  9. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (farms) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  10. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the

  11. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  12. Tirer des connaissances de la recherche locale et les utiliser aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gs

    La Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) et le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) annoncent le lancement d'une initiative de recherche concertée intitulée Tirer des connaissances de la recherche locale et les utiliser aux fins de la consolidation de la paix et du renforcement de l'État.

  13. Utilising Planning and Financing Strategies in the Management of Community Development Projects in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obetta, Chukwuemeka K.; Oreh, Catherine I.

    2017-01-01

    Utilisation of community management strategies is an approach to governance that is based on community and organisational involvement. Communities with development projects have formed community projects management committees (CPMCs) that are encouraged to adopt the community management strategy in the planning and financing of community…

  14. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E.; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the

  15. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, I.; Kunst, A.E.; Mielck, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia

  16. Quality of care and its effects on utilisation of maternity services at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of care and its effects on utilisation of maternity services at health centre level. ... in general, 97% with working hours, but only 37% were satisfied with privacy. ... long waiting time (OR 1.6, p = 0.02) and lack of privacy (OR l.5, p = 0.01).

  17. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; van Stenus, C.M.V.; Wiegers, T.A.; Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Spelten, E.R.; Deville, W.L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  18. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  19. Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Bramsen, I.; Devillé, W.; Willigen, L.H.M. van; Hovens, J.E.; Ploeg, H.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of

  20. L'utilisation avisée de l'eau au service des villes en pleine croissance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... durables axées sur l'utilisation des eaux pluviales et le recyclage des eaux usées urbaines. ... L'utilisation avisée de l'eau au service des villes en pleine croissance ... Traitement des eaux usées à Mexico – équilibre entre les bienfaits et les ...

  1. Examen de l'utilisation et de la qualité du système de production de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toshiba

    de RFPd sur les plans du processus, de la production des rapports et de leur utilisation. ...... difficulté à utiliser l'outil servant à la préparation du RFPd. .... De plus, c'est l'un des rares instruments utilisés dans le secteur de la philanthropie dont.

  2. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation : evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana,

  3. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Small-scale production and utilisation of fuelwood. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe. Katsaus tutkimusprojekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal in the small-scale production of wood fuels in the context of the Bioenergy research programme is to reduce production costs by 20 % when compared to the 1992 cost level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the research programme. The goal of the research work will be to improve the competitiveness of harvesting machines, devices and work chains when dealing with small-diameter trees and logging residues. The aim in the development of measuring methods and quality requirements for purchased fuelwood is to eliminate obstacles resulting from the ambiguities in the measuring and quality of fuelwood. The objective of the fuelwood utilisation research is to eliminate technical obstacles and to develop new action models for organising energy generation in the categories of building-specific and district heating. Also, marketing of the new action models to potential entrepreneurs and heating energy purchasers is an important part of the work. The main objective of the work on the development of fireplaces is to reduce fluegas emissions. The main subject of development of heating equipment designed for buildings is stoker burners for wet fuels (orig.)

  5. Measurement of the thermal utilisation factor of the reactor G1; Mesure du facteur d'utilisation thermique du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The thermal utilisation factor of the lattice of the reactor G1 has been measured by applying the autoradiographic technique to thin detectors irradiated in the cell. The experimental apparatus is described, and the results compared with those obtained by calculation based on various formulae. The results of the study of the thermal flux distribution in a cell containing a thorium rod of the same diameter as the uranium rods in the lattice are also given. The precision of the measurements is discussed. Value found: f diameter 26 = 0.8949 {+-} 0,005. (author) [French] Le facteur d'utilisation thermique du reseau du reacteur G1 a ete mesure en appliquant la technique de l'autoradiographie a des detecteurs minces irradies dans la cellule. Les dispositifs experimentaux sont decrits et les resultats sont compares a ceux obtenus par le calcul a partir de diverses formules. Les resultats de l'etude de la distribution du flux thermique dans une cellule contenant une barre de thorium de meme diametre que les barres d'uranium du reseau sont egalement indiques. La precision des mesures est discutee. Valeur trouvee: f diametre 26 = 0,8949 {+-} 0,005. (author)

  6. Caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation: cross-sectional analysis from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Stanley, James; Cormack, Donna

    2018-03-23

    Children's exposure to racism via caregiver experience (vicarious racism) is associated with poorer health and development. However, the relationship with child healthcare utilisation is unknown. We aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of vicarious racism by child ethnicity; (2) the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation; and (3) the contribution of caregiver socioeconomic position and psychological distress to this association. Cross-sectional analysis of two instances of the New Zealand Health Survey (2006/2007: n=4535 child-primary caregiver dyads; 2011/2012: n=4420 dyads). Children's unmet need for healthcare, reporting no usual medical centre and caregiver-reported dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre. The prevalence of reporting 'any' experience of racism was higher among caregivers of indigenous Māori and Asian children (30.0% for both groups in 2006/2007) compared with European/Other children (14.4% in 2006/2007). Vicarious racism was independently associated with unmet need for child's healthcare (OR=2.30, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.20) and dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre (OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.16). Importantly, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of reported experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation (eg, unmet need: 1 report of racism, OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.67; 2+ reports of racism, OR=3.06, 95% CI 1.27 to 7.37). Adjustment for caregiver psychological distress attenuated the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation. Vicarious racism is a serious health problem in New Zealand disproportionately affecting Māori and Asian children and significantly impacting children's healthcare utilisation. Tackling racism may be an important means of improving inequities in child healthcare utilisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  7. Growing an emerging energy workforce: forecasting labour demand and gaining access to emerging energy skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs of emerging energies sector in terms of growing an emerging energy workforce, forecasting labour demands and gaining access to emerging energy skills. It will require industrial renewal and innovation and not just selling our resources. It will also require educating ourselves to utilise our own finished products. Conservation is a key element in a sustainable energy future. finally, a market for renewable energy has been established in Canada

  8. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  9. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  11. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E.

    2002-02-01

    A review is made about the consequences of the European directive on energy that entered into application in august 2000. It appears that most countries are opening their electricity and gas markets at a faster pace than required by the E.U. directive. European gas imports reached 480 Gm{sup 3} in 2000 and are expected to be over 700 Gm{sup 3} in 2015, so the question of the reliability of the gas suppliers has to be answered at the European level. The current time is marked by an increase of the complexity of the energy market that is due to different factors: 1) the delay in the implementation of European energy directives in France, 2) new arrangement is occurring in United-Kingdom in the energy sector, 3) the lack of a regulating authority in Germany, and 4) the difficulty of inter-connecting the different European energy networks. This transitory period may generate some economic imbalances and competition disturbances by allowing some enterprises to benefit from lower energy prices before others. (A.C.)

  12. Utilising Fine and Coarse Recycled Aggregates from the Gulf Region in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Rod; Halliday, Judith E.; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Zheng, Li; Strompinis, N.

    This paper explores the feasibility in utilising materials generated from C&DW to produce a `green' concrete. The two materials that are considered here are, (i) up-sizing silt-size material generated from recycled aggregates to produce a synthetic silt-sand and (ii) processed recycled coarse aggregates (RA) sourced from a Gulf Region landfill site. The work has demonstrated that there is potential for utilising silt wastes into foamed concrete, which can then be crushed to a sand-sized material suitable for use in concrete, however the porous nature of the material has highlighted that the water demand of this RA is high. RAs were characterised to BS EN 12620 and found suitable for use in concrete. The effect of RA on concrete properties is minimal when used up to 35% replacement levels, provided that they are pre-soaked.

  13. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  14. Investment utilisation, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Henningsen, Arne

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model for adjustment costs and investment utilisation that illustrates their causes and types and shows in which phases of an investment they occur. Furthermore, we develop an empirical framework for analysing the size and the timing of adjustment costs...... that investments have a negative effect on farm efficiency in the year of the investment and the year after accruing from adjustment costs. There is a large positive effect on efficiency two and three years after the investment. The farmer’s age and the farm size significantly influence technical efficiency......, as well as the effect of investments on adjustment costs and investment utilisation. These results are robust to different ways of measuring capital....

  15. Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and relation to growth and feed utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out aimed at clarifying variations in the digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout families and studying how differences in digestibility may be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates. The digestibility of protein, lipid...... the digestibility of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extracts and dry matter was measured. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that selective breeding still offers a large potential for improved growth and feed utilisation in rainbow trout strains. In the first study, family Dc showed a higher specific growth rate......, carbohydrates (nitrogen-free extracts, NFE) and dry matter was analysed in two experiments involving eight rainbow trout families [Ab, Ba, Cd, Dc (first study); V, X, Y, Z (second study)]. In the first experiment rainbow trout were reared for 128 days at 13.0A degrees C, and in the second experiment, they were...

  16. Is sustainable resource utilisation a relevant concept in Avanersuaq? The walrus case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Heide-Jorgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne

    2018-01-01

    analyse how walruses acquire multiple values as they circulate in different networks. Sustainable resource utilisation, we conclude, is a concept that is relevant in Avanersuaq and beyond, because it works as a biological standard, and hence organises laws, norms, and practices of formal management......This article addresses the role of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in present-day Avanersuaq from anthropological and biological perspectives, and asks whether or not sustainable resource utilisation is a useful concept in northwest Greenland. We describe the relations that unfold...... around walrus and walrus hunting, in the communities living adjacent to the North Water polynya on the eastern side of Smith Sound. We examine the interplay of walrus population abundance, hunting practices, uses, and formal (governmental) and informal (traditional) ways of regulating the hunt, and we...

  17. The federations' agreement II on network utilisation; Die Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)

    2001-06-18

    Against the background of the experience of the regional supplier Lech Elektrizitaetswerke AG (LEW AG) and in the view of the operator of a regional distribution network the author deals with three complexes of themes: 1. Federations' Agreement II on network utilisation - Flexible instrument for competition or unsuited attempt? 2. What progress and obstacles are identifiable on route towards the implementation of the Federations' Agreement II on network utilisation? 3. What adjustment of existing sets of rules towards the requirements of competition is necessary? (orig.) [German] Vor dem Erfahrungshintergrund des Erfahrungsbereiches des Regionalversorgers Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG (LEW AG) und aus der Sicht des Betreibers eines regionalen Verteilungsnetzes behandelt der Verfasser die drei Themenkomplexe: 1. Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung - Flexibles Instrument fuer den Wettbewerb oder ungeeigneter Versuch? 2. Welche Fortschritte und Hindernisse sind auf dem Wege der Umsetzung der Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung erkennbar? 3. Welche Anpassung vorhandener Regelwerke an die Erfordernisse des Wettbewerbs sind notwendig? (orig.)

  18. Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, Naief; Burney, Nadeem A.

    2002-01-01

    The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the pattern of scale effect is labour saving, but capital and material using. The evidence also supports the presence of an induced exogenous technical change, which is non-neutral (labour and capital using, and material saving). The elasticity of substitution between capital and labour is positive, implying that the two inputs are substitute. The results also indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the production of crude oil, but no economies or diseconomies of utilisation

  19. Combined centralised and distributed mechanism for utilisation of node association in broadband wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvan, A.; Ulvan, M.; Pranoto, H.

    2018-02-01

    Mobile broadband wireless access system has the stations that might be fixed, nomadic or mobile. Regarding the mobility, the node association procedure is critical for network entry as well as network re-entry during handover. The flexibility and utilisation of MAC protocols scheduling have an important role. The standard provides the Partition Scheme as the scheduling mechanism which separates the allocation of minislots for scheduling. However, minislots cannot be flexibly reserved for centralised and distributed scheduling. In this paper we analysed the scheduling mechanism to improve the utilisation of minislots allocation during the exchange of MAC massages. The centralised and distributed scheduling is implemented in some topology scenarios. The result shows the proposed mechanism has better performance for node association than partition scheme.

  20. Prospects for the Use of Plutonium in Reactors; Prospective d'Utilisation du Plutonium dans les Reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossoul, E.; Haubert, P. [BELGONUCLEAIRE (Belgium); Hirschberg, D.; Morlet, E. [International Business Machines of Belgium, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    The introduction, at an increasing rate, of power reactors using slightly enriched uranium will inevitably lead to the production of considerable quantities of plutonium over the next decade. Fast reactors will not be capable of absorbing this material before 1980. The question thus arises of whether one should store the plutonium far future use in fast reactors, recycle it in existing thermal reactors, or try to sell it. The problem has been studied for an electric power generating system that does not foresee selling the plutonium produced by its reactors and does not buy plutonium outside, which enables a good approximation to be made and eliminates the major unknown quantity represented by the future market price of plutonium. Assuming within this system a programme that provides for the construction of power reactors of a given type and capacity at specific dates, the utilization of the plutonium produced can be optimized by linear programming techniques so as to minimize the discounted total cost of the power generated over a given period. A later stage consists in optimizing, by various techniques, not only the utilization but also the production of plutonium by appropriate selection of the power reactor types to be constructed. (author) [French] L'implantation, a un rythme croissant, de centrales nucleaires a uranium legerement enrichi entrainera la production ineluctable d'une quantite importante de plutonium au cours de la prochaine decennie. Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides ne seront capables d'absorber cette production qu'apres 1980. La question se pose donc de savoir s'il est preferable de stocker le plutonium en vue de son utilisation ulterieure dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides plutot que de le recycler dans les reacteurs actuels a neutrons thermiques ou d'essayer de le vendre. Ce probleme a ete etudie dans le cadre d'un systeme de production d'energie electrique qui ne prevoirait pas la vente du plutonium produit par ses reacteurs nucleaires ni

  1. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  3. Some aspects of nuclear fuel utilisation at Ukrainian's NPPs during last two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieremenko, M.; Bilodid, Y.; Ovdiienko, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the report the brief characteristic of the realized fuel cycles on Ukraine's NPPs, types of loaded fuel is described. Experience of new fuel type implementation are present (FA Second Generation for WWER-440. Westinghouse FA for WWER-1000). Next issue of report is the some of problem with fuel utilisation (leakage FA, problem with C b calculation and other). And the last issue of report is presentation of future new fuel implementation (WWER-440/1000). (authors)

  4. Utilisation of Business Advice in Small Innovative Firms: the Role of Trust and Tacit Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łobacz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of the influence of trust relationship, as well as tacit knowledge on the process of business advice utilisation in small innovative firms. Research Design & Methods: The  analysis  is  based  on  empirical  research  conducted with the use of the explorative approach. The multiple case study methodology was used. Findings: Trust relationships as well as tacit knowledge were identified as factors essential to the process of utilisation of business advice in small innovative firms. It was recognised that the significance of both factors is related not only to the process of advice, but also as a purpose of activities happening prior to advice. They are referred to as the initial phase. Implications & Recommendations: The  findings  provide  implications  for  further  research of the structure of the process of business advice utilisation. It is related to the inclusion of the “initial phase”, as well as to the  necessity to include both factors in further research. The paper also provides implicationsrelated to the measurement of business advice output, and recommendations on the construction of public policy instruments. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in using the process perspective and qualitative methodology in the field of the utilisation of business advice. It extends our understanding of the processes of business advice with regard to trust, as well as the use of tacit knowledge. The original contribution is to add the “initial phase” to the description of the business advice process.

  5. Facteurs sociaux de l'utilisation des services de soins obstétricaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rechercher les facteurs sociaux de l'utilisation des services de soins obstétricaux parmi les adolescentes camerounaises. Les données utilisées sont celles de l'Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDS) réalisée au Cameroun en 2004. Nos analyses ont porté sur les dernières naissances ...

  6. Accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en enseignement supérieur en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les politiques dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur en matière de technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) présument qu'un accès accru aux TIC encourage leur utilisation. Une première collecte de données effectuée en 2004 et 2007 fournit une base des plus nécessaires sur laquelle fonder la ...

  7. Perceptions et facteurs déterminant l'utilisation des asticots dans l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 févr. 2016 ... Poultry farmers in Group 1 differ from those of Groups 2 and 3 by their herd size and ..... Cette matrice a été soumise à une classification ... utilisant la fonction kmeans du package cluster. ... l'ensemble des caractéristiques des enquêtés a montré .... classes d'occurrence ont montré que les aviculteurs.

  8. Approches de l'utilisation des eaux usées urbaines dans l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 févr. 2011 ... Ils proposent une classification des différents types d'eaux usées (directes, indirectes, traitées, non traitées, dirigées et non dirigées), soulignent combien il est nécessaire d'utiliser une approche fondée sur les moyens de subsistance et ciblée sur les agriculteurs, insistent sur des directives pragmatiques ...

  9. Mental Health Status, Health Care Utilisation, and Service Satisfaction among Immigrants in Montreal: An Epidemiological Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean

    2017-08-01

    To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P Immigrants had significantly lower rates of health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.

  10. Increased utilisation of existing biogas plants; Oekat utnyttjande av befintliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how existing biogas plants in Sweden could be utilised more efficiently, by increase the organic loading rate, and to calculate the cost efficiency of such measures. Biogas plants treating sewage sludge are currently operated with low organic loading rates and it is likely that there could be a considerable potential of increased utilisation of existing capacity. However, disposal costs of digested sewage sludge have a great impact on the economic result. Thus, the cost must be low, below 200 - 850 SEK/tonne DS, for co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic household waste to be economic competitive, compared to building of a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, using manure and organic waste as feedstock, it is not possible to say whether it is more economic to increase the utilisation of existing capacity or to increase the reactor volume. Therefore, more specific studies are required for individual plants and cases. Regarding the need for a more sophisticated monitoring and control of the biogas process, it can be established that the utilisation of sewage sludge digestion plants could be increased considerably without exceptionally high organic loading rates, thus probably without any additional monitoring and control. However, indicated prices for such applications are probably acceptable compared to establishing a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, the scope for investments is smaller and more dependent on the alternative cost for new reactors. Also, any process disturbances, which may appear even at low organic loading rates, could be very costly and result in costs in the same range as for monitoring and control equipment. Finally, the reader should observe that the analyses conducted here assume that funding and physical space for additional reactors is available at the existing site. If not, there could be situations where it is economic interesting to increase the organic loading rate although cost estimates

  11. Digestibility and nutrient utilisation of soybean bran-based diets in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, S.O.E.; Alao, I.A.; Tiamiyu, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    The digestibility and utilisation of two soybean bran-based diets and two fishmeal-based diets serving as control, at optimal (30%) and suboptimal (20%) protein levels were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus. These were Diet I (Control)-fishmeal based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet II (Control) - fishmeal based diet at 20% crude protein, Diet III - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet IV - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 20%. Dry matter digestibility differed i...

  12. Impacts de l'utilisation des Engrais chimiques sur les cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse des résultats a montrée que Solanum macrocarpum et amarantus hybridus sont les légumes les plus cultivés respectivement 69% et 21% à cause de leurs préférences dans l'alimentation des consommateurs.Les proportions des maraîchers utilisant les engrais chimiques ou non ou encore les deux couplés sont ...

  13. Recent trends in utilising ionising radiations for nondestructive evaluation of materials (Preprint No. SP-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Venkatraman, B.

    1988-02-01

    The various NDT techniques based on the use of ionising radiations can be broadly classified into radiography, radiation gaging techniques and analytical techniques. This paper highlights the state of art of these techniques along with their applications. While an effort has been made to cover the major techniques based on ionising radiations, many techniques utilising ionising radiations as xeroradiography, laminography, ionography etc, have not been dealt with due to their restricted applications. (author). 23 refs., 4 figs

  14. Opportunities for early Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: China CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage) policy, strategy and development status; International developments in CCUS; High-purity CO2 sources and potential EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) locations in China; Capture routes: (a) Separation technologies/processes, (b) CO2 purity specifications, compression and after treatment, (c) CO2 transportation options, (d) Associated Cost; Potential cost-effective full-chain CCUS projects in Shaanxi; Barriers to CCUS development in Shaanxi; and Conclusions.

  15. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2014-01-01

    cages. Feed intake, gain and feed utilisation were not significantly affected. Plasma urea (P carcass tended to increase linearly by reducing CP, but neither nitrogen retention nor carcass meat percentage...... and back fat depth differed among treatments. In conclusion, the study indicated that CP could be decreased to 136 g/kg as-fed for growing pigs in the weight range 50–100 kg without negative impact on growth performance and carcass traits. Moreover, leanness was not affected by excess CP....

  16. Determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation in Georgia: can the approach help inform benefit package design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsadze, George; Tang, Wenze; Shengelia, Natia; Zoidze, Akaki

    2017-05-02

    The healthcare financing reforms initiated by the Government of Georgia in 2007 have positively affected inpatient service utilisation and enhanced financial protection, especially for the poor, but they have failed to facilitate outpatient service use among chronic patients. Non-communicable diseases significantly affect Georgia's ageing population. Consequently, in this paper, we look at the evidence emerging from determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation and if the finding can help identify possible policy choices in Georgia, especially regarding benefit package design for individuals with chronic conditions. We used Andersen's behavioural model of health service utilisation to identify the critical determinants that affect outpatient service use. A multinomial logistic regression was carried out with complex survey design using the data from two nationally representative cross-sectional population-based health utilisation and expenditure surveys conducted in Georgia in 2007 and 2010, which allowed us to assess the relationship between the determinants and outpatient service use. The study revealed the determinants that significantly impede outpatient service use. Low income, 45- to 64-year-old Georgian males with low educational attainment and suffering from a chronic health problem have the lowest odds for service use compared to the rest of the population. Using Andersen's behavioural model and assessing the determinants of outpatient service use has the potential to inform possible policy responses, especially those driving services use among chronic patients. The possible policy responses include reducing financial access barriers with the help of public subsidies for sub-groups of the population with the lowest access to care; focusing/expanding state-funded benefits for the most prevalent chronic conditions, which are responsible for the greatest disease burden; or supporting chronic disease management programs for the most prevalent chronic

  17. Changements dans l'utilisation des terres et la santé humaine dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans l'est de l'Himalaya, l'utilisation des terres change en raison de la croissance ... Au Népal, les chercheurs enquêteront sur les causes de la malnutrition qui ... de l'établissement sur l'environnement (y compris la pollution) et invitera les ... Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the ...

  18. The impact of reducing financial barriers on utilisation of a primary health care facility in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ranu S.; Bonds, Matthew H.; Fraden, Max; Ndahiro, Donald; Ruxin, Josh

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of subsidising community-based health insurance (mutuelle) enrolment, removing point-of-service co-payments, and improving service delivery on health facility utilisation rates in Mayange, a sector of rural Rwanda of approximately 25,000 people divided among five ‘imidugudu’ or small villages. While comprehensive service upgrades were introduced in the Mayange Health Centre between April 2006 and February 2007, utilisation rates remained similar to comparison sites. Between February 2007 and April 2007, subsidies for mutuelle enrolment established virtually 100% coverage. Immediately after co-payments were eliminated in February 2007, patient visits levelled at a rate triple the previous value. Regression analyses using data from Mayange and two comparison sites indicate that removing financial barriers resulted in about 0.6 additional annual visits for curative care per capita. Although based on a single local pilot, these findings suggest that in order to achieve improved health outcomes, key short-term objectives include improved service delivery and reduced financial barriers. Based on this pilot, higher utilisation rates may be affected if broader swaths of the population are enrolled in mutuelle and co-payments are eliminated. Health leaders in Rwanda should consider further studies to determine if the impact of eliminating co-payments and increasing subsidies for mutuelle enrolment as seen in Mayange holds at greater levels of scale. Broader studies to better elucidate the impact of enrolment subsidies and co-payment subsidies on utilisation, health outcomes, and costs would also provide policy insights. PMID:21732708

  19. The Utilisation of Facebook for Knowledge Sharing in Selected Local Government Councils in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzoma Heman Ononye; Anthony Igwe

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Facebook has made it possible for organisation to embrace social and network centric knowledge processes by creating opportunities to connect, interact, and collaborate with stakeholders. We have witnessed a significant increase in the popularity and use of this tool in many organisations, especially in the private sector. But the utilisation of Facebook in public organisations is at its infancy, with many also believing that the use of Facebook is not a common practice in many p...

  20. The IAEA activities towards enhanced utilisation, sustainability and applications of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Mank, G.; Adelfang, P.; Alldred, K.; Bradley, E.E.; Goldman, I.N.; Khvan, A.; Peld, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will give a brief introduction to the programmatic structure of the Research Reactor (RR) related activities of the IAEA sub-programme 'Research Reactors', under which the project on 'Enhancement of utilization and applications of RRs' will be presented in more detail. Both recent achievements and future planed actions will be reported with the major emphasis on RR utilisation related issues, specific applications of RRs, networks and coalitions, and assistance to the Member States (MS) planning their 1st RR. (author)

  1. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  2. HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services.

  3. The effect of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in COPD patients in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Rusch, Ea; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for Chronic Conditions project (SIKS) implemented rehabilitation programmes for people with four chronic conditions in the local area within the Municipality of Copenhagen. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ...... of Copenhagen with an assessment of the effect of a real-life intervention. It shows that the pulmonary rehabilitation programme introduced had the anticipated effects on health-care utilisation. The study also suggests that the methods used for evaluation were appropriate....... of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients as a subgroup of SIKS. METHODS: For the analyses, data from Danish National Registers' were obtained. The following outcomes were analysed: (i) COPD hospital admissions, (ii) COPD bed days, (iii) COPD outpatient...... rehabilitation and were matched with the intervention group according to propensity score calculated on the basis of patient socio-demographic characteristics and health-care utilisation pattern in 2 years prior to the rehabilitation programme. The effect was assessed by applying the principle of difference...

  4. Health seeking behaviour and challenges in utilising health facilities in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoke, David; Boynton, Petra; Butler, Ceri; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2014-12-01

    The health seeking behaviour of a community determines how they use health services. Utilisation of health facilities can be influenced by the cost of services, distance to health facilities, cultural beliefs, level of education and health facility inadequacies such as stock-out of drugs. To assess the health seeking practices and challenges in utilising health facilities in a rural community in Wakiso district, Uganda. The study was a cross sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire to collect quantitative data among 234 participants. The sample size was obtained using the formula by Leslie Kish. While 89% of the participants were aware that mobile clinics existed in their community, only 28% had received such services in the past month. The majority of participants (84%) did not know whether community health workers existed in their community. The participants' health seeking behaviour the last time they were sick was associated with age (p = 0.028) and occupation (p = 0.009). The most significant challenges in utilising health services were regular stock-out of drugs, high cost of services and long distance to health facilities. There is potential to increase access to health care in rural areas by increasing the frequency of mobile clinic services and strengthening the community health worker strategy.

  5. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Methods Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. Results During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%, and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Conclusion Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  6. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B

    2009-10-30

    In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%), and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  7. How to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, T D; Clauson, K A; Misra, S; Lewis, T L; Husain, I

    2014-02-01

    There are thousands of medical applications for mobile devices targeting use by healthcare professionals. However, several factors related to the structure of the existing market for medical applications create significant barriers preventing practitioners from effectively identifying mobile medical applications for individual professional use. To define existing market factors relevant to selection of medical applications and describe a framework to empower clinicians to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in their own practice. Resources available on the Internet regarding mobile medical applications, guidelines and published research on mobile medical applications. Mobile application stores (e.g. iTunes, Google Play) are not effective means of identifying mobile medical applications. Users of mobile devices that desire to implement mobile medical applications into practice need to carefully assess individual applications prior to utilisation. Searching and identifying mobile medical applications requires clinicians to utilise multiple references to determine what application is best for their individual practice methods. This can be done with a cursory exploration of mobile application stores and then moving onto other available resources published in the literature or through Internet resources (e.g. blogs, medical websites, social media). Clinicians must also take steps to ensure that an identified mobile application can be integrated into practice after carefully reviewing it themselves. Clinicians seeking to identify mobile medical application for use in their individual practice should use a combination of app stores, published literature, web-based resources, and personal review to ensure safe and appropriate use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Strategies of an alternative energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerschmidt, R.; Stroebele, W.

    1977-01-01

    The demands made on the energy policy of the Federal Republic within the next decades are investigated: Determination of the energy demand not by means of global indicators like the growth of the national product but rather by means of energetic functions such as heat, illumination, transportation, etc. Stopping nuclear technology; instead, utilisation of natural energy sources such as solar energy, geothermal energy, and the long-term energy source coal: A drastic reduction of the growth rates of energy production with the aid of a structural programme for a more efficient use of energy is proposed. (orig.) [de

  9. Utilisation of Products of the Thermal Reclamation of Post Reclamation Dusts in the Production Technology of Ceramic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem related to the management of post reclamation dusts generated in the reclamation process of waste moulding sands with organic binders is presented in the hereby paper. Waste materials generated in this process are products hazardous for the environment and should be utilised. The prototype stand for the utilisation of this dangerous material in its co-burning with coal was developed and patented in AGH in Krakow. The stand was installed in one of the domestic casting houses. As the utilisation result the transformed waste product is obtained and its management in the production of ceramic materials constitutes the subject of the presented publication.

  10. Ireland's pathway towards a 100% renewable energy-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Leahy, Martin; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Ireland has an abundant supply of renewable energy, a dangerous reliance on imported fossil fuels, as well as very demanding energy and CO2 targets to reach. All of these indicate that a major alternation to the current energy system is necessary, especially an increase in the utilisation of rene...

  11. Modelling energy expenditure of a brick layer at various postures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy utilisation at work in the labour-intensive building industry is of prime importance to contractors who match people to jobs. This paper provides an insight into modelling energy expenditure in a specific task, namely brick laying in various postures. It therefore takes previous “generic” biomechanical-energy prediction ...

  12. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of rearing and the count of floor primary feathers formed the major response criteria. Birds fed the control commercial diet consumed more feed and gained more weight (P0.05 between the control and enzyme supplemented CRLM groups. There was no dietary effect (P>0.05 on the weight of the first egg among the 3 groups. Feed cost of rearing was reduced (P0.05 between the two test diets as well as between the enzyme supplemented and the control diets. It was concluded that CRLM and copra meal can be used as major energy and protein sources respectively in growing pullets? diets. Enzyme supplementation may however, be needed to maintain performance of the birds.

  13. Does spatial location matter? Traditional therapy utilisation among the general population in a Ghanaian rural and urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Asante, Felix; Segbefia, Alexander Yao; Abass, Kabila; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah; Eshun, Gabriel; Adjei, Prince Osei-Wusu

    2015-06-01

    Despite the recognition for rising consumption rate of traditional medicine (TRM) in health and spatio-medical literature in the global scale, the impact of location in traditional therapy use has been explored least in Ghana. This paper analysed the role of spatial variation in TRM use in Kumasi Metropolis and Sekyere South District of Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional and place-based survey was conducted in a representative sample (N=324) selected through systematic random sampling technique. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were espoused as the main research instruments. Data were analysed with Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests from the Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) version 17.0. The study found that over 86% reported TRM use. Whilst majority (59.1%) of the respondents had used TRM two or more times within the last 12 months, biologically-based therapies and energy healing were common forms of TRM accessed. Although, the use of TRM did not vary (p>0.05), knowledge about TRM, modalities of TRM and the sources of TRM differed significantly across geographically demarcated rural and urban splits (p<0.005). The study advances our understanding of the spatial dimensions as regards TRM utilisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilisation aspects of ashes and green liquor dregs from an integrated semichemical pulp and board mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manskinen, K.

    2013-09-01

    This thesis investigated the properties of bottom and fly ashes originating from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (120 MW) using two different fuel mixtures (i.e. Fuel mixture A: coal, wood and peat; and B: wood and peat) and of the green liquor dregs originating from the associated semichemical pulp and board mill in relation to the potential utilisation of these residues from various aspects. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the bottom ashes were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for these elements in forest fertilisers. The total Ca concentrations in bottom ashes A (2.4%; d.w.) and B (3.4%; d.w.) were lower than the legal requirement of 6.0% (d.w.) for ash used as a forest fertiliser. The total Ca concentrations in fly ashes A (6.4%; d.w.) and B (11.0%; d.w.) were higher than the minimum limit value of 6.0% (d.w.), but the concentration of As in fly ashes A (46.9 mg/kg d.w.) and B (41.3 mg/kg; d.w.) exceeded the maximum limit value of 40 mg/kg (d.w.). Only bottom ash B could be used as a forest fertiliser, provided some additional Ca is used. The bottom ashes both fulfilled the Finnish regulations on waste recovery in earth construction. Due to the elevated total concentration of PAH (23 mg/kg; d.w.) and extractable concentrations of Mo (3.9 mg/kg; d.w.) and Se (0.2 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash A, this residue cannot be used in covered structures. Due to the elevated concentration of PAH (90 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash B, this residue cannot be used in covered and paved structures. However, the utilisation of these residues as an earth construction agent is still possible, but an environmental permit would be required. According to the sequential extraction studies, extractable concentrations of most of the elements in the fly ash A were higher than those in the bottom ash A. The extractability of various elements, both in the bottom and fly ashes A, varied widely. Most of the elements did not occur as readily soluble and

  15. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourva, L.C.A.; Croft, S.

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM , or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this

  16. Physical and thermal waste utilisation in the nonferrous metal industry; Stoffliche und thermische Abfallverwertung in der Nichteisenmetallindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In its amended form the German Household Waste Technical Code favours physical and thermal utilisation of wastes against dumping. Industrial processes offer various ways of utilising wastes with a high calorific value, e.g. in nonferrous metal production. Besides portraying this branch of industry in Germany the present paper investigates to what extent this topic has already found coverage and what potential it holds for the utilisation of wastes. By way of example it describes a successful demonstration of the physical utilisation of sewage sludge in lead production. [Deutsch] Die Neugestaltung der TA Siedlungsabfall favorisiert die thermische und stoffliche Verwertung von Abfallstoffen gegenueber der Deponierung. Moeglichkeiten fuer die Verwertung heizwertreicher Abfaelle bieten auch industrielle Produktionsprozesse, z.B. auch in der Nichteisenmetallerzeugung. Neben einer Charakterisierung der Branche wird untersucht, inwieweit dieses Thema bereits aufgegriffen worden ist und welches Verwertungspotential zur Verfuegung steht. An einem Beispiel wird die erfolgreiche Demonstration der stofflichen Verwertung von Klaerschlamm in der Bleierzeugung dargestellt. (orig.)

  17. Impacts of HIV/AIDS mortality on food security and natural resource utilisation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIDS mortality, its linkages as a determinant and consequence of food security and its impact on natural resource utilisation by mainly rural populations, has not been well researched, especially their effects on rural livelihoods. Determining...

  18. Hydrogen energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovic, T.; Pilhar, R.; Witt, B.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of different energy systems from the economic point of view has to be based on data showing all relevant costs incurred and benefits drawn by the society from the use of such energy systems, i.e. internal costs and benefits visible to the energy consumer as prices paid for power supplied, as well as external costs and benefits. External costs or benefits of energy systems cover among other items employment or wage standard effects, energy-induced environmental impacts, public expenditure for pollution abatement and mitigation of risks and effects of accidents, and the user costs connected with the exploitation of reserves, which are not rated high enough to really reflect and demonstrate the factor of depletion of non-renewable energy sources, as e.g. fossil reserves. Damage to the natural and social environment induced by anthropogenous air pollutants up to about 90% counts among external costs of energy conversion and utilisation. Such damage is considered to be the main factor of external energy costs, while the external benefits of energy systems currently are rated to be relatively unsignificant. This means that an internalisation of external costs would drive up current prices of non-renewable energy sources, which in turn would boost up the economics of renewable energy sources, and the hydrogen produced with their energy. Other advantages attributed to most of the renewable energy sources and to hydrogen energy systems are better environmental compatibility, and no user costs. (orig.) [de

  19. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, N.; Domac, J.

    2007-01-01

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO 2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

  20. Securing a Home Energy Managing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2016-01-01

    Energy management in households gets increasingly more attention in the struggle to integrate more sustainable energy sources. Especially in the electrical system, smart grid towards a better utilisation of the energy production and distribution infrastructure. The Home Energy Management System...... (HEMS) is a critical infrastructure component in this endeavour. Its main goal is to enable energy services utilising smart devices in the households based on the interest of the residential consumers and external actors. With the role of being both an essential link in the communication infrastructure...... for balancing the electrical grid and a surveillance unit in private homes, security and privacy become essential to address. In this chapter, we identify and address potential threats Home Energy Management Platform (HEMP) developers should consider in the progress of designing architecture, selecting hardware...

  1. Utilisation of simulation in industrial design and resulting business opportunities (SISU) - MASIT18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, M.; Leppaevuori, J.; Manninen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Valli, A.; Hasari, H.; Koistinen, A.; Leppaenen, S. (Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia, City of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)); Lahti, S. (EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    In the SISU project, over 10 case studies are carried out in many different fields and applications. Results and experience of developing simulation applications have started to accumulate. One of the most important results this far is that there are many common features, both good and bad, between our test cases. Simulation is a fast, reliable, and often low risk method of studying different systems and processes. On the other hand, many applications need very expensive licences, plenty of parametric data and highly specialised knowledge in order to produce really valuable results. Industrial partners are acting like real customers in the case studies. We hope that this methodology will help us to answer our main question: how do we create a value chain from model development via model application for end users? The best thing to happen will be if partners learn to apply simulation productively. Other scientists and companies will follow, and new value chains will mushroom. In the case study of Mamec and EVTEK - Mixing model - the aim is to develop a fluid mechanical model for a mixing chamber. This study is similar to the preceding case of Watrec. In this study, the main problems have been in material properties area, because of non-Newtonian fluids and multiphase flows. Material property parameters of the non-Newtonian power law have been defined and flow field simulations have started. In the case study of Fortum and EVTEK - MDR - Measurement data reconciliation - the aim is to apply MDR in a power plant environment and study the possibility of developing a commercial additional tool for power plant simulation through the well-proven MDR technique based on linear filtering theory. The MDR method has been applied, for example, to energy and chemical processes. MDR is closely connected with system maintenance, simulation pre-processing and process diagnostics. Experimental work has proceeded from simple unit processes to large and complicated process systems. One

  2. Use of the helium-3 proportional counter for neutron spectrometry; Utilisation du compteur proportionnel a helium 3 pour la spectrometrie des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialettes, H; Le Thanh, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Up to now, two methods have been mainly used for neutron spectrometry near nuclear installations: - photographic emulsion spectrometry - the so-called, 'multisphere' technique spectrometry. The first method, which is fairly difficult to apply, has a threshold energy of about 500 keV; this is a big disadvantage for an apparatus which has to be used for spectrometry around nuclear installations where the neutron radiation is very much degraded energetically. The second method does not suffer from this disadvantage but the results which it yields are only approximate. In order to extend the energy range of the neutron spectra studied with sufficient accuracy the use of a helium-3 proportional counter has been considered. This report presents the principles of operation of the helium-3 spectrometer, and the calculation methods which make it possible to take into account the two main effects tending to deform the spectra obtained: - energy absorption by the walls of the counter, - energy loss of the incident neutrons due to elastic collisions with helium-3 nuclei. As an example of the application, the shape of the neutron spectrum emitted by a polonium-lithium source is given; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. (authors) [French] Jusqu'ici deux methodes ont ete utilisees principalement pour la spectrometrie des neutrons autour des installations nucleaires: - la spectrometrie par emulsions photographiques - la spectrometrie par la technique dite des multispheres. La premiere methode, d'un emploi assez delicat presente un seuil en energie d'environ 500 keV qui est un obstacle serieux a la spectrometrie autour des installations nucleaires ou le rayonnement neutronique est tres degrade en energie. La deuxieme methode ne presente pas cet inconvenient mais les resultats qu'elle permet d'obtenir ne sont qu'approches. Pour etendre la gamme d'energie des spectres de neutrons etudies avec une precision suffisante, l'utilisation du

  3. Patients' subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a quality comparative study between Norway and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Wolfram; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of th...

  4. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  5. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  6. Resource utilisation and costs associated with the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Prospective data from the Eurodiale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompers, L.; Huijberts, M.; Schaper, N.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of the present study was to investigate resource utilisation and associated costs in patients with diabetic foot ulcers and to analyse differences in resource utilisation between individuals with or without peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and/or infection. Methods Data....... In view of the magnitude of the costs associated with in-hospital stay, reducing the number and duration of hospital admissions seems an attractive option to decrease costs in diabetic foot disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  7. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  8. A framework for the analysis of the security of supply of utilising carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Eric S; Ng, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in catalysts have enhanced the potential for the utilisation of carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock. Using the appropriate energy efficient catalyst enables a range of chemical pathways leading to desirable products. In doing so, CO2 provides an economically and environmentally beneficial source of C1 feedstock, while improving the issues relating to security of supply that are associated with fossil-based feedstocks. However, the dependence on catalysts brings other supply chains into consideration, supply chains that may also have security of supply issues. The choice of chemical pathways for specific products will therefore entail an assessment not only of economic factors but also the security of supply issues for the catalysts. This is a multi-criteria decision making problem. In this paper, we present a modified 4A framework based on the framework suggested by the Asian Pacific Energy Research centre for macro-economic applications. The 4A methodology is named after the criteria used to compare alternatives: availability, acceptability, applicability and affordability. We have adapted this framework for the consideration of alternative chemical reaction processes using a micro-economic outlook. Data from a number of sources were collected and used to quantify each of the 4A criteria. A graphical representation of the assessments is used to support the decision maker in comparing alternatives. The framework not only allows for the comparison of processes but also highlights current limitations in the CCU processes. The framework presented can be used by a variety of stakeholders, including regulators, investors, and process industries, with the aim of identifying promising routes within a broader multi-criteria decision making process.

  9. 1992 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistical Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected developing countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  10. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries.......The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  11. A spectrometer using semi-conductor detectors; study and applications (1963); Spectrometre utilisant les detecteurs a semi-conducteur: etudes et applications (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The low average energy, 2.5 to 3.5 eV, required to produce one hole-electron pair in a semiconductor allows an accurate measurement of the energy of the ionizing particles. A high resolution spectrometer has been built using semiconductor detectors. The limit of resolution, due to electronics associated to the detector, to the detector itself and to the source of particles is studied here. The present practical limit of resolution of the spectrometer is 1700 elementary electric charges (full width at half maximum of a ray of a spectrum) or 6 keV in terms of energy lost by a particle in a silicon detector. The physical resolution usually obtained is 20 keV (0.33 per cent) with {alpha} particles of the {sup 212}Bi (6.087 MeV). It depends a lot of the kind of detector used. Some results, concerning the background of the detectors and limit of measurements for low energies are given. Various applications are presented: spectrometry {beta}, spectrometry {gamma} and X, spectrometry of mixtures of {alpha} radioactive elements, collection of {alpha} spectra. (author) [French] La faible energie moyenne, 2,5 a 3,5 eV, necessaire pour produire une paire electron-trou dans un semi-conducteur, permet une mesure precise de l'energie des particules ionisantes. Un spectrometre a haute resolution a ete construit utilisant des detecteurs a semi-conducteur. La limitation en resolution due a l'electronique associee au detecteur, au detecteur lui-meme et a la source de particules, est etudiee. La resolution pratique limite actuelle du spectrometre est 1700 charges electriques elementaires (largeur a mi-hauteur d'une raie de spectre) ou 6 keV exprimee en energie perdue par une particule dans un detecteur au silicium. La resolution physique couramment obtenue est de 20 keV (0,33 pour cent) pour les particules {alpha} du bismuth 212 (6,087 MeV). Elle depend beaucoup du detecteur utilise. Quelques resultats sont donnes concernant le mouvement propre des detecteurs et la limitation des

  12. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, François; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in primary midwifery care. We collected patient-reported data on potential determinants of prenatal care utilisation derived from the Andersen model. Prenatal health care utilisation was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and number of visits. Low-risk pregnant women (not referred during pregnancy) were more likely to use prenatal care inadequately if they intended to deliver at a hospital, if they did not use folic acid adequately periconceptionally, or if they were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Among those who were referred to secondary care, women reporting a chronic illnesses or disabilities, and women who did not use folic acid periconceptionally were more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Inadequate prenatal health care use in primary midwifery care is more likely in specific groups, and the risk groups differ when women are referred to secondary care. The findings suggest routes that can target interventions to women who are at risk of not adequately using prenatal prevention and care services. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  14. Radiotherapy access in Belgium: How far are we from evidence-based utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Y; De Schutter, H; Stellamans, K; Rosskamp, M; Van Eycken, L

    2017-10-01

    Underutilisation of radiotherapy has been observed worldwide. To evaluate the current situation in Belgium, optimal utilisation proportions (OUPs) adopted from the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology - Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (ESTRO-HERO) project were compared to actual utilisation proportions (AUPs) and with radiotherapy advised during the multidisciplinary cancer team (MDT) meetings. In addition, the impact of independent variables was analysed. AUPs and advised radiotherapy were calculated overall and by cancer type for 110,810 unique cancer diagnoses in 2009-2010. Radiotherapy utilisation was derived from reimbursement data and distinguished between palliative and curative intent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy (BT). Sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of the follow-up period, the survival length and patient's age were performed. Advised radiotherapy was calculated based on broad treatment categories as reported at MDT meetings. The overall AUP of 37% (39% including BT) was lower than the OUP of 53%, but in line with advised radiotherapy (35%). Large variations by tumour type were observed: in some tumours (e.g. lung and prostate cancer) AUP was considerably lower than OUP, whereas in others there was reasonable concordance (e.g. breast and rectal cancer). Overall, 84% of treatments started within 9 months following diagnosis. Survival time influenced AUP in a cancer type-dependent way. Elderly patients received less radiotherapy. Although the actually delivered radiotherapy in Belgium aligns well to MDT advices, it is lower than the evidence-based optimum. Further analysis of potential barriers is needed for radiotherapy forecasting and planning, and in order to promote adequate access to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiply disadvantaged: Health and service utilisation factors faced by homeless injecting drug consumers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Elizabeth; Swift, Wendy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Dietze, Paul; Cogger, Shelley; Bruno, Raimondo; Sindicich, Natasha; Burns, Lucy

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness status is strongly correlated with higher rates of substance use. Few studies, however, examine the complex relationship between housing status and substance use in people who inject drugs (PWID). This study extends previous research by comparing the physical and mental health status and service utilisation rates between stably housed and homeless PWID. A cross-sectional sample of 923 PWID were recruited for the 2012 Illicit Drug Reporting System. Multivariate models were generated addressing associations between homelessness and the domains of demographics; substance use; and health status, service utilisation and criminal justice system contact, with significant correlates entered into a final multivariate model. Two-thirds of the PWID sample were male. The median age was 39 years and 16% identified as Indigenous. Almost one-quarter (23%) reported that they were homeless. Homeless PWID were significantly more likely to be unemployed [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26, 6.34], inject in public (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.38, 3.18), have poorer mental health (AOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 1.00), report schizophrenia (AOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.16, 4.60) and have a prison history (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05, 2.21) than stably housed PWID. Findings highlight the challenge of mental health problems for homeless PWID. Our results demonstrate that further research that evaluates outcomes of housing programs accommodating PWID, particularly those with comorbid mental health disorders, is warranted. Results also emphasise the need to better utilise integrated models of outreach care that co-manage housing and mental health needs. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treanor Charlene

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are

  17. Utilisation of general practitioner services by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Oldenburg, Brian F; Harris, Elizabeth; Jolley, Damien

    2004-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic status (SES) and GP utilisation across Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that differed in their geographic remoteness, and to assess whether Indigenous status and GP availability modified the association. Retrospective analysis of Medicare data for all unreferred GP consultations (1996/97) for 952 SLAs comprising the six Australian States. Geographic remoteness was ascertained using the Area Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), and SES was measured by grouping SLAs into tertiles based on their Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage score. Age/sex standardised rates of GP utilisation for each SLA. In SLAs classified as 'highly accessible', rates of GP use were 10.8% higher (95% CI 5.7-16.0) in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile after adjustment for Indigenous status and GP availability. A very different pattern of GP utilsation was found in 'remote/very remote' SLAs. After adjustment, rates of GP use in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile were 25.3% lower (95% CI 5.9-40.7) than in the most advantaged tertile. People in socio-economically disadvantaged metropolitan SLAs have higher rates of GP utilisation, as would be expected due to their poorer health. This is not true for people living in disadvantaged remote/very remote SLAs: in these areas, those most in need of GP services are least likely to receive them. Australia may lay claim to having a primary health care system that provides universal coverage, but we are still some way from having a system that is economically and geographically accessible to all.

  18. Introduction and utilisation of high priced HCV medicines across Europe; implications for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie de Bruijn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs boceprevir (BCV and telaprevir (TVR in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN. Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilisation measured in defined daily doses (DDDs/ 1000 patients/ quarter (DIQs and expenditure in Euros/ DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorised using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement. Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilisation of the new PIs versus ribavirin indicates differences in dual versus triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilisation of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1 with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices negotiations across countries, with their impact

  19. Utilisation of ART in single women and lesbian couples since the 2010 change in Victorian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Emily; Weston, Gareth

    2014-10-01

    Enactment of the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act (Vic) 2008 in January 2010 allowed single persons and same sex couples in Victoria to access reproductive treatments. A retrospective cohort analysis of Monash IVF patients was conducted to identify trends in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) use amongst single women and lesbian couples after January 2010. A 102.8% increase in the utilisation of ART was observed amongst the single women group and a 248.8% increase in the lesbian couple population. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. A strategic framework to utilise venture capital funding to develop manufacturing SMES in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyman, Hendrik Andries

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SMEs contribute considerably to the national GDP and to private sector employment, but they struggle to gain access to the funding needed to support business sustainability and growth. Venture capital provides the necessary funding, but SMEs lack understanding of the business value curve utilised by financiers to gauge the risk-reward characteristics of an investment. Strategies need to convey how the business model will evolve in order to deliver on the strategic intent. A framework is proposed through which SMEs can develop a strategy aligned with investor requirements. As a case study, the framework is applied to the local tooling sector.

  1. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for procesing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agricultural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises all three reports. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  2. Health care utilisation and characteristics of long-term breast cancer survivors: nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative Group register. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemography, health care utilisation, employment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Associations with breast cancer treatment were investigated. RESULTS: Response rate was 79%. Significantly more BCS than the general women......%, and 'stopped working/changed job due to sequelae' by 11% of BCS. In multiple logistic regression analysis, radiotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 2.54; 95% CI 1.34-4.80) and endocrine therapy (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.13-5.45, postmenopausal women only) were significantly related to 'stopped working/changed job due...

  3. Towards zero solid waste: utilising tannery waste as a protein source for poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Hiralal; Antunes, A Paula M; Covington, Anthony D; Evans, Paul; Phillips, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Zero waste is now a strongly emerging issue for sustainable industrial development where minimisation and utilisation of waste are a priority in the leather industry. In a tannery hides and skins converted in to leather through various processes. Approximately 20% (w/w) of the chrome containing tannery solid waste (TSW) is generated from one tonne of raw hides and skins. However, tannery solid waste may also be a resource if it is managed expertly as we move towards zero waste.\\ud This resear...

  4. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  5. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  6. Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares G M; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    : Reducing fragmentation is necessary to provide opportunities for redistribution and to promote equity in utilisation of health services. Improvement in the delivery of services is crucial for achievement of improved access and financial protection and for increased enrolment into the CHF, which...... characteristics on the probability of seeking care and choice of provider. RESULTS: Generally, health insurance is found to increase the probability of seeking care and reduce delays. However, the probability, timing of seeking care and choice of provider varies across the CHF and NHIF members. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  8. Factors associated with postnatal care utilisation in Rwanda: A secondary analysis of 2010 Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwabufigiri, Bernard N; Mukamurigo, Judith; Thomson, Dana R; Hedt-Gautier, Bethany L; Semasaka, Jean Paul S

    2016-05-31

    Postnatal care (PNC) in the first seven days is important for preventing morbidity and mortality in mothers and new-borns. Sub-Saharan African countries, which account for 62 % of maternal deaths globally, have made major efforts to increase PNC utilisation, but utilisation rates remains low even in countries like Rwanda where PNC services are universally available for free. This study identifies key socio-economic and demographic factors associated with PNC utilisation in Rwanda to inform improved PNC policies and programs. This is a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, a national multi-stage, cross-sectional survey. In bivariate analysis, we used chi-square tests to identify demographic and socio-economic factors associated with PNC utilisation at α = 0.1. Pearson's R statistic (r > 0.5) was used to identify collinear covariates, and to choose which covariate was more strongly associated with PNC utilisation. Manual backward stepwise logistic regression was performed on the remaining covariates to identify key factors associated with PNC utilisation at α = 0.05. All analyses were performed in Stata 13 adjusting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. Of the 2,748 women with a live birth in the last two years who answered question about PNC utilisation, 353 (12.8 %) returned for PNC services within seven days after birth. Three factors were positively associated with PNC use: delivering at a health facility (OR: 2.97; 95 % CI: 2.28-3.87), being married but not involved with one's own health care decision-making (OR: 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.44) compared to being married and involved; and being in the second (OR: 1.46; 95 % CI: 1.01-2.09) or richest wealth quintile (OR: 2.04; 95 % CI: 1.27-3.29) compared to the poorest. Mother's older age at delivery was negatively associated with PNC use (20-29 - OR: 0.51, 95 % CI: 0.29-0.87; 30-39 - OR: 0.47, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.83; 40-49 - OR: 0.32, 95 % CI: 0.16-0.64). Low PNC

  9. The climate impact of future energy peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina

    2008-09-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission after-treatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation)

  10. Design of Energy Efficient Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The focus in the development has for both systems been to minimise energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. The natural next step in this development is to develop ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system......[Mechanical and natural ventilation] into a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....

  11. The effects of China's urban basic medical insurance schemes on the equity of health service utilisation: evidence from Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Zhu, Liang; Zhou, Zhiying; Li, Zhengya; Gao, Jianmin; Chen, Gang

    2014-03-09

    In order to alleviate the problem of "Kan Bing Nan, Kan Bing Gui" (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive) and improve the equity of health service utilisation for urban residents in China, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme (UEBMI) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme (URBMI) were established in 1999 and 2007, respectively. This study aims to analyse the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on the equity of outpatient and inpatient utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China. Using the data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Shaanxi Province, the method of Propensity Score Matching was employed to generate comparable samples between the insured and uninsured residents, through a one-to-one match algorithm. Next, based on the matched data, the method of decomposition of the concentration index was employed to compare the horizontal inequity indexes of health service utilisation between the UEBMI/URBMI insured and the matched uninsured residents. For the UEBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are 0.1256 and -0.0511 respectively, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1222 and 0.2746 respectively. Meanwhile, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are -0.1593 and 0.0967 for the URBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1931 and 0.3199 respectively. The implementation of UEBMI increased the pro-rich inequity of outpatient utilisation (rich people utilise outpatient facilities more than the poor people) and the implementation of URBMI increased the pro-poor inequity of outpatient utilisation. Both of these two health insurance schemes reduced the pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilisation.

  12. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by

  13. The first step towards a 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    , it is essential that Ireland begins to utilise its renewable resources more effectively. Therefore, this study presents the first step towards a 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland. The energy-system analysis tool used was EnergyPLAN, as it accounts for all sectors of the energy-system that need...

  14. The utilisation of two detectors for the determination of water in honey using headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-15

    A headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was developed for the determination of water content in honey. This method was shown to work with five different honey varieties which had a range of water from 14-16%. It also utilised two different detectors, the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and the barrier discharge ionisation detector (BID). This method needs no heating pretreatment step as in the current leading method, (i.e. the measurement of refractive index). The solvent-free procedure negates the possibility of solvent-compound interactions as well as solubility limitations, as is common with Karl Fischer titrations. It was also apparent that the classic loss on drying method consistently and substantially produced results that were lower than the correct values. This approach is shown to be rapid, with an analysis time of 4 min when using the TCD detector and under 3 min when utilising the BID detector. HSGC is feasible for the determination of water due to the new PEG-linked geminal dicationic ionic-liquid-coated GC capillary column. In addition it provides accurate and precise determinations of the water content in honey. When using the sensitive BID detector, other trace volatile compounds are observed as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An exploratory study on the utilisation of resilience by middle adolescents in reconstituted families following divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette Ebersohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year thousands of core families disintegrate through divorce, and in the ensuing restructuring of the family system the child has to cope with various development challenges, such as divided membership of two micro family systems and complexities that result at the mesosystemic level. Achieving positive development outcomes in the presence of challenging living circumstances entails complex interactive processes. The aim of the study was to understand the concomitant, reciprocal and/or responsive dynamics of middle adolescents' use of their inherent resilience potential in their movement back and forth between their two reconstituted family systems after the parents' divorce. The study was grounded in the qualitative interpretivist paradigm, and used a multiple case study as research design and a narrative format for description. A purposive sample of four white Afrikaans-speaking middle adolescents participated in the research. Findings revealed that middle adolescents of divorced parents utilise their resilience potential in a systemic manner, which requires a solid base provided by the meso system. Hence the utilisation of resilience relies at the very minimum on a functional relationship of cooperation between the biological parents.

  16. Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data were analysed to identify: the factors that facilitate or compromise access to care; the consequences of inadequate care for pregnant women’s health and wellbeing; and the effectiveness of existing strategies for improvement. Results Findings indicate that a mental health diagnosis, poor relationships with health professionals and environmental barriers can compromise women’s utilisation of maternity services. Domestic abuse can both compromise, and catalyse, access to services and social support is a positive factor when accessing care. Delayed and inadequate care has adverse effects on women’s physical and psychological health, however further research is required to fully explore the nature and extent of these consequences. Only one study identified strategies currently being used to improve access to services for disabled women experiencing abuse. Conclusions Based upon the barriers and facilitators identified within the review, we suggest that future strategies for improvement should focus on: understanding women’s reasons for accessing care; fostering positive relationships; being women-centred; promoting environmental accessibility; and improving the strength of the evidence base. PMID:25029907

  17. Health service utilisation of rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China: does employment status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolei; Zou, Guanyang; Chen, Wen; Han, Siqi; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li

    2017-01-01

    To describe the self-reported health status and service utilisation of employed, retired and unemployed migrants in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China. A cross-sectional study adapted from the National Health Service Survey was conducted between September and December in 2014. Based on the distribution of occupation of migrants, multistage sampling was used to recruit individuals. Logistic regression was applied to explore the factors influencing their service utilisation. Of 2906 respondents, 76.6% were employed, 9.2% retired and 14.2% unemployed. Only 8.1% reported having an illness in the previous 2 weeks, and 6.5% reported having been hospitalised in the previous year. Employed migrants had the lowest recent physician consultation rate (3.4%) and the lowest annual hospitalisation rate (4.5%) (P rates (6.8% and 14.5% respectively, P employed (1.5%) and unemployed migrants (3.4%) (P gender, employment status remained significant in explaining the recent two-week treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants (P Employed migrants make the least use of health services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Utilisation of Library Information Resources among Generation Z Students: Facts and Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenere Gabriel Salubi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Generation Z was the foremost generation to have prevalent access to the Internet from an early age. Technology has strongly influenced this generation in terms of communication, education and consequently their academic information behaviour. With the next generation of scholars already being trained, in a decade, most of the researchers will be mainly digital natives. This study sought to establish the library information resources use pattern in relation to users’ preferred information media in order to render better academic information services to library users. A total of 390 respondents were surveyed at the Nelson Mandela University and the University of Fort Hare using quantitative and qualitative methods. Most of the respondents, 82.3%, were aged between 18 and 23 years; while the average library use time was two hours daily. The most utilised library resource is the Wi-Fi with e-books and e-journals found to be lowly utilised. Records from the E-librarians revealed that undergraduate students account for no more than 6% of total users of electronic databases with 62.3% of the respondents preferring print information resources. Better understanding of library users’ demographics and information media preference is essential in proving the right kind of information services to Generation Z library users.

  19. Utilisation of information technology to support information and knowledge management by lawyers in Polokwane City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Bopape

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A revolution in information and communication technology is taking place in the world. With this technological revolution, information and knowledge are also considered as crucial assets for every organization. Law firms are regarded as one of the industries which are information and knowledge-intensive. The utilization of information technology can play an essential role in supporting information and knowledge management in law firms. An investigation into the extent to which lawyers or law firms in Polokwane city utilize information technology to support information and knowledge management was conducted through a survey questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model. The findings of this research showed that lawyers utilise information technology systems or applications that are common, such as word processing, e-mail, client billing and online databases for searching legal information. Other information and knowledge management tools, such as Intranets, extranets and web portals, were the least and non-utilised applications by these lawyers. The main reason for non-utilization of such systems may be linked to non- exposure to information technology and unfamiliarity with information and knowledge management tools. It is, therefore, recommended that legal schools should include, in their curriculum, modules on the application and role of information technology in the legal practice. Recommendations for future research related to this subject are also provided.

  20. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  1. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernando Neto da; Prata, Antonio Salgado; Teixeira, Jorge Rocha

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO x ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO x and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  2. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto da Silva, Fernando; Salgado Prata, Antonio; Rocha Teixeira, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO X ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO X and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  3. Phytosociology and plant community utilisation by vervet monkeys of the Blydeberg Conservancy, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Barret

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant communities of the Blydeberg Conservancy were investigated as part of a research project on the foraging ecology of vervet monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus (senso lato in mixed lowveld bushveld and sour lowveld bushveld areas. To date there are no formal management plans for vervet monkeys. This is attributed to the limited knowledge of vervets and their utilisation of and impacts on ecosystems. From a TWINSPAN classification refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, ten plant communities that can be placed into four major groups were identified. A classification and description of these communities, including a vegetation map are presented. Diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined. Of the ten available plant communities, the vervets utilised only six during the study period. There was an abundant supply of various food sources throughout the year, with movement patterns mostly coinciding with the fruiting times of several tree and other plant species.

  4. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  5. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Matsuoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg whites (EW are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36, 198±1 g were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (97.5±0.4, 96.5±0.1, and 96.5±0.7, resp.. The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (90.5±1.0. These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating.

  6. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO 2 -e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO 4 3 -e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO 2 -e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO 2 -e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Hill, Catherine L

    2008-08-19

    Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of 4,060 people randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. The interview included questions regarding healthcare service utilisation in the past year. Data were also collected on education, income and major medical conditions. Overall, 9.5% of the total sample and 17.7% of those who reported foot pain had attended a podiatrist in the past year. Participants who had accessed podiatry treatment were more likely to be female, be aged over 45 years, be obese, and have major chronic medical conditions (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure). Those who reported foot pain but had not accessed a podiatrist were more likely to be male and be aged 20 to 34 years. Only a small proportion of people who report foot pain have accessed podiatry services in the past year. There is a need to further promote podiatry services to the general community, particularly to men and younger people.

  8. Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. Methods The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of 4,060 people randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. The interview included questions regarding healthcare service utilisation in the past year. Data were also collected on education, income and major medical conditions. Results Overall, 9.5% of the total sample and 17.7% of those who reported foot pain had attended a podiatrist in the past year. Participants who had accessed podiatry treatment were more likely to be female, be aged over 45 years, be obese, and have major chronic medical conditions (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure. Those who reported foot pain but had not accessed a podiatrist were more likely to be male and be aged 20 to 34 years. Conclusion Only a small proportion of people who report foot pain have accessed podiatry services in the past year. There is a need to further promote podiatry services to the general community, particularly to men and younger people.

  9. Women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation: empirical evidence from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-10-01

    Women's autonomy is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, whereas there is no consistent empirical evidence to support this claim. This paper examines whether or not and how women's autonomy within the household affects the use of reproductive health care, using a household survey data from Tajikistan. Estimation is performed by the bivariate probit model whereby woman's use of health services and the level of women's autonomy are recursively and simultaneously determined. The data is from a sample of women aged 15-49 from the Tajikistan Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007. Women's autonomy as measured by women's decision-making on household financial matters increase the likelihood that a woman receives antenatal and delivery care, whilst it has a negative effect on the probability of attending to four or more antenatal consultations. The hypothesis that women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation are independently determined is rejected for most of the estimation specifications, indicating the importance of taking into account the endogenous nature of women's autonomy when assessing its effect on health care use. The empirical results reconfirm the assertion that women's status within the household is closely linked to reproductive health care utilisation in developing countries. Policymakers therefore need not only to implement not only direct health interventions but also to focus on broader social policies which address women's empowerment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. National health insurance subscription and maternal healthcare utilisation across mothers' wealth status in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena; Kofinti, Raymond Elikplim; Appiah, Francis

    2017-12-01

    This study is against the backdrop that despite the forty-nine percent decline in Maternal Mortality Rate in Ghana, the situation still remains high averaging 319 per 100,000 live births between 2011 and 2015. To examine the relationship between National Health Insurance and maternal healthcare utilisation across three main wealth quintiles (Poor, Middle and Rich). The study employed data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted. Descriptively, rich women had high antenatal attendance and health facility deliveries represented by 96.5% and 95.6% respectively. However, the binary logistic regression results revealed that poor women owning NHIS are 7% (CI = 1.76-2.87) more likely to make at least four antenatal care visits compared to women in the middle wealth quintile (5%, CI = 2.12-4.76) and rich women (2%, CI = 1.14-4.14). Similarly, poor women who owned the NHIS are 14% (CI = 1.42-2.13) likely to deliver in health facility than women in the middle and rich wealth quintile. The study has vindicated the claim that NHIS Scheme is pro-poor in Ghana. The Ministry of Health should target women in the rural area to be enrolled on the NHIS to improve maternal healthcare utilisation since poverty is principally a rural phenomenon in Ghana.

  11. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  12. The provision and utilisation of casemix and demographic data by nursing managers in seven hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Nicole; Donoghue, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The role of the nursing manager has evolved from clinician and bed manager to one with greater accountability for evidence based practice, benchmarking and more recently, budget liability. Casemix data are widely believed to be a means of providing essential information for effective decision making and financial management but have not been widely utilised by nursing managers (Diers & Bozzo, 1999). This paper will report the results of a survey of nursing managers in seven hospitals within a metropolitan area health service. The hospitals include tertiary referral hospitals, specialist public hospitals and an affiliated public hospital for aged care and rehabilitation services. The survey sought to establish what casemix and related data were provided to nurse managers, who provided these data and how supplied data were utilised by the nurse managers. Results demonstrated that the majority of nursing managers surveyed received minimal (if any) casemix and/or demographic data on a routine basis. Some were provided with data in response to specific requests. The information that was provided varied both within and across hospitals, and no consistent methods of data distribution were available. Few nursing managers believed that the information provided aided their decision-making processes partly due to the minimalist nature of provided data while some nursing managers demonstrated a lack of understanding of the potential benefit of casemix data as a resource to support management decision making.

  13. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaba-Bosque Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain. Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®. Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain.

  14. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. PMID:27847805

  15. Pharmaco-epidcemiology of drugs utilised for cataract surgery in a government medical college and hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Supreeti; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Halder, Sujash; Sarkar, Sougat Sourendra; Maiti, Tamoghna; Lahiri, Saibendu Kumar; Haldar, Swaraj

    2010-12-01

    Prescription audit is a powerful tool for rational prescription. To evaluate pharmaco-epidemiology of drugs utilised for cataract surgery, a retrospective study was conducted in the department of pharmacology, RG Kar Medical College, Kolkata. Data from bed head tickets of one year, available in medical record section, were collected in case report forms and analysed. Utilisation pattern of drugs like dosage form, dose, route and frequency of administration and duration of therapy were audited. Drug prescription versus therapeutic indication was also evaluated. Price of the prescribed drugs was evaluated for rationality towards cost-effective prescription. For 848 cases of cataract surgery, drugs were prescribed pre-, per- and post-operatively. Different fluoroquinolone antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and mydriatic-cycloplegic agents were prescribed. High or low cost drugs were prescribed both in generic (52%) and brand (48%) names. Few Latin abbreviations were used in directions. Different parameters and study results were discussed from various aspects to explore their social impacts. Though prescription pattern was almost rational, some parts need improvement. Healthcare provider should be aware of cost-effectiveness of the prescribed drugs for the benefit of patients to provide a rational prescription.

  16. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  18. China's energy security and strategic choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellistrandi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the present day international political and economical situation, China's energy security covers five important aspects: energy supplies security, energy prices security, environment security with respect to energy consumption, energy transport security, R and D security in the domain of energy resources exploration, exploitation and utilisation. Considering the above-mentioned aspects, China's strategic choices should include five major goals: counting on its own energy resources and giving priority to energy saving, participating to the international competition and implementing a national strategic reserves system, readjusting the energy consumption structure and promoting environment protection by developing nuclear energy, harmonizing China's relations with some countries and avoiding political and military conflicts, increasing investment in energy R and D, in particular in clean coal, nuclear, automotive, renewable energy and energy saving technologies. (J.S.)

  19. Optimal benefits of utilizing renewable energy technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties, ttherefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged globally and it is possible that China, India, Brazil and South Africa (CIBS) would develop ...

  20. Transport of chemically bonded nuclear energy in a closed cycle with special consideration to energy disconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossami, S.

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the utilisation of nuclear energy in the form of 'nuclear long-distance energy'. Heat produced by nuclear fission is bonded to a reversible chemical reaction (cracking gas) which release the heat again at the place of comsumption by catalytic transformation. The article deals in particular with the process of methane cracking/methanisation, the disconnection of the energy (heat) by the methanisation process and the decisive role of the methanisation catalyzers. (orig.) [de

  1. Techno-Economic Models for Optimised Utilisation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus under an Out-Grower Farming Scheme in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Techno-economic models for optimised utilisation of jatropha oil under an out-grower farming scheme were developed based on different considerations for oil and by-product utilisation. Model 1: Out-grower scheme where oil is exported and press cake utilised for compost. Model 2: Out-grower scheme with six scenarios considered for the utilisation of oil and by-products. Linear programming models were developed based on outcomes of the models to optimise the use of the oil through profit maximisation. The findings revealed that Model 1 was financially viable from the processors’ perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg. All scenarios considered under Model 2 were financially viable from the processors perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg; however, at seed price of $0.085/kg, financial viability was achieved for both parties. Optimising the utilisation of the oil resulted in an annual maximum profit of $123,300.

  2. The impact of frailty on healthcare utilisation in Ireland: evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Lorna; Normand, Charles; Wren, Maev-Ann; Browne, John; O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2017-09-05

    To examine the impact of frailty on medical and social care utilisation among the Irish community-dwelling older population to inform strategies of integrated care for older people with complex needs. Participants aged ≥65 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) representative of the Irish community-dwelling older population were analysed (n = 3507). The frailty index was used to examine patterns of utilisation across medical and social care services. Multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models were employed to examine the impact of frailty on service utilisation outcomes after controlling for other factors. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 24% (95% CI: 23, 26%) and 45% (95% CI: 43, 47%) respectively. Frailty was a significant predictor of utilisation of most social care and medical care services after controlling for the main correlates of frailty and observed individual effects. Frailty predicts utilisation of many different types of healthcare services rendering it a useful risk stratification tool for targeting strategies of integrated care. The pattern of care is predominantly medical as few of the frail older population use social care prompting questions about sub-groups of the frail older population with unmet care needs.

  3. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toar, Magzoub; O'Brien, Kirsty K; Fahey, Tom

    2009-06-30

    Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups for use of dentists, medication, hospitalisation or mental health services. Asylum seekers have a higher level of self reported

  4. Utilisation and outcomes following the introduction of an interventional radiology day unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, G.C.; Shaida, N.; Pyneeandee, R.; Shaw, A.; See, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the utilisation of an interventional radiology day unit (RDU), the rates of on-time discharges, the financial performance of the unit, and finally, the patient satisfaction rates. Materials and methods: Data regarding the unit utilisation, discharge times, and complications were retrospectively collected for the first 2 years of operation of the unit (1 April 2013 to 1 January 2015). In addition, monitoring the activity going through the RDU and applying a contribution margin to the freed-up beds measured the financial performance. The data were provided by the finance department of the hospital. Satisfaction survey questionnaires were sent randomly by post to 100 patients who had been previously admitted to the RDU. Results: During the study period, 3019 patients were admitted to the RDU, comprising 1426 during the first year and 1513 during the second. On average, 5.6 patients were discharged from the RDU on every working day during the first year and 7.1 patients during the second (21% increase in the discharge rate). Given the 8-hour working time configuration of the unit, a realistic 80% utilisation rate of the RDU's seven beds could free a total of 1400 inpatient bed days over a full year. The cost of delivering these episodes of care was reduced by approximately 50%. From the financial data, it was estimated that the RDU managed to achieve a total of £393,000 in savings for the Trust for the financial year 2013–2014. The return rate of the patient satisfaction survey was 40%. All patients were satisfied with their overall RDU experience. Conclusion: The RDU has brought significant benefits for patients and the Trust without compromises in safety or quality. - Highlights: • Radiology Day units can improve workflow through improved efficiency. • RDUs can decrease the treatment-related costs mainly by reducing the need for unnecessary overnight hospitalisation. • They appear to be welcome by the patients with excellent feedback so far.

  5. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6-2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year

  6. Design and utilisation of protocols to characterise dynamic PET uptake of two tracers using basis pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christopher; Puttick, Simon; Rose, Stephen; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Dowson, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Imaging using more than one biological process using PET could be of great utility, but despite previously proposed approaches to dual-tracer imaging, it is seldom performed. The alternative of performing multiple scans is often infeasible for clinical practice or even in research studies. Dual-tracer PET scanning allows for multiple PET radiotracers to be imaged within the same imaging session. In this paper we describe our approach to utilise the basis pursuit method to aid in the design of dual-tracer PET imaging experiments, and later in separation of the signals. The advantage of this approach is that it does not require a compartment model architecture to be specified or even that both signals are distinguishable in all cases. This means the method for separating dual-tracer signals can be used for many feasible and useful combinations of biology or radiotracer, once an appropriate scanning protocol has been decided upon. Following a demonstration in separating the signals from two consecutively injected radionuclides in a controlled experiment, phantom and list-mode mouse experiments demonstrated the ability to test the feasibility of dual-tracer imaging protocols for multiple injection delays. Increases in variances predicted for kinetic macro-parameters V D and K I in brain and tumoral tissue were obtained when separating the synthetically combined data. These experiments confirmed previous work using other approaches that injections delays of 10-20 min ensured increases in variance were kept minimal for the test tracers used. On this basis, an actual dual-tracer experiment using a 20 min delay was performed using these radio tracers, with the kinetic parameters (V D and K I) extracted for each tracer in agreement with the literature. This study supports previous work that dual-tracer PET imaging can be accomplished provided certain constraints are adhered to. The utilisation of basis pursuit techniques, with its removed need to specify a model

  7. Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visvikis, D.; Ell, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined PET/CT devices attempts to address the lack of anatomical information inherent with PET images, taking advantage of further improvement in patient throughput and hence cost-effectiveness. Preliminary studies using this multimodality imaging approach have already demonstrated the potential of the technique. Although the potential exists, certain technical issues with PET/CT require refinement of the methodology. Such issues include organ movement (such as respiratory motion), which strongly influences the image fusion of a rapidly acquired CT scan with the slower acquisition of a PET dataset, and the derivation of CT-based attenuation coefficients in the presence of contrast agents or metallic implants. The application of the technology for radiotherapy planning also poses a number of associated challenges. Finally

  8. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  9. Use of gamma spectroscopy in activation analysis; Utilisation de la spectrographie gamma dans l'analyse par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Brief review of the principles of activation analysis: calculation of activities, decay curves, {beta} absorption curves, examples of application. - Principle and description of the {gamma} spectrograph. - Practical utilisation of the {gamma} spectrograph: analysis by activation, analysis by {beta} - x fluorescence. - Sensitivity limit of the method and precision of the measurements. - Possible improvements to the method: {gamma} spectroscopy with elimination of the Compton effect. (author) [French] Bref rappel des principes de l'analyse par activation: calcul des activites, courbes de decroissance, courbes d'absorption {beta}, exemples d'utilisation. - Principe et description du spectrographe {gamma}. - Utilisation pratique de la spectrographie {gamma}: analyse par activation, analyse par fluorescence {beta} - x. - Limite de sensibilite de la methode et precision des mesures. - Ameliorations possibles de la methode: spectrographe {gamma} avec elimination de l'effet Compton. (auteur)

  10. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-04-21

    Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Data from 3300 women participating in a prospective cohort of primary midwifery care clients (i.e. women with no complications or no increased risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium who receive maternity care by autonomous midwives) in the Netherlands (the DELIVER study) was used. Gestational age at entry and the total number of prenatal visits were aggregated into an index. The extent to which potential factors explained non-western women's prenatal care utilisation was assessed by means of blockwise logistic regression analyses and percentage changes in odds ratios. The unadjusted odds of first and second-generation non-western women making inadequate use of prenatal care were 3.26 and 1.96 times greater than for native Dutch women. For the first generation, sociocultural factors explained 43% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation, socioeconomic factors explained 33% and demographic and pregnancy factors explained 29%. For the second generation, sociocultural factors explained 66% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation. Irrespective of generation, strategies to improve utilisation should focus on those with the following sociocultural characteristics (not speaking Dutch at home, no partner or a first-generation non-Dutch partner). For the first generation, strategies should also focus on those with the following demographic, pregnancy and socioeconomic characteristics (aged ≤ 19 or ≥ 36, unplanned pregnancies, poor obstetric histories (extra-uterine pregnancy, molar pregnancy or abortion), a low educational level, below average net household income and no supplementary insurance.

  11. Episodic aphasia associated with tumor active multiple sclerosis: a correlative SPECT study utilising image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, G.; Campbell, A.; Lawn, N.; Henderson, A.; McCarthy, M.; Lenzo, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cerebral perfusion imaging is a common technique to assess cerebral perfusion and metabolism. It can complement anatomical imaging in assessing a number of neurological conditions. At times it can better define the clinical manifestations of a disease process than anatomical imaging alone. We present a clinical case whereby cerebral SPECT imaging helped define the physiological reason for intermittent aphasia in a patient with tumor active multiple sclerotic white matter plaques. Cerebral SPECT studies were performed during a period of aphasia and when the patient had recovered. We utilised subtraction analyses and image fusion techniques to better define the changes seen on SPECT. We discuss the neuroanatomical relationship of aphasia and the automatic fusion technique that allows accurate co-registration of the MRI and SPECT data. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Web service discovery among large service pools utilising semantic similarity and clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuzan; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Harris; Xie, Lingli

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of electronic business, Web services have attracted much attention in recent years. Enterprises can combine individual Web services to provide new value-added services. An emerging challenge is the timely discovery of close matches to service requests among large service pools. In this study, we first define a new semantic similarity measure combining functional similarity and process similarity. We then present a service discovery mechanism that utilises the new semantic similarity measure for service matching. All the published Web services are pre-grouped into functional clusters prior to the matching process. For a user's service request, the discovery mechanism first identifies matching services clusters and then identifies the best matching Web services within these matching clusters. Experimental results show that the proposed semantic discovery mechanism performs better than a conventional lexical similarity-based mechanism.

  13. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  14. Utilisation of thin-seam drum shearer loaders at Bergbau AG Niederrhein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, W.; Klimek, K.H.

    1983-03-10

    Conventional shearer loaders which travel on the AFC can only be used in seams more than 1.6 m thick in the conditions of the Ruhr coalfield. Low design shearers have been developed for seams below 1.6 m, and can work in conditions down to 1.0 m seam thickness. At Bergbau AG Niederrhein these machines have been adapted to prevailing conditions and requirements. The demand for a high drive rating led to a thin-seam shearer thickness from 1.3 m upwards. The need for minimum feasible machine height with adequate drive rating has been obtained with another machine. Currently under development is a machine which should lower the utilisation limit of thin-seam shearers. With planning and the use of suitable types of supports, it is possible to work faces by shearer in seams of 1.0 m upwards, even under difficult extraction conditions.

  15. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. ) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, S; Krishnamoorthy, K K [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry

    1977-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium.

  16. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanu, A.; Schandorf, C.; Darko, E. O.; Boadu, M.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Awudu, A. R.; Gyekye, P. K.; Kpeglo, D. O.

    2010-01-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3 %; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture. (authors)

  17. A Remote Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications Lab Utilising the Emona DATEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmas Mwikirize

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote labs have become popular learning aids due to their versatility and considerable ease of utilisation as compared to their physical counterparts. At Makerere University, the remote labs are based on the standard Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT iLabs Shared Architecture (ISA - a scalable and generic platform. Presented in this paper is such a lab, addressing the key practical aspects of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS communication. The lab is built on the National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS with the Emona Digital and Analog Telecommunications Experimenter (DATEx add-on board. It also incorporates switching hardware. The lab facilitates real-time control of the equipment, with users able to set, manipulate and observe signal parameters in both the frequency and the time domains. Simulation and data Acquisition modes of the experiment are supported to provide a richer learning experience.

  18. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP sup T sup M , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents...

  19. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  20. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loganathan, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium