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Sample records for energy varian medical

  1. Varian's involvement with magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staprans, A.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the history, accomplishments, and spinoffs of over two decades of interaction between the U.S. Fusion Energy Research Program's plasma heating scientists and Varian's Electron Device organization; an interaction which has been mutually benficial and, as with other U.S., Industry interaction with the U.S. Fusion Research Program, has produced valuable benfits to the country's economy in the form of spinoffs which have had positive commercial and economic benfits. Varian has had two major R ampersand D programs for the U.S. Fusion Energy Research Program: one the gyrotron development program, emerging from work to study the feasibility of a 200 kW CW 28 GHz gyrotron for the EBT program; and the other the development of super power tetrodes for Ion Cyclotron Power Sources

  2. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  3. Collateral patient doses in the Varian 21iX radiotherapy Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquero, R.; Castillo, A. del

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiotherapy aim is to irradiate the patient tumor cells while the doses in healthy tissue remains as low as possible. Nevertheless, when high photon energy accelerators are used, collateral undesired photon and neutron doses are always implied during the treatments and became more important with the new accelerators and techniques as IMRT. To assess secondary cancer risk outside the treatment volume as a long-term medical consequence of treatments, the total doses received by each patient outside the primary field during his treatment must be estimated. To achieve this purpose photon and neutron dose equivalents Hp(10) and H*(10) has been measured in a new Varian 21iX with maximum photon energy of 15 MV placed recently in our radiotherapy department. Three devices: 1) a neutron dose rate meter BERTHOLD LB 4111 calibrated recently in the German PTB laboratory, 2) a calibrated environmental pressurized photon ionization chamber (IC) VICTOREEN 450-PI n/s 1020, and 3) a calibrated personal electronic photon dosimeter GAMMACOM 4200M, were placed above the treatment couch outside the primary field while the Varian 21iX reference test were done. In particular the photon and neutron doses in the couch were measured while a water phantom was irradiated during automatic beam data acquisition for a 15 MV beam. A complete set of measurements changing field size are made. These 15 MV results are compared with data measured previously by thermoluminescence and bubble dosimeters in the same facility for an Elekta Precise and a Siemens KDS both with maximum photon energy of 18 MV. From this the benefits in the patient collateral doses of decreasing the maximum treatment photon energy are discussed. The patient doses obtained in the Varian 21iX had values that go from 80 to 800 uSv per treatment Gray. As the Varian 21iX therapy Linac is operated in pulsed mode with short pulse length the discussion of the results includes: 1. The correction of dead time in the GM

  4. FLUKA Monte Carlo for Basic Dosimetric Studies of Dual Energy Medical Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdul Haneefa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General purpose Monte Carlo code for simulation of particle transport is used to study the basic dosimetric parameters like percentage depth dose and dose profiles and compared with the experimental measurements from commercial dual energy medical linear accelerator. Varian Clinac iX medical linear accelerator with dual energy photon beams (6 and 15 MV is simulated using FLUKA. FLAIR is used to visualize and edit the geometry. Experimental measurements are taken for 100 cm source-to-surface (SSD in 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 PTW water phantom using 0.12 cc cylindrical ionization chamber. Percentage depth dose for standard square field sizes and dose profiles for various depths are studied in detail. The analysis was carried out using ROOT (a DATA analysis frame work developed at CERN system. Simulation result shows good agreement in percentage depth dose and beam profiles with the experimental measurements for Varian Clinac iX dual energy medical linear accelerator.

  5. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Tai-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. Case presentation We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. Conclusions This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

  6. SU-E-T-775: Use of Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for Quality Assurance (QA) of Electron Beams On Varian Truebeam System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, B; Yaddanapudi, S; Sun, B; Li, H; Noel, C; Mutic, S; Goddu, S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In a previous study we have demonstrated the feasibility of using EPID to QA electron beam parameters on a single Varian TrueBeam LINAC. This study aims to provide further investigation on (1) reproducibility of using EPID to detect electron beam energy changes on multiple machines and (2) evaluation of appropriate calibration methods to compare results from different EPIDs. Methods: Ad-hoc mode electron beam images were acquired in developer mode with XML code. Electron beam data were collected on a total of six machines from four institutions. A custom-designed double-wedge phantom was placed on the EPID detector. Two calibration methods - Pixel Sensitivity Map (PSM) and Large Source-to-Imager Distance Flood Field (LSID-FF) - were used. To test the sensitivity of EPID in detecting energy drifts, Bending Magnet Current (BMC) was detuned to invoke energy changes corresponding to ∼±1.5 mm change in R50% of PDD on two machines from two institutions. Percent depth ionization (PDI) curves were then analyzed and compared with the respective baseline images using LSID-FF calibration. For reproducibility testing, open field EPID images and images with a standard testing phantom were collected on multiple machines. Images with and without PSM correction for same energies on different machines were overlaid and compared. Results: Two pixel shifts were observed in PDI curve when energy changes exceeded the TG142 tolerance. PSM showed the potential to correct the differences in pixel response of different imagers. With PSM correction, the histogram of images differences obtained from different machines showed narrower distributions than those images without PSM correction. Conclusion: EPID is sensitive for electron energy changes and the results are reproducible on different machines. When overlaying images from different machines, PSM showed the ability to partially eliminate the intrinsic variation of various imagers. Research Funding from Varian Medical Systems

  7. Analysis of output trends from Varian 2100C/D and 600C/D accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of Varian linear accelerator output trends is reported. Two groups, consisting of four matched Varian 2100C/D and four matched Varian 600C/D accelerators, with different designs of monitor chamber, have been investigated and the data acquired from regular calibrated ion chamber/electrometer measurements of the output performance of the eight accelerators analysed. The trend of machine output with time, having removed the effect of adjusting the monitor chamber response, was compared on a monthly and annual basis for monitor chambers with ages ranging between 1 year and 7 years. The results indicate that the response is generally consistent within each set of accelerators with different monitor chamber designs. Those used in a Varian 600C/D machine result in a reduction in measured output over time, with an average monthly reduction of 0.35 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The chambers used in a 2100C/D accelerator result in an increase in measured output over time, with an average monthly increase of 0.26 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The output increase then reduces towards the end of this period of time, with the average monthly change falling to -0.03 ± 0.02% for the following 3 years. The output response trend was similar for all clinical energies used on the 2100C/D accelerators--6, 15 MV x-ray beams, and 4, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron beams. By tracking these changes it has been possible to predict the response over time to allow appropriate adjustments in monitor chamber response to maintain a measured accelerator output within tolerance and give confidence in performance. It has also provided data to indicate the need for planned preventative intervention and indicate if the monitor chamber response is behaving as expected. (note)

  8. Medical waste to energy: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, C; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Bartuli, F N; Ottria, L; Mecheri, B; Licoccia, S

    2013-04-01

    Although waste is traditionally assessed as a pollutant which needs to be reduced or lessened, its management is certainly necessary. Nowadays, biological fuel cells, through the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using biocatalysts, represent a technology able to produce sustainable energy by means of waste treatment. This study aims to propose a mean to generate energy from blood and saliva, that are common risk-infectious medical waste. Material employed (purchased by Sigma-Aldrich) were: Glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion perfluorinated resin solution at 5% in a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols and water, Polyethylene oxide. Stock solutions of D (+) glucose were prepared in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and stored at 4 °C for at least 24 h before use. Carbon cloth electrode ELAT HT 140 E-W with a platinum loading of 5 gm-2 was purchased by E-Tek. Electrospun Nafion fibers were obtained as follows. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrode morphologies. In order to develop an effective immobilization strategy of GOx on the electrode surface, Nafion fibers (a fully fluorinated ion conducting polymer used as a membrane material in enzymatic fuel cells - EFC) were selected as immobilizing polymer matrix. In this work, exploiting the nafion fibers capability of being able to cathalize Gox activity, we have tried to produce an enzymatic fuel cell which could produce energy from the blood and the saliva within medical-dental waste. Medical waste refers to all those materials produced by the interaction among doctor and patient, such as blood and saliva. During our research we will try to complete an EFC prototype able to produce energy from blood and saliva inside the risk-infectious medical waste in order to contribute to the energy requirements of a consulting room.

  9. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, δ notation. (Author)

  10. Medical applications of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte, Valentin E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, in Mendoza (Argentina) was created in 1986 by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and is supported by the Government of the Mendoza Province, the CNEA, and the National University of Cuyo. The main activities of the school are medical diagnosis using nuclear techniques and the training of physicians and technicians in nuclear medicine. Teletherapy and brachytherapy are also performed. The use of the PET is described in some detail

  11. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory; Espectrometro de masas Varian MAT-250. Laboratorio de isotopos estables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, {delta} notation. (Author)

  12. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases

  13. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  14. Converting Energy to Medical Progress [Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  15. SU-E-T-362: Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Output Factors for Varian 2300CD and the Case for a Reference Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njeh, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dose inhomogeneity in treatment planning can be compensated using physical wedges. Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) were introduced by Varian to overcome some of the short comings of physical wedges. The objectives of this study were to measure EDW output factors for 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies for a Varian 2300CD. Secondly to review the literature in terms of published enhanced dynamic wedge output factors (EDWOF) for different Varian models and thereby adding credence to the case of the validity of reference databases. Methods: The enhanced dynamic wedge output factors were measured for the Varian 2300CD for both 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies. Twelve papers with published EDWOF for different Varian Linac models were found in the literature. Results: The EDWOF for 6 MV varied from 0.980 for a 5×5 cm 10 degree wedge to 0.424 for 20×20 cm 60 degree wedge. Similarly for 20 MV, the EDWOF varied from 0.986 for 5×5 cm 10 degree wedge to 0.529 for 20×20 cm 60 degree wedge. EDWOF are highly dependent on field size. Comparing our results with the published mean, we found an excellent agreement for 6 MV EDWOF with the percentage differences ranging from 0.01% to 0.57% with a mean of 0.03%. The coefficient of variation of published EDWOF ranged from 0.17% to 0.85% and 0.1% to 0.9% for the for 6 MV and 18MV photon energies respectively. This paper provides the first published EDWOF for 20 MV photon energy. In addition, we have provided the first compendium of EDWOFs for different Varian linac models. Conclusion: The consistency of EDWOF across models and institution provide further support that, a standard data set of basic photon and electron dosimetry could be established, as a guide for future commissioning, beam modeling and quality assurance purposes

  16. Commissioning of the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator: A multi-institutional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glide-Hurst, C.; Bellon, M.; Wen, N.; Zhao, B.; Chetty, I. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Foster, R.; Speiser, M.; Solberg, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Altunbas, C.; Westerly, D.; Miften, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Altman, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Latest generation linear accelerators (linacs), i.e., TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and its stereotactic counterpart, TrueBeam STx, have several unique features, including high-dose-rate flattening-filter-free (FFF) photon modes, reengineered electron modes with new scattering foil geometries, updated imaging hardware/software, and a novel control system. An evaluation of five TrueBeam linacs at three different institutions has been performed and this work reports on the commissioning experience. Methods: Acceptance and commissioning data were analyzed for five TrueBeam linacs equipped with 120 leaf (5 mm width) MLCs at three different institutions. Dosimetric data and mechanical parameters were compared. These included measurements of photon beam profiles (6X, 6XFFF, 10X, 10XFFF, 15X), photon and electron percent depth dose (PDD) curves (6, 9, 12 MeV), relative photon output factors (Scp), electron cone factors, mechanical isocenter accuracy, MLC transmission, and dosimetric leaf gap (DLG). End-to-end testing and IMRT commissioning were also conducted. Results: Gantry/collimator isocentricity measurements were similar (0.27-0.28 mm), with overall couch/gantry/collimator values of 0.46-0.68 mm across the three institutions. Dosimetric data showed good agreement between machines. The average MLC DLGs for 6, 10, and 15 MV photons were 1.33 {+-} 0.23, 1.57 {+-} 0.24, and 1.61 {+-} 0.26 mm, respectively. 6XFFF and 10XFFF modes had average DLGs of 1.16 {+-} 0.22 and 1.44 {+-} 0.30 mm, respectively. MLC transmission showed minimal variation across the three institutions, with the standard deviation <0.2% for all linacs. Photon and electron PDDs were comparable for all energies. 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beam quality, %dd(10){sub x} varied less than 0.3% for all linacs. Output factors (Scp) and electron cone factors agreed within 0.27%, on average; largest variations were observed for small field sizes (1.2% coefficient of variation, 10 MV, 2

  17. SU-F-T-66: Characteristics of Electron Beams From Varian Trubeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimofte, A; Kennedy, C; Zhu, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electron beam data between Truebeam and 2300ix Varian accelerators for percent depth dose for broad beam and small circular cutouts, cone factors, head scatter factor as a function of cone size and SSD, phantom scatter factor, blocking factor, distance factor and virtual source position. Methods: Measurements were performed for Truebeam and 2300ix Varian accelerators. The main energies used were: 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. PDD was measured at SSD = 100 cm for open beam and small circular cutouts (r = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.6cm) for different energies. Measurements to determine the head scatter factor (H) were done as a function of radius for six representative energies and five cone sizes (6, 10, 15, 20 and 25cm2). The phantom scatter factor (PSF) is defined as the ratio of blocking factor in water at reference depth and head scatter factor in air. PSF was measured as a function of radius and electron energy. Distance factor was measured for all energies and cones for three SSD’s (100, 110 and 120cm). Results: The percent depth dose (PDD) was measured for small cutouts of radius r = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 5.6cm. Blocking factor (BF) was measured for Truebeam and 2300ix accelerators, for different circular cutouts and energies for a 10×10 cone. Cone factors were compared between the two accelerators for different energies and applicator sizes. Conclusion: Cone factors measured for the two accelerator types differ by up to 5% for the largest applicator size. Blocking factors differs by up to 3%, with the largest variation for the smallest field size (0.5cm). Distance factor for different SSD’s differ by up to 4.5%.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator using dynamic wedges; Simulacao Monte Carlo do acelerador Varian Clinac 600C utilizando cunhas dinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, S. [Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI), Covilha (Portugal); Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Doutor Francisco Gentil (IPO), Coimbra (Portugal); Peralta, L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal)]|[Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2004-07-01

    The advent of linear accelerators (linac) with computer-controlled dynamic collimation systems and functional and anatomical imaging techniques allowed a more exact delimitation and localisation of the target volume. These advanced treatment techniques inevitably increase the complexity level of dose calculation because of the introduction of the temporal variable. On account of this, it is mandatory the usage of more accurate modelling techniques of the collimator components, as it is the case of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which has created an enormous interest in research and clinical practice. Because the patients bodies are not homogenous nor are their body surfaces plane and regular, the dose distribution may differ significantly from the standard distribution from the linac calibration. It is in the treatment planning systems, which include algorithms that are usually measured in homogeneous water phantoms specific for each correction that the dose distributions from each case are obtained. In a real treatment, exception made to superficial lesions, two or more radiation fields are used in order to obtain the recommended dose distributions. The simplest arrangement is made from two parallel and opposed fields that originate a homogeneous dose distribution in almost all the irradiated volume. The available resources are, for example, different types of energies and of radiation, the application of bolus, the protection of healthy structures, the usage of wedged filters and the application of dynamic wedges. A virtual or dynamic wedge, modelled through the movement of one of the jaws, when compared with a set of physical wedges offers an alternative calculation method of an arbitrary number of wedged fields, instead of the four traditional fields of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg angle and obtained with physical wedges. The goal of this work consists in the study of the application of dynamic wedges in tailoring the radiation field by the Varian Clinac 600

  19. Out‐of‐field doses and neutron dose equivalents for electron beams from modern Varian and Elekta linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Carlos E.; Nitsch, Paige L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Howell, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    Out‐of‐field doses from radiotherapy can cause harmful side effects or eventually lead to secondary cancers. Scattered doses outside the applicator field, neutron source strength values, and neutron dose equivalents have not been broadly investigated for high‐energy electron beams. To better understand the extent of these exposures, we measured out‐of‐field dose characteristics of electron applicators for high‐energy electron beams on two Varian 21iXs, a Varian TrueBeam, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at various energy levels. Out‐of‐field dose profiles and percent depth‐dose curves were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom using a Farmer ion chamber. Neutron dose was assessed using a combination of moderator buckets and gold activation foils placed on the treatment couch at various locations in the patient plane on both the Varian 21iX and Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators. Our findings showed that out‐of‐field electron doses were highest for the highest electron energies. These doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. The Elekta linear accelerator had higher electron out‐of‐field doses than the Varian units examined, and the Elekta dose profiles exhibited a second dose peak about 20 to 30 cm from central‐axis, which was found to be higher than typical out‐of‐field doses from photon beams. Electron doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. With respect to neutron dosimetry, Q values and neutron dose equivalents increased with electron beam energy. Neutron contamination from electron beams was found to be much lower than that from photon beams. Even though the neutron dose equivalent for electron beams represented a small portion of neutron doses observed under photon beams, neutron doses from electron beams may need to be considered for

  20. Out-of-field doses and neutron dose equivalents for electron beams from modern Varian and Elekta linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Carlos E; Nitsch, Paige L; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Howell, Rebecca M; Kry, Stephen F

    2016-07-08

    Out-of-field doses from radiotherapy can cause harmful side effects or eventually lead to secondary cancers. Scattered doses outside the applicator field, neutron source strength values, and neutron dose equivalents have not been broadly investigated for high-energy electron beams. To better understand the extent of these exposures, we measured out-of-field dose characteristics of electron applicators for high-energy electron beams on two Varian 21iXs, a Varian TrueBeam, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at various energy levels. Out-of-field dose profiles and percent depth-dose curves were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom using a Farmer ion chamber. Neutron dose was assessed using a combination of moderator buckets and gold activation foils placed on the treatment couch at various locations in the patient plane on both the Varian 21iX and Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators. Our findings showed that out-of-field electron doses were highest for the highest electron energies. These doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. The Elekta linear accelerator had higher electron out-of-field doses than the Varian units examined, and the Elekta dose profiles exhibited a second dose peak about 20 to 30 cm from central-axis, which was found to be higher than typical out-of-field doses from photon beams. Electron doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. With respect to neutron dosimetry, Q values and neutron dose equivalents increased with electron beam energy. Neutron contamination from electron beams was found to be much lower than that from photon beams. Even though the neutron dose equivalent for electron beams represented a small portion of neutron doses observed under photon beams, neutron doses from electron beams may need to be considered for special cases.

  1. Investigating in-field and out-of-field neutron contamination in high-energy medical linear accelerators based on the treatment factors of field size, depth, beam modifiers, and beam type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltekin, Fatih; Yeginer, Mete; Ozyigit, Gokhan

    2015-07-01

    We analysed the effects of field size, depth, beam modifier and beam type on the amount of in-field and out-of-field neutron contamination for medical linear accelerators (linacs). Measurements were carried out for three high-energy medical linacs of Elekta Synergy Platform, Varian Clinac DHX High Performance and Philips SL25 using bubble detectors. The photo-neutron measurements were taken in the first two linacs with 18 MV nominal energy, whereas the electro-neutrons were measured in the three linacs with 9 MeV, 10 MeV, 15 MeV and 18 MeV. The central neutron doses increased with larger field sizes as a dramatic drop off was observed in peripheral areas. Comparing with the jaws-shaped open-field of 10 × 10 cm, the motorised and physical wedges contributed to neutron contamination at central axis by 60% and 18%, respectively. The similar dose increment was observed in MLC-shaped fields. The contributions of MLCs were in the range of 55-59% and 19-22% in Elekta and Varian linacs comparing with 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm open fields shaped by the jaws, respectively. The neutron doses at shallow depths were found to be higher than the doses found at deeper regions. The electro-neutron dose at the 18 MeV energy was higher than the doses at the electron energies of 15 MeV and 9 MeV by a factor of 3 and 50, respectively. The photo- and electro-neutron dose should be taken into consideration in the radiation treatment with high photon and electron energies. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator using dynamic wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, S.; Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C.; Peralta, L.; Universidade de Lisboa

    2004-01-01

    The advent of linear accelerators (linac) with computer-controlled dynamic collimation systems and functional and anatomical imaging techniques allowed a more exact delimitation and localisation of the target volume. These advanced treatment techniques inevitably increase the complexity level of dose calculation because of the introduction of the temporal variable. On account of this, it is mandatory the usage of more accurate modelling techniques of the collimator components, as it is the case of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which has created an enormous interest in research and clinical practice. Because the patients bodies are not homogenous nor are their body surfaces plane and regular, the dose distribution may differ significantly from the standard distribution from the linac calibration. It is in the treatment planning systems, which include algorithms that are usually measured in homogeneous water phantoms specific for each correction that the dose distributions from each case are obtained. In a real treatment, exception made to superficial lesions, two or more radiation fields are used in order to obtain the recommended dose distributions. The simplest arrangement is made from two parallel and opposed fields that originate a homogeneous dose distribution in almost all the irradiated volume. The available resources are, for example, different types of energies and of radiation, the application of bolus, the protection of healthy structures, the usage of wedged filters and the application of dynamic wedges. A virtual or dynamic wedge, modelled through the movement of one of the jaws, when compared with a set of physical wedges offers an alternative calculation method of an arbitrary number of wedged fields, instead of the four traditional fields of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg angle and obtained with physical wedges. The goal of this work consists in the study of the application of dynamic wedges in tailoring the radiation field by the Varian Clinac 600

  4. Feasibility of energy harvesting techniques for wearable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Thaddaeus J; Subbian, Vignesh; Beyette, Fred R

    2014-01-01

    Wearable devices are arguably one of the most rapidly growing technologies in the computing and health care industry. These systems provide improved means of monitoring health status of humans in real-time. In order to cope with continuous sensing and transmission of biological and health status data, it is desirable to move towards energy autonomous systems that can charge batteries using passive, ambient energy. This not only ensures uninterrupted data capturing, but could also eliminate the need to frequently remove, replace, and recharge batteries. To this end, energy harvesting is a promising area that can lead to extremely power-efficient portable medical devices. This paper presents an experimental prototype to study the feasibility of harvesting two energy sources, solar and thermoelectric energy, in the context of wearable devices. Preliminary results show that such devices can be powered by transducing ambient energy that constantly surrounds us.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of Varian Linac for 6 MV photon beam with BEAMnrc code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Maged; El Bardouni, T.; Chakir, E.; Boukhal, H.; Saeed, M.; Ahmed, Abdul-Aziz

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the initial electron beam parameters on the absorbed dose distribution calculated with EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, for 6 MV photon beam. A proposed methodology for benchmarking the BEAMnrc model of Varian Linac has been used. Also, a new photon cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII release 8 evaluation has been employed. The parameters tested include mean energy, radial intensity distribution and angular spread of the initial electron beam. Mean energy and angular spread were tested for a square irradiation field 10 × 10 cm2, whereas beam width of the electron beam was studied for 10 × 10 cm2 at different depths and 30 × 30 cm2 at depth of 10 cm. The results obtained are compared with measurement data to select the optimal electron beam parameters. The differences between MC calculation and measurements data are analyzed using gamma index criteria which fixed within 1% -1 mm accuracy. The obtained results indicated that the depth-dose and dose-profile curves were considerably influenced by the mean energy of the electron beam. The depth-dose curves were unaffected by the beam width of the electron beam, for both irradiation fields. On the contrary, lateral dose-profile curves were affected by the beam width of initial electron beam. Both dose-profile and depth-dose curves were unaffected to the angular spread of the electron beam. A deep depth of 10 × 10 cm2 is very accurate to tune the beam width. Mean energy and beam width must be tuned precisely, to get the MC does distribution with acceptable accuracy.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator dynamic and physical wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, S [Universidade da Beira Interior, Av. Marques d' Avila e Bolama, Covilha 6201-001 (Portugal); Chaves, A [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Doutor Francisco Gentil (IPO), Av. Bissaya Barreto, Coimbra 3000-075 (Portugal); Peralta, L [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de PartIculas (LIP), Av. Elias Garcia no14 1o, Lisbon 1000-149 (Portugal); Lopes, Mc [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande EdifIcio C5, Lisbon 1149-016 (Portugal)

    2007-06-15

    The present paper describes the study done on the dosimetric characteristics of the Varian Clinac 600C dynamic wedges (DW) and their comparison with the physical wedges (PW) in terms of the differences affecting the dose distributions, beam spectra, energy fluence and angular distributions. The geometry of the 4 MV photon beam and the dose distributions in a water phantom were simulated with GEANT3 and DPM Monte Carlo code systems. The DW was modelled through the constant movement of the upper jaws. The depth dose distributions and lateral profiles for the DW, PW and open fields were measured and compared with the Monte Carlo simulations and the global agreement was found to be within 3%. It was also found that the effects of a DW on beam spectral and angular distributions are much less significant than those produced by a PW. For example, in our study we found out that the 45{sup 0}PW, when compared with the corresponding open field, can introduce a 30% increase in the mean photon energy due to the beam hardening effect and that it can also introduce a 4.5% dose reduction in the build-up region because of the reduction of the contaminated electrons by the PW. For the DW neither this mean-energy increase nor such dose reduction was found. The PW, when compared to the DW, significantly alters the photon-beam spectrum and these dosimetric differences are significant and further investigation must be performed to quantify the impact in clinical use of these beams.

  7. SU-E-T-405: Evaluation of the Raystation Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm for Varian Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansourekidou, P; Allen, C [Health Quest, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the Raystation v4.51 Electron Monte Carlo algorithm for Varian Trilogy, IX and 2100 series linear accelerators and commission for clinical use. Methods: Seventy two water and forty air scans were acquired with a water tank in the form of profiles and depth doses, as requested by vendor. Data was imported into Rayphysics beam modeling module. Energy spectrum was modeled using seven parameters. Contamination photons were modeled using five parameters. Source phase space was modeled using six parameters. Calculations were performed in clinical version 4.51 and percent depth dose curves and profiles were extracted to be compared to water tank measurements. Sensitivity tests were performed for all parameters. Grid size and particle histories were evaluated per energy for statistical uncertainty performance. Results: Model accuracy for air profiles is poor in the shoulder and penumbra region. However, model accuracy for water scans is acceptable. All energies and cones are within 2%/2mm for 90% of the points evaluated. Source phase space parameters have a cumulative effect. To achieve distributions with satisfactory smoothness level a 0.1cm grid and 3,000,000 particle histories were used for commissioning calculations. Calculation time was approximately 3 hours per energy. Conclusion: Raystation electron Monte Carlo is acceptable for clinical use for the Varian accelerators listed. Results are inferior to Elekta Electron Monte Carlo modeling. Known issues were reported to Raysearch and will be resolved in upcoming releases. Auto-modeling is limited to open cone depth dose curves and needs expansion.

  8. Energy, emissions and emergency medical services: Policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lawrence H.; Blanchard, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption and emissions associated with health services is important for minimizing their environmental impact and guiding their adaptation to a low-carbon economy. In this post-hoc analysis, we characterize the energy burden of North American emergency medical services (EMS) agencies and estimate the potential marginal damage costs arising from their emissions as an example of how and why health services matter in environmental and energy policy, and how and why environmental and energy policy matter to health services. We demonstrate EMS systems are energy intensive, and that vehicle fuels represent 80% of their energy burden while electricity and natural gas represent 20%. We also demonstrate that emissions from EMS operations represent only a small fraction of estimated health sector emissions, but for EMS systems in the United States the associated marginal damage costs are likely between $2.7 million and $9.7 million annually. Significant changes in the supply or price of energy, including changes that arise from environmental and energy policy initiatives designed to constrain fossil fuel consumption, could potentially affect EMS agencies and other health services. We encourage cross disciplinary research to proactively facilitate the health system's adaptation to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► Estimated EMS-related emissions less than 1% of health sector emissions. ► Damage costs of U.S. EMS-related emissions estimated at $2.7 to $9.7 million. ► EMS energy burden is approximately 442 MJ per ambulance response. ► Approximately 80% of EMS energy burden is vehicle fuels. ► Energy supply, price and policy could impact EMS (and other health) services. ► Research needed to facilitate health services’ adaptation to a low carbon economy.

  9. Genome sequence of Kocuria varians G6 ssolated from a slaughterhouse in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob; Røder, Henriette Lyng

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first draft genome sequence ofKocuria variansG6, which was isolated from a meat chopper at a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The 2.90-Mb genome sequence consists of 95 contigs and contains 2,518 predicted protein-coding genes.......We report here the first draft genome sequence ofKocuria variansG6, which was isolated from a meat chopper at a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The 2.90-Mb genome sequence consists of 95 contigs and contains 2,518 predicted protein-coding genes....

  10. Clinical application of image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT (on the Varian OBI platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.; Tilikidis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) can be used to measure and correct positional errors for target and critical structures immediately prior to or during treatment delivery. Some of the most recent available methods applied for target localization are: trans-abdominal ultrasound, implanted markers with in room MV or kV X-rays, optical surface tracking systems, implantable electromagnetic markers, in room CT such as kVCT on rail, kilo-voltage or mega-voltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and helical megavoltage CT. The verification of the accurate treatment position in conjunction with detailed anatomical information before every fraction can be essential for the outcome of the treatment. In this paper we present the on-board imager (OBI, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) that has been in routine clinical use at the Karolinska University Hospital since June 2004. The OBI has been used for on-line set-up correction of prostate patients using internal gold markers. Displacements of these markers can be monitored radiographically during the treatment course and the registered marker shifts act as a surrogate for prostate motion. For this purpose, on-board kV-kV seems to be an ideal system in terms of image quality. The CBCT function of OBI was installed in March 2005 at our department. It focuses on localizing tumors based on internal anatomy, not just on the conventional external marks or tattoos. The CBCT system provides the capacity for soft tissue imaging in the treatment position and real-time radiographic monitoring during treatment delivery. (authors)

  11. Initial test results from the HDL-varian injection-locked, conventional emission, high power magnetron program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.S. III; Treado, T.A.N.; Thomas, G.E.; Robertson, J.A.; Pomeroy, R.D.; Barry, J.D.; Kehns, R.A.; Bromborsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on the development of high power, high energy microwave modules. The HDL-Varian high-power magnetron program is unique in the HPM field in that established crossed-field tube technologies are being exploited in order to circumvent many of the difficulties inherent in other HPM sources. Instead of using explosive field emission cathodes, short pulse lengths, and extremely high voltages, the authors are operating with secondary emission cathodes, carefully conditioned high vacuum surfaces, and more moderate dc and rf fields. As a result, typical crossed-field tube properties are expected including long pulse lengths, high efficiency, relatively low operating voltages and magnetic fields, and high phase stability and control using well isolated low-power rf drivers. High efficiency and moderate voltages allow for the use of proven high repetition rate modulator technology. Preliminary results from an 18-vane rising sun magnetron are presented

  12. Scintillator developments for high energy physics and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2000-01-01

    Scintillating crystals have been for a long time developed as a basic component in particle detectors with a strong spin-off in the field of medical imaging. A typical example is BGO, which has become the main component of PET scanners since the large effort made by the L3 experiment at CERN to develop low cost production methods for this crystal. Systematic R&D on basic mechanism in inorganic scintillators, initiated by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN 10 years ago, has contributed not to a small amount, to the development of new materials for high energy physics and for a new generation of medical imaging devices with increased resolution and sensitivity. The examples of the lead tungstate crystal for the CMS experiment at CERN (high energy physics) as well as of new materials under development for medical imaging will be described with an emphasis on the mutual benefit both fields can extract from a common R&D effort. (14 refs).

  13. Acute effects of energy drinks in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés; Romero, César; Arroyave, Cristhian; Giraldo, Fabián; Sánchez, Leidy; Sánchez, Julio

    2017-09-01

    To determine the acute effects of a variety of recognized energy drinks on medical students, based on the hypothesis that these beverages may affect negatively cardiovascular parameters, stress levels and working memory. Eighty young healthy medical students were included in the study. 62.5 % of the participants were male, and the age mean was 21.45 years. Each person was evaluated via measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, oxygen saturation, breath rate, temperature, STAI score (to assess anxiety state), salivary cortisol and N-back task score (to determine cognitive enhancement). These evaluations were performed before and following the intake of either carbonated water or one of three energy drinks containing caffeine in similar concentrations and an undetermined energy blend; A contained less sugar and no taurine. Thirty-minute SBP increased significantly in the A and C groups. The B group exhibited a diminution of the percentage of the 1-h SBP increase, an increase of 1-h DBP and QTc shortening. HR showed an increase in the percent change in the A and C groups. Cortisol salivary levels increased in the B group. The STAI test score decreased in the C group. The percent change in N-back scores increased in the A group. The data reinforce the need for further research on the acute and chronic effects of energy drinks to determine the actual risks and benefits. Consumers need to be more informed about the safety of these energy drinks, especially the young student population.

  14. Bluetooth low energy: wireless connectivity for medical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omre, Alf Helge

    2010-03-01

    Electronic wireless sensors could cut medical costs by enabling physicians to remotely monitor vital signs such as blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood oxygenation while patients remain at home. According to the IDC report "Worldwide Bluetooth Semiconductor 2008-2012 Forecast," published November 2008, a forthcoming radio frequency communication ("wireless connectivity") standard, Bluetooth low energy, will link wireless sensors via radio signals to the 70% of cell phones and computers likely to be fitted with the next generation of Bluetooth wireless technology, leveraging a ready-built infrastructure for data transmission. Analysis of trends indicated by this data can help physicians better manage diseases such as diabetes. The technology also addresses the concerns of cost, compatibility, and interoperability that have previously stalled widespread adoption of wireless technology in medical applications. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Some advances in medical applications of low energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valković, V.; Moschini, G.

    1991-05-01

    Medical applications of low energy accelerators include: the use of nuclear analytical methods and procedures for laboratory studies and routine measurements; material productions and modifications to meet special requirements; radioisotope productions and their applications in radiopharmaceuticals as well as in positron emission tomography; and radiotherapy with ions, based on improved understanding of the interaction of charged particles with living tissue. Some of the recent advances in these fields are critically summarized. The plan for an improved charged particle facility in a hospital environment dedicated to applications in biology and medicine is presented.

  16. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  17. DOSE AND GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA FROM NEUTRON-INDUCED RADIOACTIVITY IN MEDICAL LINEAR ACCELERATORS FOLLOWING HIGH-ENERGY TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehan, S; Taylor, M L; Smith, R L; Dunn, L; Kron, T; Franich, R D

    2016-12-01

    Production of radioisotopes in medical linear accelerators (linacs) is of concern when the beam energy exceeds the threshold for the photonuclear interaction. Staff and patients may receive a radiation dose as a result of the induced radioactivity in the linac. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to identify the isotopes produced following the delivery of 18 MV photon beams from a Varian 21EX and an Elekta Synergy. The prominent radioisotopes produced include 187 W, 63 Zn, 56 Mn, 24 Na and 28 Al in both linac models. The dose rate was measured at the beam exit window (12.6 µSv in the first 10 min) following 18 MV total body irradiation (TBI) beams. For a throughput of 24 TBI patients per year, staff members are estimated to receive an annual dose of up to 750 μSv at the patient location. This can be further reduced to 65 μSv by closing the jaws before re-entering the treatment bunker. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Characterization of the exradin A18 chamber ionization according to the IEC70631 standards. This work aims at the characterization of the Exradin model (Standard Imaging) A18 ionization chamber, according to the international standard IEC 607311. Intends to use the camera Exradin A18 for the quality control of a linear accelerator VARIAN model TrueBeam with capacity to produce beams of photons of high energy, unfiltered flatter (in later FFF) with high dose absorbed by pulse rate, why is verified, according to the mentioned standard IEC 60731, even under conditions of high dose absorbed by pulse rate, the efficiency of ion collection from this camera is within tolerances; Caracterizacion de la camara de ionizacion exradin A18 segun el estandar IEC70631. Estudio para haces de fotones sin filtro aplanador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onses Segarra, A.; Puxeu Vaque, J.; Sancho Kolster, I.; Lizuain Arroyo, M. C.; Picon Olmos, C.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims at the characterization of the Exradin model (Standard Imaging) A18 ionization chamber, according to the international standard IEC 607311. Intends to use the camera Exradin A18 for the quality control of a linear accelerator VARIAN model TrueBeam with capacity to produce beams of photons of high energy, unfiltered flatter (in later FFF) with high dose absorbed by pulse rate, why is verified, according to the mentioned standard IEC 60731, even under conditions of high dose absorbed by pulse rate, the efficiency of ion collection from this camera is within tolerances. (Author)

  19. Energy efficiency improvement of medical electric tools and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkov Aleksandr S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing volume of applications of various kinds of electric drives in all spheres of human activity, the issues in improving the efficiency of the electromechanical converters of electric energy, one of the most important components of the electric drive (ED, are becoming increasingly important. Such issues include reducing their weight and size, improving the functional characteristics of these devices to increase their operational life and reducing the cost of manufacture. Taking full advantage of these opportunities relates to the AC and DC single-phase commutator motor (SCM, which is widely used in regulated and high-speed motor drives in medical electric hand tools. The SCM is used in machinery where the load torque has a hyperbolic dependence on the rotational speed and the need to work with a large motor overload due to the “soft” mechanical characteristics of such motors.

  20. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-04: An Evaluation of Out-Of-Field Doses for Electron Beams From Modern Varian and Elekta Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, C; Nitsch, P; Kudchadker, R; Howell, R; Kry, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accurately determining out-of-field doses when using electron beam radiotherapy is of importance when treating pregnant patients or patients with implanted electronic devices. Scattered doses outside of the applicator field in electron beams have not been broadly investigated, especially since manufacturers have taken different approaches in applicator designs. Methods: In this study, doses outside of the applicator field were measured for electron beams produced by a 10×10 applicator on two Varian 21iXs operating at 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, a Varian TrueBeam operating at 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at 6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV. Peripheral dose profiles and percent depth doses were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom at 100 cm SSD with a Farmer ion chamber. Doses were compared to peripheral photon doses from AAPM’s Task Group #36 report. Results: Doses were highest for the highest electron energies. Doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. Substantial dose differences were observed between different accelerators; the Elekta accelerator had much higher doses than any Varian unit examined. Surprisingly, doses were often similar to, and could be much higher than, doses from photon therapy. Doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that proper shielding may be very important when utilizing electron beams, particularly on a Versa HD, while treating pregnant patients or those with implanted electronic devices. Applying a water equivalent bolus of Emax(MeV)/4 thickness (cm) on the patient would reduce fetal dose drastically for all clinical energies and is a practical solution to manage the potentially high peripheral doses seen from modern electron beams. Funding from NIH Grant number: #CA180803.

  1. Dose non-linearity of the dosimetry system and possible monitor unit errors on medical linear accelerators used in conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Wazir; Hoon Lee Sang; Alam Khan; Maqbool Muhammad; Khan Gulzar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study dose non-linearity in medical linear accelerators used in conventional radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Open fields, as well as the enhanced dynamic wedge ones, were used to collect data for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams obtained from the VARIAN linear accelerator. Beam stability was checked and confirmed for different dose rates, energies, and application of enhanced dynamic wedge by calculating the charge per monitor unit. Moni...

  2. SU-F-T-262: Commissioning Varian Portal Dosimetry for EPID-Based Patient Specific QA in a Non-Aria Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M; Knutson, N [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Herrington, J [University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Price, M [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Development of an in-house program facilitates a workflow that allows Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) patient specific quality assurance (QA) measurements to be acquired and analyzed in the Portal Dosimetry Application (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) using a non-Aria Record and Verify (R&V) system (MOSAIQ, Elekta, Crawley, UK) to deliver beams in standard clinical treatment mode. Methods: Initial calibration of an in-house software tool includes characterization of EPID dosimetry parameters by importing DICOM images of varying delivered MUs to determine linear mapping factors in order to convert image pixel values to Varian-defined Calibrated Units (CU). Using this information, the Portal Dose Image Prediction (PDIP) algorithm was commissioned by converting images of various field sizes to output factors using the Eclipse Scripting Application Programming Interface (ESAPI) and converting a delivered configuration fluence to absolute dose units. To verify the algorithm configuration, an integrated image was acquired, exported directly from the R&V client, automatically converted to a compatible, calibrated dosimetric image, and compared to a PDIP calculated image using Varian’s Portal Dosimetry Application. Results: For two C-Series and one TrueBeam Varian linear accelerators, gamma comparisons (global 3% / 3mm) of PDIP algorithm predicted dosimetric images and images converted via the inhouse system demonstrated agreement for ≥99% of all pixels, exceeding vendor-recommended commissioning guidelines. Conclusion: Combinations of a programmatic image conversion tool and ESAPI allow for an efficient and accurate method of patient IMRT QA incorporating a 3rd party R&V system.

  3. SU-F-T-480: Evaluation of the Role of Varian Machine Performance Check (MPC) in Our Daily QA Routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, B; Gao, S; Balter, P; Nitsch, P [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: (A) To assess the role of Varian MPC in our daily QA routine, and (B) evaluate the accuracy and precision of MPC. Methods: The MPC was performed weekly, for five months, on a Varian TrueBeam for five photon (6x, 10x, 15x, 6xFFF, and 10xFFF) and electron (6e, 9e, 12e, 16e, and 20e) energies. Output results were compared to those determined with an ionization chamber (TN30001, PTW-Freiburg) in plastic and a daily check device (DQA3, Sun Nuclear). Consistency of the Mechanical measurements over five months was analyzed and compared to monthly IsoCal results. Results: The MPC randomly showed large deviations (3–7%) that disappeared upon reacquisition. The MPC output closely matched monthly ion chamber and DQA3 measurements. The maximum and mean absolute difference between monthly and MPC was 1.18% and 0.28±0.21% for all energies. The maximum and mean absolute difference between DQA3 and MPC was 3.26% and 0.85±0.61%. The results suggest the MPC is comparable to the DQA3 for measuring output. The DQA3 provides wedge output, flatness, symmetry, and energy constancy checks, which are missing from the current implementation of the MPC. However, the MPC provides additional mechanical tests, such as size of the radiation isocenter (0.33±0.02 mm) and its coincidence with MV and kV isocenters (0.17±0.05 and 0.21±0.03 mm). It also provides positional accuracy of individual jaws (maximum σ, 0.33mm), all the MLC leaves (0.08mm), gantry (0.05°) and collimator (0.13°) rotation angles, and couch positioning (0.11mm) accuracy. MPC mechanical tests could replace our current daily on-board imaging QA routine and provide some additional QA not currently performed. Conclusion: MPC has the potential to be a valuable tool that facilitates reliable daily QA including many mechanical tests that are not currently performed. This system can add to our daily QA, but further development would be needed to fully replace our current Daily QA device.

  4. A Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations using Varian phase space files for TrueBeam Linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anna; Sawkey, Daren; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2015-05-01

    To develop a framework for accurate electron Monte Carlo dose calculation. In this study, comprehensive validations of vendor provided electron beam phase space files for Varian TrueBeam Linacs against measurement data are presented. In this framework, the Monte Carlo generated phase space files were provided by the vendor and used as input to the downstream plan-specific simulations including jaws, electron applicators, and water phantom computed in the EGSnrc environment. The phase space files were generated based on open field commissioning data. A subset of electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV and open and collimated field sizes 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 × 15, 20 × 20, and 25 × 25 cm(2) were evaluated. Measurements acquired with a CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber and electron diode detector and simulations from this framework were compared for a water phantom geometry. The evaluation metrics include percent depth dose, orthogonal and diagonal profiles at depths R100, R50, Rp, and Rp+ for standard and extended source-to-surface distances (SSD), as well as cone and cut-out output factors. Agreement for the percent depth dose and orthogonal profiles between measurement and Monte Carlo was generally within 2% or 1 mm. The largest discrepancies were observed within depths of 5 mm from phantom surface. Differences in field size, penumbra, and flatness for the orthogonal profiles at depths R100, R50, and Rp were within 1 mm, 1 mm, and 2%, respectively. Orthogonal profiles at SSDs of 100 and 120 cm showed the same level of agreement. Cone and cut-out output factors agreed well with maximum differences within 2.5% for 6 MeV and 1% for all other energies. Cone output factors at extended SSDs of 105, 110, 115, and 120 cm exhibited similar levels of agreement. We have presented a Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations for Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Electron beam energies of 6 to 20 MeV for open and collimated

  5. Technical Report: Reference photon dosimetry data for Varian accelerators based on IROC-Houston site visit data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, James R.; Followill, David S.; Kry, Stephen F.; Lowenstein, Jessica; Molineu, Andrea; Alvarez, Paola; Taylor, Paige A.; Stingo, Francesco C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate data regarding linear accelerator (Linac) radiation characteristics are important for treatment planning system modeling as well as regular quality assurance of the machine. The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston (IROC-H) has measured the dosimetric characteristics of numerous machines through their on-site dosimetry review protocols. Photon data are presented and can be used as a secondary check of acquired values, as a means to verify commissioning a new machine, or in preparation for an IROC-H site visit. Methods: Photon data from IROC-H on-site reviews from 2000 to 2014 were compiled and analyzed. Specifically, data from approximately 500 Varian machines were analyzed. Each dataset consisted of point measurements of several dosimetric parameters at various locations in a water phantom to assess the percentage depth dose, jaw output factors, multileaf collimator small field output factors, off-axis factors, and wedge factors. The data were analyzed by energy and parameter, with similarly performing machine models being assimilated into classes. Common statistical metrics are presented for each machine class. Measurement data were compared against other reference data where applicable. Results: Distributions of the parameter data were shown to be robust and derive from a student’s t distribution. Based on statistical and clinical criteria, all machine models were able to be classified into two or three classes for each energy, except for 6 MV for which there were eight classes. Quantitative analysis of the measurements for 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photon beams is presented for each parameter; supplementary material has also been made available which contains further statistical information. Conclusions: IROC-H has collected numerous data on Varian Linacs and the results of photon measurements from the past 15 years are presented. The data can be used as a comparison check of a physicist’s acquired values. Acquired values that are well

  6. A Monte Carlo model for photoneutron generation by a medical LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumini, M.; Isolan, L.; Cucchi, G.; Sghedoni, R.; Iori, M.

    2017-11-01

    For an optimal tuning of the radiation protection planning, a Monte Carlo model using the MCNPX code has been built, allowing an accurate estimate of the spectrometric and geometrical characteristics of photoneutrons generated by a Varian TrueBeam Stx© medical linear accelerator. We considered in our study a device working at the reference energy for clinical applications of 15 MV, stemmed from a Varian Clinac©2100 modeled starting from data collected thanks to several papers available in the literature. The model results were compared with neutron and photon dose measurements inside and outside the bunker hosting the accelerator obtaining a complete dose map. Normalized neutron fluences were tallied in different positions at the patient plane and at different depths. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the flattening filter material were performed to enlighten aspects that could influence the photoneutron production.

  7. Studying the induced radioactivity of a varian clinac 2100C/D accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Li Hailiang; Deng Daping; Shang Yunying; Jing Zhongjun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To Study the influences of dose, time, distance and irradiation mode on induced radioactivity by measuring a Varian Clinac 2100C/D accelerator. Methods: The induced radioactivity was measured in different dose, time, distance and irradiation mode by using of 450P model dosemeter. The results was analysed. Results: The induced radioactivity is direct ratio with dose, inverse ratio with time and distance. In different irradiation mode, the induced radioactivity is different. Conclusion: The induced radioactivity level of accelerator is related with dose, time, distance and irradiation mode. (authors)

  8. The growth of Micrococcus varians by utilizing sugar cane blackstrap molasses as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Luís A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the growth of Micrococcus varians were carried out in BHI culture medium (control as well as in a culture medium with 2% diluted sugar cane blackstrap molasses, enriched with 0.1% yeast extract. The experiment was conducted with three samples of the experimental and control media in a 5 liter fermentor with working volume of 3.5 liters, continuous agitation (150 rpm, 35 ± 0.1°C temperature, 0.7 L air. l-1 medium. min -1, initial pH 7.0 ± 0.2, 24 hour fermentation period, and approximate inoculum of 6.0 log10 CFU/ml. Samples were collected at 2-hour intervals. Micrococcus varians grew in the two culture media studied, which confirms the experimental medium viability for the growth of this species. The final average concentration of biomass was higher in the control medium than in the experimental medium: 0.99 g.l-1 and 0.78 g.l-1, respectively. The final number of viable cells at the end of fermentation was 20.65 log10 CFU/ml for the control medium (BHI, while in the experimental medium the number of viable cells was 19.43 log10 CFU/ml. The consumption of total sugars was higher for the biomass in the control medium (79.78%, while only 50.53% was consumed for the experimental medium.

  9. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual energy CT: New horizon in medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Dual-energy CT has remained underutilized over the past decade probably due to a cumbersome workflow issue and current technical limitations. Clinical radiologists should be made aware of the potential clinical benefits of dual-energy CT over single-energy CT. To accomplish this aim, the basic principle, current acquisition methods with advantages and disadvantages, and various material-specific imaging methods as clinical applications of dual-energy CT should be addressed in detail. Current dual-energy CT acquisition methods include dual tubes with or without beam filtration, rapid voltage switching, dual-layer detector, split filter technique, and sequential scanning. Dual-energy material-specific imaging methods include virtual monoenergetic or monochromatic imaging, effective atomic number map, virtual non-contrast or unenhanced imaging, virtual non-calcium imaging, iodine map, inhaled xenon map, uric acid imaging, automatic bone removal, and lung vessels analysis. In this review, we focus on dual-energy CT imaging including related issues of radiation exposure to patients, scanning and post-processing options, and potential clinical benefits mainly to improve the understanding of clinical radiologists and thus, expand the clinical use of dual-energy CT; in addition, we briefly describe the current technical limitations of dual-energy CT and the current developments of photon-counting detector.

  11. Dual-Energy CT: New Horizon in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Goo, Jin Mo

    2017-01-01

    Dual-energy CT has remained underutilized over the past decade probably due to a cumbersome workflow issue and current technical limitations. Clinical radiologists should be made aware of the potential clinical benefits of dual-energy CT over single-energy CT. To accomplish this aim, the basic principle, current acquisition methods with advantages and disadvantages, and various material-specific imaging methods as clinical applications of dual-energy CT should be addressed in detail. Current dual-energy CT acquisition methods include dual tubes with or without beam filtration, rapid voltage switching, dual-layer detector, split filter technique, and sequential scanning. Dual-energy material-specific imaging methods include virtual monoenergetic or monochromatic imaging, effective atomic number map, virtual non-contrast or unenhanced imaging, virtual non-calcium imaging, iodine map, inhaled xenon map, uric acid imaging, automatic bone removal, and lung vessels analysis. In this review, we focus on dual-energy CT imaging including related issues of radiation exposure to patients, scanning and post-processing options, and potential clinical benefits mainly to improve the understanding of clinical radiologists and thus, expand the clinical use of dual-energy CT; in addition, we briefly describe the current technical limitations of dual-energy CT and the current developments of photon-counting detector.

  12. On Management Problem of Energy Use at Medical Institutions in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Ait Bahajou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems of rational energy use at  medical institutions inMoroccowithin the context of general energy policy and promotion of the ISO 50001:2011 “Energy management systems – Requirements with guidance for use” requirements in one of the largest hospitals of the country.

  13. Sustainable synthesis of silver nanoparticles using macroalgae Spirogyra varians and analysis of their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Salari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, silver nanoparticles (SNPs were synthesized through bio-reduction of silver ions using the Spirogyra varians. The procedure used is simple and sustainable making it suitable for economic production of SNPs. The structure and morphology of SNPs were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR. These nanoparticles indicated an absorption peak at 430 nm in the UV–visible spectrum. The crystallite average size was estimated about 17.6 nm and SEM image confirmed synthesis of relatively uniform nanoparticles. The antibacterial effect of SNPs was also tested on several micro-organisms by measuring the inhibition zone, MIC and MBC. The results confirmed that SNPs can act as a powerful antibacterial agent against various pathogenic bacteria.

  14. TU-FG-201-05: Varian MPC as a Statistical Process Control Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, A; Rowbottom, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance in radiotherapy requires the measurement of various machine parameters to ensure they remain within permitted values over time. In Truebeam release 2.0 the Machine Performance Check (MPC) was released allowing beam output and machine axis movements to be assessed in a single test. We aim to evaluate the Varian Machine Performance Check (MPC) as a tool for Statistical Process Control (SPC). Methods: Varian’s MPC tool was used on three Truebeam and one EDGE linac for a period of approximately one year. MPC was commissioned against independent systems. After this period the data were reviewed to determine whether or not the MPC was useful as a process control tool. Analyses on individual tests were analysed using Shewhart control plots, using Matlab for analysis. Principal component analysis was used to determine if a multivariate model was of any benefit in analysing the data. Results: Control charts were found to be useful to detect beam output changes, worn T-nuts and jaw calibration issues. Upper and lower control limits were defined at the 95% level. Multivariate SPC was performed using Principal Component Analysis. We found little evidence of clustering beyond that which might be naively expected such as beam uniformity and beam output. Whilst this makes multivariate analysis of little use it suggests that each test is giving independent information. Conclusion: The variety of independent parameters tested in MPC makes it a sensitive tool for routine machine QA. We have determined that using control charts in our QA programme would rapidly detect changes in machine performance. The use of control charts allows large quantities of tests to be performed on all linacs without visual inspection of all results. The use of control limits alerts users when data are inconsistent with previous measurements before they become out of specification. A. Carver has received a speaker’s honorarium from Varian

  15. Attenuation of external elements in the calculation frame less radiosurgery system from Varian (Zmed); Atenuacion de elementos externos al calculo en el sistema frameless de radiocirugia de varian (ZMED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ortega, J.; Ordonez Marquez, J.; Molina Lopez, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Zmed frame less system, marketed by Varian, is based on infrared detection of a localised with reflective spheres is fixed by a dental mold to the patient's head. In this work we have studied the dosimetric differences would be found if an arc radiosurgery pierced plastic bar overhang used for the treatment main difference between the two media. (Author)

  16. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – Decembe...

  17. Energy Survey of Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Augusta, Georgia. Volume 2. Appendices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...) including low cost/no cost ECO's and perform complete evaluations of each. Energy equipment replacement projects already underway, approved, or planned by the Medical Center staff will be factored into the evaluations...

  18. Sustainable emergency medical service systems: how much energy do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence H; Blanchard, Ian E

    2015-02-01

    Modern emergency medical service (EMS) systems are vulnerable to both rising energy prices and potential energy shortages. Ensuring the sustainability of EMS systems requires an empirical understanding of the total energy requirements of EMS operations. This study was undertaken to determine the life cycle energy requirements of US EMS systems. Input-output-based energy requirement multipliers for the US economy were applied to the annual budgets for a random sample of 19 metropolitan or county-wide EMS systems. Calculated per capita energy requirements of the EMS systems were used to estimate nationwide EMS energy requirements, and the leading energy sinks of the EMS supply chain were determined. Total US EMS-related energy requirements are estimated at 30 to 60 petajoules (10(15) J) annually. Direct ("scope 1") energy consumption, primarily in the form of vehicle fuels but also in the form of natural gas and heating oil, accounts for 49% of all EMS-related energy requirements. The energy supply chain-including system electricity consumption ("scope 2") as well as the upstream ("scope 3") energy required to generate and distribute liquid fuels and natural gas-accounts for 18% of EMS energy requirements. Scope 3 energy consumption in the materials supply chain accounts for 33% of EMS energy requirements. Vehicle purchases, leases, maintenance, and repair are the most energy-intense components of the non-energy EMS supply chain (23%), followed by medical supplies and equipment (21%). Although less energy intense than other aspects of the US healthcare system, ground EMS systems require substantial amounts of energy each year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical characterization of the varian Exact-arm and R-arm support systems for eight aS500 electronic portal imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Mark W D; McGarry, Conor K

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the positioning accuracy at different gantry angles of two electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) support arm systems by using EPID difference images as a measure for displacement. This work presents a comparison of the mechanical performance of eight Varian aS500 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) EPIDs, mounted using either the Varian Exact-arm or R-arm. The mechanical performance of the two arm systems was compared by investigating the variation in sensitivity with gantry angle, both before and after the EPID position was adjusted after gantry rotation. Positional errors were investigated by subtracting images from a reference image taken at gantry 0 degrees, and the amplitude of the peaks and troughs at the field edges for longitudinal (radial) and lateral (transverse) profiles across the resulting image was related to the distance of displacement. Calibration curves based on a pixel-by-pixel shift were generated for each EPID and the Varian hand pendant accuracy was compared to the calibration data. The response of the EPIDs was found to change with gantry rotation, with the largest difference at 180 degrees. The Exact-arm was found to correct well for any displacement, while the R-arm tended to overcorrect following repositioning using the hand pendant. The calibration curves were consistent within each set of matched linacs, and the hand pendant accuracy was similar for both arm systems, although generally in different directions. With respect to gantry rotation effects, the mechanical performance of the Exact-arm systems was found to be much better than that of the R-arm systems. At gantry positions 90 degrees, 270 degrees, and 180 degrees the average misalignment in the longitudinal direction was +4.2 +/- 0.2, +1.8 +/- 1.6, and +7.4 +/- 0.5 mm for the R-arms, and +2.9 +/- 0.2, +2.1 +/- 0.8, and +4.9 +/- 0.7 mm for the Exact-arms. In the lateral direction the average positional errors were +2.1 +/- 0.4, -4.7 +/- 0

  20. The evaluation for the usability of the Varian Standard Couch modelingusing Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Mo; Song, Yong Min; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Ji Min; Choi, Byeung Gi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    When a radiation treatment, there is an attenuation by Carbon Fiber Couch. In this study, we tried to evaluate the usability of the Varian Standard Couch(VSC) by modeling with Treatment Planning System (TPS) VSC was scanned by CBCT(Cone Beam Computed Tomography) of the Linac(Clinac IX, VARIAN, USA), following the three conditions of VSC, Side Rail OutGrid(SROG), Side Rail InGrid(SRIG), Side Rail In OutSpine Down Bar(SRIOS). After scan, the data was transferred to TPS and modeled by contouring Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, Spine Down Bar automatically. We scanned the Cheese Phantom(Middelton, USA) using Computed Tomography(Light Speed RT 16, GE, USA) and transfer the data to TPS, and apply VSC modeled previously with TPS to it. Dose was measured at the isocenter of Ion Chamber(A1SL, Standard imaging, USA) in Cheese Phantom using 4 and 10 MV radiation for every 5° gantry angle in a different filed size(3 X 3 cm{sup 2},10 X 10cm{sup 2}) without any change of MU(=100), and then we compared the calculated dose and measured dose. Also we included dose at the 127° in SRIG to compare the attenuation by Side Bar Upper. Results : The density of VSC by CBCT in TPS was 0.9g/cm{sup 3}, and in the case of Spine Down Bar, it was 0.7g/cm{sup 3}. The radiation was attenuated by 17.49%, 16.49%, 8.54%, and 7.59% at the Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, and Spine Down Bar. For the accuracy of modeling, calculated dose and measured dose were compared. The average error was 1.13% and the maximum error was 1.98% at the 170° beam crossing the Spine Down Bar. To evaluate the usability for the VSC modeled by TPS, the maximum error was 1.98% as a result of compassion between calculated dose and measured dose. We found out that VSC modeling helped expect the dose, so we think that it will be helpful for the more accurate treatment.

  1. Intermittent energy restriction in type 2 diabetes: A short discussion of medication management

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Sharayah; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    AIM To discuss type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication changes required during the popular 5:2 intermittent energy restriction (IER) diet. METHODS A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Cochrane library for original research articles investigating the use of very low calorie diets (VLCD) in people with T2DM. The search terms used included ?VLCD? or ?very low energy diet? or ?very low energy restriction? or ?IER? or ?intermittent fasting? or ?calorie restriction? or ?di...

  2. Intermittent energy restriction in type 2 diabetes: A short discussion of medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sharayah; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2016-12-15

    To discuss type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication changes required during the popular 5:2 intermittent energy restriction (IER) diet. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Cochrane library for original research articles investigating the use of very low calorie diets (VLCD) in people with T2DM. The search terms used included "VLCD" or "very low energy diet" or "very low energy restriction" or "IER" or "intermittent fasting" or "calorie restriction" or "diabetes mellitus type 2" and "type 2 diabetes". Reference lists of selected articles were also screened for relevant publications. Only research articles written in English, which also included an explanation of medication changes were included. A recent pilot trial using the 5:2 IER method, conducted by our research group, will also be summarized. A total of 8 studies were found that investigated the use of VLCD in T2DM and discussed medication management. Overall these studies indicate that the use of a VLCD for people with T2DM usually require the cessation of medication to prevent hypoglycemia. Therefore, the 5:2 IER method will also require medication changes, but as seen in our pilot trial, may not require total cessation of medication, rather a cessation on the 2 IER days only. Guidelines outlined here can be used in the initial stages of a 2-d IER diet, but extensive blood glucose monitoring is still required to make the necessary individual reductions to medications in response to weight loss.

  3. Energy expenditure, aerodynamics and medical problems in cycling. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1992-07-01

    The cyclist's ability to maintain an extremely high rate of energy expenditure for long durations at a high economy of effort is dependent upon such factors as the individual's anaerobic threshold, muscle fibre type, muscle myoglobin concentration, muscle capillary density and certain anthropometric dimensions. Although laboratory tests have had some success predicting cycling potential, their validity has yet to be established for trained cyclists. Even in analysing the forces producing propulsive torque, cycling effectiveness cannot be based solely on the orientation of applied forces. Innovations of shoe and pedal design continue to have a positive influence on the biomechanics of pedalling. Although muscle involvement during a complete pedal revolution may be similar, economical pedalling rate appears to differ significantly between the novice and racing cyclist. This difference emanates, perhaps, from long term adaptation. Air resistance is by far the greatest retarding force affecting cycling. The aerodynamics of the rider and the bicycle and its components are major contributors to cycling economy. Correct body posture and spacing between riders can significantly enhance speed and efficiency. Acute and chronic responses to cycling and training are complex. To protect the safety and health of the cyclist there must be close monitoring and cooperation between the cyclist, coach, exercise scientist and physician.

  4. Experimental study of the energy efficiency of an incinerator for medical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency of an incinerator for medical waste combustion. The incineration facility incorporates a heat recovery system. The installation consists of a loading unit, a combustion chamber, a thermoreactor chamber, and a recovery boiler. The analysis was carried out in the Oncological Hospital in Bydgoszcz (Poland). The primary fuel was comprised of medical waste, with natural gas used as a secondary fuel. The study shows that one can obtain about 660-800 kW of usable energy from 100 kg of medical waste. This amount corresponds to 1000-1200 kg of saturated steam, assuming that the incinerator operates at a heat load above φ > 65%. The average heat flux in additional fuel used for incinerating 100 kg of waste was 415 kW. The coefficient of energy efficiency was set within the range of 47% and 62% depending on the incinerator load. The tests revealed that the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency depend on the incinerator load. In the investigated range of the heat load, this dependence is significant. When the heat load of the incinerator increases, the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency also increase.

  5. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their

  6. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  7. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casar, Bozidar; Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-01-01

    Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear legal and moral

  8. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Conclusions Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear

  9. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, Bozidar; Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-03-01

    Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear legal and moral

  10. SU-E-T-109: Development of An End-To-End Test for the Varian TrueBeamtm with a Novel Multiple-Dosimetric Modality H and N Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakjevskii, V; Knill, C; Rakowski, J; Snyder, M [Wayne State University, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive end-to-end test for Varian's TrueBeam linear accelerator for head and neck IMRT using a custom phantom designed to utilize multiple dosimetry devices. Methods: The initial end-to-end test and custom H and N phantom were designed to yield maximum information in anatomical regions significant to H and N plans with respect to: i) geometric accuracy, ii) dosimetric accuracy, and iii) treatment reproducibility. The phantom was designed in collaboration with Integrated Medical Technologies. A CT image was taken with a 1mm slice thickness. The CT was imported into Varian's Eclipse treatment planning system, where OARs and the PTV were contoured. A clinical template was used to create an eight field static gantry angle IMRT plan. After optimization, dose was calculated using the Analytic Anisotropic Algorithm with inhomogeneity correction. Plans were delivered with a TrueBeam equipped with a high definition MLC. Preliminary end-to-end results were measured using film and ion chambers. Ion chamber dose measurements were compared to the TPS. Films were analyzed with FilmQAPro using composite gamma index. Results: Film analysis for the initial end-to-end plan with a geometrically simple PTV showed average gamma pass rates >99% with a passing criterion of 3% / 3mm. Film analysis of a plan with a more realistic, ie. complex, PTV yielded pass rates >99% in clinically important regions containing the PTV, spinal cord and parotid glands. Ion chamber measurements were on average within 1.21% of calculated dose for both plans. Conclusion: trials have demonstrated that our end-to-end testing methods provide baseline values for the dosimetric and geometric accuracy of Varian's TrueBeam system.

  11. PENJADWALAN JOBS PADA SINGLE MACHINE DENGAN MEMINIMUMKAN VARIANS WAKTU PENYELESAIAN JOBS Studi Kasus di P.T. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sutapa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a jobs scheduling on a single machine to minimize variance of job completion time. The objective is especially important in situations where it is desirable to provide customers or jobs with approximately the same treatment. In this case, data are collected from P.T. 'XYZ'. The focus of discussion is LB/KB Departement (Leather Board/Carton Board with carton board's production line, which produces carton board. Carton board's size is 150 x 110 cm and its thickness from 0,6 mm to 2,5 mm. In this paper a comparison analysis, the deviation of the objective value given by a heuristic (Vh method from the objective value given by P.T. 'XYZ' (Vp, is made. The percentage of deviation Vh from Vp is 50,36 %, which shows that the performance of heuristic is better, that is variance of job completion time by heuristic method smaller than by P.T. 'XYZ'. Besides the above discussion, the weakness dan superiority of heuristic are analyzed too. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini membahas penjadwalan jobs pada single machine dengan tujuan meminimumkan varians waktu penyelesaian job, yaitu untuk memberikan konsumen atau jobs kurang lebih perlakuan yang sama. Data yang diambil dalam pembahasan ini berasal dari perusahaan P.T. 'XYZ', di mana departemen yang menjadi fokus pembahasan adalah Departemen LB/KB (Leather Board/Karton Board dengan lintasan produksi karton board yang menghasilkan produk carton board ukuran 150 x 110 cm, dengan ketebalan 0,6 mm sampai dengan 2,5 mm. Dalam makalah ini dilakukan analisis perbandingan jadwal jobs pada proses produksi di perusahaan yang telah ada dengan jadwal jobs menggunakan metode heuristic, yaitu menggunakan persentase penyimpangan Vh (varians waktu penyelesaian jobs metode heuristic dari Vp (varians waktu penyelesaian jobs perusahaan. Dari hasil analisis didapatkan bahwa persentase penyimpangan Vh dari Vp sebesar 50,36%, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa performance metode heuristic lebih baik, yaitu

  12. Teaching Energy Metabolism Using Scientific Articles: Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Giannella, Tais Rabetti; Struchiner, Miriam; da Silva, Wagner S.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) applied to the biochemistry class for undergraduate, first-year medical students at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The course focused on the integration of energy metabolism, exploring metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as…

  13. Recent Topical Research on Global, Energy, Health & Medical, and Tourism Economics, and Global Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted “global” in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on

  14. Recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted "global" in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of TrueBeam flattening-filter-free beams using Varian phase-space files: Comparison with experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belosi, Maria F.; Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.fogliata-cozzi@eoc.ch, E-mail: afc@iosi.ch; Cozzi, Luca; Clivio, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland); Rodriguez, Miguel [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Sempau, Josep [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona E-08028, Spain and Spanish Networking Research Center CIBER-BBN, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Krauss, Harald [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria); Khamphan, Catherine [Institut Sainte Catherine, Medical Physics Unit, Avignon F-84000 (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Départment de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France); Puxeu, Josep [Medical Physics Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Fedele, David [Radio-Oncology Department, Casa di Cura San Rossore, Pisa I-56100 (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Radiation Oncology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano-Milan I-20089 (Italy); Brualla, Lorenzo [NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen D-45122 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-space files for Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian TrueBeam beams have been made available by Varian. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the distributed phase-space files for flattening filter free (FFF) beams, against experimental measurements from ten TrueBeam Linacs. Methods: The phase-space files have been used as input in PRIMO, a recently released Monte Carlo program based on thePENELOPE code. Simulations of 6 and 10 MV FFF were computed in a virtual water phantom for field sizes 3 × 3, 6 × 6, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} using 1 × 1 × 1 mm{sup 3} voxels and for 20 × 20 and 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} with 2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3} voxels. The particles contained in the initial phase-space files were transported downstream to a plane just above the phantom surface, where a subsequent phase-space file was tallied. Particles were transported downstream this second phase-space file to the water phantom. Experimental data consisted of depth doses and profiles at five different depths acquired at SSD = 100 cm (seven datasets) and SSD = 90 cm (three datasets). Simulations and experimental data were compared in terms of dose difference. Gamma analysis was also performed using 1%, 1 mm and 2%, 2 mm criteria of dose-difference and distance-to-agreement, respectively. Additionally, the parameters characterizing the dose profiles of unflattened beams were evaluated for both measurements and simulations. Results: Analysis of depth dose curves showed that dose differences increased with increasing field size and depth; this effect might be partly motivated due to an underestimation of the primary beam energy used to compute the phase-space files. Average dose differences reached 1% for the largest field size. Lateral profiles presented dose differences well within 1% for fields up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, while the discrepancy increased toward 2% in the 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} cases. Gamma analysis resulted in an agreement of 100% when a 2%, 2 mm criterion

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Dose and Energy Spectra From Neutron Induced Radioactivity in Medical Linear Accelerators Following High Energy Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keehan, S; Taylor, M; Franich, R; Smith, R; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk posed by neutron induced activation of components in medical linear accelerators (linacs) following the delivery of high monitor unit 18 MV photon beams such as used in TBI. Methods: Gamma spectroscopy was used to identify radioisotopes produced in components of a Varian 21EX and an Elekta Synergy following delivery of photon beams. Dose and risk estimates for TBI were assessed using dose deliveries from an actual patient treatment. A 1 litre spherical ion chamber (PTW, Germany) has been used to measure the dose at the beam exit window and at the total body irradiation (TBI) treatment couch following large and small field beams with long beam-on times. Measurements were also made outside of the closed jaws to quantify the benefit of the attenuation provided by the jaws. Results: The radioisotopes produced in the linac head have been identified as 187 W, 56 Mn, 24 Na and 28 Al, which have half-lives from between 2.3 min to 24 hours. The dose at the beam exit window following an 18 MV 2197 MU TBI beam delivery was 12.6 µSv in ten minutes. The dose rate at the TBI treatment couch 4.8 m away is a factor of ten lower. For a typical TBI delivered in six fractions each consisting of four beams and an annual patient load of 24, the annual dose estimate for a staff member at the treatment couch for ten minutes is 750 µSv. This can be further reduced by a factor of about twelve if the jaws are closed before entering the room, resulting in a dose estimate of 65 µSv. Conclusion: The dose resulting from the activation products for a representative TBI workload at our clinic of 24 patients per year is 750 µSv, which can be further reduced to 65 µSv by closing the jaws

  17. SU-F-BRE-11: Neutron Measurements Around the Varian TrueBeam Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J; Kildea, J; Liang, L; DeBlois, F; Evans, M; Licea, A; Dubeau, J; Witharana, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: With the emergence of flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams, several authors have noted many advantages to their use. One such advantage is the decrease in neutron production by photonuclear reactions in the linac head. In the present work we investigate the reduction in neutrons from a Varian TrueBeam linac using the Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS, Detec). The neutron spectrum, total fluence and source strength were measured and compared for 10 MV with and without flattening filter and the effect of moderation by the room and maze was studied for the 15 MV beam. Methods: The NNS, similar to traditional Bonner sphere detectors but operated in current mode, was used to measure the neutron fluence and spectrum. The NNS was validated for use in high dose rate environments using Monte Carlo simulations and calibrated at NIST and NRC Canada. Measurements were performed at several positions within the treatment room and maze with the linac jaws closed to maximize neutron production. Results: The measurements showed a total fluence reduction between 35-40% in the room and maze when the flattening filter was removed. The neutron source strength Qn was calculated from in-room fluence measurements and was found to be 0.042 × 10 2 n/Gy, 0.026 × 10 2 n/Gy and 0.59 × 101 2 n/Gy for the 10 MV, the 10 MV FFF and 15 MV beams, respectively. We measured ambient equivalent doses of 11 mSv/hr, 7 mSv/hr and 218 mSv/hr for the 10 MV, 10 MV FFF and 15 MV by the head. Conclusion: Our measurements revealed a decrease in total fluence, neutron source strength and equivalent dose of approximately 35-40% across the treatment room for the FFF compared to FF modes. This demonstrates, as expected, that the flattening filter is a major component of the neutron production for the TrueBeam. The authors greatly acknowledge support form the Canadian Nuclear Commission and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada through the CREATE program. Co-authors Dubeau

  18. Recovering traditional raw-milk Tetilla cheese flavour and sensory attributes by using Kocuria varians and Yarrowia lipolytica adjunct cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I; Docampo, F; Lorenzo, J M; Carballo, J

    2017-06-19

    The rationale of the present study was to evaluate the potential of microbial adjunct cultures including Kocuria varians and/or Yarrowia lipolytica strains in the recovery of the typical sensory profile of traditional (raw-milk) Tetilla cheese. Four batches of Tetilla cheese, a short ripened cows' milk cheese produced in Galicia (NW Spain), were made in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with different microbial cultures. A control batch was manufactured by adding a mesophilic commercial D-starter only. The other three batches were made with the same starter after a cheese-milk pre-ripening step carried out with (i) an adjunct culture of K. varians, (ii) an adjunct culture of Y. lipolytica, or (iii) a combination of both adjunct cultures. The highest pH and water activity values, associated with softer textures were determined in the cheeses manufactured with the Y. lipolytica adjunct after 21days of ripening. The contents of the volatile compounds 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were higher in the cheeses made with only the K. varians adjunct than in the cheeses made with the only yeast adjunct and in the control cheeses. The contents of hexanoic and octanoic acids were highest in the cheeses made with the Y. lipolytica adjunct, and levels of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate were higher in the cheeses made with only the yeast adjunct than in the other batches of cheese. The cheeses manufactured with both adjunct cultures were awarded the highest scores for flavour and overall sensory parameters (considering the standards of the traditional product) and were considered very similar to 'good quality' artisanal raw-milk cheeses. We conclude that use of selected Micrococcaceae and Y. lipolytica strains as adjunct cultures would differentiate the sensory properties and contribute to the quality and typicality of the short-ripened rennet-curd Galician Tetilla and Arzúa-Ulloa cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-01-01

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm

  20. Ability of Kocuria varians LTH 1540 To Degrade Putrescine: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Amine Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Sara; Sendra, Ramón; Ferrer, Sergi; Pardo, Isabel

    2015-04-29

    This work describes the identification and characterization of an amine oxidase from Kocuria varians LTH 1540 (syn. Micrococcus varians) primarily acting on putrescine. Data from MALDI-TOF MS/MS and the identification of Δ(1)-pyrroline as degradation product from putrescine indicate that the enzyme is a flavin-dependent putrescine oxidase (PuO). Properties of partially purified enzyme have been determined. The enzyme oxidizes diamines, putrescine and cadaverine, and, to a lesser extent, polyamines, such as spermidine, but not monoamines. The kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for the two major substrates were 94 ± 10 μM and 2.3 ± 0.1 μmol/min·mg for putrescine and 75 ± 5 μM and 0.15 ± 0.02 μmol/min·mg for cadaverine. Optimal temperature and pH were 45 °C and 8.5, respectively. Enzyme was stable until 50 °C. K. varians PuO is sensitive to human flavin-dependent amine oxidase inhibitors and carboxyl-modifying compounds. The new enzyme has been isolated from a bacterial starter used in the manufacture of fermented meat. One of the problems of fermented foods or beverages is the presence of toxic biogenic amines produced by bacteria. The importance of this works lies in the description of a new enzyme able to degrade two of the most abundant biogenic amines (putrescine and cadaverine), the use of which could be envisaged to diminish biogenic amines content in foods in the future.

  1. An energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera design for in vivo medical imaging of radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, R. C.; Valentine, J. D.

    1996-12-01

    A Compton scatter camera (CSC) design is proposed for imaging radioisotopes used as biotracers. A clinical version may increase sensitivity by a factor of over 100, while maintaining or improving spatial resolution, as compared with existing Anger cameras that use lead collimators. This novel approach is based on using energy subtraction (/spl Delta/E=E/sub 0/-E/sub SC/, where E/sub 0/, /spl Delta/E, and E/sub SC/ are the energy at the emitted gamma ray, the energy deposited by the initial Compton scatter, and the energy of the Compton scattered photon) to determine the amount of energy deposited in the primary system. The energy subtraction approach allows the requirement of high energy resolution to be placed on a secondary detector system instead of the primary detector system. Requiring primary system high energy resolution has significantly limited previous CSC designs for medical imaging applications. Furthermore, this approach is dependent on optimizing the camera design for data acquisition of gamma rays that undergo only one Compton scatter in a low-Z primary detector system followed by total absorption of the Compton scattered photon in a high-Z secondary detector system. The proposed approach allows for a more compact primary detector system, a more simplified pulse processing interface, and a much less complicated detector cooling scheme as compared with previous CSC designs. Analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulation results for some specific detector materials and geometries are presented.

  2. Technical assistance for Meharry Medical College Energy Efficiency Project. Final project status and technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-08

    This report presents the results of a program to provide technical assistance to Meharry Medical College. The purpose of the program is to facilitate Meharry`s effort to finance a campus-wide facility retrofit. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) funded the program through a grant to the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development (TECD). The University of Memphis-Technology and Energy Services (UM-TES), under contract to TECD, performed program services. The report has three sections: (1) introduction; (2) project definition, financing, and participants; and (3) opportunities for federal participation.

  3. Dissemination of medical applications of nuclear energy with virtual reality technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Felipe M.; Oliveira, Beatriz A.R.

    2007-01-01

    This work makes use of Virtual Reality technology to disseminate medical applications of nuclear energy, with educational purposes. Virtual Reality is an effective learning tool, since navigation and interaction in virtual worlds can improve motivation in the learning process. With this technology, learning can be achieved in a clearer, joyful and more objective way. Among the existing medical applications of nuclear energy, this work focuses on the use of radiopharmaceuticals. The goal is to simulate this application in a virtual environment, for educational purposes, and to show the absorption of a radiopharmaceutical by the human body, during a diagnostics or treatment procedure. An example has been chosen, for Iodine radiopharmaceutical, which has affinity with the thyroid, and then concentrates in this organ. During the simulation, the concentration of the radioactive Iodine in the thyroid can be emphasized, and in the sequence, the virtual patient can be shown during the imaging procedure. (author)

  4. Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute was established in 2009, as the forth research institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. This Annual Report provides an overview of the major activities of the Institutes in the year 2014. Major items covered in the report include: Strategic objectives; Collaborations; Personnel and Organisational Structure; Facilities and Technical Services; Summary of Research and Development Projects; Human Resource Development; Publications and Technical Reports.

  5. Efforts made for health and medical care by International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The author, being a former senior medical officer and currently a consultant of the Nuclear Medicine Section, the Division of Human Health, the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to standardize the isotope and radiation technologies for health and medical care and transfer them to the IAEA member states to address their health issues, participated in an international cooperation project to survey the current situation of the health and medical care in Viet Nam and exchange opinions with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Regional Office Viet Nam Office and the Viet Nam Health Department coordinated by the Japan Public Health Association from 10th to 15th January 2016 and perceived efforts made and action plans for the health and medical care in Viet Nam by the international organizations of the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO). IAEA has verified various isotopes and radiation technologies up to now in the international field of health and medical care and has being offered them to the member states under the sustainable frame work of technical co-operation. However, the activity in the health and medical care field of IAEA is hardly recognized by the public health professionals in Japan. In order to attain the objective to improve and maintain human health under the umbrella of the United Nations system, the peaceful use of nuclear technology has been promoted in the field of non-electric applications of nuclear energy including human health and medical care by the IAEA. There are several discrepancies seen with the field and tactics of health and medical care between the IAEA and the WHO. In terms of measures to fight NCDs which should be an urgent issue in most of the member states, a comprehensive approach is often needed beyond the capability of IAEA as isotopes and radiation technologies. The IAEA should strive to solve issues on human health and medical care maintaining much

  6. Interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and CNC (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and their influence on proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonte, P; Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Tipaldi, L; Di Luccia, A; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Succi, M

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and to investigate the influence of these interactions on their own proteolytic activity. Interactions occurring between strains of Lact. sakei and CNC were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis. The growth of 35 strains of Lact. sakei, used as indicators, was compared to that obtained combining the same strains with growing cells or cell-free supernatants of 20 CNC (18 Staph. xylosus and 2 K. varians). The proteolytic activity expressed by single strains or by their combinations was assessed on sarcoplasmic protein extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results evidenced that interactions are able to affect not only the growth but also the in vitro proteolytic activity of Lact. sakei and CNC used in combination. A relationship between the presence of interactions among useful strains and the strength of technological characteristics, such as proteolysis, was defined. The study highlighted that CNC are able to stimulate the growth of some Lact. sakei strains. At the same time, this interaction positively influences the proteolytic activity of strains used in combination. Given the importance of proteolysis during the ripening of fermented meats, this phenomenon should be taken into account to select meat starter cultures. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Log-Gabor Energy Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion in NSCT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT, the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT, and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images.

  8. A Unified Energy Approach for B-Spline Snake In Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Alfiansyah

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The parametric snake is one of the preferred approaches in feature extraction from images because of their simplicity and efficiency. However the method has also limitations. In this paper an explicit snake that represented using BSpline applied for image segmentation is considered. In this paper, we identify some of these problems and propose efficient solutions to get around them. The proposed method is inspired by classical snake from Kass with some adaption for parametric curve. The paper also proposes new definitions of energy terms in the model to bring the snake performance more robust and efficient for image segmentation. This energy term unify the edge based and region based energy derived from the image data. The main objective of developed work is to develop an automatic method to segment the anatomical organs from medical images which is very hard and tedious to be performed manually. After this segmentation, the anatomical object can be further measured and analyzed to diagnose the anomaly in that organ. The results have shown that the proposed method has been proven qualitatively successful in segmenting different types of medical images.

  9. The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, T T; Chin, M P W; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ortega, P G; Mairani, A; Sala, P R; Smirnov, G; Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is used extensively at CERN for all beam-machine interactions, radioprotection calculations and facility design of forthcoming projects. Such needs require the code to be consistently reliable over the entire energy range (from MeV to TeV) for all projectiles (full suite of elementary particles and heavy ions). Outside CERN, among various applications worldwide, FLUKA serves as a core tool for the HIT and CNAO hadron-therapy facilities in Europe. Therefore, medical applications further impose stringent requirements in terms of reliability and predictive power, which demands constant refinement of sophisticated nuclear models and continuous code improvement. Some of the latest developments implemented in FLUKA are presented in this paper, with particular emphasis on issues and concerns pertaining to CERN and medical applications.

  10. SU-F-T-344: Commissioning Constant Dose Rate VMAT in the Raystation Treatment Planning System for a Varian Clinac IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursley, J; Gueorguiev, G; Prichard, H; Gierga, D [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the commissioning of constant dose rate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the Raystation treatment planning system for a Varian Clinac iX with Exact couch. Methods: Constant dose rate (CDR) VMAT is an option in the Raystation treatment planning system, enabling VMAT delivery on Varian linacs without a RapidArc upgrade. Raystation 4.7 was used to commission CDR-VMAT for a Varian Clinac iX. Raystation arc model parameters were selected to match machine deliverability characteristics. A Varian Exact couch model was added to Raystation 4.7 and commissioned for use in VMAT optimization. CDR-VMAT commissioning checks were performed on the linac, including patient-specific QA measurements for 10 test patients using both the ArcCHECK from Sun Nuclear Corporation and COMPASS from IBA Dosimetry. Multi-criteria optimization (MCO) in Raystation was used for CDR-VMAT planning. Results: Raystation 4.7 generated clinically acceptable and deliverable CDR-VMAT plans for the Varian Clinac. VMAT plans were optimized including a model of the Exact couch with both rails in the out positions. CDR-VMAT plans generated with MCO in Raystation were dosimetrically comparable to Raystation MCO-generated IMRT plans. Patient-specific QA measurements with the ArcCHECK on the couch showed good agreement with the treatment planning system prediction. Patient-specific, structure-specific, multi-statistical parameter 3D QA measurements with gantry-mounted COMPASS also showed good agreement. Conclusion: Constant dose rate VMAT was successfully modeled in Raystation 4.7 for a Varian Clinac iX, and Raystation’s multicriteria optimization generated constant dose rate VMAT plans which were deliverable and dosimetrically comparable to IMRT plans.

  11. SU-F-T-344: Commissioning Constant Dose Rate VMAT in the Raystation Treatment Planning System for a Varian Clinac IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, J; Gueorguiev, G; Prichard, H; Gierga, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the commissioning of constant dose rate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the Raystation treatment planning system for a Varian Clinac iX with Exact couch. Methods: Constant dose rate (CDR) VMAT is an option in the Raystation treatment planning system, enabling VMAT delivery on Varian linacs without a RapidArc upgrade. Raystation 4.7 was used to commission CDR-VMAT for a Varian Clinac iX. Raystation arc model parameters were selected to match machine deliverability characteristics. A Varian Exact couch model was added to Raystation 4.7 and commissioned for use in VMAT optimization. CDR-VMAT commissioning checks were performed on the linac, including patient-specific QA measurements for 10 test patients using both the ArcCHECK from Sun Nuclear Corporation and COMPASS from IBA Dosimetry. Multi-criteria optimization (MCO) in Raystation was used for CDR-VMAT planning. Results: Raystation 4.7 generated clinically acceptable and deliverable CDR-VMAT plans for the Varian Clinac. VMAT plans were optimized including a model of the Exact couch with both rails in the out positions. CDR-VMAT plans generated with MCO in Raystation were dosimetrically comparable to Raystation MCO-generated IMRT plans. Patient-specific QA measurements with the ArcCHECK on the couch showed good agreement with the treatment planning system prediction. Patient-specific, structure-specific, multi-statistical parameter 3D QA measurements with gantry-mounted COMPASS also showed good agreement. Conclusion: Constant dose rate VMAT was successfully modeled in Raystation 4.7 for a Varian Clinac iX, and Raystation’s multicriteria optimization generated constant dose rate VMAT plans which were deliverable and dosimetrically comparable to IMRT plans.

  12. Monte Carlo dose calculation improvements for low energy electron beams using eMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter; Neuenschwander, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and is able to predict dose distributions for high energy electron beams with high accuracy. However, there are limitations for low energy electron beams. This work aims to improve the accuracy of the dose calculation using eMC for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams of Varian linear accelerators. Improvements implemented into the eMC include (1) improved determination of the initial electron energy spectrum by increased resolution of mono-energetic depth dose curves used during beam configuration; (2) inclusion of all the scrapers of the applicator in the beam model; (3) reduction of the maximum size of the sphere to be selected within the macro MC transport when the energy of the incident electron is below certain thresholds. The impact of these changes in eMC is investigated by comparing calculated dose distributions for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams at source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 and 110 cm with applicators ranging from 6 x 6 to 25 x 25 cm 2 of a Varian Clinac 2300C/D with the corresponding measurements. Dose differences between calculated and measured absolute depth dose curves are reduced from 6% to less than 1.5% for both energies and all applicators considered at SSD of 100 cm. Using the original eMC implementation, absolute dose profiles at depths of 1 cm, d max and R50 in water lead to dose differences of up to 8% for applicators larger than 15 x 15 cm 2 at SSD 100 cm. Those differences are now reduced to less than 2% for all dose profiles investigated when the improved version of eMC is used. At SSD of 110 cm the dose difference for the original eMC version is even more pronounced and can be larger than 10%. Those differences are reduced to within 2% or 2 mm with the improved version of eMC. In this work several enhancements were made in the eMC algorithm leading to significant improvements in the accuracy of the dose calculation

  13. Monte Carlo dose calculation improvements for low energy electron beams using eMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2010-08-21

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and is able to predict dose distributions for high energy electron beams with high accuracy. However, there are limitations for low energy electron beams. This work aims to improve the accuracy of the dose calculation using eMC for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams of Varian linear accelerators. Improvements implemented into the eMC include (1) improved determination of the initial electron energy spectrum by increased resolution of mono-energetic depth dose curves used during beam configuration; (2) inclusion of all the scrapers of the applicator in the beam model; (3) reduction of the maximum size of the sphere to be selected within the macro MC transport when the energy of the incident electron is below certain thresholds. The impact of these changes in eMC is investigated by comparing calculated dose distributions for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams at source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 and 110 cm with applicators ranging from 6 x 6 to 25 x 25 cm(2) of a Varian Clinac 2300C/D with the corresponding measurements. Dose differences between calculated and measured absolute depth dose curves are reduced from 6% to less than 1.5% for both energies and all applicators considered at SSD of 100 cm. Using the original eMC implementation, absolute dose profiles at depths of 1 cm, d(max) and R50 in water lead to dose differences of up to 8% for applicators larger than 15 x 15 cm(2) at SSD 100 cm. Those differences are now reduced to less than 2% for all dose profiles investigated when the improved version of eMC is used. At SSD of 110 cm the dose difference for the original eMC version is even more pronounced and can be larger than 10%. Those differences are reduced to within 2% or 2 mm with the improved version of eMC. In this work several enhancements were made in the eMC algorithm leading to significant improvements in the accuracy of the dose

  14. Advances in Microbial Biofilm Prevention on Indwelling Medical Devices with Emphasis on Usage of Acoustic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Lavie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are a major impediment to the use of indwelling medical devices, generating device-related infections with high morbidity and mortality. Major efforts directed towards preventing and eradicating the biofilm problem face difficulties because biofilms protect themselves very effectively by producing a polysaccharide coating, reducing biofilm sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Techniques applied to combating biofilms have been primarily chemical. These have met with partial and limited success rates, leading to current trends of eradicating biofilms through physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation and removal, focusing on the utilization of acoustic energy to achieve these objectives.

  15. Advances in Microbial Biofilm Prevention on Indwelling Medical Devices with Emphasis on Usage of Acoustic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Naama; Mandel, Mathilda; Hazan, Zadik; Lavie, Gad

    2009-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are a major impediment to the use of indwelling medical devices, generating device-related infections with high morbidity and mortality. Major efforts directed towards preventing and eradicating the biofilm problem face difficulties because biofilms protect themselves very effectively by producing a polysaccharide coating, reducing biofilm sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Techniques applied to combating biofilms have been primarily chemical. These have met with partial and limited success rates, leading to current trends of eradicating biofilms through physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation and removal, focusing on the utilization of acoustic energy to achieve these objectives. PMID:22574031

  16. Clinical application of image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT (on the Varian OBI platform); Applications cliniques de la radiotherapie guidee par l'image (RTGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorcini, B.; Tilikidis, A. [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) can be used to measure and correct positional errors for target and critical structures immediately prior to or during treatment delivery. Some of the most recent available methods applied for target localization are: trans-abdominal ultrasound, implanted markers with in room MV or kV X-rays, optical surface tracking systems, implantable electromagnetic markers, in room CT such as kVCT on rail, kilo-voltage or mega-voltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and helical megavoltage CT. The verification of the accurate treatment position in conjunction with detailed anatomical information before every fraction can be essential for the outcome of the treatment. In this paper we present the on-board imager (OBI, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) that has been in routine clinical use at the Karolinska University Hospital since June 2004. The OBI has been used for on-line set-up correction of prostate patients using internal gold markers. Displacements of these markers can be monitored radiographically during the treatment course and the registered marker shifts act as a surrogate for prostate motion. For this purpose, on-board kV-kV seems to be an ideal system in terms of image quality. The CBCT function of OBI was installed in March 2005 at our department. It focuses on localizing tumors based on internal anatomy, not just on the conventional external marks or tattoos. The CBCT system provides the capacity for soft tissue imaging in the treatment position and real-time radiographic monitoring during treatment delivery. (authors)

  17. No speed limits in medical imaging and high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rita Giuffredi & Tom Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Speed, or high time resolution, is becoming increasingly important, if not crucial, in the high-energy physics domain, both for particle acceleration and detection systems. Medical-imaging technology also vitally depends on high time resolution detection techniques, often the offspring of today’s large particle physics experiments. The four-year FP7 Marie Curie Training Project “PicoSEC-MCNet”, which draws to a close at the end of November, was designed to develop ultra-fast photon detectors for applications in both domains. The project has achieved important results that promise to trigger further developments in the years to come.   The PicoSEC-MCNet project participants. “New requirements in high-energy physics force us to push the limits of photon detection speed, as future high-luminosity accelerators will force us to cope with the unprecedentedly short bunch crossing intervals needed to produce sufficient luminosity,” explains Tom M...

  18. An Energy-Efficient ASIC for Wireless Body Sensor Networks in Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu Zhang; Hanjun Jiang; Lingwei Zhang; Chun Zhang; Zhihua Wang; Xinkai Chen

    2010-02-01

    An energy-efficient application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) featured with a work-on-demand protocol is designed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) in medical applications. Dedicated for ultra-low-power wireless sensor nodes, the ASIC consists of a low-power microcontroller unit (MCU), a power-management unit (PMU), reconfigurable sensor interfaces, communication ports controlling a wireless transceiver, and an integrated passive radio-frequency (RF) receiver with energy harvesting ability. The MCU, together with the PMU, provides quite flexible communication and power-control modes for energy-efficient operations. The always-on passive RF receiver with an RF energy harvesting block offers the sensor nodes the capability of work-on-demand with zero standby power. Fabricated in standard 0.18-¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, the ASIC occupies a die area of 2 mm × 2.5 mm. A wireless body sensor network sensor-node prototype using this ASIC only consumes < 10-nA current under the passive standby mode, and < 10 ¿A under the active standby mode, when supplied by a 3-V battery.

  19. SU-D-BRA-03: Simultaneous MV-KV Imaging for Intra-Fractional Motion Management during Volume Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Delivery on the Varian TrueBeam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M; Regmi, R; Zhang, P; Pham, H; Wang, P; Xiong, J; Morf, D; Mageras, G

    2012-06-01

    -fractional motion. This work was partially supported through a research agreement with Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. SU-E-T-406: Use of TrueBeam Developer Mode and API to Increase the Efficiency and Accuracy of Commissioning Measurements for the Varian EDGE Stereotactic Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, S; Gulam, M; Song, K; Li, H; Huang, Y; Zhao, B; Qin, Y; Snyder, K; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2014-01-01

    ). The scripting also allowed for creation of the files in advance without requiring access to TPS. The API scripting functionality enabled efficient creation/mining of TPS data. Finally, automation reduces the potential for human error in entering linac values at the machine console,and the script provides a log of measurements acquired for each session. This research was supported in part by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA

  1. David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1993-04-01

    The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include any operations and maintenance (O M) savings.

  2. David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1993-04-01

    The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include any operations and maintenance (O&M) savings.

  3. A Varian DynaLog file-based procedure for patient dose-volume histogram-based IMRT QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Ortega, Juan F; Teke, Tony; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; Casals-Farran, Joan

    2014-03-06

    In the present study, we describe a method based on the analysis of the dynamic MLC log files (DynaLog) generated by the controller of a Varian linear accelerator in order to perform patient-specific IMRT QA. The DynaLog files of a Varian Millennium MLC, recorded during an IMRT treatment, can be processed using a MATLAB-based code in order to generate the actual fluence for each beam and so recalculate the actual patient dose distribution using the Eclipse treatment planning system. The accuracy of the DynaLog-based dose reconstruction procedure was assessed by introducing ten intended errors to perturb the fluence of the beams of a reference plan such that ten subsequent erroneous plans were generated. In-phantom measurements with an ionization chamber (ion chamber) and planar dose measurements using an EPID system were performed to investigate the correlation between the measured dose changes and the expected ones detected by the reconstructed plans for the ten intended erroneous cases. Moreover, the method was applied to 20 cases of clinical plans for different locations (prostate, lung, breast, and head and neck). A dose-volume histogram (DVH) metric was used to evaluate the impact of the delivery errors in terms of dose to the patient. The ionometric measurements revealed a significant positive correlation (R² = 0.9993) between the variations of the dose induced in the erroneous plans with respect to the reference plan and the corresponding changes indicated by the DynaLog-based reconstructed plans. The EPID measurements showed that the accuracy of the DynaLog-based method to reconstruct the beam fluence was comparable with the dosimetric resolution of the portal dosimetry used in this work (3%/3 mm). The DynaLog-based reconstruction method described in this study is a suitable tool to perform a patient-specific IMRT QA. This method allows us to perform patient-specific IMRT QA by evaluating the result based on the DVH metric of the planning CT image (patient

  4. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  5. Orthogonal image pairs coupled with OSMS for noncoplanar beam angle, intracranial, single-isocenter, SRS treatments with multiple targets on the Varian Edge radiosurgery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine A. Oliver, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, CR-induced shifts with the Varian Edge radiosurgery system will not produce noticeable dosimetric effects for SRS treatments. Thus, replacing cone beam CT with orthogonal kV/kV pairs coupled with OSMS at the treatment couch angle could reduce the number of cone beam CT scans that are acquired during a standard SRS treatment while providing an accurate and safe treatment with negligible dosimetric effects on the treatment plan.

  6. A dual-energy medical instrument for measurement of x-ray source voltage and dose rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, V. D.; Naydenov, S. V.; Volkov, V. G.; Opolonin, O. D.; Makhota, S.; Pochet, T.; Smith, C. F.

    2016-03-01

    An original dual-energy detector and medical instrument have been developed to measure the output voltages and dose rates of X-ray sources. Theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to characterize the parameters of a new scintillator-photodiode sandwich-detector based on specially-prepared zinc selenide crystals in which the low-energy detector (LED) works both as the detector of the low-energy radiation and as an absorption filter allowing the highenergy fraction of the radiation to pass through to the high-energy detector (HED). The use of the LED as a low-energy filter in combination with a separate HED opens broad possibilities for such sandwich structures. In particular, it becomes possible to analyze and process the sum, difference and ratio of signals coming from these detectors, ensuring a broad (up to 106) measurement range of X-ray intensity from the source and a leveling of the energy dependence. We have chosen an optimum design of the detector and the geometry of the component LED and HED parts that allow energy-dependence leveling to within specified limits. The deviation in energy dependence of the detector does not exceed about 5% in the energy range from 30 to 120 keV. The developed detector and instrument allow contactless measurement of the anode voltage of an X-ray emitter from 40 to 140 kV with an error no greater than 3%. The dose rate measurement range is from 1 to 200 R/min. An original medical instrument has passed clinical testing and was recommended for use in medical institutions for X-ray diagnostics.

  7. Automated construction of an intraoperative high-dose-rate treatment plan library for the Varian brachytherapy treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deufel, Christopher L; Furutani, Keith M; Dahl, Robert A; Haddock, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to create treatment plans for intraoperative high-dose-rate (IOHDR) brachytherapy is limited by lack of imaging and time constraints. An automated method for creation of a library of high-dose-rate brachytherapy plans that can be used with standard planar applicators in the intraoperative setting is highly desirable. Nonnegative least squares algebraic methods were used to identify dwell time values for flat, rectangular planar applicators. The planar applicators ranged in length and width from 2 cm to 25 cm. Plans were optimized to deliver an absorbed dose of 10 Gy to three different depths from the patient surface: 0 cm, 0.5 cm, and 1.0 cm. Software was written to calculate the optimized dwell times and insert dwell times and positions into a .XML plan template that can be imported into the Varian brachytherapy treatment planning system. The user may import the .XML template into the treatment planning system in the intraoperative setting to match the patient applicator size and prescribed treatment depth. A total of 1587 library plans were created for IOHDR brachytherapy. Median plan generation time was approximately 1 minute per plan. Plan dose was typically 100% ± 1% (mean, standard deviation) of the prescribed dose over the entire length and width of the applicator. Plan uniformity was best for prescription depths of 0 cm and 0.5 cm from the patient surface. An IOHDR plan library may be created using automated methods. Thousands of plan templates may be optimized and prepared in a few hours to accommodate different applicator sizes and treatment depths and reduce treatment planning time. The automated method also enforces dwell time symmetry for symmetrical applicator geometries, which simplifies quality assurance. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  9. Industrial and medical applications of accelerators with energies less than 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the medical and industrial application of small accelerators is reviewed. Most of the material is taken from the Seventh Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, which was held in Denton, Texas in November of 1982. The areas covered include medical linacs, cyclotron design and production of medical radioisotopes, radiation processing, ion implantation for the metallurgical and semiconductor industries, oil and mineral exploration, trace, surface and bulk analysis, and unique accelerators for all of the above applications

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Occupational Medicine and Medical Surveillance 1995--1997 triannual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    From 1995 through 1997 the Office of Occupational Medicine and Medical Surveillance (EH-61) has made numerous achievements that have enhanced the performance of the office and more importantly, the Department of Energy (DOE). This report provides specific information about program activities and accomplishments, as well as individual contacts for each program. The mission of EH-61 is the prevention of worker illness by fostering outstanding occupational medicine and medical surveillance programs within the DOE complex. This mission is being realized as a result of efforts in four main business lines: (1) Surveillance; (2) Research, (3) Policy/Technical Support; and (4) Information/Communication.

  11. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  12. Validation of Varian TrueBeam electron phase–spaces for Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Samantha A. M.; Gagne, Isabelle M.; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work evaluates Varian’s electron phase–space sources for Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon and electron radiation therapy (MPERT) where fields are shaped by the photon multileaf collimator (MLC) and delivered at 70 cm SSD. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations performed with EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PENELOPE-based PRIMO are compared against diode measurements for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm 2 MLC-shaped fields delivered with 6, 12, and 20 MeV electrons at 70 cm SSD (jaws set to 40 × 40 cm 2 ). Depth dose curves and profiles are examined. In addition, EGSnrc-based simulations of relative output as a function of MLC-field size and jaw-position are compared against ion chamber measurements for MLC-shaped fields between 3 × 3 and 25 × 25 cm 2 and jaw positions that range from the MLC-field size to 40 × 40 cm 2 . Results: Percent depth dose curves generated by BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PRIMO agree with measurement within 2%, 2 mm except for PRIMO’s 12 MeV, 20 × 20 cm 2 field where 90% of dose points agree within 2%, 2 mm. Without the distance to agreement, differences between measurement and simulation are as large as 7.3%. Characterization of simulated dose parameters such as FWHM, penumbra width and depths of 90%, 80%, 50%, and 20% dose agree within 2 mm of measurement for all fields except for the FWHM of the 6 MeV, 20 × 20 cm 2 field which falls within 2 mm distance to agreement. Differences between simulation and measurement exist in the profile shoulders and penumbra tails, in particular for 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm 2 fields of 20 MeV electrons, where both sets of simulated data fall short of measurement by as much as 3.5%. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulated outputs agree with measurement within 2.3% except for 6 MeV MLC-shaped fields. Discrepancies here are as great as 5.5%. Conclusions: TrueBeam electron phase–spaces available from Varian have been

  13. Localized energy-based normalization of medical images: application to chest radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, R.H.H.M.; Maduskar, P.; Hogeweg, L.E.; Melendez Rodriguez, J.C.; Sanchez Gutierrez, C.I.; Ginneken, B. van

    2015-01-01

    Automated quantitative analysis systems for medical images often lack the capability to successfully process images from multiple sources. Normalization of such images prior to further analysis is a possible solution to this limitation. This work presents a general method to normalize medical images

  14. Evaluation of latent variances in Monte Carlo dose calculations with Varian TrueBeam photon phase-spaces used as a particle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhakeem, Eyad; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the latent variance (LV) of Varian TrueBeam photon phase-space files (PSF) for open 10  ×  10 cm2 and small stereotactic fields and estimate the number of phase spaces required to be summed up in order to maintain sub-percent LV in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc software was used to transport particles from Varian phase-space files (PSFA) through the secondary collimators. Transported particles were scored into another phase-space located under the jaws (PSFB), or transported further through the cone collimators and scored straight below, forming PSFC. Phase-space files (PSFB) were scored for 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV beams with 10  ×  10 cm2 field size, and PSFC were scored for 6 MV beam under circular cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, and 1 cm diameter. Both PSFB and PSFC were transported into a water phantom with particle recycling number ranging from 10 to 1000. For 10  ×  10 cm2 fields 0.5  ×  0.5  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels were used to score the dose, whereas the dose was scored in 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels for beams collimated with small cones. In addition, for small 0.25 cm diameter cone-collimated 6 MV beam, phantom voxel size varied as 0.02  ×  0.02  ×  0.5 cm3, 0.05  ×  0.05  ×  0.5 cm3 and 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3. Dose variances were scored in all cases and LV evaluated as per Sempau et al. For the 10  ×  10 cm2 fields calculated LVs were greatest at the phantom surface and decreased with depth until they reached a plateau at 5 cm depth. LVs were found to be 0.54%, 0.96%, 0.35%, 0.69% and 0.57% for the 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV energies, respectively at the depth of 10 cm. For the 6 MV phase-space collimated with cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, 1.0 cm diameter, the LVs calculated at 1.5 cm depth were 75.6%, 25.4%, 17

  15. Increased physical activity not decreased energy intake is associated with inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Higgins

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN. Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11-19 years (14.3±1.8 years, with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire. Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.

  16. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  17. Implementation of phantom-less IMRT delivery verification using Varian DynaLog files and R/V output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, C. E.; King, R. B.; Hounsell, A. R.; McGarry, C. K.

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Varian radiotherapy dynamic treatment log (DynaLog) files to verify IMRT plan delivery as part of a routine quality assurance procedure. Delivery accuracy in terms of machine performance was quantified by multileaf collimator (MLC) position errors and fluence delivery accuracy for patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The relationship between machine performance and plan complexity, quantified by the modulation complexity score (MCS) was also investigated. Actual MLC positions and delivered fraction of monitor units (MU), recorded every 50 ms during IMRT delivery, were extracted from the DynaLog files. The planned MLC positions and fractional MU were taken from the record and verify system MLC control file. Planned and delivered beam data were compared to determine leaf position errors with and without the overshoot effect. Analysis was also performed on planned and actual fluence maps reconstructed from the MLC control file and delivered treatment log files respectively. This analysis was performed for all treatment fractions for 5 prostate, 5 prostate and pelvic node (PPN) and 5 head and neck (H&N) IMRT plans, totalling 82 IMRT fields in ˜5500 DynaLog files. The root mean square (RMS) leaf position errors without the overshoot effect were 0.09, 0.26, 0.19 mm for the prostate, PPN and H&N plans respectively, which increased to 0.30, 0.39 and 0.30 mm when the overshoot effect was considered. Average errors were not affected by the overshoot effect and were 0.05, 0.13 and 0.17 mm for prostate, PPN and H&N plans respectively. The percentage of pixels passing fluence map gamma analysis at 3%/3 mm was 99.94 ± 0.25%, which reduced to 91.62 ± 11.39% at 1%/1 mm criterion. Leaf position errors, but not gamma passing rate, were directly related to plan complexity as determined by the MCS. Site specific confidence intervals for average leaf position errors were set at -0.03-0.12 mm for prostate

  18. Spectral and dual-energy X-ray imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging is an umbrella term for energy-resolved X-ray imaging in medicine. The technique makes use of the energy dependence of X-ray attenuation to either increase the contrast-to-noise ratio, or to provide quantitative image data and reduce image artefacts by so-called material decomposition. Spectral imaging is not new, but has gained interest in recent years because of rapidly increasing availability of spectral and dual-energy CT and the dawn of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors. This review examines the current technological status of spectral and dual-energy imaging and a number of practical applications of the technology in medicine.

  19. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  20. Energy drinks – consumption and awareness among students of Medical University of Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencek Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED, containing caffeine, taurine and another substances, are one of the more frequently used legal stimulants. Still, because these can endanger consumers’ health, it is thought that their marketing should be legally controlled.

  1. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  2. Directed Energy: Medical Effects of Radio Frequency Exposure (Microwave & Millimeter Wave) - A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    may be approaching. Because of limb edema, arterial lines are preferred over cuffs for blood pressure monitoring. Nasogastric tubes should be used...however, this might not be indicated in a patient with a strictly internal burn only (31). An organ will continue to allow viability of a person...is one of the 15 accepted indications for HBOT as noted in the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society indications manual (32), which is accepted by

  3. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  4. FINAL REPORT. FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, Joe M.

    2004-01-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC--05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004

  5. Management of mild traumatic brain injury-trauma energy level and medical history as possible predictors for intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedin, Tomas; Svensson, Sebastian; Edelhamre, Marcus; Karlsson, Mathias; Bergenheim, Mikael; Larsson, Per-Anders

    2018-03-17

    Head trauma is common in the emergency department. Identifying the few patients with serious injuries is time consuming and leads to many computerized tomographies (CTs). Reducing the number of CTs would reduce cost and radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of adults with head trauma over a 1-year period to identify clinical features predicting intracranial hemorrhage. Medical record data have been collected retrospectively in adult patients with traumatic brain injury. A total of 1638 patients over a period of 384 days were reviewed, and 33 parameters were extracted. Patients with high-energy multitrauma managed with ATLS™ were excluded. The analysis was done with emphasis on patient history, clinical findings, and epidemiological traits. Logistic regression and descriptive statistics were applied. Median age was 58 years (18-101, IQR 35-77). High age, minor head injury, new neurological deficits, and low trauma energy level correlated with intracranial hemorrhage. Patients younger than 59 years, without anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy who suffered low-energy trauma, had no intracranial hemorrhages. The hemorrhage frequency in the entire cohort was 4.3% (70/1638). In subgroup taking anticoagulants, the frequency of intracranial hemorrhage was 8.6% (10/116), and in the platelet-inhibitor subgroup, it was 11.8% (20/169). This study demonstrates that patients younger than 59 years with low-energy head trauma, who were not on anticoagulants or platelet inhibitors could possibly be discharged based on patient history. Maybe, there is no need for as extensive medical examination as currently recommended. These findings merit further studies.

  6. New Region-Scalable Discriminant and Fitting Energy Functional for Driving Geometric Active Contours in Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchu Wang

    2014-01-01

    that uses region-scalable discriminant and fitting energy functional for handling the intensity inhomogeneity and weak boundary problems in medical image segmentation. The region-scalable discriminant and fitting energy functional is defined to capture the image intensity characteristics in local and global regions for driving the evolution of active contour. The discriminant term in the model aims at separating background and foreground in scalable regions while the fitting term tends to fit the intensity in these regions. This model is then transformed into a variational level set formulation with a level set regularization term for accurate computation. The new model utilizes intensity information in the local and global regions as much as possible; so it not only handles better intensity inhomogeneity, but also allows more robustness to noise and more flexible initialization in comparison to the original global region and regional-scalable based models. Experimental results for synthetic and real medical image segmentation show the advantages of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  7. Some radiation safety aspects of operating medical generators of VHF electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, V.; Radev, S.; Donev, Ch.

    1977-01-01

    The state of radiation safety in physiotherapy practice using very-high-frequency diathermy was studied with regard to personnel and patient protection. A specially devised shielding set to protect patients and personnel is offered for adoption, and the necessity is insistently stressed of prohibiting any patient head or gonad exposure. It is pointed out that the protective set developed may also be used at facilities employing other types of VHF electromagnetic energy sources. (author)

  8. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinhikar Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC and static multileaf collimator (SMLC, along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS, open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD. The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500 Electronic portal imaging device (EPID on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity.

  9. Impact of alcohol and alcohol mixed with energy drinks on non-medical prescription stimulant use in a nationally representative sample of 12th-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff M; Williams, Ronald D; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use. Pearson-product moment coefficients were used to determine strength of variable relationships. Significant differences were found in frequency of Ritalin (p energy drink and AmED use, as the combined effects of stimulants contained in energy drinks and the depressant effects of alcohol appear to be associated with increased non-medical prescription stimulant use. Research on the influential factors related to energy drinks, alcohol, and non-medical prescription stimulants will help practitioners to more appropriately design prevention and intervention strategies addressing these high-risk behaviors. (Am J Addict 2016;25:378-384). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  11. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.

  12. Role of excitons in the energy resolution of scintillators used for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical investigations suggest that the nonproportionality in a scintillator is caused by the high excitation density created within the track of an X-ray or γ ray photon entering in a scintillating crystal. In this paper an analytical expression for the scintillator yield is derived. For the case of BaF 2 scintillator the role of excitons created within the γ-ray track in the scintillator yield is studied. By comparing the results of two theories an analytical expression is also derived for an energy parameter which could otherwise only be determined by fitting the theoretical yield to the experimental data.

  13. Role of excitons in the energy resolution of scintillators used for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHS, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical investigations suggest that the nonproportionality in a scintillator is caused by the high excitation density created within the track of an X-ray or {gamma} ray photon entering in a scintillating crystal. In this paper an analytical expression for the scintillator yield is derived. For the case of BaF{sub 2} scintillator the role of excitons created within the {gamma}-ray track in the scintillator yield is studied. By comparing the results of two theories an analytical expression is also derived for an energy parameter which could otherwise only be determined by fitting the theoretical yield to the experimental data.

  14. Design of planning target volume margin using an active breathing control and Varian image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system in unresectable liver tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jinbo; Yu Jinming; Liu Jing; Liu Tonghai; Yin Yong; Shi Xuetao; Song Jinlong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To define the planning target volume(PTV) margin with an active breathing control (ABC) and the Varian image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system. Methods: Thirteen patients with liver cancer were treated with radiotherapy from May 2006 to September 2006. Prior to radiotherapy, all patients had undergone transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) by infusing a mixture of iodized oil contrast medium and chemotherapeutic agents, kV fluoroscopy was used to measure the potential motion of lipiodol spot positions during ABC breath-holds. ABC was used for planning CT scan and radiation delivery, with the breath held at the same phase of the respiratory cycle (near end-exhalation). Cone beam CT (CBCT) was taken using Varian IGRT system, which was then compared online with planning CT using a 3 D-3 D matching tool. Analysis relied on lipiodol spots on planning CT and CBCT manually. The treatment table was moved to produce acceptable setup before treatment delivery. Repeated CBCT image and another analysis were obtained after irradiation. Results: No motion of the intrahepatic tumor was observed on fluoroscopy during ABC breath-holds. The estimated required PTV margins, calculated according to the Stroom formula, were 4.4 mm, 5.3 mm and 7.8 mm in the x, y and z axis directions before radiotherapy. The corresponding parameters were 2.5m, 2.6 mm and 3.9 mm after radiotherapy. Conclusions: We have adopted a PTV margin of 5 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm in the x, y and z axis directions with ABC, and 3,3 and 4 mm with ABC and on-line kilovoltage CBCT. (authors)

  15. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  16. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  17. Neutron dosimetry, moderated energy spectrum, and neutron capture therapy for californium-252 medical sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mark Joseph

    Examination of neutron dosimetry for 252Cf has been conducted using calculative and experimental means. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used in a distributed computing environment as a parallel virtual machine (PVM) to determine the absorbed neutron dose and neutron energy spectrum from 252Cf in a variety of clinically relevant materials. Herein, a Maxwellian spectrum was used to model the 252Cf neutron emissions within these materials. 252Cf mixed-field dosimetry of Applicator Tube (AT) type sources was measured using 1.0 and 0.05 cm3 tissue-equivalent ion chambers and a miniature GM counter. A dosimetry protocol was formulated similar that of ICRU 45. The 252Cf AT neutron dosimetry was determined in the cylindrical coordinate system formalism recommended by the AAPM Task Group 43. These results demonstrated the overwhelming dependence of dosimetry on the source geometry factor as there was no significant neutron attenuation within the source or encapsulation. Gold foils and TLDs were used to measure the thermal flux in the vicinity of 252Cf AT sources to compare with the results calculated using MCNP. As the fast neutron energy spectrum did not markedly changed at increasing distances from the AT source, neutron dosimetry results obtained with paired ion chambers using fixed sensitivity factors agreed well with MCNP results and those in the literature. Calculations of moderated 252Cf neutron energy spectrum with various loadings of 10B and 157Gd were performed, in addition to analysis of neutron capture therapy dosimetry with these isotopes. Radiological concerns such as personnel exposure and shielding of 252Cf emissions were examined. Feasibility of a high specific-activity 252Cf HDR source was investigated through radiochemical and metallurgical studies using stand-ins such as Tb, Gd and 249Cf. Issues such as capsule burst strength due to helium production for a variety of proposed HDR sources were addressed. A recommended 252Cf source

  18. Construction of lead glass tubing matrices for applications in medical physics and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, G.; Conti, M.; Del Guerra, A.; Cinti, M.; Di Fino, M.; Habel, R.

    1985-01-01

    Honeycomb matrices which act both as gamma ray converter/radiator and electron drift structures have been manufactured from lead glass tubing of high density (5-6 g/cm 3 ). Baking the tubing in a reducing atmosphere produces a resistive metallic layer which can be used as a continuous voltage divider for drift field shaping. The application of a multiwire proportional chamber/converter detector to positron emission tomography is described; arrays of lead glass capillaries ( < 1.0 mm inner diameter) are used as converter for the 511 keV annihilation photons. Another application is under study in high energy physics, a high density projection chamber in electromagnetic calorimetry. The various phases of the construction of these lead glass matrices for both applications are described in detail

  19. Experimental investigations of the neutron contamination in high-energy photon fields at medical linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunckhorst, Elin

    2009-02-26

    The scope of this thesis was to develop a device for the detection of the photoneutron dose inside the high-energy photon field. The photoneutron contamination of a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator was investigated in detail in its 15 MV photon mode. The experimental examinations were performed with three ionisation chambers (a tissue equivalent chamber, a magnesium chamber and a {sup 10}B-coated magnesium chamber) and two types of thermoluminescence detectors (enriched with {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li, respectively). The detectors have different sensitivities to photons and neutrons and their combination allows the dose separation in a mixed neutron/photon field. The application of the ionisation chamber system, as well as the present TLD system for photoneutron detection in high-energy photon beams is a new approach. The TLD neutron sensitivity was found to be too low for a measurement inside the open photon field and the further investigation focused on the ionisation chambers. The three ionisation chambers were calibrated at different photon and neutron sources and a the borated magnesium chamber showed a very high response to thermal neutrons. For a cross check of the calibration, the three chambers were also used for dose separation of a boron neutron capture therapy beam where the exact determination of the thermal neutron dose is essential. Very accurate results were achieved for the thermal neutron dose component. At the linear accelerator the chamber system was reduced to a paired chamber system utilising the two magnesium chambers, since the fast neutron component was to small to be separated. The neutron calibration of the three chambers could not be applied, instead a conversion of measured thermal neutron signal by the borated chamber to Monte Carlo simulated total neutron dose was performed. Measurements for open fields in solid water and liquid water were performed with the paired chamber system. In larger depths the neutron dose could be determined

  20. Experimental investigations of the neutron contamination in high-energy photon fields at medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunckhorst, Elin

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to develop a device for the detection of the photoneutron dose inside the high-energy photon field. The photoneutron contamination of a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator was investigated in detail in its 15 MV photon mode. The experimental examinations were performed with three ionisation chambers (a tissue equivalent chamber, a magnesium chamber and a 10 B-coated magnesium chamber) and two types of thermoluminescence detectors (enriched with 6 Li and 7 Li, respectively). The detectors have different sensitivities to photons and neutrons and their combination allows the dose separation in a mixed neutron/photon field. The application of the ionisation chamber system, as well as the present TLD system for photoneutron detection in high-energy photon beams is a new approach. The TLD neutron sensitivity was found to be too low for a measurement inside the open photon field and the further investigation focused on the ionisation chambers. The three ionisation chambers were calibrated at different photon and neutron sources and a the borated magnesium chamber showed a very high response to thermal neutrons. For a cross check of the calibration, the three chambers were also used for dose separation of a boron neutron capture therapy beam where the exact determination of the thermal neutron dose is essential. Very accurate results were achieved for the thermal neutron dose component. At the linear accelerator the chamber system was reduced to a paired chamber system utilising the two magnesium chambers, since the fast neutron component was to small to be separated. The neutron calibration of the three chambers could not be applied, instead a conversion of measured thermal neutron signal by the borated chamber to Monte Carlo simulated total neutron dose was performed. Measurements for open fields in solid water and liquid water were performed with the paired chamber system. In larger depths the neutron dose could be determined with an

  1. Poznámky k ekologii, rozšíření a ochraně vřetence horského (Pseudofusulus varians v České republice Notes to the ecology, distribution and protection of Pseudofusulus varians in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Lacina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudofusulus varians (C. Pfeiffer, 1828 is one of the most endangered land snail species in the Czech Republic. It is a relict species from Atlantic period of the Holocene, inhabiting exclusively nature beech and scree forests. Originally it was known from 16 sites in the Krušné Hory Mts. (Ore Mts. (NW Bohemia, Czech Republic and one site in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts. (East Moravia, Czech Republic. The occurrence of the snail was recently confirmed only at seven sites in the Krušné Hory Mts. Remaining sites were destroyed due to human impacts, mainly acid rains and insensive forest management. Therefore its populations survived only in forest patches hidden in hardly accessible places. P. varians is strictly dendrophilous species, so the main threat is dead wood removing and clear cutting. As it is endangered in the whole Europe (Austria, Croatia, Germany, Slovakia and the others, it is very important to protect its modern sites.

  2. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. New medical imaging systems exploiting the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with spectrometric CdZnTe based detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbes, Damien

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies the interest of measuring the coherent scattering of X-rays for breast diagnosis imaging. Nowadays, most of X-ray-based medical imaging techniques use the information of X-rays attenuation through the tissues. It is the case for mammography, the most common breast imaging modality. The recent emergence of energy resolved detectors (based on semiconductors in particular) allows to consider using another phenomenon: the coherent X-ray scattering. Measurement of diffracted spectra can provide new information related to the molecular structure of the examined tissues, in order to improve their characterization and therefore improve the final diagnosis. Two modalities are considered: the breast cancer detection in vivo, following a suspicious mammography result, or biopsy analysis. The coherent scattering measurement system developed during this thesis work uses energy-resolved CdZnTe-based detectors, these detectors combining performances (energy resolution, sensitivity, spatial resolution, and compactness) promising for clinical application. This system is also based on the detector pixelation, which allows to provide an imaging modality capable of characterizing analyzed materials or tissues in one direction without any translation or rotation. A complete study of the measurement system is proposed in this thesis, structured in three main parts: modeling and simulation of the system, development of the processing of the data measured by the detector in order to image and characterize the analyzed sample and finally, designing of a new and more complex experimental setup based on a whole detector and multi-slit collimation system. An experimental validation is proposed for each of these three parts. (author) [fr

  4. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  5. CPU time optimization and precise adjustment of the Geant4 physics parameters for a VARIAN 2100 C/D gamma radiotherapy linear accelerator simulation using GAMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Pedro; Lagares, Juan Ignacio

    2018-02-01

    We have verified the GAMOS/Geant4 simulation model of a 6 MV VARIAN Clinac 2100 C/D linear accelerator by the procedure of adjusting the initial beam parameters to fit the percentage depth dose and cross-profile dose experimental data at different depths in a water phantom. Thanks to the use of a wide range of field sizes, from 2  ×  2 cm2 to 40  ×  40 cm2, a small phantom voxel size and high statistics, fine precision in the determination of the beam parameters has been achieved. This precision has allowed us to make a thorough study of the different physics models and parameters that Geant4 offers. The three Geant4 electromagnetic physics sets of models, i.e. Standard, Livermore and Penelope, have been compared to the experiment, testing the four different models of angular bremsstrahlung distributions as well as the three available multiple-scattering models, and optimizing the most relevant Geant4 electromagnetic physics parameters. Before the fitting, a comprehensive CPU time optimization has been done, using several of the Geant4 efficiency improvement techniques plus a few more developed in GAMOS.

  6. CPU time optimization and precise adjustment of the Geant4 physics parameters for a VARIAN 2100 C/D gamma radiotherapy linear accelerator simulation using GAMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Pedro; Lagares, Juan Ignacio

    2018-01-25

    We have verified the GAMOS/Geant4 simulation model of a 6 MV VARIAN Clinac 2100 C/D linear accelerator by the procedure of adjusting the initial beam parameters to fit the percentage depth dose and cross-profile dose experimental data at different depths in a water phantom. Thanks to the use of a wide range of field sizes, from 2  ×  2 cm 2 to 40  ×  40 cm 2 , a small phantom voxel size and high statistics, fine precision in the determination of the beam parameters has been achieved. This precision has allowed us to make a thorough study of the different physics models and parameters that Geant4 offers. The three Geant4 electromagnetic physics sets of models, i.e. Standard, Livermore and Penelope, have been compared to the experiment, testing the four different models of angular bremsstrahlung distributions as well as the three available multiple-scattering models, and optimizing the most relevant Geant4 electromagnetic physics parameters. Before the fitting, a comprehensive CPU time optimization has been done, using several of the Geant4 efficiency improvement techniques plus a few more developed in GAMOS.

  7. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  8. Perceived Stress and Coffee and Energy Drink Consumption Predict Poor Sleep Quality in Podiatric Medical Students A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawah, Mohomad Al; Ruffin, Naeemah; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey administered to first- and second-year podiatric medical students aimed to investigate the effect of coffee intake, energy drink consumption, and perceived stress on sleep quality in medical students during their preclinical studies. Ninety-eight of 183 students contacted (53.6%) completed a questionnaire comprising standard instruments measuring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale), and perceived stress (ten-item Perceived Stress Scale). Furthermore, we investigated coffee and energy drink consumption. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and the relation between sleep quality and academic performance (grade point average). High prevalences of poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and perceived stress were reported. In addition, higher odds of developing poor sleep quality were associated with coffee and energy drink intake, perceived stress, and excessive daytime sleepiness. The total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was inversely correlated with grade point average. First- and second-year podiatric medical students have poor sleep quality. Further research is needed to identify effective strategies to reduce stress and decrease coffee and energy drink intake to minimize their negative effect on sleep quality and academic performance in podiatric medical students.

  9. Consensus on Graduate Medical Education Financing: An Analysis of Stakeholder Responses to the House Energy and Commerce Committee's Open Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jared L

    2015-12-01

    In December 2014, the Energy and Commerce Committee of the US House of Representatives sent an open letter requesting interested parties to respond to 7 questions on graduate medical education (GME). More than 100 organizations and individuals responded. An online search for responses yielded 27 organizations that had published their responses to the committee's open letter. Responses included answers to the 7 questions and additional recommendations. The 27 respondents proposed a total of 80 unique interventions. Each intervention was screened for concordance with those from other organizations, and then categorized as supportive, in opposition, or making no mention. Data were entered into a spreadsheet and rank ordered on the frequency of support. At the top of the rankings were several interventions with significant support from many respondents. Given the broader GME constituency represented by the 27 stakeholders in this analysis, the 80 proposed interventions represent a comprehensive inventory of the extant ideas regarding the financing, governance, and oversight of GME. This objective analysis could help both spur productive discussions and form the foundation for a larger public policy deliberation of GME financing.

  10. MO-F-16A-02: Simulation of a Medical Linear Accelerator for Teaching Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, M; Lamey, M; Anderson, R; MacPherson, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Detailed functioning of linear accelerator physics is well known. Less well developed is the basic understanding of how the adjustment of the linear accelerator's electrical components affects the resulting radiation beam. Other than the text by Karzmark, there is very little literature devoted to the practical understanding of linear accelerator functionality targeted at the radiotherapy clinic level. The purpose of this work is to describe a simulation environment for medical linear accelerators with the purpose of teaching linear accelerator physics. Methods: Varian type lineacs were simulated. Klystron saturation and peak output were modelled analytically. The energy gain of an electron beam was modelled using load line expressions. The bending magnet was assumed to be a perfect solenoid whose pass through energy varied linearly with solenoid current. The dose rate calculated at depth in water was assumed to be a simple function of the target's beam current. The flattening filter was modelled as an attenuator with conical shape, and the time-averaged dose rate at a depth in water was determined by calculating kerma. Results: Fifteen analytical models were combined into a single model called SIMAC. Performance was verified systematically by adjusting typical linac control parameters. Increasing klystron pulse voltage increased dose rate to a peak, which then decreased as the beam energy was further increased due to the fixed pass through energy of the bending magnet. Increasing accelerator beam current leads to a higher dose per pulse. However, the energy of the electron beam decreases due to beam loading and so the dose rate eventually maximizes and the decreases as beam current was further increased. Conclusion: SIMAC can realistically simulate the functionality of a linear accelerator. It is expected to have value as a teaching tool for both medical physicists and linear accelerator service personnel

  11. The Relationship between Energy Consumption and Hospital Functional Indicators in Teaching Hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences: 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kavosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals as major energy consumers can manage their energy consumption by intelligent interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the amount of energy consumption of Water, Electricity, and Gas, and their association with functional indicators in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2009 to 2011. Methods: The present study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design which analyzed energy consumption and functional indicators from the beginning of 2009 to the end of 2011. The sample consisted of 7 teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected from the departments of consumption pattern reform and statistics and recorded in the data collection form  developed by the researcher. Data were entered in SPSS16 and analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests such as Pearson correlation test. Results: The average consumption of water, electricity, and gas per occupied bed days were 0.09 m3, 2.78 kWh, and 1.56 m3, respectively. Also, statistically significant and positive relationships were found between the amount of water consumption and the number of active beds (P = 0.009 and occupied bed days (P = 0.007. Conclusion: Energy consumption in teaching hospitals of Shiraz is lower than similar domestic studies and in some cases more than foreign studies. More active beds with lower productivity increase energy consumption. Hospitals can reduce energy consumption and their costs with more efficient use of resources.

  12. SU-F-T-656: Monte Carlo Study On Air Activation Around a Medical Electron Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, F [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbacher, G [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In high energy photon therapy, several radiation protection issues result from photonuclear reactions. The activation of air - directly by photonuclear reactions as well as indirectly by capture of photoneutrons generated inside the linac head - is a major point of concern for the medical staff. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual effective dose to medical workers due to activated air around a medical high energy electron linac by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The treatment head of a Varian Clinac in 18 MV-X mode as well as the surrounding concrete bunker were modeled and the radiation transport was simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, starting from the primary electron striking the bremsstrahlung target. The activation yields in air from photo-disintegration of O-16 and N-14 nuclei as well as from neutron capture on Ar-40 nuclei were obtained from the simulations. The activation build-up, radioactive decay and air ventilation were studied using a mathematical model. The annual effective dose to workers was estimated by using published isotope specific conversion factors. Results: The oxygen and nitrogen activation yields were in contrast to the argon activation yield found to be field size dependent. The impact of the treatment room ventilation on the different air activation products was investigated and quantified. An estimate with very conservative assumptions gave an annual effective dose to workers of < 1 mSv/a. Conclusion: From the results of this study it can be concluded that the contribution of air activation to the radiation exposure to medical workers should be negligible in modern photon therapy, especially when it is compared to the dose due to prompt neutrons and the activation of heavy solid materials such as the jaws and the collimators inside the linac head.

  13. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Auto-triggerable HPD sensors fully readout on Ethernet, applications for high energy physics and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Largeron, G.; Marteau, J.; Moret, G.

    2002-01-01

    The OPERA project is dedicated to neutrino oscillation search in the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. The experiment is designed to characterize the interaction of ν τ resulted from the ν μ → ν τ oscillation. The main element of the detector is a brick consisting of the emulsion sheets interleaved with lead plates. These bricks are assembled in walls of about 7 m side. A total of 72 walls is foreseen for OPERA experiment with a total of fiducial mass of 2 k tons. When a neutrino interaction occurs the tracks of the charged particles are recorded in the emulsions with a high accuracy and the topology of the event is fully reconstructed with an automatic scanning of the emulsions. The role of the target tracker in OPERA is to locate the brick where the primary neutrino interaction occurs to provide triggers and to make a coarser reconstruction of the events. It consists of 2 planes of scintillator strips located after a brick wall.. The scintillation photons are collected by WLS fibers and read by a multi-pixel photodetector. The results obtained with 61 pixels HPDs readout by auto-triggerable front-end electronics of the VA-TA series. A new kind of acquisition system based on Ethernet abler to read the front-end electronics and deliver the data directly to the Ethernet network is described. The Ethernet DAQ system is based on a ORCA (Opera Readout Card) module which includes all the features to control the front-end and the time stamping of the trigger of the events. The front-end electronics and the HPD characteristics are described in Sections 2 and 3 while the PMT which validates the acquisition chain is presented in Section 4. Medical applications and the results obtained with the acquisition system used as micro pet and for characterized photodetectors in High Energy experiment are also presented

  15. Graphene and Graphene Analogs toward Optical, Electronic, Spintronic, Green-Chemical, Energy-Material, Sensing, and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, M Reza; Myung, Chang Woo; Yun, Jeonghun; Ghassami, Amirreza; Li, Nannan; Yu, Seong Uk; Hajibabaei, Amir; Park, Youngsin; Kim, Kwang S

    2017-07-26

    This spotlight discusses intriguing properties and diverse applications of graphene (Gr) and Gr analogs. Gr has brought us two-dimensional (2D) chemistry with its exotic 2D features of density of states. Yet, some of the 2D or 2D-like features can be seen on surfaces and at interfaces of bulk materials. The substrate on Gr and functionalization of Gr (including metal decoration, intercalation, doping, and hybridization) modify the unique 2D features of Gr. Despite abundant literature on physical properties and well-known applications of Gr, spotlight works based on the conceptual understanding of the 2D physical and chemical nature of Gr toward vast-ranging applications are hardly found. Here we focus on applications of Gr, based on conceptual understanding of 2D phenomena toward 2D chemistry. Thus, 2D features, defects, edges, and substrate effects of Gr are discussed first. Then, to pattern Gr electronic circuits, insight into differentiating conducting and nonconducting regions is introduced. By utilizing the unique ballistic electron transport properties and edge spin states of Gr, Gr nanoribbons (GNRs) are exploited for the design of ultrasensitive molecular sensing electronic devices (including molecular fingerprinting) and spintronic devices. The highly stable nature of Gr can be utilized for protection of corrosive metals, moisture-sensitive perovskite solar cells, and highly environment-susceptible topological insulators (TIs). Gr analogs have become new types of 2D materials having novel features such as half-metals, TIs, and nonlinear optical properties. The key insights into the functionalized Gr hybrid materials lead to the applications for not only energy storage and electrochemical catalysis, green chemistry, and electronic/spintronic devices but also biosensing and medical applications. All these topics are discussed here with the focus on conceptual understanding. Further possible applications of Gr, GNRs, and Gr analogs are also addressed in a

  16. SU-G-201-13: Investigation of Dose Variation Induced by HDR Ir-192 Source Global Shift Within the Varian Ring Applicator Using Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y; Cai, J; Meltsner, S; Chang, Z; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Varian tandem and ring applicators are used to deliver HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The source path within the ring is hard to predict due to the larger interior ring lumen. Some studies showed the source could be several millimeters different from planned positions, while other studies demonstrated minimal dosimetric impact. A global shift can be applied to limit the effect of positioning offsets. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessities of implementing a global source shift using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: The MCNP5 radiation transport code was used for all MC simulations. To accommodate TG-186 guidelines and eliminate inter-source attenuation, a BrachyVision plan with 10 dwell positions (0.5cm step sizes) was simulated as the summation of 10 individual sources with equal dwell times for simplification. To simplify the study, the tandem was also excluded from the MC model. Global shifts of ±0.1, ±0.3, ±0.5 cm were then simulated as distal and proximal from the reference positions. Dose was scored in water for all MC simulations and was normalized to 100% at the normalization point 0.5 cm from the cap in the ring plane. For dose comparison, Point A was 2 cm caudal from the buildup cap and 2 cm lateral on either side of the ring axis. With seventy simulations, 108 photon histories gave a statistical uncertainties (k=1) <2% for (0.1 cm)3 voxels. Results: Compared to no global shift, average Point A doses were 0.0%, 0.4%, and 2.2% higher for distal global shifts, and 0.4%, 2.8%, and 5.1% higher for proximal global shifts, respectively. The MC Point A doses differed by < 1% when compared to BrachyVision. Conclusion: Dose variations were not substantial for ±0.3 cm global shifts, which is common in clinical practice.

  17. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments

  18. WE-G-BRF-05: Feasibility of Markerless Motion Tracking Using Dual Energy Cone Beam Computed Tomography (DE-CBCT) Projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfil, J; Patel, R; Surucu, M; Roeske, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare markerless template-based tracking of lung tumors using dual energy (DE) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections versus single energy (SE) CBCT projections. Methods: A RANDO chest phantom with a simulated tumor in the upper right lung was used to investigate the effectiveness of tumor tracking using DE and SE CBCT projections. Planar kV projections from CBCT acquisitions were captured at 60 kVp (4 mAs) and 120 kVp (1 mAs) using the Varian TrueBeam and non-commercial iTools Capture software. Projections were taken at approximately every 0.53° while the gantry rotated. Due to limitations of the phantom, angles for which the shoulders blocked the tumor were excluded from tracking analysis. DE images were constructed using a weighted logarithmic subtraction that removed bony anatomy while preserving soft tissue structures. The tumors were tracked separately on DE and SE (120 kVp) images using a template-based tracking algorithm. The tracking results were compared to ground truth coordinates designated by a physician. Matches with a distance of greater than 3 mm from ground truth were designated as failing to track. Results: 363 frames were analyzed. The algorithm successfully tracked the tumor on 89.8% (326/363) of DE frames compared to 54.3% (197/363) of SE frames (p<0.0001). Average distance between tracking and ground truth coordinates was 1.27 +/− 0.67 mm for DE versus 1.83+/−0.74 mm for SE (p<0.0001). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of markerless template-based tracking using DE CBCT. DE imaging resulted in better detectability with more accurate localization on average versus SE. Supported by a grant from Varian Medical Systems

  19. SU-F-BRE-10: Methods to Simulate and Measure the Attenuation for Modeling a Couch Top with Rails for FFF Treatment Delivery On the Varian Edge Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulam, M; Gardner, S; Zhao, B; Snyder, K; Song, K; Li, H; Gordon, J; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Kearns, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To measure attenuation for modelling of the KVue Couchtop for 6X and 10X FFF SRS/SBRT treatment Methods: Treatment planning simulation studies were done using 6X FFF beams to estimate the dosimetric impact of KVue couchtops (including the Q-Fix IGRT [carbon fiber] and Calypso [nonconductive Kevlar material]) with a structure model obtained from a research workstation (Eclipse, advanced planning interface (API) v13). Prior to installation on the Varian Edge linac, the couchtop along with (Kevlar) rails were CT scanned with the rails at various positions. An additional scan with the couchtop 15cm above the CT table top was obtained with 20cm solid water to facilitate precised/indexed data acquisition. Measurements for attenuation were obtained for field sizes of 2, 4 and 10 cm 2 at 42 gantry angles including 6 pairs of opposing fields and other angles for oblique delivery where the beams traversed the couchtop and or rails. The delivery was fully automated with xml scripts running in developer mode. The results were then used to determine an accurate structure model for AAA (Eclipse v11) planning of IMRT and RapidArc delivery. Results: The planning simulation relative dose attenuation for oblique entry was not significantly different than the Exact IGRT or BrainLab iBeam couch except that the rails added 6% additional attenuation. The relative attenuation measurements for PA, PA (rails: inner position), oblique, oblique (rails: outer position), oblique (rails: inner position) were: −2.0%, −2.5%, −15.6%, −2.5%, −5.0% for 6X FFF and −1.4%, −1.5%, −12.2%, − 2.5%, −5.0% for 10X FFF with slight decrease in attenuation versus field size. A Couch structure model (with HU values) was developed. Calculation compared to measurement showed good agreement except for oblique (rails: outer position) where differences approached a magnitude of 6%. Conclusion: A model of the couch structures has been developed accounting for attenuation for FFF beams

  20. SU-E-J-28: Gantry Speed Significantly Affects Image Quality and Imaging Dose for 4D Cone-Beam Computed Tomography On the Varian Edge Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoso, A [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Song, K; Gardner, S; Chetty, I; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 4D-CBCT facilitates assessment of tumor motion at treatment position. We investigated the effect of gantry speed on 4D-CBCT image quality and dose using the Varian Edge On-Board Imager (OBI). Methods: A thoracic protocol was designed using a 125 kVp spectrum. Image quality parameters were obtained via 4D acquisition using a Catphan phantom with a gating system. A sinusoidal waveform was executed with a five second period and superior-inferior motion. 4D-CBCT scans were sorted into 4 and 10 phases. Image quality metrics included spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), uniformity index (UI), Hounsfield unit (HU) sensitivity, and RMS error (RMSE) of motion amplitude. Dosimetry was accomplished using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films within a CIRS Thorax phantom. This was placed on the gating phantom using the same motion waveform. Results: High contrast resolution decreased linearly from 5.93 to 4.18 lp/cm, 6.54 to 4.18 lp/cm, and 5.19 to 3.91 lp/cm for averaged, 4 phase, and 10 phase 4DCBCT volumes respectively as gantry speed increased from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec. CNRs decreased linearly from 4.80 to 1.82 as the gantry speed increased from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec, respectively. No significant variations in UIs, HU sensitivities, or RMSEs were observed with variable gantry speed. Ion chamber measurements compared to film yielded small percent differences in plastic water regions (0.1–9.6%), larger percent differences in lung equivalent regions (7.5–34.8%), and significantly larger percent differences in bone equivalent regions (119.1–137.3%). Ion chamber measurements decreased from 17.29 to 2.89 cGy with increasing gantry speed from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec. Conclusion: Maintaining technique factors while changing gantry speed changes the number of projections used for reconstruction. Increasing the number of projections by decreasing gantry speed decreases noise, however, dose is increased. The future of 4DCBCT’s clinical utility relies on further

  1. SU-F-BRE-10: Methods to Simulate and Measure the Attenuation for Modeling a Couch Top with Rails for FFF Treatment Delivery On the Varian Edge Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulam, M; Gardner, S; Zhao, B; Snyder, K; Song, K; Li, H; Gordon, J; Wen, N; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Kearns, W [Varian Medical Systems, Clemmons, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To measure attenuation for modelling of the KVue Couchtop for 6X and 10X FFF SRS/SBRT treatment Methods: Treatment planning simulation studies were done using 6X FFF beams to estimate the dosimetric impact of KVue couchtops (including the Q-Fix IGRT [carbon fiber] and Calypso [nonconductive Kevlar material]) with a structure model obtained from a research workstation (Eclipse, advanced planning interface (API) v13). Prior to installation on the Varian Edge linac, the couchtop along with (Kevlar) rails were CT scanned with the rails at various positions. An additional scan with the couchtop 15cm above the CT table top was obtained with 20cm solid water to facilitate precised/indexed data acquisition. Measurements for attenuation were obtained for field sizes of 2, 4 and 10 cm{sup 2} at 42 gantry angles including 6 pairs of opposing fields and other angles for oblique delivery where the beams traversed the couchtop and or rails. The delivery was fully automated with xml scripts running in developer mode. The results were then used to determine an accurate structure model for AAA (Eclipse v11) planning of IMRT and RapidArc delivery. Results: The planning simulation relative dose attenuation for oblique entry was not significantly different than the Exact IGRT or BrainLab iBeam couch except that the rails added 6% additional attenuation. The relative attenuation measurements for PA, PA (rails: inner position), oblique, oblique (rails: outer position), oblique (rails: inner position) were: −2.0%, −2.5%, −15.6%, −2.5%, −5.0% for 6X FFF and −1.4%, −1.5%, −12.2%, − 2.5%, −5.0% for 10X FFF with slight decrease in attenuation versus field size. A Couch structure model (with HU values) was developed. Calculation compared to measurement showed good agreement except for oblique (rails: outer position) where differences approached a magnitude of 6%. Conclusion: A model of the couch structures has been developed accounting for attenuation for FFF

  2. Dose non-linearity of the dosimetry system and possible monitor unit errors on medical linear accelerators used in conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study dose non-linearity in medical linear accelerators used in conventional radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Open fields, as well as the enhanced dynamic wedge ones, were used to collect data for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams obtained from the VARIAN linear accelerator. Beam stability was checked and confirmed for different dose rates, energies, and application of enhanced dynamic wedge by calculating the charge per monitor unit. Monitor unit error was calculated by the two-exposure method for open and enhanced dynamic wedge beams of 6 MV and 15 MV photons. A significant monitor unit error with maximum values of ±2.05931 monitor unit and ±2.44787 monitor unit for open and enhanced dynamic wedge beams, respectively, both energy and dose rate dependent, was observed both in the open photon beam and enhanced dynamic wedge fields. However, it exhibited certain irregular patterns at enhanced dynamic wedge angles. Dose monitor unit error exists only because of the overshoot phenomena and electronic delay in dose coincident and integrated circuits with a dependency on the dose rate and photon energy. Monitor unit errors are independent of the application of enhanced dynamic wedge. The existence of monitor unit error demands that the dose non-linearity of the linear accelerator dosimetry system be periodically tested, so as to avoid significant dosimetric errors.

  3. A Low-Power CMOS Piezoelectric Transducer Based Energy Harvesting Circuit for Wearable Sensors for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeho Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric vibration based energy harvesting systems have been widely utilized and researched as powering modules for various types of sensor systems due to their ease of integration and relatively high energy density compared to RF, thermal, and electrostatic based energy harvesting systems. In this paper, a low-power CMOS full-bridge rectifier is presented as a potential solution for an efficient energy harvesting system for piezoelectric transducers. The energy harvesting circuit consists of two n-channel MOSFETs (NMOS and two p-channel MOSFETs (PMOS devices implementing a full-bridge rectifier coupled with a switch control circuit based on a PMOS device driven by a comparator. With a load of 45 kΩ, the output rectifier voltage and the input piezoelectric transducer voltage are 694 mV and 703 mV, respectably, while the VOUT versus VIN conversion ratio is 98.7% with a PCE of 52.2%. The energy harvesting circuit has been designed using 130 nm standard CMOS process.

  4. Occupational radiation protection around medical linear accelerators: measurements and semi-analytical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donadille, L.; Derreumaux, S.; Mantione, J.; Robbes, I.; Trompier, F.; Amgarou, K.; Asselineau, B.; Martin, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: X-rays produced by high-energy (larger than 6 MeV) medical electron linear accelerators create secondary neutron radiation fields mainly by photonuclear reactions inside the materials of the accelerator head, the patient and the walls of the therapy room. Numerous papers were devoted to the study of neutron production in medical linear accelerators and resulting decay of activation products. However, data associated to doses delivered to workers in treatment conditions are scarce. In France, there are more than 350 external radiotherapy facilities representing almost all types of techniques and designs. IRSN carried out a measurement campaign in order to investigate the variation of the occupational dose according the different encountered situations. Six installations were investigated, associated with the main manufacturers (Varian, Elekta, General Electrics, Siemens), for several nominal energies, conventional and IMRT techniques, and bunker designs. Measurements were carried out separately for neutron and photon radiation fields, and for radiation associated with the decay of the activation products, by means of radiometers, tissue-equivalent proportional counters and spectrometers (neutron and photon spectrometry). They were performed at the positions occupied by the workers, i.e. outside the bunker during treatments, inside between treatments. Measurements have been compared to published data. In addition, semi-empirical analytical approaches recommended by international protocols were used to estimate doses inside and outside the bunkers. The results obtained by both approaches were compared and analysed. The annual occupational effective dose was estimated to about 1 mSv, including more than 50 % associated with the decay of activation products and less than 10 % due to direct exposure to leakage neutrons produced during treatments. (author)

  5. Energy and nutritional value of diets used in patients alimentation and their assessment by patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos, Krzysztof; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Jałocha, Lukasz; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Abramowicz, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the work was laboratory assessment of energy and nutritional value of general and light diets used in patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw alimentation. Using questionnaire method the assessment of diets was done by patients too. Meals given to patients in hospital not always fulfilled nutritional requirements. Additional consumption of supplementary products did not always meet the requirements of proper nutrition. Half of examined patients appraised nutrition variety as good but at the same time claimed the there was not enough fruits and vegetables.

  6. Fast, epithermal and thermal photoneutron dosimetry in air and in tissue equivalent phantom for a high-energy X-ray medical accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Hakimi, Amir

    2018-02-01

    Photoneutron (PN) dosimetry in fast, epithermal and thermal energy ranges originated from the beam and albedo neutrons in high-energy X-ray medical accelerators is highly important from scientific, technical, radiation protection and medical physics points of view. Detailed dose equivalents in the fast, epithermal and thermal PN energy ranges in air up to 2m as well as at 35 positions from the central axis of 12 cross sections of the phantom at different depths were determined in 18MV X-ray beams of a Siemens ONCOR accelerator. A novel dosimetry method based on polycarbonate track dosimeters (PCTD)/ 10 B (with/without cadmium cover) was used to determine and separate different PN dose equivalents in air and in a multilayer polyethylene phantom. Dose equivalent distributions of PNs, as originated from the main beam and/or albedo PNs, on cross-plane, in-plane and diagonal axes in 10cm×10cm fields are reported. PN dose equivalent distributions on the 3 axes have their maxima at the isocenter. Epithermal and thermal PN depth dose equivalent distributions in the phantom for different positions studied peak at ∼3cm depth. The neutron dosimeters used for the first time in such studies are highly effective for separating dose equivalents of PNs in the studied energy ranges (beam and/or albedo). The PN dose equivalent data matrix made available in this paper is highly essential for detailed patient dosimetry in general and for estimating secondary cancer risks in particular. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Beam Energy Deposition from PS Booster and Production Rates of Selected Medical Radioisotopes in the CERN-MEDICIS Target

    OpenAIRE

    Gonsalves, Basil; Barlow, Roger; Dos Santos Augusto, Ricardo Manuel; Lee, Sangcheol; Stora, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    CERN-MEDICIS uses the scattered (ca. 90%) 1.4 GeV, 2 uA protons delivered by the PS Booster to the ISOLDE target, which would normally end up in the beam dump. After irradiation, the MEDICIS target is transported back to an offline isotope mass separator, where the produced isotopes are mass separated, and are then collected. The required medical radioisotopes are later chemically separated in the class A laboratory. The radioisotopes are transported to partner hospitals for processing and pr...

  8. Medical Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesel, D. L.; Antaya, T. A.

    Particle accelerators were initially developed to address specific scientific research goals, yet they were used for practical applications, particularly medical applications, within a few years of their invention. The cyclotron's potential for producing beams for cancer therapy and medical radioisotope production was realized with the early Lawrence cyclotrons and has continued with their more technically advanced successors — synchrocyclotrons, sector-focused cyclotrons and superconducting cyclotrons. While a variety of other accelerator technologies were developed to achieve today's high energy particles, this article will chronicle the development of one type of accelerator — the cyclotron, and its medical applications. These medical and industrial applications eventually led to the commercial manufacture of both small and large cyclotrons and facilities specifically designed for applications other than scientific research.

  9. R&D on scintillation materials for novel ionizing radiation detectors for High Energy Physics, medical imaging and industrial applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Chipaux, R; Vasilev, A; Rinaldi, D; Boursier, Y M; Tikhomirov, V; Morel, C; Choi, Y; Tamulaitis, G

    2002-01-01

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC) was approved by the Detector R&D Committee as RD18 in 1990 with the objective of developing new inorganic scintillators suitable for crystal electromagnetic calorimeters of LHC experiments. From 1990 to 1994, CCC made an intensive investigation for the quest of the most adequate ideal scintillator for the LHC; three main candidates were identified and extensively studied : CeF$_{3}$, PbWO$_{4}$ and heavy scintillating glasses. Lead tungstate was chosen by CMS and ALICE as the most cost effective crystal compliant to LHC conditions. Today 76648 PWO crystals are installed in CMS and 17920 in ALICE. After this success Crystal clear has continued its investigation on new scintillators and the understanding of scintillation mechanisms and light transfer properties in particular : The understanding of cerium ion as activator, The development of LuAP, LuYAP crystals for medical imaging applications, (CERN patent) Investigation of Ytterbium based scintillators for solar ne...

  10. Studying the molecular mechanisms of radiation damage : low-energy electron interactions with biomolecules and medically relevant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since it was discovered in the year 2000 that secondary electrons with energies below 20 eV, which are the most abundant secondary species produced upon the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological tissue, can induce severe damages in the DNA such as single and double strand breaks, the interest for the study of the interaction of electrons with essential molecules of the human body has grown immensely. Double strand breaks can lead to cancer and are therefore a substantial threat to human health, however, the radiation research community is not sure how these strand breaks are formed upon interaction with ionizing radiation. The fact that even electrons with energies well below the ionization threshold can induce great damage in biological molecules via a resonant process called dissociative electron attachment (DEA), has even furthered the interest in these electron interactions, as it was shown to be a very efficient decomposition mechanism. A variety of studies, such as DEA studies to components of the DNA, for example, have been undertaken so far to shed more light on the role electrons play in the radiation damage of biomolecules. In this thesis two nucleobases, adenine and hypoxanthine, have been studied by observing their response towards low-energy electrons. It has been found that these nucleobases behave in a similar manner upon low-energy electron interaction, as do other nucleobases, that have been studied previously. The loss of hydrogen is suspected to act as a precursor for the decomposition of the DNA and the nucleobases can also undergo ring cleavage, which will induce substantial damage in the DNA. Furthermore, the search for improved and more efficient methods for the treatment of cancer is as important as ever, considering the ever-rising number of cancer deaths. Radiotherapy has proven to be one of the best treatments for tumors, but was found to be ineffective in hypoxic - oxygen deprived - tumors. Compounds called radiosensitizers

  11. Validity of mid arm circumference to detect protein energy malnutrition among 8-11 months old infants in a rural medical college of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Sanjoy Kr; Chatterjee, Chitra; Shrivastava, Prabha; Sardar, Jadav Chandra; Joardar, Gautam Kr; Lahiri, Saibendu

    2010-09-01

    This institution-based cross-sectional observational validation study was conducted in the immunisation clinic of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Sushrutanagar. The objective was to identify the validity characteristics of mid arm circumference to detect protein energy malnutrition among 8-11 months infants and to find out a suitable cut-off value if any. Study variables were age, sex, body weight and mid arm circumference. Mid arm circumference was validated against weight for age criteria (gold standard) of malnutrition. The mean mid arm circumference of the infants was found to be almost constant with only about 2.22% change over 4 months, signifying that single cut-off point can be used to detect protein energy malnutrition. Mid arm circumference values from 13.0 to 12.5 cm were found to have the highest accuracy to detect protein energy malnutrition (about 86%). The cut-off values of 12.5 and 12.6 cm were noted to have a sensitivity and specificity of about 52% and 96% respectively, a false negativity of 48% but a false positivity of only 4%. Receiver operating characteristics curve detected 12.5(12.6) cm as the best diagnostic cut-off point which can detect more than 50% of the malnourished babies with very little false positivity/misdiagnosis (only 4%). A simple measuring tape with some reorientation of the health workers can detect the beginning of childhood malnutrition.

  12. Optical and energy dependent response of the alanine gel solution produced at IPEN to clinical photons and electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber F.

    2011-01-01

    The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)

  13. On board imaging with cone beam C.B.C.T. kV VARIAN{sup TM}: Montauban's radiation therapy department experience; Systeme d'imagerie par tomographie conique de basse energie (kV)de Varian{sup TM}: experience de Montauban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudouet, P.; Boutry, C.; Mounie, G.; Thouveny, F.; Redon, A. [Clinique du Pont-de-Chaume, Groupe Oncorad Garonne, Service d' Oncologie, 82 - Montauban (France); Latorzeff, I. [Clinique Pasteur, L' Atrium, Service de Radiotherapie, Groupe Oncorad Garonne, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To describe our practice day to day with a Variant linac 'Clinac 2100' fully equipped with an On Board Imager (O.B.I.) for patients with prostate cancer. Materials and methods: A volumetric and dosimetric study was performed in 2006 using Artiview software (Aquilab) for nine patients and 76 Cone Beam CT kV (C.B.C.T. kV). We have contoured targets and organs at risk from C.B.C.T. kV slides acquisitions. Second, we achieved a dose-volume histogram (D.V.H.) study for a patient treated in 2007 with I.M.R.T. technique in comparison with the 2006 study. Results: 2006 analysis: The study showed a very important variability of organ measurements. Seminal vesicles were strongly influenced by adjacent organs; observed differences for prostate could be explained by contouring uncertainty on the apex. Inter-sessions motions could be observed for bladder, rectum and seminal vesicles (S.V.). Part of prostate volume not encompassed by P.T.V. is about 2.5%; V.S. volume outside P.T.V. is about 35%. Tumoral conformation index (T.C.I.) is inferior to 97.5% in 22% of all cases. Anteroposterior displacements of the prostate barycentre is superior to 5 mm. From this analysis, we recommended the strict respect of hygieno-dietetic rules, and we have adapted the system settings for better immobilization, which were applied for the 2007 study. For the 2007 analysis, since April 2007, most of patients are treated with I.M.R.T. for prostate cancer, at the second part of the radiation therapy to encompass only the prostate volume. Dose-volume histograms showed a great spreading out for 2006 patients, and not for the 2007 patient. Conclusions: Intensity modulation radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) and image guided radiotherapy (I.G.R.T.) should permit a margin reduction for P.T.V.. Strict respect of hygieno-dietetics rules is necessary to avoid rectal distension and local recurrence. (authors)

  14. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  15. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  16. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans.

  17. Public Health Ministere stablish that all medical equipment records request who emit ionizing radiations providing health organizations, Public or privates, such as enterprise who trade medical products, have to be carry out between of the Public a Health Ministere Technology Department and DINATEN of the Industry energy and Mining Ministere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present decree stablish that the evaluation of all the applications of registration of medical teams that emit ionizing radiations, coming from the institutions of health, you publish or private, as well as companies that market medical products will be carried out among the Department of Technology it Prescribes of the Ministry of Health it Public and the DINATEN of the Ministry of Industry Energy and Mining

  18. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  19. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  20. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H; Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Wen, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  1. A Monte Carlo investigation of low-Z target image quality generated in a linear accelerator using Varian's VirtuaLinac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, David; Robar, James L.; Sawkey, Daren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The focus of this work was the demonstration and validation of VirtuaLinac with clinical photon beams and to investigate the implementation of low-Z targets in a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Linac) using Monte Carlo modeling. Methods: VirtuaLinac, a cloud based web application utilizing Geant4 Monte Carlo code, was used to model the Linac treatment head components. Particles were propagated through the lower portion of the treatment head using BEAMnrc. Dose distributions and spectral distributions were calculated using DOSXYZnrc and BEAMdp, respectively. For validation, 6 MV flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams were generated and compared to measurement for square fields, 10 and 40 cm wide and at d max for diagonal profiles. Two low-Z targets were investigated: a 2.35 MeV carbon target and the proposed 2.50 MeV commercial imaging target for the TrueBeam platform. A 2.35 MeV carbon target was also simulated in a 2100EX Clinac using BEAMnrc. Contrast simulations were made by scoring the dose in the phosphor layer of an IDU20 aSi detector after propagating through a 4 or 20 cm thick phantom composed of water and ICRP bone. Results: Measured and modeled depth dose curves for 6 MV flattened and FFF beams agree within 1% for 98.3% of points at depths greater than 0.85 cm. Ninety three percent or greater of points analyzed for the diagonal profiles had a gamma value less than one for the criteria of 1.5 mm and 1.5%. The two low-Z target photon spectra produced in TrueBeam are harder than that from the carbon target in the Clinac. Percent dose at depth 10 cm is greater by 3.6% and 8.9%; the fraction of photons in the diagnostic energy range (25–150 keV) is lower by 10% and 28%; and contrasts are lower by factors of 1.1 and 1.4 (4 cm thick phantom) and 1.03 and 1.4 (20 cm thick phantom), for the TrueBeam 2.35 MV/carbon and commercial imaging beams, respectively. Conclusions: VirtuaLinac is a promising new tool for Monte Carlo modeling of novel

  2. Hemagglutinating/Hemolytic activities in extracts of marine invertebrates from the Brazilian coast and isolation of two lectins from the marine sponge Cliona varians and the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Raniere M; Melo, Arthur A; Carneiro, Rômulo F; Rodrigues, Cícera R F; Delatorre, Plínio; Nascimento, Kyria S; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Nagano, Celso S; Cavada, Benildo S; Sampaio, Alexandre H

    2015-01-01

    Twenty species of marine invertebrates from the Brazilian coast were screened for hemagglutinating/hemolytic activity. In at least twelve tested species, hemagglutinating activity was different for different blood types, suggesting the presence of lectins. Extracts from four species showed hemolytic activity. Two new lectins were purified from the marine sponge Cliona varians (CvL-2) and sea cucumber Holothuria grisea (HGL). CvL-2 was able to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by galactosides. The hemagglutinating activity was optimal in pH neutral and temperatures below 70 °C. CvL-2 is a trimeric protein with subunits of 175 kDa. On the other hand, HGL showed both hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity in human and rabbit erythrocytes, but hemolysis could be inhibited by osmotic protection, and agglutination was inhibited by mucin. HGL was stable in pH values ranging from 4 to 10 and temperatures up to 90 °C. In electrophoresis and gel filtration, HGL was a monomeric protein with 15 kDa. CvL-2 and HGL showed different levels of toxicity to Artemia naplii. CvL-2 showed LC50 of 850.1 μg/mL, whereas HGL showed LC50 of 9.5 µg/mL.

  3. SU-E-T-332: Dosimetric Impact of Photon Energy and Treatment Technique When Knowledge Based Auto-Planning Is Implemented in Radiotherapy of Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Grow, A; Hayes, C; Balamucki, C [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Salmon, H; Thompson, M [Lake City Cancer Center, Lake City, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric impact of the combination of photon energy and treatment technique on radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer when knowledge based planning was used. Methods: A total of 16 patients with localized prostate cancer were retrospectively retrieved from database and used for this study. For each patient, four types of treatment plans with different combinations of photon energy (6X and 10X) and treatment techniques (7-field IMRT and 2-arc VMAT) were created using a prostate DVH estimation model in RapidPlan™ and Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical System). For any beam arrangement, DVH objectives and weighting priorities were generated based on the geometric relationship between the OAR and PTV. Photon optimization algorithm was used for plan optimization and AAA algorithm was used for final dose calculation. Plans were evaluated in terms of the pre-defined dosimetric endpoints for PTV, rectum, bladder, penile bulb, and femur heads. A Student’s paired t-test was used for statistical analysis and p > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For PTV, V95 was statistically similar among all four types of plans, though the mean dose of 10X plans was higher than that of 6X plans. VMAT plans showed higher heterogeneity index than IMRT plans. No statistically significant difference in dosimetry metrics was observed for rectum, bladder, and penile bulb among plan types. For left and right femur, VMAT plans had a higher mean dose than IMRT plans regardless of photon energy, whereas the maximum dose was similar. Conclusion: Overall, the dosimetric endpoints were similar regardless of photon energy and treatment techniques when knowledge based auto planning was used. Given the similarity in dosimetry metrics of rectum, bladder, and penile bulb, the genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities should be comparable among the selections of photon energy and treatment techniques.

  4. Medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report examines the separate proposals from the Austin Hospital and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for a medical cyclotron facility. The proponents have argued that a cyclotron facility would benefit Australia in areas of patient care, availability and export of radioisotopes, and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and neutron beam therapy are also examined

  5. Effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation: implications for nuclear energy and medical radiation. The 1979 report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (The BEIR Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    The following aspects of the 1979 BEIR report are described: societal decision-making; nuclear energy needs and medical care services; epidemiological and experimental studies; public acceptance; concept of risks to health; risk estimates and cost-benefit analysis; and comparison of risks. Other topics discussed are as follows: need for advisory committees on radiation; value of the BEIR report; health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation; determination of radiation risk estimates; and quantitation of radioinduced cancer risk estimates

  6. Use of I.G.R.T. for prostate cancers (O.B.I.-C.B.C.T. VarianTM, ExacTrac BrainLABTM and M.V.C.T. Tomo-therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpon, G.; Llagostera, C.; Lisbona, A.; Le Blanc, M.; Rio, E.; Supiot, S.; Mahe, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to report the experience of image-guided radiotherapy at the C.L.C.C. Nantes-Atlantique using three repositioning imaging devices, the ExacTrac (BrainLABTM), the on-board imager cone beam computed tomography (O.B.I.-C.B.C.T.) (Varian TM ) and the M.V.C.T. (Tomotherapy Inc TM ), in the case of prostate external radiotherapy.Material and methods: For each linac and its imaging device, a treatment plan was described. Moreover, studies concerning calculated shifts after imaging sessions were achieved. Using ExacTrac, for eight patients, a study compared daily shifts based on bony anatomy or on implanted markers. Considering mean values of displacements over a course of radiotherapy, dosimetric impact was evaluated. With the O.B.I.-C.B.C.T., two imaging modalities were used, kV-kV (0. and 270.) and C.B.C.T.. Up to now, whatever the images, displacements were calculated using the bony anatomy. For both modalities and for 26 patients, shifts were compared. Since the beginning of the Tomotherapy HiArt use, mega voltage cone tomography (M.V.C.T.) was performed for each session of each patient. For 12 patients, mean displacements were calculated after five fractions. Then the deviations to those values were calculated. This was done to show the relevance of daily M.V.C.T.. Results and conclusion: This work allows us to report the use of three repositioning imaging devices in the radiotherapy department. At least: they provide an efficient positioning tool. And they let us see the future radiotherapy which would probably be the dose-guided radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  7. ENERGY MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T. M.

    1987-01-01

    Energy medicine is the most comprehensive concept introduced in medical diagnostics and therapy to account for a whole range of phenomena and methods available to help an individual proceed from sickness to health. The modern medical theories do not account for, much less accept many traditional therapies due to deep suspicion that the older methods are not scientific. However, the Holistic Health groups around the world have now created an environment for therapies which work at subtle energ...

  8. Medical aspects of renewable energy shown by the example of German hospitals; Umweltmedizinische Gesichtspunkte der regenerativen Energieerzeugung am Beispiel deutscher Krankenhaeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waschnewski, R.

    2007-07-01

    To what extend are renewable energy sources used in German hospitals? This is the main objective, this is paper is dealing with. The energy consumption profile is very specific in hospitals. In a questionnaire based study, 79 hospitals have been questioned to elucidate the current situation in German hospitals with respect to energy consumption, and to get an idea of the proportion of alternative energy sources already in use. Our analysis reveals that 14% of the hospitals analysed are already using renewable energy sources. Main sources already utilized are photovoltaic, solar thermal devices, and to a lower extend geothermic energy as well comes into operation. Almost three quarters of the questioned institutions claim, they are aware of funding possibilities and the option of contracting with respect to providing financial support in relation to aquisition of new establishments of alternative energy systems within their institution. Roughly half of the hospital's technical supervisors are aware of the precise energy potential of their institution. The situation about information and awareness with respect to possibilities related to the usage of green energy is deficient and should be improved, but the openness with respect to the topic in general seems to be very positive and advantage of that climate should be taken. Our survey allowed to get an initial estimate on the green energy situation in German hospitals. The focus of the discussion is channeled towards the environmental aspects of the energy production. The survey data allow to conclude that the current information situation is deficient. The data further provide insight into what are the main barriers with respect to the use of renewable energy. Based on our results future analyses can not focus on specific aspects and further evaluate approaches allowing to extend the usage of alternative energy sources in hospitals. (orig.)

  9. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...

  10. Measurement of the neutron spectrum in a room with an accelerator Varian 2300C/D Linac using the Bonner multisphere spectrometer; Medicao do espectro de neutrons em uma sala com um acelerador Varian 2300C/D Linav usando o espectrometro de multiesferas de Bonner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, D.B.S., E-mail: cavalcante@ird.gov.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Fonseca, E.S. da, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lemos Junior, R.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Batista, D.V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The generated neutron field varies considerably and depends on the beam energy, on the shielding of the accelerator, on the filters for beam homogeneity, and also on the mobile collimators and geometry of irradiation. The estimation of the component relative to the photoneutrons has practical interest for evaluation of the radiological risks for the workers and for the patient as well. Due to the high frequency magnetic field, and to the photon abundance resulting of the escape and scattering at treatment room, those measurements present some difficulties. Measurements of the neutron fields can be made with a Bonner spectrometer. Those system was calibrated with referred neutron standard sources and used for make measurements on a spot of the room where a Variant 2300C/D Linac is installed. The unfolding process used the BUNKI computer code for determination of the neutron spectra at the measurement spot

  11. Comparison of Online 6 Degree-of-Freedom Image Registration of Varian TrueBeam Cone-Beam CT and BrainLab ExacTrac X-Ray for Intracranial Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Shi, Wenyin; Andrews, David; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Lu, Bo; Yu, Yan; Dicker, Adam; Liu, Haisong

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to compare online 6 degree-of-freedom image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam computed tomography and BrainLab ExacTrac X-ray imaging systems for intracranial radiosurgery. Phantom and patient studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (version 2.5), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (version 6.1.1). The phantom study was based on a Rando head phantom and was designed to evaluate isocenter location dependence of the image registrations. Ten isocenters at various locations representing clinical treatment sites were selected in the phantom. Cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac X-ray images were taken when the phantom was located at each isocenter. The patient study included 34 patients. Cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac X-ray images were taken at each patient's treatment position. The 6 degree-of-freedom image registrations were performed on cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac, and residual errors calculated from cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac were compared. In the phantom study, the average residual error differences (absolute values) between cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac image registrations were 0.17 ± 0.11 mm, 0.36 ± 0.20 mm, and 0.25 ± 0.11 mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions, respectively. The average residual error differences in the rotation, roll, and pitch were 0.34° ± 0.08°, 0.13° ± 0.09°, and 0.12° ± 0.10°, respectively. In the patient study, the average residual error differences in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were 0.20 ± 0.16 mm, 0.30 ± 0.18 mm, 0.21 ± 0.18 mm, respectively. The average residual error differences in the rotation, roll, and pitch were 0.40°± 0.16°, 0.17° ± 0.13°, and 0.20° ± 0.14°, respectively. Overall, the average residual error differences were cone-beam computed tomography image registration in intracranial treatments.

  12. MaTech - the BMFT ''new materials'' materials research program - 1994 annual report about new materials for innovative information technology, energy technology, traffic engineering, medical engineering and production engineering applications, and about general materials research and new fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillack, D.; Gilbert, I.; Runte, S.

    1995-01-01

    This annual report gives a survey of projects supported within the framework of the Matfo and Ma-Tech programs. These projects focus on research into materials for innovative: 1. information technology, 2. energy technology, 3. traffic engineering, 4. medical engineering, and 5. production engineering applications and on 6. general materials research and new fields. The descriptions of individual projects indicate project goals and work schedules, names of important sub-contractors, and total costs and the funds contributed by BMFT. Information added in an annex includes inter alia a list of publications, lectures, contracts, or patents resulting from project activities in the year 1994. (MM) [de

  13. Development of total-skin electron therapy at two energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.S.; Heck, R.J.; Fessenden, P.; Karzmark, C.J.; Rust, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Total-Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) modalities have been developed at two energies on a Varian Clinac 1800. The physical criteria for the beams were determined mainly from the requirement of continuing the Stanford treatment technique, which was 12 Total-Skin Electron Therapy portals combined in six pairs. The penetration of the lower energy mode matches that previously obtained at Stanford on the Varian Clinac 10, (about 4 mm for the 80% isodose contour in the 12-field treatment). The penetration of the higher energy mode is about 8 mm at the 80% contour. The Total-Skin Electron Therapy modes necessarily use electrons produced by the two standard electron-beam modes of lowest energy, nominally 6 and 9 MeV. Measurements to verify the beam specifications were carried out with diodes, a variety of ionization chambers, and a specially constructed circular phantom for film dosimetry. Initially, the penetration of the Total-Skin Electron Therapy beams was too large to match our criteria, so two methods of reducing it were explored: (a) the energies of the electron beams produced by the machine were reduced (which also reduced the energies of the corresponding standard electron modes) and (b) a large polymethylmethacrylate degrader (2.4 m X 1.2 m) 1 cm thick was placed just in front of the patient plane. Acceptable Total-Skin Electron Therapy beams could be produced by either method and the latter was finally used. The use of the standard dose monitoring system for the Total-Skin Electron Therapy modes considerably simplifies the daily treatment delivery as well as the implementation. However, the need for reasonable dose rates at the treatment plane (3.5 meters beyond the isocenter) requires dose rates of 24 Gy/min at the isocenter. Nevertheless, it is possible to use the internal dose monitor provided the problems associated with high dose rates are addressed

  14. Medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism is a burgeoning industry in our region. It involves patients travelling outside of their home country for medical treatment. This article provides an outline of the current research around medical tourism, especially its impact on Australians. Patients are increasingly seeking a variety of medical treatments abroad, particularly those involving cosmetic surgery and dental treatment, often in countries in South-East Asia. Adverse events may occur during medical treatment abroad, which raises medico-legal and insurance issues, as well as concerns regarding follow-up of patients. General practitioners need to be prepared to offer advice, including travel health advice, to patients seeking medical treatment abroad.

  15. Added Value of Bone Subtraction in Dual-energy Digital Radiography in the Detection of Pneumothorax: Impact of Reader Expertise and Medical Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaneja, Ayla; Dodin, Gauthier; Hossu, Gabriela; Bakour, Omar; Kechidi, Rachid; Gondim Teixeira, Pedro; Blum, Alain

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of dual-energy thoracic radiography in the diagnosis of pneumothorax considering the reader's experience. Forty patients with a suspected pneumothorax, imaged with dual-energy chest radiographs, were divided into two groups: those with pneumothorax as the final diagnosis (n = 19) and those without (n = 21). The images were analyzed by 36 readers (5 interns, 16 residents, 15 senior physicians) for the presence or absence of pneumothorax during three readout sessions at 2-week intervals: standard images alone (session 1), dual-energy images with bone subtraction alone (session 2), and a combination of the two (session 3). The number of correct responses increased 13.3% between sessions 1 and 2 (P expertise. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of the contribution of neutrons to the equivalent dose for personnel occupationally exposed and public in medical facilities: X-ray with energy equal or greater than 10MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Alfonso Mayer; Jimenez, Roberto Ortega; Sanchez, Mario A. Reyes; Moranchel y Mejia, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and Occupationally Staff Exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents an estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  17. Estimation of the contribution by neutrons to the equivalent dose for exposed occupationally personnel and people in medical use facilities: X rays of equal or superior energy to 10 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega J, R.; Reyes S, M. A.; Moranchel y R, M.

    2013-10-01

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and occupationally staff exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents and estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  18. 10 CFR 850.34 - Medical surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical surveillance. 850.34 Section 850.34 Energy... Medical surveillance. (a) General. (1) The responsible employer must establish and implement a medical surveillance program for beryllium-associated workers who voluntarily participate in the program. (2) The...

  19. The influence of different {sup 192}Ir sources geometries to the energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Paulo Eduardo; Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira, E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Santos, William de Souza; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, various simplifications of the HDR source Varian VariSource Classic model, in which {sup 192}Ir as a radionuclide is used, were compared. These simplifications were carried out by the simulation of Monte Carlo, using the MCNPX code. The different sources were compared through a distribution of energy deposition in a water phantom. Our results indicated that small simplifications will present no influence on the source response, and the removal of the entire capsule surrounding the radionuclide will present a difference of just 0.51% in the final response. (author)

  20. Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  1. Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Errors and Patient Safety Centers for Disease Control and ... Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  2. [Medical negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, St G

    2016-06-01

    Medical negligence is a matter of growing public interest. This review outlines various aspects of medical negligence: epidemiology, taxonomy, and the risks, causes, psychology, management and prevention of errors.

  3. SU-F-I-06: Evaluation of Imaging Dose for Modulation Layer Based Dual Energy Cone-Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Eunbin; Ahn, SoHyun; Cho, Samju; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dual energy cone beam CT system is finding a variety of promising applications in diagnostic CT, both in imaging of endogenous materials and exogenous materials across a range of body sites. Dual energy cone beam CT system to suggest in this study acquire image by rotating 360 degree with half of the X-ray window covered using copper modulation layer. In the region that covered by modulation layer absorb the low energy X-ray by modulation layer. Relative high energy X-ray passes through the layer and contributes to image reconstruction. Dose evaluation should be carried out in order to utilize such an imaging acquirement technology for clinical use. Methods: For evaluating imaging dose of modulation layer based dual energy cone beam CT system, Prototype cone beam CT that configured X-ray tube (D054SB, Toshiba, Japan) and detector (PaxScan 2520V, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) is used. A range of 0.5–2.0 mm thickness of modulation layer is implemented in Monte Carlo simulation (MCNPX, ver. 2.6.0, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) with half of X-ray window covered. In-house phantom using in this study that has 3 cylindrical phantoms configured water, Teflon air with PMMA covered for verifying the comparability the various material in human body and is implemented in Monte Carlo simulation. The actual dose with 2.0 mm copper covered half of X-ray window is measured using Gafchromic EBT3 film with 5.0 mm bolus for compared with simulative dose. Results: Dose in phantom reduced 33% by copper modulation layer of 2.0 mm. Scattering dose occurred in modulation layer by Compton scattering effect is 0.04% of overall dose. Conclusion: Modulation layer of that based dual energy cone beam CT has not influence on unnecessary scatter dose. This study was supported by the Radiation Safety Research Programs (1305033) through the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission.

  4. [Medical technology and medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mallek, D; Biersack, H-J; Mull, R; Wilhelm, K; Heinz, B; Mellert, F

    2010-08-01

    The education of medical professionals is divided into medical studies, postgraduate training leading to the qualification as a specialist, and continuing professional development. During education, all scientific knowledge and practical skills are to be acquired, which enable the physician to practice responsibly in a specialized medical area. In the present article, relevant curricula are analyzed regarding the consideration of medical device-related topics, as the clinical application of medical technology has reached a central position in modern patient care. Due to the enormous scientific and technical progress, this area has become as important as pharmacotherapy. Our evaluation shows that medical device-related topics are currently underrepresented in the course of medical education and training and should be given greater consideration in all areas of medical education. Possible solutions are presented.

  5. Tests of an electron monitor for routine quality control measurements of electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, E.B.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The depth dose for electrons is sensitive to energy and the AAPM Task Group 24 has recommended that tests be performed at monthly intervals to assure electron beam energy constancy by verifying the depth for the 80% dose to within ±3 mm. Typically, this is accomplished by using a two-depth dose ratio technique. Recently, a new device, the Geske monitor, has been introduced that is designed for verifying energy constancy in a single reading. The monitor consists of nine parallel plate detectors that alternate with 5-mm-thick absorbers made of an aluminum alloy. An evaluation of the clinical usefulness of this monitor for the electron beams available on a Varian Clinac 20 has been undertaken with respect to energy discrimination. Beam energy changes of 3 mm of the 80% dose give rise to measurable output changes ranging from 1.7% for 20-MeV electron beams to 15% for 6-MeV electron beams

  6. Towards the estimation of the scattered energy spectra reaching the head of the medical staff during interventional radiology: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorska, A.; Bliznakova, K.; Buchakliev, Z.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended a reduction of the dose limits to the eye lens for occupational exposure. Recent studies showed that in interventional rooms is possible to reach these limits especially without using protective equipment. The aim of this study was to calculate the scattered energy spectra distribution at the level of the operator's head. For this purpose, an in-house developed Monte Carlo-based computer application was used to design computational phantoms (patient and operator), the acquisition geometry as well as to simulate the photon transport through the designed system. The initial spectra from 70 kV tube voltage and 8 different filtrations were calculated according to the IPEM Report 78. An experimental study was carried out to verify the results from the simulations. The calculated scattered radiation distributions were compared to the initial incident on the patient spectra. Results showed that there is no large difference between the effective energies of the scattered spectra registered in front of the operator's head obtained from simulations of all 8 incident spectra. The results from the experimental study agreed well to simulations as well.

  7. Medical criminalistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, S

    2007-01-17

    Medical criminalistics is an essential part of legal/forensic medicine. It includes the clinical examination of surviving victims and suspects, the inspection of the scene in suspicious deaths with subsequent performance of medico-legal autopsies, the assessment of (biological) traces and the reconstruction of criminal events under medical aspects. Just as the circumstances of life and the manifestations of crime are changing with time, there is a permanent alteration regarding the issues of medical criminalistics. Legal/forensic medicine is a university subject in most countries and therefore, research work is one of the main tasks also in medical criminalistics. In contrast to clinical medicine and basic research, some common study designs are not suitable for the special needs of medical criminalistics, whereas other types are more appropriate like epidemiological evaluations, cross-sectional studies and (retrospective) observation studies. Moreover, experimental model tests and case reports also rate high in medical criminalistics.

  8. Medical marijuana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marmor, J B

    1998-01-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several...

  9. Medical error

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    is only when mistakes are recognised that learning can occur...All our previous medical training has taught us to fear error, as error is associated with blame. This fear may lead to concealment and this is turn can lead to fraud'. How real this fear is! All of us, during our medical training, have had the maxim 'prevention is.

  10. Evaluation of the GSO:Ce scintillator in the X-ray energy range from 40 to 140 kV for possible applications in medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Valais, I.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Linardatos, D.; Sianoudis, I.; Louizi, A.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Vattis, D.; Episkopakis, A.; Nomicos, C.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, under X-ray medical imaging conditions, the X-ray luminescence efficiency (XLE) and the optical quantum gain (OQG) of the Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce scintillator in single crystal form, suitable for tomographic applications. Intrinsic physical properties and light emission characteristics of the Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce scintillator, were also studied. Both experimental and Monte Carlo techniques were used. Various X-ray tube voltages (40-140 kV), currently employed in X-ray imaging applications, were used. XLE was found to vary slowly with X-ray tube voltage from (0.021±0.003) to (0.017±0.003). OQG varied from (317±18) to (466±23) light photons per incident X-ray. These values were adequately high for imaging applications using the particular energy range. Additionally, it was found by Monte Carlo simulations that for crystal thicknesses higher than 0.5 cm both XLE and OQG reached saturation levels, indicating that higher thickness crystals are of no practical use in X-ray medical imaging

  11. Medical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Edith; Bernardin, Jeanne; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Fitzsimmons, Brian; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Soon, Judith; Trouton, Konia; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Wiebe, Ellen; Gold, Karen; Murray, Marie-Ève; Winikoff, Beverly; Reeves, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the provision of first-trimester medical induced abortion, including patient eligibility, counselling, and consent; evidence-based regimens; and special considerations for clinicians providing medical abortion care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, registered nurses, midwives, residents, and other healthcare providers who currently or intend to provide pregnancy options counselling, medical abortion care, or family planning services. Women with an unintended first trimester pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library between July 2015 and November 2015 using appropriately controlled vocabulary (MeSH search terms: Induced Abortion, Medical Abortion, Mifepristone, Misoprostol, Methotrexate). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from June 1986 to November 2015 in English. Additionally, existing guidelines from other countries were consulted for review. A grey literature search was not required. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force for Preventive Medicine rating scale (Table 1). Medical abortion is safe and effective. Complications from medical abortion are rare. Access and costs will be dependent on provincial and territorial funding for combination mifepristone/misoprostol and provider availability. Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoporous sputtered platinum-iridium-thinfilms for medical and energy applications; Nanoporoese gesputterte Platin-Iridium-Schichten fuer Anwendungen in der Medizin- und Energietechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganske, Gerald

    2012-10-05

    Sputtering makes it possible to create thinfilms of only a few atom layers and to customize them for special applications by adjusting the deposition parameters. In this work interface-layers are deposited and characterized in biological systems as stimulation electrodes for neural cells and as catalysts in hydrogen fuel cells. First of all, highly porous platinum films were created by sputtering at a pressure of 9 Pa and low power of less than 100 W. These parameters are an ideal compromise between deposition rate, porosity and disordered crystal structure of the layers. Investigations on co-sputtered platinum-iridium-films (PtIr) showed that these films form homogeneous structures and no distinction between the separate layers is possible. It was demonstrated that these films obtain the crystal structure of Pt as well as the finer cauliflower-like structure of iridium, if the atoms reach the substrate surface only with their thermal energy. Furthermore, it was shown that the film composition reflects the sputtering power of the separate targets in a linear way. The structure of the films can be predicted by means of monte-carlo-simulation, which was verified by SEM-pictures. The ratio of the sputtering power can be used to control the amount of interface elements which was confirmed by electrochemical tests. Electrode materials for the stimulation of neural cells need a large electrochemically active surface that allows for an interface between electron and ion conductivity. Test on platinum, iridium and PtIr have shown that the films sputtered at the lowest impact energy do have the largest active surface as well as the largest charge delivery capacity (CDC). Iridium films show the highest CDC (48 mC/cm{sup 2}), followed by platinum-iridium (2 mC/cm{sup 2}, 100 W power at both targets) and pure platinum (16 mC/cm{sup 2}). This can be explained by the large surface area of iridium and its electrochemical activation process. Although PtIr layers also show an

  13. Planetary method to measure the neutrons spectrum in lineal accelerators of medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Benites R, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    A novel procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum originated in a lineal accelerator of medical use has been developed. The method uses a passive spectrometer of Bonner spheres. The main advantage of the method is that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator. When this is used around a lineal accelerator is necessary to operate it under the same conditions so many times like the spheres that contain the spectrometer, activity that consumes enough time. The developed procedure consists on situating all the spheres of the spectrometer at the same time and to realize the reading making a single shot. With this method the photo neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator Varian ix of 15 MV to 100 cm of the isocenter was determined, with the spectrum is determined the total flow and the ambient dose equivalent. (Author)

  14. Multi-leaf shielding design against neutrons produced by medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebello, W. F.; Silva, A. X.; Facure, A.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at presenting a study using Monte Carlo simulation of a Multi-leaf Shielding (MLS) System designed to be used for the protection of patients who undergo radiotherapy treatment, against undesired exposure to neutrons produced in the components of the medical linear accelerator heads. The choice of radiotherapy equipment as the subject of study fell on the Varian Clinac 2100/2300 with MLC-120 operating at 18 MeV. The general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code, MCNP5, was used in the computer simulation in order to determine the ambient dose equivalent, H * (10), on several points on the patient's plane, with the equipment operation with and without the MLS. The results of the simulations showed a significant neutron dose reduction after the inclusion of the proposed shielding. (authors)

  15. Medical Malpractice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    MM first came to the attention of policy makers primarily in the USA where, from the 1970s, healthcare providers denounced problems in getting insurance for medical liability, pointing out to a crisis in the MM insurance market (Sage WM (2003) Understanding the first malpractice crisis of the 21th...... in the last decades also among European countries (Hospitals of the European Union (HOPE) (2004) Insurance and malpractice, final report. Brussels, www.​hope.​be; OECD (2006) Medical malpractice, insurance and coverage options, policy issues in insurance n.11; EC (European Commission, D.G. Sanco) (2006......) Special eurobarometer medical errors)....

  16. Medical marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THC is a cannabinoid that can affect the brain and change your mood or consciousness. Different varieties of marijuana contain different amounts of cannabinoids. This sometimes makes the effects of medical marijuana hard to predict or control. ...

  17. Medical Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have a suspected pregnancy outside of the uterus (ectopic pregnancy). Have certain medical conditions. These include bleeding disorders; ... pregnancy and confirm it's not outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy) and not a tumor that developed in the ...

  18. Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  19. Evaluating photonuclear activation for clearance of decommissioned medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Koichi; Isobe, Tomonori; Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In a linear accelerator (linac) that operates at greater than an accelerating energy of 10 medical viewer (MV), neutrons are generated by a photonuclear reaction and the head section of the linac becomes radioactive. The purpose of this research is to obtain data for ensuring the safety of linac decommissioning and upgrading. The decommissioned linac investigated in this study was a Clinac 2100 C/D (Varian) installed in April 1999. Its total time of use was 2757.7 h (equivalent to 496,386 Gy). The dosage for its last three months of use was 7213.67 Gy. After being allowed to sit for a 7-day cooling period, the apparatus was disassembled and the parts of the gantry head portion were removed. The ambient dose equivalent rates, H*(10), (μSv/h) from the removed parts were measured in air, at a location with low background, by using a gamma ray scintillation survey meter. The target was also analyzed with an HP-Ge semiconductor detector, in order to identify the nuclides responsible for the observed radiation. On day 7 after the last use of the linac, the ambient dose equivalent rates, H*(10), (μSv/h) in air at the surface of all parts, except the target and the beryllium window, were within the limit of normal background radiation. The measured value (μSv/h) for the beryllium window decreased to within the background limit on day 10. The measured value (μSv/h) of the target decreased to about 1.5 times the background on day 19. At a distance of 10 cm, all the parts were within the background limit after the initial 7-day cooling period. In the analysis of the target with the HP-Ge semiconductor detector, peaks at 125, 333, 352, 356, 426, 511, 583, 609, 689, 811, 835, 911, 969, 1091, 1099, 1120, 1173, 1238, 1292, 1333, 1461 and 1764 keV were detected on day 23. Seven months after the linac was last used, peaks were detected at 352, 511, 583, 609, 835, 911, 969, 1120, 1173, 1238, 1333, 1461 and 1764 keV. From these results, the natural radioactive nuclides can be

  20. Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Biscari, C.; Falbo, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on ...

  1. Medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK).

  2. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  3. Medical intellectuals: resisting medical orientalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Felice; Lewis, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose analogies between medical discourse and Edward Said's "Orientalism." Medical discourse, like Orientalism, tends to favor institutional interests and can be similarly dehumanizing in its reductionism, textual representations, and construction of its subjects. To resist Orientalism, Said recommends that critics--"intellectuals"--adopt the perspective of exile. We apply Said's paradigm of intellectual-as-exile to better understand the work of key physician-authors who cross personal and professional boundaries, who engage with patients in mutually therapeutic relationships, and who take on the public responsibility of representation and advocacy. We call these physician-authors "medical intellectuals" and encourage others to follow in their path.

  4. Medical Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology.

  5. SU-F-T-279: Impact of Beam Energy Drifts On IMRT Delivery Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddu, S [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kamal, G; Herman, A; Edwards, S; Cai, B [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Yaddanapudi, S [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Oddiraju, S [Baylor Scot & White, Temple, TX (United States); Rangaraj, D [Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, TX (United States); Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    found to be within clinically acceptable tolerance. However, this study includes a single energy with limited range of PDD change. Further studies are on going and the results will be presented. Received funding from Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA.

  6. SU-F-T-279: Impact of Beam Energy Drifts On IMRT Delivery Accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddu, S; Kamal, G; Herman, A; Edwards, S; Cai, B; Yaddanapudi, S; Oddiraju, S; Rangaraj, D; Mutic, S

    2016-01-01

    found to be within clinically acceptable tolerance. However, this study includes a single energy with limited range of PDD change. Further studies are on going and the results will be presented. Received funding from Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA

  7. Medical emplotment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels Sune

    ’. Theoretically the project departs from Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design and is informed by Medical Informatics, Design Research and Science and Technology Studies. Methodically the project is founded on collaborative prototyping, ethnographic studies, and design interventions...... philosophy and building on theory on narrative reasoning, the dissertation offers the notions of emplotment and re-emplotment to describe how physicians marshal information from various sources, including the medical record, the patient and coSummary to form a narrative, when making sense of patients...

  8. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C.

    2014-12-19

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  9. Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, C; Falbo, L

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field

  10. Medical leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements.

  11. Shielding for Critical Organs and Radiation Exposure Dose Distribution in Patients with High Energy Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    High energy photon beams from medical linear accelerators produce large scattered radiation by various components of the treatment head, collimator and walls or objects in the treatment room including the patient. These scattered radiation do not provide therapeutic dose and are considered a hazard from the radiation safety perspective. Scattered dose of therapeutic high energy radiation beams are contributed significant unwanted dose to the patient. ICRP take the position that a dose of 500mGy may cause abortion at any stage of pregnancy and that radiation detriment to the fetus includes risk of mental retardation with a possible threshold in the dose response relationship around 100 mGy for the gestational period. The ICRP principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) was recommended for protection of occupation upon the linear no-threshold dose response hypothesis for cancer induction. We suggest this ALARA principle be applied to the fetus and testicle in therapeutic treatment. Radiation dose outside a photon treatment filed is mostly due to scattered photons . This scattered dose is a function of the distance from the beam edge, treatment geometry, primary photon energy, and depth in the patient. The need for effective shielding of the fetus and testicle is reinforced when young patients are treated with external beam radiation therapy and then shielding designed to reduce the scattered photon dose to normal organs have to considered. Irradiation was performed in phantom using high energy photon beams produced by a Varian 2100C/D medical linear accelerator (Varian Oncology Systems, Polo Alto, CA) located at the Yonsei Cancer Center. The composite phantom used was comprised of a commercially available anthropomorphic Rando phantom (Phantom Laboratory Inc., Salem, YN) and a rectangular solid polystyrene phantom of dimensions 30cm x 30cm x 20cm. The anthropomorphic Rando phantom represents an average man made from tissue equivalent materials that is

  12. Ultimate Choice for Energy: The Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yıldırım*

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the prices of oil, hard coal and natural gas, emergence of Russia as a not reliable resource for the natural and the developments in the security of the energy supply again have been started the nuclear energy as a hotly debated issue in the world. This is also a sensitive topic among the opponents and proponents of the nuclear energy in Turkey. Nuclear energy is very important since it provides about 17 % of the electric energy in the world and is used in industry and medical area. However, Turkey has not declared any policy about this yet, because of the worries about the environmental reasons and has not gained any progress about nuclear energy. First of all, Turkey must use her geothermal, hydropower, hard coal, solar and wind energies. Otherwise, Turkey may find herself in a competition with her neighboring countries

  13. Medical negligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    19. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. The progress made in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine has resulted in an increase in the number of malprac- tice suits brought against medical practitioners. To constitute negligence it must be shown that the conduct of the accused did not measure up to the.

  14. Medical exceptionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Michael

    2012-01-01

    How should we assess the historical development of health care? Many historians are deeply reluctant to endorse ideas involving progress in human affairs, including the evolution of modern medicine. We tend to think either that our present situation is little better than in the past, or that most kinds of value judgments about history are subjective and inappropriate. A laudatory approach to medical history commonly adopted by "amateur" medical historians in the tradition of Sir William Osler has often been eschewed by "professionals" as faulty, feel-good history. But Osler was right in his belief that, on balance, the progress of medicine has been spectacular, that modern health care offers one of the finest examples of the possibility of "man's redemption of man." Written objectively, medical history is about progress and achievement, and can properly seen as inspiring. If we mordantly or relativistically dismiss the unprecedentedly high quality of modern health care, we lose the ability to understand why citizens value it so highly, and this distorts our understanding of current issues. We also lose our sense of the wonders of human and medical achievement.

  15. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  16. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  17. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  18. Medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, David W

    1996-01-01

    Since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology almost 25 years ago, non-invasive imaging has become firmly established as an essential tool in the diagnosis of disease. Fully three-dimensional imaging of internal organs is now possible, b and for studies which explore the functional status of the body. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function are available, and scanners which combine anatomical and functional imaging in a single device are under development. Such techniques have been made possible through r ecent technological and mathematical advances. This series of lectures will review both the physical basis of medical imaging techniques using X-rays, gamma and positron emitting radiosiotopes, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the mathematical methods used to reconstruct three-dimentional distributions from projection data. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simple radiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo biochemistry. They ...

  19. Medical emplotment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels Sune

    and by conceptualizing this as narrative reasoning, this PhD dissertation offers novel perspectives on design of health IT. The dissertation consists of five research articles and an extended synopsis that presents findings from three years of research within the project ‘Co-Constructing IT and Healthcare......’. Theoretically the project departs from Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design and is informed by Medical Informatics, Design Research and Science and Technology Studies. Methodically the project is founded on collaborative prototyping, ethnographic studies, and design interventions...... philosophy and building on theory on narrative reasoning, the dissertation offers the notions of emplotment and re-emplotment to describe how physicians marshal information from various sources, including the medical record, the patient and coSummary to form a narrative, when making sense of patients...

  20. Energy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerici, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy has taken with his reflections on the environment, the geopolitical aspects and its pervasive use in all activities a crucial role for sustainable development of our planet. The energy in the future will be increasingly a global problem [it

  1. Undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-23

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives for teaching students in general practice are currently low, organising such teaching is difficult and needs resources, and resistance within traditional medical school hierarchies needs to be overcome. Likewise, students value learning within local communities, but the effort demanded of public health departments and community organisations is great at a time when they are under greater pressure than ever before. The arguments over research that favour concentration in four multifaculty schools are less clear cut for undergraduate education, where personal support for students is important. An immediate concern is that the effort demanded for reorganising along the lines suggested by Tomlinson will not leave medical schools much energy for innovating.

  2. Wind energy; Energie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachey, C.

    2000-05-01

    This public information paper presents the wind energy resource in the Languedoc Roussillon region, explains how a wind turbine works, the different types of utilization and the cost of the wind energy. The environmental impacts of the wind energy, on the noise and the landscape, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  3. Medical robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and

  4. 10 CFR 35.80 - Provision of mobile medical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of mobile medical service. 35.80 Section 35.80... § 35.80 Provision of mobile medical service. (a) A licensee providing mobile medical service shall— (1... to ensure compliance with the requirements in Part 20 of this chapter. (b) A mobile medical service...

  5. Medical robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  6. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  7. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Negahdar, M [IBM Research Center, San Jose, California (United States); Yamamoto, T [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory.

  8. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... July 2017 Print Jump to Topic Medications for IBS Laxatives Anticholinergic/Antispasmodic Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, ...

  9. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  10. Evaluation of the photon monitor backscatter in medical electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrenner, M.; Krieger, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Modern linear accelerators permit the use of irregular fields due to their flexible collimator systems with separately movable jaws or multileaf collimators. When using such irregular fields in the clinical practice output factors have to be corrected for enhanced backscatter to the dose monitor as compared with the conventional block shieldings. Methods: A method is presented to detect the monitor backscatter contributions to the output factor for irregular field settings. Results: The monitor backscatter factors have been measured using a telescopic device for 2 different treatment head geometries (Varian Clinac 2100C/D, General Electric Saturne 15) and for 3 photon radiation qualities (nominal energies X6, X18, X12). A method is introduced to calculate the monitor backscatter for arbitrary irregular treatment fields from the experimental data for square or rectangular fields. Conclusions: Besides the corrections for changes in phantom scatter and changes in the aperture, corrections for monitor backscatter have to be taken into account in many clinical cases. They can contribute up to more than 10% compared with the monitor values for free regular fields. (orig.) [de

  11. Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2010-01-01

    This well-received textbook and reference summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, it covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary physics on the one hand and the intricacies of the medical physics specialties on the other hand. This expanded and revised second edition offers reorganized and expanded coverage. Several of the original chapters have been split into two with new sections added for completeness and better flow. New chapters on Coulomb scattering; on energy transfer and energy absorption in photon interactions; and on waveguide theory have been added in recognition of their importance. Others tra...

  12. Medical telesensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Trinidad L.; Crilly, P. B.; Smith, S. F.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Britton, Charles L., Jr.; Morrison, Gilbert W.; Ericson, M. N.; Hedden, D.; Bouldin, Donald W.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Wig, A. G.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    1998-05-01

    Medical telesensors are self-contained integrated circuits for measuring and transmitting vital signs over a distance of approximately 1-2 meters. The circuits are unhoused and contain a sensor, signal processing and modulation electronics, a spread-spectrum transmitter, an antenna and a thin-film battery. We report on a body-temperature telesensor, which is sufficiently small to be placed on a tympanic membrane in a child's ear. We also report on a pulse-oximeter telesensor and a micropack receiver/long- range transmitter unit, which receives form a telesensor array and analyzes and re-transmits the vital signs over a longer range. Signal analytics are presented for the pulse oximeter, which is currently in the form of a finger ring. A multichip module is presented as the basic signal-analysis component. The module contains a microprocessor, a field=programmable gate array, memory elements and other components necessary for determining trauma and reporting signals.

  13. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  14. Advances in the physics of radiation oncology - 50 years of contributions by US Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suntharalingam, N.

    2008-01-01

    Medical Physicists have a long standing record in the advancement of the discipline of Radiation Oncology, not only in the United States but world-wide, going back to the pre-world war II era. In the United States the contributions of Failla and Quimby, first at Memorial Hospital and then at Columbia University in New York, laid the foundation for the Profession of Medical Physics in the US. Radiation Therapy first used low and high kilovoltage machines for external beam therapy. Radium (Parker) and radon seeds (Quimby) were used for brachytherapy. Subsequently, clinical Van-de-Graaff machines (Trump and Wright) and the Betatron (Kerst, Adams and Skaggs) provided the required photon beams and also made available clinically useful electron beams. The work of John Laughlin, Larry Lanzl, Jacques Ovadia together with Gail Adams and Lester Skaggs, needs to be recognized for their pioneering efforts. With the introduction of Cobalt-60 Teletherapy (Harold Johns and the Canadian Group, Gilbert Fletcher and the MD Anderson Group) and Linear Accelerators (Henry Kaplan and the Stanford Group, and Varian), in the late 1950s ∼ 1960, there was even a greater need for the strong participation of medical physicists, as a useful technical resource to the physicians

  15. Dosimetry of the energy of the electrons beam and virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, A.; Garcia, B.; Ramirez, J.; Marquina, J.

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to characterize, to gauge the energy of a electrons beam of 12 MeV and to find the virtual distance of the source for a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian. For the characterization, calibration and to find the virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian, a water phantom was used (cylindrical Cuba 3-D) of Sun-Nuclear. The following values were found: R 50.ion = 4, 95 g/cm 2 , R 50 = 5, 04 g/cm 2 , Z ref = 2,92 g/cm 2 , Z max = 2, 60 g/cm 2 . In the calibration was found D W,Q (Z max ) = 1, 0015 c Gy/Um. In the profile In-plane was measured a symmetry and flatness of 1, 9% and 1, 6% respectively. In the profile Cross-plane a symmetry was measured and flatness of 1, 9% and 1, 3% respectively. The virtual distance regarding the source was of DFS (virtual) =105,81 cm. The electrons beam of 12 MeV was characterized and gauged satisfactorily, were carried out the In-plane and Cross-plane profiles, obtaining all the parameters inside the acceptance limit. The virtual distance of the source was of 105,81 cm. (Author)

  16. Advanced Accelerators for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    We review advanced accelerators for medical applications with respect to the following key technologies: (i) higher RF electron linear accelerator (hereafter “linac”); (ii) optimization of alignment for the proton linac, cyclotron and synchrotron; (iii) superconducting magnet; (iv) laser technology. Advanced accelerators for medical applications are categorized into two groups. The first group consists of compact medical linacs with high RF, cyclotrons and synchrotrons downsized by optimization of alignment and superconducting magnets. The second group comprises laser-based acceleration systems aimed of medical applications in the future. Laser plasma electron/ion accelerating systems for cancer therapy and laser dielectric accelerating systems for radiation biology are mentioned. Since the second group has important potential for a compact system, the current status of the established energy and intensity and of the required stability are given.

  17. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and ... Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation ...

  18. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation ...

  19. The Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Medical Home KidsHealth / For Parents / The Medical Home What's in ... for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a place ...

  20. Linacs for Medical Isotope Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pramudita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews efforts on using high energy (25-30 MeV and high power (10-20 kW electron linacs and lower energy (7 MeV proton linacs for medical radioisotope production. Using high energy x-rays from the electron linacs, PET (Positron Emission Tomography radioisotopes are produced through photonuclear reactions such as 19F(γ,n18F, which also allow production of other PET radionuclides 11C, 13N, and 15O. Other mostly used medical radionuclides 99mTc can also be obtained by using the electron linacs, through photofission or photonuclear reactions. Proton linacs for PET have also been recently developed and the product has been available in the market since 2005. The linacs have been tested for 18F production. As a proton accelerator, the target systems and nuclear reactions are similar to the ones used in PET cyclotrons

  1. Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Cuttone, G

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide f...

  2. MEDICAL PROFESSIONALISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Drinovec

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to restrictions imposed on a clinical freedom, interest for professionalism in healthcare has been getting bigger not only in medicine literature and various mass media but also in teaching and organisation of healthcare. Professionalism stands not only for a medicine’s contract with society, recognition of a physician status, privilege and monopoly but also for a genuine physician’s commitment to professional responsibilities.Analysis. In 2002 European and American associations approved a document on medical professionalism in the new millenium, so-called Physician Charter. This document includes fundamental principles of professionalism such as altruism, patient autonomy and social justice. In particular, it analyses a physician’s professional competency, honesty with patients, patient confidentiality, appropriate relations with patients, improvements regarding a healthcare quality, healthcare access, just distribution of finite funds, commitment to scientific knowledge, trust maintenance by managing conflicts of interest and a professional responsibility.Conclusions. Physician’s professionalism means philosophycal and sociological analysis of his/her profession and its position in a society. It includes a concern for improvements of his/ her own scientific knowledge, skills, a genuine ethic interest for an individual patient bearing in mind principles of equality and justice in society. Whether performing an organisational and public work or participating in professional health organizations, physician’s interest for a patient must prevail.

  3. Microwave Powered Gravitationally Independent Medical Grade Water Generation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an innovative microwave-based continuous flow sterilization system for the energy efficient gravitationally independent production of Medical Grade...

  4. Medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.R.; Skofronick, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Terminology and modeling and measurement methods are discussed in Chapter 1. Energy, work, power, force, and pressure as they relate to the body are discussed in Chapters 2, 5, and 6. The physics of the skeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems as well as the eye and ear is discussed in Chapters 3, 7, 8, 9, 13, and 15. Applications of heat, cold, electricity, magnetism, sound, light, and computers in medicine are discussed in Chapters 4, 11, 12, 14, and 20. The physics of biomedical radiography, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy is discussed in Chapters 16, 17, and 18. Cardiovascular instrumentation is discussed in Chapter 10 and radiation protection in medicine in Chapter 19. Exponentials, logarithms, units, and standard man data are included in the appendices. A general bibliography, solutions to chapter review questions, and a subject index are also included

  5. Energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    From energy policy to the problem of public acceptance of nuclear power, problems like energy supply, energy strategies, the race of industrial countries for the short energy reserves, the West German energy demand until the year 2.000, energy conservation, and the controversy over increased use of nuclear energy are reviewed. (GL) [de

  6. Implementing and Integrating a Clinically-Driven Electronic Medical Record (EMR for Radiation Oncology in a Large Medical Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paxton Kirkpatrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/Objective: While our department is heavily invested in computer-based treatment planning, we historically relied on paper-based charts for management of Radiation Oncology patients. In early 2009, we initiated the process of conversion to an electronic medical record (EMR eliminating the need for paper charts. Key goals included the ability to readily access information wherever and whenever needed, without compromising safety, treatment quality, confidentiality or productivity.Methodology: In February, 2009, we formed a multi-disciplinary team of Radiation Oncology physicians, nurses, therapists, administrators, physicists/dosimetrists, and information technology (IT specialists, along with staff from the Duke Health System IT department. The team identified all existing processes and associated information/reports, established the framework for the EMR system and generated, tested and implemented specific EMR processes.Results: Two broad classes of information were identified: information which must be readily accessed by anyone in the health system versus that used solely within the Radiation Oncology department. Examples of the former are consultation reports, weekly treatment check notes and treatment summaries; the latter includes treatment plans, daily therapy records and quality assurance reports. To manage the former, we utilized the enterprise-wide system , which required an intensive effort to design and implement procedures to export information from Radiation Oncology into that system. To manage "Radiation Oncology" data, we used our existing system (ARIA, Varian Medical Systems. The ability to access both systems simultaneously from a single workstation (WS was essential, requiring new WS and modified software. As of January, 2010, all new treatments were managed solely with an EMR. We find that an EMR makes information more widely accessible and does not compromise patient safety, treatment quality or confidentiality

  7. U Y 108 standard regulation standard of the radiological safety for medical and dental radiodiagnostic practice: approve for the Industry Energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Guarantee and effective control in Medical and Dental Radiodiagnostic for avoid unnecessary exposition in public and workers as well limit the possibility of accidents and the patient dose was the minimal necessary

  8. Medical marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Michael

    1991-08-01

    Solid state lasers are the real highlight of my talk today, and were really the star of the year. In every application area I can think of, people have tried with some success to introduce corturiercial solid state products. I'll go into more detail, but aside from solid state, a very significant event happened in Deceniber when one of the laser angioplasty companies (Advanced Interventional Systens) received FDA clearance to begin marketing the excimer for coronary applications (Figure 1) . This is the first time to my knowledge that an excimer has ever been cleared for a medical application in the United States. It's an event that we didn't really expect to happen so soon. It's extremely significant and we'll see where it goes from here. The system needs to be road-tested a bit but to get past the FDA is the major obstacle. Looking back to solid state laser the importance of solid state lasers is as researchers become more involved with the excimer and conduct more clinical studies in ophthalmology, they realize that it's not going to be a panacea for all refractive surgery or other ophthalmolic applications. In many cases it looks like the solid state laser may be the laser of choice in certain types of surgery; most notably perhaps in refractive surgery. We've all read about the success of the excimer at least in capturing the press's attention for corneal sculpting and vision correction. Well, it could be that actually the next generation will be a solid state laser, so let's keep an open mind here.

  9. TU-H-BRC-03: Evaluation of Very High-Energy Electron (VHEE) Beams in Comparison to VMAT and PBS Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Eriksson, K; Hynning, E [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams in comparison to clinically delivered treatment plans generated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technology. Methods: Three clinical cases were selected (prostate, lung, and pediatric CNS). The VHEE plans were calculated in the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code and pencil beam doses were calculated using the DOSxyznrc MC code for 100 and 200 MeV beams. Treatment plans with VHEE, VMAT, and PBS were optimized in a research version of RayStation using an in house build script in order to minimize operator bias between the different techniques. Results: For the prostate cancer case, the PBS plan showed lower mean organ at risk (OAR) doses compared to the other modalities. An exception was the femoral heads, due to the lateral beam arrangements. The VMAT plan showed lower mean doses to the rectum and the bladder compared to the 100 MeV VHEE plan. The lung cancer case showed minor differences between the three modalities. However, the PBS plan showed a lower contralateral lung dose. The pediatric CNS case showed a better conformity and lower spinal cord dose for the 100 MeV VHEE plan. For all cases, the 200 MeV VHEE plans were found to be similar to or better than the 100 MeV VHEE plans. Conclusion: The present study showed that VHEE plans are similar or superior to VMAT plans with reduced mean OAR dose and increased target conformity for a variety of clinical cases. With increased VHEE energy, better conformity and even higher reductions in mean OAR doses can be achieved. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-13-1-0165, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. BL and PM are founders of TibaRay,Inc. BL and PM have received research grants from Varian and RaySearch Laboratory.

  10. Planetary method to measure the neutrons spectrum in lineal accelerators of medical use; Metodo planetario para medir el espectro de neutrones en aceleradores lineales de uso medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Benites R, J. L., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calzada de la Cruz 118 Sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A novel procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum originated in a lineal accelerator of medical use has been developed. The method uses a passive spectrometer of Bonner spheres. The main advantage of the method is that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator. When this is used around a lineal accelerator is necessary to operate it under the same conditions so many times like the spheres that contain the spectrometer, activity that consumes enough time. The developed procedure consists on situating all the spheres of the spectrometer at the same time and to realize the reading making a single shot. With this method the photo neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator Varian ix of 15 MV to 100 cm of the isocenter was determined, with the spectrum is determined the total flow and the ambient dose equivalent. (Author)

  11. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  12. Radiological safety management in medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Nagalakshmi, B.; Manisha, V.I.; Pushpangadan, K.D.; Agarwal, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    A new era of Nuclear Medicine diagnosis has started with Medical Cyclotron technology. Medical Cyclotron produces positron emitters, which can be used in molecular imaging of the organs. In Medical Cyclotron, particles such as protons, deuterons are accelerated and made to bombard with suitable target material to produce radioisotopes, which are positron emitters. The positron emitters are produced by the (p,α), (p,n) or (d,n) reaction. The neutron activation of the surrounding medium draws the major attention in radiation safety. The license for such medical cyclotron facilities is issued by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board in India on the basis of regulations drawn from Radiation Protection Rules 1971 promulgated by Govt. of India under Atomic Energy Act, 1962. In this paper, the following aspects i) the steps involved in cyclotron installation ii) Design, Operational specifications and other features of various medical cyclotrons iii) Regulatory requirements for a cyclotron installation have been discussed

  13. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  14. Photo-medical valley. 'Photo medical research center'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Daido, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a much more compact cancer diagnosis and therapeutic instrument using high intensity laser technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has successfully proposed this novel effort to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) program as the creation of a 'photo-medical industrial valley' base in 2007 fiscal year. In this report, a new laser techniques to drive controlled ion beams is described. It is very important approach to realize a laser-driven ion accelerator. (author)

  15. Low-cost flexible thin-film detector for medical dosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmanski, P; Abkai, C; Han, Z; Shulevich, Y; Menichelli, D; Hesser, J

    2014-03-06

    The purpose of this study is to characterize dosimetric properties of thin film photovoltaic sensors as a platform for development of prototype dose verification equipment in radiotherapy. Towards this goal, flexible thin-film sensors of dose with embedded data acquisition electronics and wireless data transmission are prototyped and tested in kV and MV photon beams. Fundamental dosimetric properties are determined in view of a specific application to dose verification in multiple planes or curved surfaces inside a phantom. Uniqueness of the new thin-film sensors consists in their mechanical properties, low-power operation, and low-cost. They are thinner and more flexible than dosimetric films. In principle, each thin-film sensor can be fabricated in any size (mm² - cm² areas) and shape. Individual sensors can be put together in an array of sensors spreading over large areas and yet being light. Photovoltaic mode of charge collection (of electrons and holes) does not require external electric field applied to the sensor, and this implies simplicity of data acquisition electronics and low power operation. The prototype device used for testing consists of several thin film dose sensors, each of about 1.5 cm × 5 cm area, connected to simple readout electronics. Sensitivity of the sensors is determined per unit area and compared to EPID sensitivity, as well as other standard photodiodes. Each sensor independently measures dose and is based on commercially available flexible thin-film aSi photodiodes. Readout electronics consists of an ultra low-power microcontroller, radio frequency transmitter, and a low-noise amplification circuit implemented on a flexible printed circuit board. Detector output is digitized and transmitted wirelessly to an external host computer where it is integrated and processed. A megavoltage medical linear accelerator (Varian Tx) equipped with kilovoltage online imaging system and a Cobalt source are used to irradiate different thin

  16. Wavelets in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, Noor e; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  17. Wavelets in medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahra, Noor e; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H. [Sharda University, SET, Department of Electronics and Communication, Knowledge Park 3rd, Gr. Noida (India); University of Kocaeli, Department of Mathematics, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Istanbul Aydin University, Department of Computer Engineering, 34295 Istanbul (Turkey); Sharda University, SET, Department of Mathematics, 32-34 Knowledge Park 3rd, Greater Noida (India)

    2012-07-17

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  18. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  19. Medical cyclotron: why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Kurt; Comar, Dominique; Kellershohn, Claude

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons for medical purposes are particularly useful for the production of radioactive isotopes of elements normally constituting organic matter ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C). The short half-life and positron emission of those elements are of great interest in medical diagnosis. Many others carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced by cyclotrons. Three categories of cyclotrons are mentioned. Desk top cyclotron only adapted to the production of short-lived radioisotopes in a hospital; low energy and average energy cyclotrons which require well-entrained personnel for their operation and are best adapted to the production of radioelements on a regional or even national scale. Examples relative to the interest of short-lived radioisotopes in lung and brain investigations and tumor detection are given

  20. Tanzania Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, medical and health science journal published three times a year in January-April, May-August and September – December, by the Medical Association of Tanzania (MAT). The journal publishes any contribution that advances medical ...

  1. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will be able to find. Medical identification products can help ensure proper treatment in an ...

  2. Medication Use during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Medication Use During Pregnancy Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... are taking only medications that are necessary. What Medications Can Cause Birth Defects? We know that taking ...

  3. When Medication Is Prescribed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression When Medication Is Prescribed Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... you have about the medicine. —NIMH Types of Medications There are several types of medications used to ...

  4. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J. Lembo, MD, Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, ... IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take ...

  5. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  6. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS ... Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral ...

  7. Medical physics practice and training in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuasi, John H; Kyere, Augustine K; Schandorf, Cyril; Fletcher, John J; Boadu, Mary; Addison, Eric K; Hasford, Francis; Sosu, Edem K; Sackey, Theophilus A; Tagoe, Samuel N A; Inkoom, Stephen; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2016-06-01

    Medical physics has been an indispensable and strategic stakeholder in the delivery of radiological services to the healthcare system of Ghana. The practice has immensely supported radiation oncology and medical imaging facilities over the years, while the locally established training programme continues to produce human resource to feed these facilities. The training programme has grown to receive students from other African countries in addition to local students. Ghana has been recognised by the International Atomic Energy Agency as Regional Designated Centre for Academic Training of Medical Physicists in Africa. The Ghana Society for Medical Physics collaborates with the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences of the University of Ghana to ensure that training offered to medical physicists meet international standards, making them clinically qualified. The Society has also worked together with other bodies for the passage of the Health Profession's Regulatory Bodies Act, giving legal backing to the practice of medical physics and other allied health professions in Ghana. The country has participated in a number of International Atomic Energy Agency's projects on medical physics and has benefited from its training courses, fellowships and workshops, as well as those of other agencies such as International Organization for Medical Physics. This has placed Ghana's medical physicists in good position to practice competently and improve healthcare. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analisis Throughput Varian TCP Pada Model Jaringan WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Taruk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a protocol that works at the transport layer of the OSI model. TCP was originally designed more destined for a wired network. However, to meet the need for the development of a very fast network technology based on the needs of the use by the user, it needs further development to the use of TCP on wireless devices. One implementation of a wireless network based on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX network is a model that offers a variety advantage, particularly in terms of access speed. In this case, use NS-2 to see throughput at TCP variants tested, namely TCP-Tahoe, TCP-Reno, TCP-Vegas, and TCP-SACK over WiMAX network model, with few observations scenarios. The first is a look at each of these variants throughput of TCP when only one particular variant of the work in the network. Second observe all variants of TCP throughput at the same time and have the equivalent QoS, but with the possibility of a small congestion based on the capacity of the link is made sufficient. Third observed throughput with multi congestion. In WiMAX network has scheduling services are UGS, rtPS and ertPS using UDP protocol and nrtPS and BE using the TCP Protocol. By using the software network simulator (NS-2 to obtain performance comparison TCP protocol-based services on the WiMAX network with QoS parameters are throughput, packet loss, fairness and time delay.

  9. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  10. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Cheon Seok

    2009-09-01

    This book tells of renewable energy giving description of environment problem, market of renewable energy and vision and economics of renewable energy. It also deals with solar light like solar cell, materials performance, system and merit of solar cell, solar thermal power such as solar cooker and solar collector, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy like tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion, fuel cell and biomass.

  11. Dossier Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijer, H.; Holwerda, B.; Schrauwers, A.; Van de Graaf, A.; Van Gelder, T.

    2003-01-01

    Several aspects with respect to energy are discussed in a special section of this magazine: the security of energy supply in a liberalized market, saving energy by outsourcing (e.g. compressed air contracting), the profits of a liberalized energy market for businesses, incentives for energy saving projects and innovations, an energy efficiency project at Ineos Silicas (producer of zeolites), and energy efficient electronic equipment [nl

  12. The muddle of medicalization: pathologizing or medicalizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholl, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    Medicalization appears to be an issue that is both ubiquitous and unquestionably problematic as it seems to signal at once a social and existential threat. This perception of medicalization, however, is nothing new. Since the first main writings in the 1960s and 1970s, it has consistently been used to describe inappropriate or abusive instances of medical authority. Yet, while this standard approach claims that medicalization is a growing problem, it assumes that there is simply one "medical model" and that the expanding realm of "the medical" can be more or less clearly delineated. Moreover, while intended to establish the reality of this growing threat, this research often requires making arbitrary or unjustified distinctions between different practices. To better clarify the concept of medicalization, I will focus more on capturing the variety of medical practices than on the sociological aspects of medical discourse. In doing so, I will explore the distinction between medicalization and pathologization, a distinction that is often overlooked and that brings with it many conceptual and practical implications. After defining these terms, I will use some examples to show that while pathologizing is closely tied to medicalizing, both can occur independently. I will then further develop this distinction in terms of the different individual and social effects of these practices.

  13. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for ...

  14. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anthony J. Lembo, MD, Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. Last modified on February 23, ...

  15. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.

  16. Role of accelerator science and technology in medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2006-01-01

    Updated status of compact and advanced-compact medical accelerator development is reviewed. In their applications, medical physics and medical physicist are necessary. Their educational programs have started in several universities and institutes. As one important new trend on life-science, the research on the synergy of DDS (Drug Delivery System) and physical energies are proposed. (author)

  17. Energy sustainability through green energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  18. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  19. Energy assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Energy industry initiatives during the 1970s and during the 1990s are compared. During the 1970s, the objective was to reduce energy consumption and to reduce dependency on foreign fuel. Today, the emphasis is on reducing energy costs and to improve net operating income. The challenges posed by the drive to reduce energy costs are discussed. As a tool in the drive to reduce energy cost, the energy assessment process was described. The process entails a detailed analysis of energy consumption, an investigation of energy rates and an assessment of site conditions and equipment, with a view towards an optimum combination that will lead to energy cost reductions

  20. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  1. Energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    The author first discusses the various concepts and definitions associated with energy needs, and then the difference between actual needs and energy needs by distinguishing personal needs, needs of the productive sector, energetic needs and services. In the next part, he discusses how energy needs are assessed. He discusses the relationship between energy needs and energy consumption, how energy consumptions can be analysed and interpreted. He comments how energy needs can be assessed and analysed in time and in space. He notices and explains why economy and climate are the main causes of spatial differences for energy needs per habitant, and comments the evolution of energy consumption over long periods

  2. Energy intentionally killing energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.

    1986-01-01

    The 1987 DOE budget continues its high priority for defense efforts and its de-emphasis of energy projects. The ratio of defense to commercial dollars went from the 1-to-1 ratio of the Carter budget to 3-to-1. The administration thinks commercial nuclear energy is mature enough for the private sector, with advanced reactor concepts best left in the military and space programs. There could be a heavy lobbying effort against this position. A new approach for non-nuclear programs will involve joint DOE/private-industry ventures in which industry will select the research and development projects on the basis of industry criteria and pay over half the costs. DOE will provide less than half the funding, as well as coordinate activities and disseminate information. In the authors analysis of the budget, he cites concerns about the advanced reactor and other programs under this approach

  3. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  4. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  5. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  6. Methodology for carrying out energy diagnosis in auxiliaries systems in thermal electrical central stations; Metodologia para realizar un diagnostico energetico en sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebradt Garcia, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas Hidalgo, Ismael; Huante Perez, Liborio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    One of the potential areas for energy saving in Central Electric Power Plants are the auxiliaries system, so as to based in a preliminary energy diagnosis and considering that energy saving measures would be taken, going from the instrumentation, operational changes in equipment, as well as in using velocity variators in motors, it turns out to be that the energy consumption of auxiliaries at 75% load in a 150 MW thermal power plant varies from 3% to 4% and for the case of a 350 MW power plant the energy consumption of the auxiliaries represents 2 to 3.5%. Nowadays this consumption are above 6%. Considering that the country has 40 units with capacities varying from 150 to 350 MW, the economical and the fuel saving would be substantial. This paper will present a summary of the methodology to be used to carry out this type of projects. [Espanol] Una de las areas potenciales de ahorro de energia en centrales termoelectricas son los sistemas auxiliares, de tal manera que basados en un diagnostico energetico preliminar y considerando que se aplicarian las medidas de ahorro de energia que van desde la instrumentacion, cambios operativos en equipos, asi como el uso de variadores de velocidad en motores, se tienen que los consumos de auxiliares para un 75% de carga en una central termoelectrica de 150 MW varian desde un 3% hasta un 4% y para el caso de una central termoelectrica de 350 MW, el consumo de auxiliares representa del 2 al 3.5%. Hoy en dia dichos consumos estan por encima del 6%. Si consideramos que el pais cuenta con 40 unidades que varian desde 150 MW hasta 350 MW, entonces los ahorros economicos y de combustible serian impactantes. La presente ponencia mostrara un resumen de la metodologia a emplear para la realizacion de este tipo de proyectos.

  7. Energy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    These 8 charts bring information on with the primary energy consumption, energy indicators, energy bill, prices and electric power, petroleum, natural gas and solid mineral fuels from January 2003 to January 2006. (A.L.B.)

  8. Port Harcourt Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Port Harcourt Medical Journal's objectives are to disseminate medical information from the College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt and the rest of the national and international medical community; act as a medium for the articulation of research and findings from same as well as proceedings of medical ...

  9. Essential Medical Capabilities and Medical Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Number Title SN 4.2.1 Determine National Military Support Infrastructure ST 4.2.2.3 Manage Medical , Dental, and Veterinary Services and Laboratories OP...The other strategic task (ST 4.2.2.3) more directly pertains to providing medical and veterinary services in theater. Only one unit reported this...Integration in Civilian and Veterans Administration Medical Facilities.” 2012. • Henderson, W. G. et al., “Comparison of Risk -Adjusted 30-Day

  10. Medical Computational Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Tatar, Deborah Gail; Rosen, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational thinking (CT) in medicine means deliberating when to pursue computer-mediated solutions to medical problems and evaluating when such solutions are worth pursuing in order to assist in medical decision making. Teaching computational thinking (CT) at medical school should be aligned...... with learning objectives, teaching and assessment methods, and overall pedagogical mission of the individual medical school in relation to society. Medical CT as part of the medical curriculum could help educate novices (medical students and physicians in training) in the analysis and design of complex...

  11. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  12. Estimation of the contribution of neutrons to the equivalent dose for personnel occupationally exposed and public in medical facilities: X-ray with energy equal or greater than 10MV; Estimacion de la contribucion por neutrones a la dosis equivalente para personal ocupacionalmente expuesto y publico en instalaciones de uso medico: rayos X de energia igual y/o superior a 10MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Alfonso Mayer; Jimenez, Roberto Ortega; Sanchez, Mario A. Reyes, E-mail: amgesfm@hotmail.com, E-mail: rojimenez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Moranchel y Mejia, Mario, E-mail: mmoranchel@ipn.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM/IPN), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas. Departamento de lngenieria Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and Occupationally Staff Exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents an estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  13. Estimation of the contribution by neutrons to the equivalent dose for exposed occupationally personnel and people in medical use facilities: X rays of equal or superior energy to 10 MV; Estimacion de la contribucion por neutrones a la dosis equivalente para personal ocupacionalmente expuesto y publico en instalaciones de uso medico: rayos X de energia igual y/o superior a 10 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega J, R.; Reyes S, M. A. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Moranchel y R, M., E-mail: rojimenez@cnsns.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and occupationally staff exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents and estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  14. Energy memento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This memento about energy provides a series of tables with numerical data relative to energy resources and uses in France, in the European Union and in the rest of the world: energy consumption (primary energy, forecasting, CO 2 emissions, energy independence, supplies, uses and imports, demand scenarios, energy savings..), power production (production, forecasting, loads, consumption, hydro-power, thermal equipment, exports), nuclear power (production, forecasting, reactors population, characteristics of French PWRs, uranium needs and fuel cycle), energy resources (renewable energies, fossil fuels and uranium reserves and production), economic data (gross national product, economic and energy indicators, prices and cost estimations), energy units and conversion factors (counting, calorific value of coals, production costs, energy units). (J.S.)

  15. Perangkat Lunak Untuk Analisis Gaya Gelombang Di Laboratorium Lingkungan Dan Energi Laut, Jurusan Teknik Kelautan, Ftk-Its

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendi Hidayat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratorium Lingkungan dan Energi Laut, Jurusan Teknik Kelautan, FTK-ITS sering digunakan untuk pengujian. Salah satunya menguji gaya mooring pada floating breakwater. Hal tersebut menjadi salah satu alasan untuk membuat suatu perangkat lunak dalam membantu dalam proses analisis gaya mooring tersebut. Perangkat lunak yang dibuat berfungsi untuk membantu proses kalibrasi sensor load cell LUB-B 5 to 50 KB dan melakukan analisis gaya gelombang. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan regresi linier, korelasi linier, perhitungan varian, standar deviasi, dan hukum Newton yang kemudian disusun dengan menggunakan Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. Penyusunan perangkat lunak yang bernama FORYS ini memiliki tampilan antarmuka pengguna yang mudah dalam pemakaian. Perangkat lunak yang telah dibuat juga bersifat portable sehingga bisa digunakan di berbagai komputer atau laptop. Hasil pengujian yang telah dilakukan menghasilkan bahwa semakin besar gaya gelombang yang terjadi, maka semakin besar pula tegangan yang terjadi pada tali.  

  16. Soft energy vs nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    During the early 1960s, a plentiful, inexpensive supply of petroleum enabled Japanese industry to progress rapidly; however, almost all of this petroleum was imported. Even after the first oil crisis of 1973, the recent annual energy consumption of Japan is calculated to be about 360 million tons in terms of petroleum, and actual petroleum forms 73% of total energy. It is necessary for Japan to reduce reliance on petroleum and to diversify energy resources. The use of other fossil fuels, such as coal, LNG and LPG, and hydraulic energy, is considered as an established alternative. In this presentation, the author deals with new energy, namely soft energy and nuclear energy, and discusses their characteristics and problems. The following kinds of energy are dealt with: a) Solar energy, b) Geothermal energy, c) Ocean energy (tidal, thermal, wave), d) Wind energy, e) Biomass energy, f) Hydrogen, g) Nuclear (thermal, fast, fusion). To solve the energy problem in future, assiduous efforts should be made to develop new energy systems. Among them, the most promising alternative energy is nuclear energy, and various kinds of thermal reactor systems have been developed for practical application. As a solution to the long-term future energy problem, research on and development of fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are going on. (author)

  17. Radiosterilization of medical products, pharmaceuticals and bioproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    A Panel on the Radiosterilization of Medical Products, Pharmaceuticals and Bioproducts was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 17-19 January 1966 at its headquarters in Vienna. The purpose of the meeting was to survey the activities of the Member States in this field with a view to preparing the way for an international code of practice for the radiosterilization of medical products, in conformity with existing legal international rules. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Energy Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  19. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  20. Medical Services: Medical, Dental, and Veterinary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-28

    methadone when it is used for analgesia. d. Amphetamines and methamphetamines are prohibited from being prescribed as anorexic agents. Also, any...medication used solely for its anorexic activity is prohibited from use in Army MTFs. This does not preclude the use of alternative medications with weight

  1. Advantage Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  2. Matching Medical Websites to Medical Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Rak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of medical texts provided to general public on the Internet is a serious issue nowadays. Unfortunately the only feasible way to approve the adequacy of the medical information content is human verification today. Best practices in medicine are systematically captured by medical guidelines (MGLs, which are provided by renowned medical societies. We propose a simple approach to exploiting MGL content as ’gold standard’ for the assessment of content quality in medical web sites (WS, based on the idea that the information content is reflected in the domain terminology used. Concept candidates discovered in a MGL and in the tested web pages are matched to the UMLS terminological system. In a small case study, MGLs and WSs have been analyzed for similarity at term and concept level. The research is a step towards automated evaluation of WS content on the basis of MGLs as the quality standard.

  3. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado M, H.

    2008-12-01

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in the

  4. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  5. Deciphering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author aims at giving some explanations about the various terms regarding energy which are present in our everyday life, in speeches, in papers and magazines, on the air, in our energy bills, for instance: energy poverty, price of a barrel of oil, resources and proved reserves, intermittency and energy storage, fossil and renewable energies, and so on. In a first part, the author addresses issues ranging from the development needs of a society to the energy assessment of a country, i.e.: nature and quantity of needs in services provided by energy, analysis of the required quantity of energy products needed to satisfy these needs, stages between primary resources and service delivery, description of the French consumption of available final energy products (per product and per economic sector). In the second part, he addresses energy supply, energy sectors and environmental issues, thus focusing on the front end of the energy system, i.e. ways of production from primary energy resources to final energy products: main physical characteristics and description of the different fissile, fossil and renewable energies, description of the main sectors of production of final energy products (fuels, electricity, heat) with a specific attention to electricity. In this part, local, regional and global environmental issues related to the exploitation of these energy sectors are discussed: sources of atmospheric pollution related to energy, relationship between energy and global warming, role of the different greenhouse gases emitted by these sectors, and quantitative analysis of these emissions. The third part addresses the economy of energy systems. The author proposes a cost assessment method which can be used for the production analysis as well as the economic analysis of a specific energy product. He also described external costs and profits, and methods to take those hidden costs and profits into account. Other economic tools are discussed and compared

  6. Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttone, G

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide for advanced medical imaging is strongly increasing either in conventional radiography (CT and MRI) and also in nuclear medicine for Spect an PET imaging. In this paper role of particle accelerators for medical applications will be presented together with the main solutions applied.

  7. Medical handling of accidentally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1978 the International Atomic Energy Agency issued a publication in the IAEA Safety Series entitled Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury (Safety Series No. 47). The contents were directed to first aid and early medical treatment of workers who might be concerned in an accident involving exposure to radiation, whether external or internal. The present manual is the first of a set of three safety series publications dealing with assessment and treatment of overexposures which will constitute an articulated system of documents covering all aspects of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of overexposures. This document establishes a set of general criteria and recommendations to aid specialists involved in the medical handling of overexposed persons. It deals with the medical management of individual patients or small groups of patients under close medical supervision. 14 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Energy audit and energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Agnieszka Kulessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In article, we present the issue of energy security. This article to answer the questions concerning the future of energy in Poland. These activities are directly related to energy security and the reduction of CO2 emissions. One element of this plan is the introduction in the EU energy certification of buildings. The energy certificates in Poland launched on 01.01.2009 and implements the objectives adopted by the European Union and contribute to energy security, increasing energy efficiency in construction and environmental protection.

  9. Energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland has the main responsibility for energy policy planning. An important and integral part of this activity is energy research and development. In 1988 the ministry consolidated most of the publicly funded energy research under ten five-year programmes. Formally these programmes will be completed by the end of 1992 and will be fully reported on during 1993, both in Finnish and English. A new set of energy technology programmes has been organized. The second generation energy technology programmes will start in 1993 and continue up to 1998. Within general R and D policy, the government of Finland has decided to establish a national innovation strategy, which aims to support our economic and industrial development objectives. Energy R and D will be an integral part of this national innovation strategy. The primary objectives of energy research have served the development of national energy policy. Finland has a long tradition of promoting efficient energy use, renewable energy sources and environmentally benign energy production technology. In efficient energy use Finland has specialized in e.g. district heating and energy conservation in the pulp and paper industry and in buildings. Our national expertise within energy production includes areas such as the combustion and gasification of solid fuels, biomass energy etc. In future, global market development will plan an increasing role when energy research activities are focused. The global marketplace for energy technology products is undergoing rapid expansion and opening up to new countries and manufacturers. Thus the economic integration and globalization of energy technology have become more and more relevant, and international collaboration in these fields will become an ever higher priority in Finland.

  10. Energy management and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents an official publication which contains the latest standards and standard projects dealing with energy audits (general requirements, buildings, process, transport) as well as energy efficiency (definitions and requirements, benchmarking methodology) and energy management and its terminology in relationship with the new European directive 2012/27/UE on energy efficiency. Regulatory texts associated with the national and European energy policies are also proposed

  11. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  12. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Johnson, Richard R. [Best Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7-8765 Ash Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6P 6T3 (Canada); Gelbart, W. Z. [Advanced System Designs Inc., 5295 Bear Bay Road, Garden Bay, BC, V0N 1S1 (Canada)

    2013-04-19

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 {mu}A to 1000 {mu}A, depending on the cyclotron energy and application.

  13. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  14. Choosing Your Medical Specialty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rates and valuable lifestyle offers and services. Residency & Career Planning Find resources for a range of medical career ... searches Back to top Home Life & Career Residency & Career Planning Choosing a Medical Specialty Back to top Choosing ...

  15. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Month IBS Awareness Month Tips of the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us About IBS Twitter ... Month IBS Awareness Month Tips of the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Medications Details Medications ...

  16. Medical Issues in Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Issues in Adoption What's ... child, before, during, and after the adoption. Open Adoptions If you have an open or semi-open ...

  17. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users.

  18. Polymyositis: Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Polymyositis (PM) is a highly treatable disease. Some ... PM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Find your MDA Care Center Grants at ...

  19. Dermatomysitis: Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Dermatomysitis is a highly treatable disease. Some people, ... Dermatomyositis Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Find your MDA Care Center Search for ...

  20. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... atropine (Lomotil) Read more about antidiarrheal agents. Anti-anxiety medications – can be helpful for some people with ... who specializes in motility or stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. More complex medication regimens, and specialized motility and/ ...

  1. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  2. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression, but rather likely to effects on the brain and the gut. Antidepressant medications can reduce the intensity of pain signals going from gut to brain. Read more about antidepressant medications. Newer IBS-Targeted ...

  3. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  4. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  5. Medications for Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition? Can these questions be sent to a cell phone? Remembering medications These tips will help you remember ... a medication checkup is a good idea. One benefit is that it can help you find dangerous ...

  6. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to depression, but rather likely to effects on the brain and the gut. Antidepressant medications can reduce the intensity of pain signals going from gut to brain. Read more about antidepressant medications. Newer IBS-Targeted ...

  7. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to physician counseling and dietary manipulations. What's a medication? Anything you take for a therapeutic effect counts ... the drug package or on your prescription label. Medications for IBS First line treatment has traditionally been ...

  8. Federal Medication Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Medication (FedMed) collaboration of 8 partner agencies agreed on a set of standard, comprehensive, freely and easily accessible FMT terminologies to improve the exchange and public availability of medication information.

  9. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gallery Contact Us About IBS Twitter Facebook YouTube Search Search ... About Us What is IBS? What is IBS? ... the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Search Medications Details Medications Last Updated: 01 July 2017 ...

  10. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Month Tips of the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us About IBS Twitter Facebook YouTube Search ... Month Tips of the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Medications Details Medications Last Updated: 01 ...

  11. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships and ... or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships and ...

  12. Topical Pain Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin Learn about the various types of topical pain medications available for pain relief. Can they ease your ... hurt even though you take your usual arthritis pain medication. Reluctant to pop another pill, you might wonder ...

  13. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies ... IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies ...

  14. Hay Fever Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Hay Fever Medications Share | Hay Fever and Allergy Medications This article has been reviewed ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever symptoms range from being mildly annoying to seriously ...

  15. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS ... Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS ...

  16. Avoiding Medical Identity Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in existing medical records, and can involve the creation of fictitious medical records in the victim’s name ... was not received, even when there is no money owed Maintain copies of your healthcare records Beware ...

  17. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by a physician who specializes in motility or stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. More complex medication regimens, and ... IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take ...

  18. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of constipation. Laxatives should be used under the supervision of a physician. Read more about laxatives. Bulking ... medications intended for specific use under a doctor’s supervision. Read more about newer IBS medications. Summary The ...

  19. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With IBS Relationships and IBS Pregnancy and IBS Travel and IBS IBS Patients' Experience and Unmet Needs IBS and ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics ...

  20. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  1. [Perspectives in medical liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro W, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transferring to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurance and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to professional liability.

  2. Research in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Vassallo, Josanne

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 saw a number of developments in Medical Education in Malta that were initiated as a result of a commitment to revising the medical curriculum in order to meet the challenges in medical education. A record number of students were admitted to the medical course in 2009. There is concern that eventually this exponential increase in admissions is not sustainable due to infrastructural, financial and human resource restraints. Meanwhile there has been a simultane...

  3. [Historiography of medical objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Felip

    2008-01-01

    It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.

  4. Hybrid pixel detector development for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, S.; Berry, A.; Benci, N.; Morton, S.; Phillips, D.; Smith, P.; Troja, S.; Lewis, R.

    2007-01-01

    A 7-year project has been initiated to develop hybrid pixel detectors for medical radiography. Crystalline semiconductor will be bonded to a pixellated readout chip where individual integrated circuits process each event, transferring the position, energy and timing information to the data acquisition controller. Chips will be tiled to produce a large area detector, capable of energy dispersive photon counting at moderate spatial resolution. Preliminary results from studies examining the design features and operation of the device are presented

  5. CERN crystals used in medical imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This crystal is a type of material known as a scintillator. When a high energy charged particle or photon passes through a scintillator it glows. These materials are widely used in particle physics for particle detection, but their uses are being realized in further fields, such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET), an area of medical imaging that monitors the regions of energy use in the body.

  6. Interlaced Energy Linac with Smooth Energy Regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wronka, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    2 A bstract Radiation is commonly used in many branches of every d ay life. Applications of ionization radiation sources in wide range of energy as well as precise detectors cover a number of areas, from basic research, medical treatment, industrial processing, environmental protection, non - destructive testing to safety a nd security. Accelerator and X - ray tube based techniques are increasingly used in luggage and cargo inspection, smuggling detection of explosives and of nuclear materials. The development of new technologies and new features of “classical” machines can be observed recently with the same, well known physics inside. This report is intended to provide the readers with newly developed at NCBJ experimental stand for cargo screening tests, equipped with linear interlaced - energy accelerator.

  7. Ghana Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Ghana Medical Association. It was established in 1962 It publishes quality manuscripts in in all aspects of health, health care and the medical sciences. The full text of published articles are available online at this website and at African ...

  8. Sahel Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sahel Medical Journal is a quarterly international Journal devoted solely to (1) dissemination of information about medical sciences in Nigeria, particularly the Sahel zone, Africa and the rest of the world, (2) to provide a medium where national and international medical and health organizations may relay information to ...

  9. Medics in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify…

  10. Digital medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, F.; Mun, S.K.; Kerlin, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    In formulating an implementation strategy for digital medical imaging, three interrelated thrusts have emerged for the defense medical establishment. These thrusts: totally filmless medical imaging on the battlefield, teleradiology, and DIN/PACS for peacetime military health care are discussed. They have implications in their fully developed form as resource savers and quality improvers for the unique aspects of military health care

  11. Medical ethics: some reservations

    OpenAIRE

    Swales, J D

    1982-01-01

    In this symposium Professor Swales, a professor of medicine, argues that medical ethics cannot be separated conceptually or practically from medical practice and training generally. In direct responses two medical ethicists from America and a British GP rebut this claim. Professor Swales replies briefly to his critics.

  12. Your Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Medical Records KidsHealth / For Teens / Your Medical Records What's ... Print en español Tus historias clínicas What Are Medical Records? Each time you climb up on a ...

  13. Normalized medical information visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  14. Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  15. Medication Safety in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    visits, and chart audit), for the purpose of identifying errors in the medication process. The results of Study I showed errors in 17% of all opportunities for error and 8% of errors in the medication were assessed to be potentially harmful and were thus being medication errors. In the next cross...

  16. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  17. Energy Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    For the years 1992 and 1993, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period. The tables and figures shown in this publication are: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption; Coal consumption; Natural gas consumption; Peat consumption; Domestic oil deliveries; Import prices of oil; Price development of principal oil products; Fuel prices for power production; Total energy consumption by source; Electricity supply; Energy imports by country of origin in 1993; Energy exports by recipient country in 1993; Consumer prices of liquid fuels; Consumer prices of hard coal and natural gas, prices of indigenous fuels; Average electricity price by type of consumer; Price of district heating by type of consumer and Excise taxes and turnover taxes included in consumer prices of some energy sources

  18. Hydrogen energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P P; Kuznetsov, V L; David, W I F

    2007-04-15

    The problem of anthropogenically driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs are arguably the greatest challenge facing our planet. Hydrogen is now widely regarded as one key element of a potential energy solution for the twenty-first century, capable of assisting in issues of environmental emissions, sustainability and energy security. Hydrogen has the potential to provide for energy in transportation, distributed heat and power generation and energy storage systems with little or no impact on the environment, both locally and globally. However, any transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers. This brief report aims to outline the basis of the growing worldwide interest in hydrogen energy and examines some of the important issues relating to the future development of hydrogen as an energy vector.

  19. Dosimetry of the energy of the electrons beam and virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator; Dosimetria de la energia del haz de electrones y distancia virtual de la fuente de un acelerador lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, A.; Garcia, B.; Ramirez, J.; Marquina, J., E-mail: andres.gonzales@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The objectives of this work were to characterize, to gauge the energy of a electrons beam of 12 MeV and to find the virtual distance of the source for a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian. For the characterization, calibration and to find the virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian, a water phantom was used (cylindrical Cuba 3-D) of Sun-Nuclear. The following values were found: R{sub 50.ion} = 4, 95 g/cm{sup 2}, R{sub 50} = 5, 04 g/cm{sup 2}, Z{sub ref} = 2,92 g/cm{sup 2}, Z{sub max} = 2, 60 g/cm{sup 2}. In the calibration was found D{sub W,Q}(Z{sub max}) = 1, 0015 c Gy/Um. In the profile In-plane was measured a symmetry and flatness of 1, 9% and 1, 6% respectively. In the profile Cross-plane a symmetry was measured and flatness of 1, 9% and 1, 3% respectively. The virtual distance regarding the source was of DFS (virtual) =105,81 cm. The electrons beam of 12 MeV was characterized and gauged satisfactorily, were carried out the In-plane and Cross-plane profiles, obtaining all the parameters inside the acceptance limit. The virtual distance of the source was of 105,81 cm. (Author)

  20. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative ...

  1. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  2. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  3. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  4. Energy audit for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetkar, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Energy audit is a very effective management tool for betterment of plant performance. The energy audit has a problem solving approach rather than a fault finding technique. The energy conservation is a rational use of energy. It has been the experience of the developed countries that energy is one issue which results into cost savings with relatively much less efforts/cost in comparison with other resources used in production, development and adoption of energy efficiency equipment and practices in most of production process has been the result of same technique. (author). 1 tab

  5. Energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This study presents the energy taxation, as an energy policy tool, applied to the fossil fuels and to the electric power. Taxes, tax revenue and taxation in function of the energy content or the carbon content are discussed. Many tables and statistical data illustrate this analysis and allow the comparison with other countries in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  6. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  7. Energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    Status reports are given for the Danish Trade Ministry's energy research projects on uranium prospecting and extraction, oil and gas recovery, underground storage of district heating, electrochemical energy storage systems, wind mills, coal deposits, coal cambustion, energy consumption in buildings, solar heat, biogas, compost heat. (B.P.)

  8. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.H.W.E.

    1998-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the research activities of the Dutch association for energy distribution companies EnergieNed in the field of energy storage techniques, carried out within the framework of the long-range programme Study and Research (MSO, abbreviated in Dutch)

  9. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  10. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  11. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  12. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework......Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...

  13. Advanced Medication Dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Alexan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medication dispensing is an important activity that can have major implications if done improperly. Dispensing must be done in the correct time interval, at the correct user, with the correct drug and dose. We propose a smart medication dispenser that can satisfy these needs and provide a mechanism for supervision. In order to ensure that the dispensing process is error free, the concept of a new smart medication container is used. A smart medication container is “smart” as it holds the medication dispensing parameters for the drugs it contains: dispensing time and date and name. Based on this information, the actual dispensing is done.

  14. Nuclear energy and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Today, about 80 developing countries are using nuclear techniques in various sectors of their national economies. In the sector of industry, the radiation processing using gamma rays of high energy electrons has grown. While in the sector of health care, an estimated 10000 gamma cameras-imaging instruments are used in combination with radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. In the field of agriculture there is, nearly, 1000 crop varieties derived from radiaton-induced mutations which are grown worldwide. Furthermore and concerning the energy sector there is 417 nuclear power plants operating in 26 countries, accounting for just 16% of the world's total electricity production; the nuclear energy helped in developing and supporting a variety of sciences. 2 tabs

  15. Medical education in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasekera, Dujeepa D; Ooi, Shirley; Yeo, Su Ping; Hooi, Shing Chuan

    2015-02-19

    Abstract Allopathic medical education in Singapore extends for more than a century from its simple beginnings. In recent times, changes have been rapid, both in undergraduate and postgraduate specialty medical training. Over the last decade, undergraduate medical education has increased from a single to three medical schools and the postgraduate training has expanded further by incorporating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education International framework. With these changes, the curricula, assessment systems, as well as teaching and learning approaches, with the use of technology-enhanced learning and program evaluation processes have expanded, largely based on best evidence medical education. To support these initiatives and the recent rapid expansion, most training institutions have incorporated faculty development programs, such as the Centre for Medical Education at the National University of Singapore.

  16. Technologies for Medical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João; Barbosa, Marcos; Slade, AP

    2012-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced technologies for medical sciences in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders.   The fifteen papers included in this book were written by invited experts of international stature and address important technologies for medical sciences, including: computational modeling and simulation, image processing and analysis, medical imaging, human motion and posture, tissue engineering, design and development medical devices, and mechanic biology. Different applications are treated in such diverse fields as biomechanical studies, prosthesis and orthosis, medical diagnosis, sport, and virtual reality.   This book is of interest to researchers, students and manufacturers from  a wide range of disciplines related to bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computational vision, human motion, mathematics, medical devices, medical image, medicine and physics.

  17. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  18. Energy 93, energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, D.; Bar Mashiah, D.; Er-El, J.

    1993-01-01

    For the first time this report includes a chapter entitles 'energy and peace'. Following is an overview of israel's energy economy and some principal initiatives in its various sectors during 1992/93 period. 46 figs, 13 tabs

  19. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal

  20. Energy constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcham, Carl; Rolston, Jessica Smith

    2013-06-01

    Building on research in anthropology and philosophy, one can make a distinction between type I and type II energy ethics as a framework for advancing public debate about energy. Type I holds energy production and use as a fundamental good and is grounded in the assumption that increases in energy production and consumption result in increases in human wellbeing. Conversely, type II questions the linear relationship between energy production and progress by examining questions of equity and human happiness. The type I versus type II framework helps to advance public debates about energy that address broad questions of profitability, regulation, and the environment, and in the process poses fundamental questions about the reverence for energy growth in advanced technological societies.

  1. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  2. Book Reviews | Naidu | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review 1. Book Title: Medical Radionuclides: Radiation Dose and Effects. Book Authors: R. J. Cloutier, C. L. Edwards & W. S. Snyder (Ed.) Pp. ix + 528. Illustrated. $3.00. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: US Atomic Energy Commission. 1970. Available from Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, ...

  3. Medical Sciences Division report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This year's Medical Sciences Division (MSD) Report is organized to show how programs in our division contribute to the core competencies of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). ORISE's core competencies in education and training, environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, occupational and environmental health, and enabling research support the overall mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE)

  4. Production of Medical Isotopes with Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, D A; Alford, K.; Bailey, J. L.; Bowers, D. L.; Brossard, T.; Brown, M. A.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Ehst, D.; Greene, J.; Gromov, R. G.; Grudzinski, J.J.; Hafenrichter, L.; Hebden, A. S.; Henning, W.; Heltemes, T. A.; Jerden, J.; Jonah, C. D.; Kalensky, M.; Krebs, J. F.; Makarashvili, V.; Micklich, B.; Nolen, J.; Quigley, K. J.; Schneider, J. F.; Smith, N. A.; Stepinski, D. C.; Sun, Z.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Virgo, M J; Wesolowski, K. A.; Youker, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Radioisotopes play important roles in numerous areas ranging from medical treatments to national security and basic research. Radionuclide production technology for medical applications has been pursued since the early 1900s both commercially and in nuclear science centers. Many medical isotopes are now in routine production and are used in day-to-day medical procedures. Despite these advancements, research is accelerating around the world to improve the existing production methodologies as well as to develop novel radionuclides for new medical appli-cations. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) represent a unique method for the production of radioisotopes. Even though the basic technology has been around for decades, only recently have electron linacs capable of producing photons with sufficient energy and flux for radioisotope production become available. Housed in Argonne Nation-al Laboratory’s Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a newly upgraded 55 MeV/25-kW electron linear ac-celerator, capable of producing a wide range of radioiso-topes. This talk will focus on the work being performed for the production of the medical isotopes 99Mo (99Mo/99mTc generator), 67Cu, and 47Sc.

  5. Breakfast eating habits among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackuaku-Dogbe, E M; Abaidoo, B

    2014-06-01

    Breakfast is often thought to be the most important meal of the day as it is known to provide energy for the brain and improve learning. It is also known to contribute significantly to the total daily energy and nutrient intake. Skipping breakfast may affect performance during the rest of the day. To determine the level of breakfast skipping among medical students and its effect on their attention span and level of fatigue during clinical sessions. A descriptive cross-sectional study of breakfast eating habits among medical students at the University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu-Accra. The University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu-Accra. Questionnaires were distributed to second year (pre-clinical) medical students studying the basic sciences and clinical students in ophthalmology to be self-administered. Interview data was captured and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. The total number of pre-clinical students recruited was 154 and clinical students 163 bringing to a total of 317 students made up of 203 males and 114 females (M: F=1.8:1). The overall breakfast skipping among the students was 71.92%. The prevalence among the pre-clinical students was 76.62% and clinical students 67.48%. Generally, breakfast skipping was significantly related to fatigue and poor attention during clinical sessions. This study suggests that the medical students, both pre-clinical and clinical, skip breakfast and this may affect their studies adversely.

  6. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

  7. Defense Utility Energy Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-24

    collectively as "the DoD Components.") The termO "Military Services," as used herein, refers to the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine...and evaluation, disposal, incineration and similar activities will be designated industrial process energy activities. b. Facilities used primarily for...administration, housing, education and training, medical, research, staff, and headquarters functions will be designated facility energy activities

  8. Advanced fibre based energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into man...

  9. Renewable energy resources in Serbia and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Larisa; Ermakov, Vadim; Čajka, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Energy Policy of the Republic of Serbia and Russia is entirely based on the principles of sustainable development and the Kyoto Protocol. This paper reviews in details the characteristics of energy policy in Serbia and Russia and provides examples of certain kinds of energy. Serbia and Russia are rich in renewable energy resources. The explorations of mineral and thermal mineral water sources carried out in Serbia have shown high quality mineral waters that can be used for medical purposes. M...

  10. [Telemedicine and medical responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, F A; Dusserre, L

    1995-01-01

    Dealing with telemedicine including telediagnosis and teleassistance, we have to assess the legal and ethical components of medical liability. With medical telediagnosis, the dispersion of medical liabilities is the main risk: how can we ensure a clear identification of the medical liabilities involved in case of damage? From a legal point of view, the dispersion of the liabilities is not authorized and the use of telediagnosis must ensure a total transparence. As we cannot presently establish a separate amount for a medical act based on the cost of the image records and the cost of image interpretation, it is necessary to establish a contract. Today the most convenient is a contract similar to the usual contract between laboratories which implies that the liability belongs to the practitioner who has received the sample. In the future, other legal obligations may appear when telediagnosis develops. Indeed, the increase in reliability due to telediagnosis could be normally required as a part of the medical obligation to use the latest technology. On the opposite, the excessive use of teleassistance, when there is neither emergency nor medical isolation, is dangerous because it affects the integrity and the quality of the medical act. A medical practice without any clinical examination of the patient is contrary to medical ethics.

  11. Medical Physicists and AAPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amols, Howard

    2006-03-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members are based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.

  12. Transporation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2012-06-30

    This Transportation Energy Project is comprised of four unique tasks which work within the railroad industry to provide solutions in various areas of energy conservation. These tasks addressed: energy reducing yard related decision issues; alternate fuels; energy education, and energy storage for railroad applications. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team examined these areas and provided current solutions which can be used to both provide important reduction in energy usage and system efficiency in the given industry. This project also sought a mode in which rural and long-distance education could be provided. The information developed in each of the project tasks can be applied to all of the rail companies to assist in developing efficiencies.

  13. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  14. Energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1982-06-01

    There seems to be a trend towards expecting energy conservation to be a panacea for the world's ills. In fact, a global perspective on energy needs shows that more, not less, energy is needed and technological innovation in energy sources is essential in order to meet the needs of more than just the developed countries. Energy-intensive technology is the amplification of our natural resources rather than their depletion. A fundamental bioethical principle must be established if we are to analyze and organize scientific evidence about hazards from currently feasible energy resources, and separate genuine from counterfeit claims to credibility. In particular, public fears about radiation hazards and radioactive waste disposal are influenced too much by rhetorical cleverness and forensic skills of a vociferous minority. Potential hazard management is ethically equitable only if it is proportioned to actual basic harm that can be identified and reduced by expenditures of human effort, time and money

  15. Medical design anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, Jonathan; Gunn, Wendy

    Barnard and Spencer define medical anthropology in the Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology as "Medical anthropology is, as the phrase implies, unavoidably concerned with the paradigm of modern Western medicine, whether implicitly or explicitly" (2002: 541). Recently there is a new...... focus in medical sociology and anthropology, which is patient's practices and influence on wider global health environment (see for example vol. 36(2) of Sociology of Health & Illness). While various social science theoreticians have written about agentic abilities of objects, there is a gap...... in literature concerning various levels of socio-cultural influence of the medical environment through medical products. In our research we have outlined the importance of medical design anthropology (MDA) to the practice and theory of design (Ventura and Gunn, 2016). In this paper, we study the ways in which...

  16. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  17. Dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Dark energy research aims to illuminate the mystery of the observed cosmic acceleration, one of the fundamental problems in physics and astronomy today. This book presents a systematic and detailed review of the current state of dark energy research, with the focus on the examination of the major observational techniques for probing dark energy. It can be used as a textbook to train students and others who wish to enter this extremely active field in cosmology.

  18. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  20. Reminder from Medical Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2004-01-01

    For medical problems, we would like to remind all personnel working on the CERN sites, staff members or from outside firms, that they are welcome at the Infirmary, building 57, ground floor. For information, call the nurses on telephone: 73802 by e-mail: Service.Medical@cern.ch Francoise.Lebrun-Klauser@cern.ch Mireille.Vosdey@cern.ch Katie.Warrillow-Thomson@cern.ch Medical Service

  1. REMINDER FROM MEDICAL SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    For medical problems, we would like to remind all personnel working on the CERN sites, staff members or from outside firms, that they are welcome at the Infirmary, building 57, ground floor. For information, call the nurses: on telephone: 73802 by e-mail: Service.Medical@cern.ch Francoise.Lebrun-Klauser@cern.ch Mireille.Vosdey@cern.ch Katie.Warrillow-Thomson@cern.ch Medical Service

  2. Energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2005-01-01

    The energy demand is strongly conditioned by the consuming equipments. Depending on the uses, some energy sources can be substituted, while for some others the choice is limited or impossible. The energy offer comes mainly from non-renewable resources, and taking into consideration the geographical localization of these resources, economics are geopolitics are indissociable despite the development of markets. Necessary for the economic development, energy cannot be consumed without impact on the environment, which raises some worrying questions, like the one of global warming. (J.S.)

  3. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This report gives a general presentation of energy fiscality in France: taxes on energy, mechanisms of stabilization of government's fiscal incomes in case of significant oil prices change, some particularities of energy taxes, the fiscality according to the energy content and according to the carbon content. The fiscality of petroleum products (automotive fuels and other products), natural gas and electricity in France is presented in appendixes together with a comparison of the fiscality in use in the rest of Europe (automotive fuels, domestic fuels, natural gas and electricity for domestic use and for industrial use). (J.S.)

  5. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  6. Energy Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, James; Bekbenbetov, Marat; Coffman, Katherine; Davies, Kirk; Farrar, Michael R; Fletcher, Scott N; Hall, Robert; Kljajic, Senad; Koprucu, Feza; Leek, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    .... This policy must address energy supply stability, support infrastructure improvements, promote greater use of nuclear power, and reduce hazardous emissions through the development of cleaner burning...

  7. Cannabinoids: Medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrot, Richard J; Hubbard, John R

    2016-01-01

    Herbal cannabis has been used for thousands of years for medical purposes. With elucidation of the chemical structures of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and with discovery of the human endocannabinoid system, the medical usefulness of cannabinoids has been more intensively explored. While more randomized clinical trials are needed for some medical conditions, other medical disorders, like chronic cancer and neuropathic pain and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, have substantial evidence supporting cannabinoid efficacy. While herbal cannabis has not met rigorous FDA standards for medical approval, specific well-characterized cannabinoids have met those standards. Where medical cannabis is legal, patients typically see a physician who "certifies" that a benefit may result. Physicians must consider important patient selection criteria such as failure of standard medical treatment for a debilitating medical disorder. Medical cannabis patients must be informed about potential adverse effects, such as acute impairment of memory, coordination and judgment, and possible chronic effects, such as cannabis use disorder, cognitive impairment, and chronic bronchitis. In addition, social dysfunction may result at work/school, and there is increased possibility of motor vehicle accidents. Novel ways to manipulate the endocannbinoid system are being explored to maximize benefits of cannabinoid therapy and lessen possible harmful effects.

  8. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships ... Search Search ... About Us What is ...

  9. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  10. Disclosure of medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlow, Anne; Stevens, Polly; Harrison, Christine; Laxer, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    The 1999 release of the Institute of Medicine's document To Err is Human was akin to removing the lid of Pandora's box. Not only were the magnitude and impact of medical errors now apparent to those working in the health care industry, but consumers or health care were alerted to the occurrence of medical events causing harm. One specific solution advocated was the disclosure to patients and their families of adverse events resulting from medical error. Knowledge of the historical perspective, ethical underpinnings, and medico-legal implications gives us a better appreciation of current recommendations for disclosing adverse events resulting from medical error to those affected.

  11. 10 CFR 35.2080 - Records of mobile medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of mobile medical services. 35.2080 Section 35... of mobile medical services. (a) A licensee shall retain a copy of each letter that permits the use of... the last provision of service. (b) A licensee shall retain the record of each survey required by § 35...

  12. 21 CFR 892.5300 - Medical neutron radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical neutron radiation therapy system. 892.5300... therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical neutron radiation therapy system is a device intended to generate high-energy neutrons for radiation therapy. This generic type of device may include signal...

  13. Furthering Medical Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Surendra K; Jennings, John

    2016-02-01

    Medical education in Texas is moving in the right direction. The Texas Medical Association has been a major partner in advancing medical education initiatives. This special symposium issue on medical education examines residency training costs, the Next Accreditation System, graduate medical education in rural Texas, Texas' physician workforce needs, the current state of education reform, and efforts to retain medical graduates in Texas.

  14. Pandemic Influenza: Perception of Medical Students Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... vaccination against H1N1and 31.9% refused joining voluntary work during H1N1 pandemic. Gender, age, marital status and family number were predictors r voluntary work. Conclusion: Defective knowledge and the role of the family are the main factors predispose to further attitude of medical students regarding voluntary ...

  15. Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

  16. Energy Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed as an interdisciplinary, supplemental teaching guide, this document provides fundamental information about energy supply, use, and conservation and related learning activities for secondary students. Eight units address the following topics: energy history, petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, alternative sources, energy…

  17. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  18. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  19. Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E.D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J.R.; Sinke, W.C.; Sonntag-O'Brien, V.; Thresher, B.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Usher, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major

  20. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  1. Energy Magazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present issue of the Energy Magazine is including a summary of the six years of implementation of the energy and sustainable development project, which also includes the participation of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). The substantially parameters and indicators defined by this project have been applied in case studies for Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Chile and El Salvador and have yielded sound results. A few pages are dedicated to highlight the preliminary results stemming from the initiative aimed at promoting hydropower projects that OLADE started with the Government of Quebec last year. The main themes included are: Energy efficiency in OLADE-GTZ cooperation. Liberalization and energy development, Energy statistics

  2. Energy forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last twelve years the Department of Energy has funded research into energy forestry. Its aim is to develop appropriate management systems for growing and harvesting forest biomass for energy on short rotation. Species selection, yields, use of herbicides and fertilizers, nutrient removals, harvesting, management structure and environmental impact are all being considered. Studies on the potential for energy forestry have indicated that at least 800,000 hectares of land in the UK might be available for growing forest energy plantations. A series of trial plantations have been established to determine biomass production, economics and logistics of short rotation forestry through coppice and single stem management systems. Whilst it has been demonstrated that it is technically possible to establish single stem plantation on each of the site types tested, it is only on marginal agriculture land that cost effective systems can be operated. (author)

  3. News: energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willot, D.

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of 2003 the French government launched a national debate about the energies. 6 conferences are due to be held during the first semester. The opening conference in Paris was dedicated to the distribution of energy resources in the world, to the struggle against climate warming and to the opening and deregulation of markets. The following conferences that will take place in Strasbourg, Nice, Bordeaux and Rennes will focus on topics such as controlling the energy consumption in industries, companies and households, and reviewing the pros and cons of the different sources of energy. The ending conference will be held in Paris, the participants will try to find consistencies in the previous debates and will draw some conclusions that will help the French authorities to define the next energy policy. (A.C.)

  4. Energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Working Paper is about the energy crisis. Its chief aim is to give a lot of information about the various sources of energy and the problems about the supply and the use of them. It is in five parts. Part One illustrates the importance of energy in the world economy and particularly in Britain. Part Two describes the various sources of energy; coal, oil, gas, electricity and nuclear, and discusses the renewable sources and energy conservation. Part Three gives arguments for and against a nuclear future. Part Four describes the debate in the Churches on the nuclear option and Part Five sets out some theological and ethical themes relevant to responsible decision making on these matters. (author)

  5. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  6. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  7. Energy Choices. Energy markets; Vaegval Energi. Energimarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsgaard, Niclas (Econ Poeyry AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    Each of the major energy markets for oil, coal, natural gas, biofuels and electricity has its own character. But markets are dependent on each other in an often complicated way. This interconnection has become even more complex since the market for emissions trading began in Europe in 2005. This report describes the current situation of the different energy markets but also the relationships between them, and some possible future scenarios. The oil market is global, but is dominated by a few producing countries. Coal is traded on the international market with good competition and over time probably a stable price. Other markets are more regional or even local. One example is the natural gas market. In the current situation of natural gas is not particularly important for Sweden's energy supply, but very much so in a European perspective. There may be repercussions also in Sweden. The gas price ups and downs are important for the price of emission rights and electricity. Biofuel markets ranging from global markets, such as ethanol, to regional or local markets, depending on processing. Only with the creation of a single trading venue, Nordpool was a common pricing of electricity possible in the Nordic region. In the near future we will have a common electricity market covering at least the Nordic region and northwestern Europe. This does not mean that prices will become equalized, for that further expansion of the transmission capacity is needed. It is possible to imagine several scenarios for future energy markets, but the interaction between the different markets will persist. To develop appropriate instruments is of great importance to achieve the political objectives in the energy field the next decade

  8. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  9. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the ...

  10. Medical Imaging: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Debashis; Chakraborty, Srabonti; Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    The rapid progress of medical science and the invention of various medicines have benefited mankind and the whole civilization. Modern science also has been doing wonders in the surgical field. But, the proper and correct diagnosis of diseases is the primary necessity before the treatment. The more sophisticate the bio-instruments are, better diagnosis will be possible. The medical images plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy of doctor and teaching and researching etc. Medical imaging is often thought of as a way to represent anatomical structures of the body with the help of X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. But often it is more useful for physiologic function rather than anatomy. With the growth of computer and image technology medical imaging has greatly influenced medical field. As the quality of medical imaging affects diagnosis the medical image processing has become a hotspot and the clinical applications wanting to store and retrieve images for future purpose needs some convenient process to store those images in details. This paper is a tutorial review of the medical image processing and repository techniques appeared in the literature.

  11. IMTU Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The IMTU Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed journal published by the International Medical and Technological University (IMTU) in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The major objective of the journal is to publish original research, case studies and review articles in the field of Biomedical Sciences, Public Health, Social and ...

  12. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 88 ...

  13. Malawi Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Malawi Medical Journal is a peer reviewed publication of scientific medical research and serves as a forum for the dissemination of findings of health-related research undertaken in Malawi to health workers in Malawi. It incorporates original research studies, policy analysis, case reports, literature reviews and ...

  14. Nigerian Medical Practitioner: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Nigerian Medical Practitioner, a monthly Journal publishes clinical and research articles in medicine and related fields which are of interest to a large proportion of medical and allied health practitioners. It also publishes miscellaneous articles-hospital administration, business practice, accounting, ...

  15. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 88 of 88 ...

  16. Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Medical Journal publishes original articles, reviews, memoranda, reports, case reports, reports of meetings as supplements, letters to the Editor, Association New, book reviews as well as any news of medical relevance. Topics published are of interest to clinicians, researchers, resident doctors, epidemiologists ...

  17. Medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy...

  18. Archives: Malawi Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 72 ... Archives: Malawi Medical Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Malawi Medical Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 72 Items, 1 2 > >> ...

  19. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  20. Scientific Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its treatment and prevention.

  1. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J. Lembo, MD, Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  2. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 5 May 2002. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND KHA'I' CHEWING AMONG UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTORS IN ETHIOPIA. Y. Kebede. MD, MPH, Gondar College of Medical Sciences, PO. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND KHAT CHEWING AMONG UNIVERSITY ...

  3. Medical Practice Makes Perfect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Cedaron Medical Inc., was founded in 1990 as a result of a NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) grant from Johnson Space Center to develop a Hand Testing and Exercise Unit for use in space. From that research came Dexter, a comprehensive workstation that creates a paperless environment for medical data management.

  4. Organising medication discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Michael; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2016-01-01

    Background: Discontinuing medications is a complex decision making process and an important medical practice. It is a tool in reducing polypharmacy, reducing health system expenditure and improving patient quality of life. Few studies have looked at how general practitioners (GPs) discontinue a m...

  5. Medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Bendtsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a debilitating condition in which frequent and prolonged use of medication for the acute treatment of pain results in the worsening of the headache. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature on MOH and discuss future avenues for research...

  6. Medical students' gender awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Gender awareness in medicine consists of two attitudinal components: gender sensitivity and gender-role ideology. In this article, the development of a scale to measure these attitudes in Dutch medical students is described. After a pilot study and a feasibility study, 393 medical students in The

  7. Medical Virtual Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SURUGIU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare enterprises are very disconnected. This paper intends to propose a solution that will provide citizens, businesses and medical enterprises with improved access to medical virtual public services. Referred medical services are based on existing national medical Web services and which support medically required services provided by physicians and supplementary health care practitioners, laboratory services and diagnostic procedures, clinics and hospitals’ services. Requirements and specific rules of these medical services are considered, and personalization of user preferences will to be supported. The architecture is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national medical services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as national sources of medical services. The system relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. System’s architecture is business oriented: it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture - SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services, Business Process Management – BPM rules and BPEL standards.

  8. Archives: Sahel Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... Archives: Sahel Medical Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Sahel Medical Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 30 of 30 Items. 2010 ...

  9. Medical students' financial dilemma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-18

    May 18, 1991 ... The financial position of 5th- and 6th-year medical students at the University of Cape Town was analysed. The median annual expenditure for a 6th-year student in private accom- modation is R13790. The trend in applicants to medical school has changed, with proportionally more now coming.

  10. REMINDER FROM MEDICAL SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Médical

    2000-01-01

    For medical problems, we would like to remind all personnel working on the CERN sites, be they staff or from outside firms, that they are welcome at the Infirmary, building 57, ground floor.For information, call the Nurses- on Telephone73802- by electronic mailInfirmary.Service@cern.chMarion.Diedrich@cern.chJanet.Doody@cern.chMireille.Vosdey@cern.chMedical Service

  11. Atrial Fibrillation Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Atrial Fibrillation Medications Updated:Jun 28,2017 Understand medications and ... you. This content was last reviewed July 2016. Atrial Fibrillation • Introduction • What is Atrial Fibrillation? • Why AFib Matters ...

  12. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  13. Your Pet's Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you suspect adverse events from any drug your dog or cat is taking. Long-term medications Some medications need to be given for prolonged periods of time or perhaps for the rest of your pet’s life. To monitor your pet’s health, make sure that the drug is still working ...

  14. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 168 by Anthony J. Lembo, MD, Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. Last modified on February 23, 2015 at 12:18:55 PM ... Complementary or Alternative Treatments Selecting a CAM Practitioner Hypnosis ...

  15. Archives: Ghana Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 45 of 45 ... Archives: Ghana Medical Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ghana Medical Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 45 of 45 Items. 2017 ...

  16. History of Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical…

  17. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... those with emotional distress. There are also effective medications available that relieve the pain and improve the changes in bowel habit. They ... effects on the brain and the gut. Antidepressant medications can reduce the intensity of pain signals going from gut to brain. Read more ...

  18. Pervasive Electronic Medical Record

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    doctors, nurses, physician's assistants, emergency medical technicians and other caregivers. PEMR, a platform-independent solution, integrates RFID and other wireless networks to provide the required infrastructure for transmitting critical medical information anywhere and anytime using either existing network or ad hoc.

  19. Workshop of medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This event was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentine Republic from 14 th. through 18 th. November, 1988. A great part of the physicians in the area of medical physics participated in this workshop. This volume includes the papers presented at this Workshop of Medical Physics [es

  20. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Not all of these schools are for profit – however a significant number of them are. Whilst the world is undoubtedly short of healthcare professionals and so any new investments in medical education are welcome, opening new schools for profit raise questions about the purpose of medical education, about the quality.

  1. Ebonyi Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research findings, reviews, case reports and letters to the editor in clinical and basic medical sciences to disseminate same to medical doctors, scientists and other health personnel over the world. Vol 11, No 1-2 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  2. Curricula in medical informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasman, Arie; Haux, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    Education in medical informatics is needed not only for those who want to become specialist in this area but also for health professionals. Since students, depending on the program they are enlisted in, require different types of knowledge and skills in medical informatics, curricula should be

  3. [Birth of medical electricity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-eighteenth century Jallabert treated an hemiplegia using electrostatic electricity and published the patient's recovery. Immediately, physicians and clergymen started to use the Nollet's machine to treat many neurological diseases and published their results. The Galvani's constant was also a medical seism when he though the had discovered animal electricity. Galvanism entered immediately medical practice for a long time.

  4. [Ethics in medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters."

  5. Tanzania Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Medical Journal is a multi – disciplinary journal published two times a year in March - June and September – December. ... To achieve its objectives the journal invites papers on original scientific research, short communications, case reports and letters to the editor, in any branch of medical science. Original ...

  6. Medical abortion service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, V; Rogers, M K; Vanderhei, D

    2000-08-01

    Medical abortion with mifepristone and methotrexate regimens may be offered in a variety of American medical practice settings. In this article the new provider will find information on all aspects of the patient care delivery system for medical abortion, including physical space requirements, staffing and training, patient flow, cost, security, marketing, and quality assurance. Because of the limited published data available regarding logistic issues surrounding abortion care, the information in this article derives largely from the experiences of providers who have established medical abortion practices in their offices or clinics. Its goals are to help make the initial start-up phase briefer and more rewarding for new providers, to offer helpful guidelines for incorporation of medical abortion into practice, and to encourage more practitioners to see the benefits of adding this option to their practices.

  7. Medical negligence: Criminal prosecution of medical professionals, importance of medical evidence: Some guidelines for medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modern medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. On the one hand, there can be unfavorable results of treatment and on the other hand the patient suspects negligence as a cause of their suffering. There is an increasing trend of medical litigation by unsatisfied patients. The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines for the criminal prosecution of a doctor. This has decreased the unnecessary harassment of doctors. As the medical profession has been brought under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the patients have an easy method of litigation. There should be legal awareness among the doctors that will help them in the proper recording of medical management details. This will help them in defending their case during any allegation of medical negligence.

  8. The Muddle of Medicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholl, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Medicalization appears to be an issue that is both ubiquitous and unquestionably problematic as it seems to signal at once a social and existential threat. This perception of medicalization, however, is nothing new. Since the first main writings in the 1960s and 1970s, it has consistently been used...... intended to establish the reality of this growing threat, this research often requires making arbitrary or unjustified distinctions between different practices. To better clarify the concept of medicalization, I will focus more on capturing the variety of medical practices than on the sociological aspects...... is closely tied to medicalizing, both can occur independently. I will then further develop this distinction in terms of the different individual and social effects of these practices....

  9. Pacemakers charging using body energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Dinesh; Bairagi, Sweeti; Goel, Sanat; Jangra, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Life-saving medical implants like pacemakers and defibrillators face a big drawback that their batteries eventually run out and patients require frequent surgery to have these batteries replaced. With the advent of technology, alternatives can be provided for such surgeries. To power these devices, body energy harvesting techniques may be employed. Some of the power sources are patient's heartbeat, blood flow inside the vessels, movement of the body parts, and the body temperature (heat). Different types of sensors are employed, such as for sensing the energy from the heartbeat the piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled nanowires are used that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Similarly, for sensing the blood flow energy, nanogenerators driven by ultrasonic waves are used that have the ability to directly convert the hydraulic energy in human body to electrical energy. Another consideration is to use body heat employing biothermal battery to generate electricity using multiple arrays of thermoelectric generators built into an implantable chip. These generators exploit the well-known thermocouple effect. For the biothermal device to work, it needs a 2°C temperature difference across it. But there are many parts of the body where a temperature difference of 5°C exists – typically in the few millimeters just below the skin, where it is planned to place this device. This study focuses on using body heat as an alternative energy source to recharge pacemaker batteries and other medical devices and prevent the possibility of life-risk during repeated surgery. PMID:21814432

  10. Pacemakers charging using body energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Dinesh; Bairagi, Sweeti; Goel, Sanat; Jangra, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Life-saving medical implants like pacemakers and defibrillators face a big drawback that their batteries eventually run out and patients require frequent surgery to have these batteries replaced. With the advent of technology, alternatives can be provided for such surgeries. To power these devices, body energy harvesting techniques may be employed. Some of the power sources are patient's heartbeat, blood flow inside the vessels, movement of the body parts, and the body temperature (heat). Different types of sensors are employed, such as for sensing the energy from the heartbeat the piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled nanowires are used that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Similarly, for sensing the blood flow energy, nanogenerators driven by ultrasonic waves are used that have the ability to directly convert the hydraulic energy in human body to electrical energy. Another consideration is to use body heat employing biothermal battery to generate electricity using multiple arrays of thermoelectric generators built into an implantable chip. These generators exploit the well-known thermocouple effect. For the biothermal device to work, it needs a 2°C temperature difference across it. But there are many parts of the body where a temperature difference of 5°C exists - typically in the few millimeters just below the skin, where it is planned to place this device. This study focuses on using body heat as an alternative energy source to recharge pacemaker batteries and other medical devices and prevent the possibility of life-risk during repeated surgery.

  11. Pacemakers charging using body energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-saving medical implants like pacemakers and defibrillators face a big drawback that their batteries eventually run out and patients require frequent surgery to have these batteries replaced. With the advent of technology, alternatives can be provided for such surgeries. To power these devices, body energy harvesting techniques may be employed. Some of the power sources are patient′s heartbeat, blood flow inside the vessels, movement of the body parts, and the body temperature (heat. Different types of sensors are employed, such as for sensing the energy from the heartbeat the piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled nanowires are used that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Similarly, for sensing the blood flow energy, nanogenerators driven by ultrasonic waves are used that have the ability to directly convert the hydraulic energy in human body to electrical energy. Another consideration is to use body heat employing biothermal battery to generate electricity using multiple arrays of thermoelectric generators built into an implantable chip. These generators exploit the well-known thermocouple effect. For the biothermal device to work, it needs a 2°C temperature difference across it. But there are many parts of the body where a temperature difference of 5°C exists - typically in the few millimeters just below the skin, where it is planned to place this device. This study focuses on using body heat as an alternative energy source to recharge pacemaker batteries and other medical devices and prevent the possibility of life-risk during repeated surgery.

  12. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  13. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  14. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  15. Medical physics and challenges faced in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatudde, R.

    2010-01-01

    , Uganda and Ghana. A questionnaire was used to collect data inline with the objectives. The data collected was analysed to identify the correlation between the challenges identified and the objectives of FAMPO. Results and discussions Challenges faced by medical physicists in African countries There is shortage of qualified skilled medical physicists to man all the activities the three areas of Radiotherapy, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 5 The cost involved to obtain clinical training from the recognized training centres is high and there no local training centres. Training of qualified medical physicists has been done by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as little or no support is given to training medical physicists by individual governments. Lack of recognized bodies governing medical physicists, hence lack of coordination among medical physicists in a particular country and between countries in Africa. The law governing the use ionizing radiation is still weak in some African countries. Ignorance about the role of a medical physicist from the hospital managers and health ministries, hence limitation of their participation in research and publication. Lack of equipment has inhibited execution of their duties especially in areas of dosimetry, dose assessment and radiation monitoring. Hospitals have no budget for continuous education to fund conferences or congress attendance. Most of these conferences are commonly supported by international organizations like IAEA, WHO. Aims and Functions of FAMPO To promote improved quality service to patients and the community in the region. To promote the co-operation and communication between medical physics organization in the region, and where such organizations do not exist between individual medical physicists. To promote the profession and practice of medical physics and related activities in the region. To promote the advancement in status and standard of practice of medical physics profession. To promote and

  16. Hydro-energy; Energie hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Tardieu, B. [Coyne et Bellier, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)

    2005-07-01

    The first part of this study concerns the different type of hydraulic works. The second part presents the big hydro-energy, its advantages and disadvantages, the industrial risks, the electric power transport network, the economy and the development perspectives. The third part presents the little hydro-energy, its advantages and disadvantages, the decentralized production and the development perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  17. Generalized eMC implementation for Monte Carlo dose calculation of electron beams from different machine types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Cygler, Joanna; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2013-05-07

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm available in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and uses a beam model applicable to Varian linear accelerators. This leads to limitations in accuracy if eMC is applied to non-Varian machines. In this work eMC is generalized to also allow accurate dose calculations for electron beams from Elekta and Siemens accelerators. First, changes made in the previous study to use eMC for low electron beam energies of Varian accelerators are applied. Then, a generalized beam model is developed using a main electron source and a main photon source representing electrons and photons from the scattering foil, respectively, an edge source of electrons, a transmission source of photons and a line source of electrons and photons representing the particles from the scrapers or inserts and head scatter radiation. Regarding the macro MC dose calculation algorithm, the transport code of the secondary particles is improved. The macro MC dose calculations are validated with corresponding dose calculations using EGSnrc in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. The validation of the generalized eMC is carried out by comparing calculated and measured dose distributions in water for Varian, Elekta and Siemens machines for a variety of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs. The comparisons are performed in units of cGy per MU. Overall, a general agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions for all machine types and all combinations of parameters investigated is found to be within 2% or 2 mm. The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the generalized eMC is now suitable to calculate dose distributions for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators with sufficient accuracy in the range of the investigated combinations of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs.

  18. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  19. Nuclear energy

    CERN Document Server

    Marquardt, Meg

    2016-01-01

    A piece of nuclear fuel the size of your fingertip holds as much energy as 150 gallons (568 L) of oil. In Nuclear Energy, learn how scientists developed this amazing source of energy, how it works, and why it has attracted controversy. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  20. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)