WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy utilization modular

  1. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  2. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  3. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  4. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  5. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  6. Utility industry evaluation of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Bitel, J.S.; Tramm, T.R.; High, M.D.; Neils, G.H.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor plant design, a current design created by an industrial team led by General Atomics under Department of Energy sponsorship and with support provided by utilities through Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates. The utility industry team concluded that the plant design should be considered a viable application of an advanced nuclear concept and deserves continuing development. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution toward improving a very promising plant design. 2 refs

  7. GREEN-FC. Decentralized biogas conversion on modular plants for the utilization of biogenic energy sources by means of fuel cells; GREEN-FC. Dezentrale Biogaskonversion ueber modulare Anlagen zur Nutzung biogener Energietraeger durch Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birth, Torsten [Fraunhofer-Einrichtung fuer Fabrikbetrieb und -Automatisierung (IFF), Magdeburg (Germany); Heineken, Wolfram; He, Ling

    2013-10-01

    About 60% of the world's annual demand (500 bm{sup 3}) of hydrogen is provided by the reforming of fossil fuels. Regarding the limitation of fossil resources, the production of H{sub 2} from biogas becomes increasingly important. The GREEN-FC prototype for biogas conversion to hydrogen for fuel cells includes five modules: gas supply, gas purification, gas reforming, gas utilization and post-combustion. Operation parameters of the entire system have been optimized in order to maximize the H{sub 2} yield while limiting the CO content to avoid poisoning the HT-PEMFC. A replacement of modules is possible such that alternative reactors for biogas conversion and the further use of this concept can be studied. (orig.)

  8. Local modular Hamiltonians from the quantum null energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeller, Jason; Leichenauer, Stefan; Levine, Adam; Shahbazi-Moghaddam, Arvin

    2018-03-01

    The vacuum modular Hamiltonian K of the Rindler wedge in any relativistic quantum field theory is given by the boost generator. Here we investigate the modular Hamiltonian for more general half-spaces which are bounded by an arbitrary smooth cut of a null plane. We derive a formula for the second derivative of the modular Hamiltonian with respect to the coordinates of the cut which schematically reads K''=Tv v . This formula can be integrated twice to obtain a simple expression for the modular Hamiltonian. The result naturally generalizes the standard expression for the Rindler modular Hamiltonian to this larger class of regions. Our primary assumptions are the quantum null energy condition—an inequality between the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy of a region and the stress tensor—and its saturation in the vacuum for these regions. We discuss the validity of these assumptions in free theories and holographic theories to all orders in 1 /N .

  9. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  10. Modular assembly of a photovoltaic solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Robert M.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.; Graae, Johan E. A.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a modular assembly of a solar energy concentrator having a photovoltaic energy receiver with passive cooling. Solar cell means are fixedly coupled to a radiant energy concentrator. Tension means bias a large area heat sink against the cell thereby allowing the cell to expand or contract with respect to the heat sink due to differential heat expansion.

  11. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  12. Modular calorimeter system for use in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, B.T.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cormell, L.

    1978-10-01

    A modular hadron calorimeter was designed and built for the study of high energy particle interactions which produce particles of high transverse momentum. The energy resolution of this system and the triggering method for selecting the interactions of interest are described

  13. A New Modular Multilevel Converter with Integrated Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    applications. Furthermore, this solution can interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power flow, where both of them can receive or generate excess power to the third source integrated in each converter sub-module. This particularity enables the converter usage as a high voltage UPS system......This paper introduces a new modular converter with integrated energy storage based on the cascaded half-bridge modular multilevel converter with common DC bus. It represents a complete modular solution with power electronics and energy storage building blocks, for medium and high voltage...... in the future HVDC meshed grids. Its functionality and flexibility makes the converter independent on the energy storage unit characteristic. The converter concept with its basic functions and control schemes are described and evaluated in this paper....

  14. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  15. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan

    2011-01-01

    on improved dc bus signaling is proposed for a modular photovoltaic (PV) generation system with battery energy storage elements. In this paper, the modular PV generation system is composed of three modular dc/dc converters for PV arrays, two grid-connected dc/ac converters, and one dc/dc converter for battery......, grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information......Modular generation system, which consists of modular power conditioning converters, is an effective solution to integrate renewable energy sources with conventional utility grid to improve reliability and efficiency, especially for photovoltaic generation. A distributed control strategy based...

  16. Utilizing Mass Customization Methods for Modular Manufacturing System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Jacobsen, Alexia; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Markets today have become dynamic and demand rapid product changes, product variety, and customized products. In order to operate under and taking advantages of such conditions requires, amongst other aspects, manufacturing processes robust to product changes - a contradiction to traditional...... manufacturing systems developed as dedicated engineer-to-order solutions, tailored to production of a specific product or a limited product assortment. In response, modular manufacturing concepts are evolving, which are aimed at possessing the needed responsiveness and aimed at being the manufacturing paradigm...... of Mass Customization (MC). Research focus has been on the basic principles and enabling technologies, while modular architectures and system design have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying selected design theories and methods of MC have been seen. Based on a communality...

  17. Market potential of heat utilization of modular HTR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Akira; Tasaka, Kanji.

    1993-01-01

    HTR is considered to be the most suitable reactor type to use in the field other than power generation. So it is useful to know market potential of this type of reactor in Japan to justify its development. This potential was estimated to be about 400 200MWt modular HTR reactors. This number will be double if the market of hydrogen is developed. (J.P.N.)

  18. Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM Modular Generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, G.

    1994-12-31

    Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM modular generator sets are outlined. The following topics are discussed: GE LM gas turbine history, operating experience, maintenance, gas turbine spare engines, modular gas turbine generator sets, typical LM2500 cogeneration plant and STIG cycle plant, factory packaging concept, gas turbine/generator package, performance, comparison, competitive capital cost, phased construction, comparison of revenue requirements, capacity evaluation, heat rate evaluation, fuel evaluation, startup, and dispatch flexibility without maintenance penalty.

  19. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  20. Modular, scalable EV powertrains for mobile energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, L. [Rapid Electric Vehicles Technologies, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Rapid Electric Vehicles (REV) develops powertrains and control systems for 100 percent electric bi-directional charging ancillary power vehicles (APVs). APV fleet vehicles are used for the purpose of mobile energy storage and are necessary for scaling energy and power according to customer demand. REV is currently using OEM frames and bodies. This presentation discussed REV's OEM strategy and its progression towards advanced APVs. The product development timeline for front wheel drive systems was also presented. Several products were also discussed, including a modular all-electric front wheel drive; an ACX2.0 to Burlington Hydro; testing of ACX2.5 systems, vehicles near completion; and a V2x demonstration. The presentation discussed each of these products in detail. Other topics that were presented included modular solutions; strategic partnerships; electric vehicle performance and requirements; and an ACX-3 drive system study. tabs., figs.

  1. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  2. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  3. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  4. U.S. Department of Energy instrumentation and controls technology research for advanced small modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD and D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors. (author)

  5. Social cost considerations and legal constraints in implementing modular integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lede, N. W.; Dixon, H. W.; King, O.; Hill, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Social costs associated with the design, demonstration, and implementation of the Modular Integrated Utility System are considered including the social climate of communities, leadership patterns, conflicts and cleavages, specific developmental values, MIUS utility goal assessment, and the suitability of certian alternative options for use in a program of implementation. General considerations are discussed in the field of socio-technological planning. These include guidelines for understanding the conflict and diversity; some relevant goal choices and ideas useful to planners of the MIUS facility.

  6. UWTOR-M, a stellarator power reactor utilizing modular coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Van Sciver, S.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    We briefly describe the parametric considerations which led to the UWTOR-M reference design point. The design has 18 twisted coils utilizing a multipolarity of 3, a major radius of 24 m, a coil radius of 4.77 m and a plasma aspect ratio of 14. An assumed β of 5% was used. This configuration leads to a rotational transform on the edge of 1.125 giving favorable plasma physics conditions. The natural stellarator divertor is used for impurity control in conjunction with innovative high performance divertor targets. A unique blanket design is proposed which minimizes tritium inventory in the reactor. Finally, since maintainability is a prime consideration, we describe a scheme for servicing the first wall/blanket and other reactor components

  7. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  9. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  10. Collaborative Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roybal, Adam [Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative, Inc., Hernandez, NM (United States); Bailey, Jr., Richard J. [Northern New Mexico College, Espanola, NM (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In May of 2017, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) through the Applied Engineering Technology Division, Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative Inc. (JMEC), and Northern New Mexico College (NNMC) agreed to enter into a small, joint, non-binding Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) design study related to grid level energy storage to begin a process of collaboration. Los Alamos National Laboratory's mission is to solve national security challenges through scientific excellence. The mission of Northern New Mexico College is to ensure student success by providing access to affordable, community-based learning opportunities that meet the educational, cultural, and economic needs of the region. Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative Inc. is the largest electric co-op in the State of New Mexico providing affordable and reliable electricity to customers in the five counties of Rio Arriba, Santa Fe, San Juan, McKinley and Sandoval.

  11. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  12. Modular battery design for reliable, flexible and multi-technology energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothgang, Susanne; Baumhöfer, Thorsten; Hoek, Hauke van; Lange, Tobias; De Doncker, Rik W.; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Collection of existing battery topologies in electric vehicles. • Analysis of load profiles and the power consumption for electric vehicles. • Composition of battery packs and their passive components. • Modular, hybrid battery architecture with a dc-link. - Abstract: With large scale battery systems being more and more used in demanding applications regarding lifetime, performance and safety, it is of great importance to utilize not only cells with a high cyclic and calendric lifetime but also to optimize the whole system architecture. The aim of this work is therefore, to highlight the benefits of a modular system architecture allowing the use of hybrid battery systems combining high power and high energy cells in a multi-technology system. To achieve an optimized performance, efficiency and lifetime for an electric vehicle the complete drive train topology has to be taken into account instead of optimizing one of the components individually. Consequently, the topic will be analyzed from the system’s point of view, addressing in particular the modularization of the battery as well as the power electronics needed to do so. It will be shown that a highly flexible battery system can be realized by dc-to-dc converters between a modular, hybrid battery system and the drive inverter. By the dc-to-dc converters the battery output voltages and the inverter input voltages are decoupled. Hence, the battery’s topology can be chosen unrestrictedly within a wide range and easily be interconnected to a common dc-link of a different voltage. The benefits of this flexibility will be analyzed in detail showing especially how the lifetime of the battery system can be improved and the impact on system weight

  13. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  14. New Energy Utility Business Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently a lot of big changes happened in the power sector: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are quickly progressing, distributed or decentralised generation of electricity is expanding, climate change requires reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and price volatility and incertitude of fossil fuel supply is common. Those changes have led to obsolescence of vertically integrated business models which have dominated in energy utility organisations for a hundred years and new business models are being introduced. Those models take into account current changes in the power sector and enable a wider application of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially for consumers, with the decentralisation of electricity generation and complying with the requirements of climate and environment preservation. New business models also solve the questions of financial compensations for utilities because of the reduction of centralised energy generation while contributing to local development and employment.(author).

  15. Simulation of value stream mapping and discrete optimization of energy consumption in modular construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Mukul

    With the increased practice of modularization and prefabrication, the construction industry gained the benefits of quality management, improved completion time, reduced site disruption and vehicular traffic, and improved overall safety and security. Whereas industrialized construction methods, such as modular and manufactured buildings, have evolved over decades, core techniques used in prefabrication plants vary only slightly from those employed in traditional site-built construction. With a focus on energy and cost efficient modular construction, this research presents the development of a simulation, measurement and optimization system for energy consumption in the manufacturing process of modular construction. The system is based on Lean Six Sigma principles and loosely coupled system operation to identify the non-value adding tasks and possible causes of low energy efficiency. The proposed system will also include visualization functions for demonstration of energy consumption in modular construction. The benefits of implementing this system include a reduction in the energy consumption in production cost, decrease of energy cost in the production of lean-modular construction, and increase profit. In addition, the visualization functions will provide detailed information about energy efficiency and operation flexibility in modular construction. A case study is presented to validate the reliability of the system.

  16. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  17. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  18. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  19. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  20. Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system - 15110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldon, L.; Liu, L.; Sabharwall, P.; Rabiti, C.; Bragg-Sitton, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the inherent value of energy in a thermal system, it is necessary to understand both the quantity and quality of energy available or the exergy. We study the case where nuclear energy through a small modular reactor (SMR) is supplementing the available wind energy through storage to meet the needs of the electrical grid. Nuclear power is also being used for the production of hydrogen via high temperature steam electrolysis. For a SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost. This paper aims to explore the use of exergy analysis methods to estimate and optimize SMR resources and costs for individual subsystems, based on thermodynamic principles-resource utilization and efficiency. The paper will present background information on exergy theory; identify the core subsystems in an SMR plant coupled with storage systems in support of renewable energy and hydrogen production; perform a thermodynamic exergy analysis; determine the cost allocation among these subsystems; and calculate unit 'exergetic' costs, unit 'exergo-economic' costs, and first and second law efficiencies. Exergetic and 'exergo-economic' costs ultimately determine how individual subsystems contribute to overall profitability and how efficiencies and consumption may be optimized to improve profitability, making SMRs more competitive with other generation technologies

  1. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  2. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  3. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  4. Utility/user requirements for the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, V.S.; Kendall, J.M.; Gotschall, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) in developing Utility/User Requirements for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). As representatives of the Utility/User industry, it is GCRA's goal that the MHTGR concept be established as an attractive nuclear option offering competitive economics and limited ownership risks. Commercially deployed MHTGR systems should then compete favorably in a mixed-fuel economy with options using fossil, other nuclear and other non-fossil sources. To achieve this goal, the design of the MHTGR plant must address the problems experienced by the U.S. industrial infrastructure during deployment of the first generation of nuclear plants. Indeed, it is GCRA's intent to utilize the characteristics of MHTGR technology for the development of a nuclear alternative that poses regulatory, financial and operational demands on the Owner/Operator that are, in aggregate, comparable to those encountered with non-nuclear options. The dominant risks faced by U.S. Utilities with current nuclear plants derive from their operational complexity and the degree of regulatory involvement in virtually all aspects of utility operations. The MHTGR approach of using ceramic fuel coatings to contain fission products provides the technical basis for simplification of the plant and stabilization of licensing requirements and thus the opportunity for reducing the risks of nuclear plant ownership. The paper describes the rationale for the selection of key requirements for public safety, plant size and performance, operations and maintenance, investment protection, economics and siting in the context of a risk management philosophy. It also describes the ongoing participation of the Utility/User in interpreting requirements, conducting program and design reviews and establishing priorities from the Owner/Operator perspective. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  5. The design status of the United States Department of Energy modular high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Raymond R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is being designed using a systems engineering approach referred to as the integrated approach. The top level requirement for the plant is that it provides safe, reliable, economical energy. The safety requirements are established by the U.S. Licensing Authorities, principally the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The reliability and economic requirements associated with the top level functions have been established in close coordination and cooperation with the electrical utilities and other potential users, and the nuclear supply industry. The integrated approach uses functional analysis to define the functions and sub-functions for the plant and to identify quantitatively how the various functions must be fulfilled. The top four functions associated with the MHTGR are: maintain safe plant operation; maintain plant protection; maintain control of radionuclide release; maintain emergency preparedness. In addition to meeting all U.S. Regulatory Requirements this advanced reactor concept is being designed to meet the following requirements: do not require sheltering or evacuating of anyone outside the plant boundary of 425 meters as a result of normal or abnormal plant operation; do not require operator action in order to accomplish the above sheltering and evacuation objectives and the design must be insensitive to operator errors; utilize inherent characteristics of materials to develop passive safety features; provide very long times for corrective actions following the initiation of an abnormal event before plant damage would be incurred

  6. Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Meiling; Chekan, Jonathan R.; Dodd, Dylan; Hong, Pei-Ying; Radlinsk, Lauren; Revindran, Vanessa; Nair, Satish K.; Mackie, Roderick Ian; Cann, Isaac Ko O

    2014-01-01

    highly induced carbohydrate active genes encode a unique glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanase (BiXyn10A or BACINT-04215 and BACOVA-04390) that is highly conserved in the Bacteroidetes xylan utilization system. The BiXyn10A modular architecture

  7. Modular-multiplex or single large power plants-advantages and disadvantages for utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endicott, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of growing interest in the fusion community is what size and type configuration fusion reactor(s) will lead to the most economical and attractive fusion power plant? There are two sides to this question. One involves how to build the most economical and attractive fusion reactor. This question which requires evaluation of reactor components within the reactor system is being examined at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and elsewhere. The other side involves examining the issues associated with the most economical size and configuration reactor to use. This question requires the evaluation of the changes in cost of service due to different size and configuration reactors on a utility system. The authors objective was to explore the advantages and disadvantages of using modular-multiplex power plants and to illustrate a means of quantifying the tradeoffs. The effort resulted in the identification of the key parameters involved in selecting the optimum size plant for a utility system and a better understanding of the tradeoffs that are possible. This paper discusses this effort in detail

  8. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  9. Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}) - advanced small modular reactor for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, T.; Schleicher, R.; Choi, H.; Rawls, J., E-mail: timothy.bertch@ga.com [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In order to provide cost effective nuclear energy in other than large reactor, large grid applications, fission technology needs to make further advances. 'Convert and burn' fast reactors offer long life cores, improved fuel utilization, reduced waste and other benefits while achieving cost effective energy production in a smaller reactor. General Atomics' Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}), a helium-cooled compact fast reactor that augments its fissile fuel load with either depleted uranium (DU) or used nuclear fuel (UNF). The convert and burn in-situ provides 250 MWe with a 30 year core life. High temperature provides a simple, high efficiency direct cycle gas turbine which along with modular construction, fewer systems, road shipment and minimum on site construction support cost effectiveness. Additional advantages in fuel cycle, non-proliferation and siting flexibility and its ability to meet all safety requirements make for an attractive power source, especially in remote and small grid regions. (author)

  10. Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldon Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs provide a unique opportunity for future nuclear development with reduced financial risks, allowing the United States to meet growing energy demands through safe, reliable, clean air electricity generation while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the reliance on unstable fossil fuel prices. A nuclear power plant is comprised of several complex subsystems which utilize materials from other subsystems and their surroundings. The economic utility of resources, or thermoeconomics, is extremely difficult to analyze, particularly when trying to optimize resources and costs among individual subsystems and determine prices for products. Economics and thermodynamics cannot provide this information individually. Thermoeconomics, however, provides a method of coupling the quality of energy available based on exergy and the value of this available energy – “exergetic costs”. For an SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost, such as air input to a boiler. The economic environment includes market influences and prices in addition to installation, operation, and maintenance costs required for production to occur. The exergetic cost or the required exergy for production may be determined by analyzing the physical environment alone. However, to optimize the system economics, this environment must be coupled with the economic environment. A balance exists between enhancing systems to improve efficiency and optimizing costs. Prior research into SMR thermodynamics has not detailed methods on improving exergetic costs for an SMR coupled with storage technologies and renewable energy such as wind or solar in a hybrid energy system. This process requires balancing technological efficiencies and

  11. Experience in the modular teaching of the integrated course of metabolism and energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian HUANG; Qian LI; Xue-mei TONG; Rong YANG; Ping ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of eight-year clinical medicine program of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine was reformed since 2009 to replace the traditional teaching model with modular teaching. As one of reformed courses,the metabolism and energy course combines biochemistry and physiology related knowledge points and endeavors to overcome shortcomings of traditional basic medical knowledge education,such as simple learning contents,isolation between basic medicine and clinical medicine,simple teaching methods of teachers,and passive learning methods of students. After 6 years of teaching practice,the new teaching model has been recognized by both teachers and students and the teaching quality improves comprehensively,but there are still some shortcomings that need to be overcome. This paper summarizes the gain and loss of the modular teaching of integrated course of metabolism and energy,so as to provide reference for extending the reform of modular teaching and further improving the teaching quality.

  12. Perspectives on the U.S. energy situation and the role of the modular HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heins, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Electricity continues to play an increasing role in the US economy. While total energy demand in the US during the 1973 through 1988 period grew by less than 10%, the demand for electricity grew by 50%. During the same period the overall increase in the gross national product was 46%. These figures indicate that the US economy has become more energy efficient, largely through the substitution of electric for nonelectric energy. The gradual completion of the nuclear plants which were ordered by US utilities in the late 1960s and early 1970s has resulted in nuclear energy providing an increasing fraction of the electric demand. During 1988, the 108 power reactors in commercial operation provided almost 20% of the total US electricity generated. Unfortunately, with the hiatus in new nuclear orders, the role of nuclear power has presently peaked. Revival of the industry will be dependent on the success of several initiatives by the industry and the government to alleviate the major risks and the perception of risks which have thwarted nuclear power expansion. The Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) continues to emerge as a leading second generation nuclear system. In addition to the continued development of a reference civilian design and the production reactor application supported by the US Department of Energy, a private sector initiative to investigate building a civilian Lead Plant has been undertaken by a prospective MHTGR vendor team, composed of General Atomics, Bechtel and Siemens/Interatom, and Consumers Power Company along with support from Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates. The initiative will develop an overall Project Plan, including a cost/risk sharing arrangement that will be offered to the government as a basis for mutual project support. The actual construction and operation of such a plant is a crucial step in the full-scale commercial deployment of the MHTGR. (author)

  13. Self-reconfiguration of Modular Underwater Robots using an Energy Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furno, Lidia; Blanke, Mogens; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates self-reconfiguration of a modular robotic system, which consists of a cluster of modular vehicles that can attach to each other by a connection mechanism. Thereby, they can form a desired morphology to meet task specific requirements. Reconfiguration can be needed due to limi...... in morphologies. The properties of the proposed self-reconfiguration algorithm are evaluated through simulations and preliminary model tank experiments. The energy based heuristic for reconfiguration is compared to a traditional solution that minimizes the Euclidean distance....

  14. Traffic-aware energy saving scheme with modularization supporting in TWDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yu; Sun, Peng; Liu, Chuanbo; Guan, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) is considered to be a primary solution for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2). Due to the feature of multi-wavelength transmission of TWDM-PON, some of the transmitters/receivers at the optical line terminal (OLT) could be shut down to reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, a novel scheme called traffic-aware energy saving scheme with modularization supporting is proposed. Through establishing the modular energy consumption model of OLT, the wavelength transmitters/receivers at OLT could be switched on or shut down adaptively depending on sensing the status of network traffic load, thus the energy consumption of OLT will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, exploring the technology of optical network unit (ONU) modularization, each module of ONU could be switched to sleep or active mode independently in order to reduce the energy consumption of ONU. Simultaneously, the polling sequence of ONU could be changed dynamically via sensing the packet arrival time. In order to guarantee the delay performance of network traffic, the sub-cycle division strategy is designed to transmit the real-time traffic preferentially. Finally, simulation results verify that the proposed scheme is able to reduce the energy consumption of the network while maintaining the traffic delay performance.

  15. On the modular structure of the genus-one Type II superstring low energy expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Green, Michael B.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The analytic contribution to the low energy expansion of Type II string amplitudes at genus-one is a power series in space-time derivatives with coefficients that are determined by integrals of modular functions over the complex structure modulus of the world-sheet torus. These modular functions are associated with world-sheet vacuum Feynman diagrams and given by multiple sums over the discrete momenta on the torus. In this paper we exhibit exact differential and algebraic relations for a certain infinite class of such modular functions by showing that they satisfy Laplace eigenvalue equations with inhomogeneous terms that are polynomial in non-holomorphic Eisenstein series. Furthermore, we argue that the set of modular functions that contribute to the coefficients of interactions up to order D 10 R 4 are linear sums of functions in this class and quadratic polynomials in Eisenstein series and odd Riemann zeta values. Integration over the complex structure results in coefficients of the low energy expansion that are rational numbers multiplying monomials in odd Riemann zeta values.

  16. On the modular structure of the genus-one Type II superstring low energy expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Green, Michael B. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Vanhove, Pierre [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres,F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-08-11

    The analytic contribution to the low energy expansion of Type II string amplitudes at genus-one is a power series in space-time derivatives with coefficients that are determined by integrals of modular functions over the complex structure modulus of the world-sheet torus. These modular functions are associated with world-sheet vacuum Feynman diagrams and given by multiple sums over the discrete momenta on the torus. In this paper we exhibit exact differential and algebraic relations for a certain infinite class of such modular functions by showing that they satisfy Laplace eigenvalue equations with inhomogeneous terms that are polynomial in non-holomorphic Eisenstein series. Furthermore, we argue that the set of modular functions that contribute to the coefficients of interactions up to order D{sup 10}R{sup 4} are linear sums of functions in this class and quadratic polynomials in Eisenstein series and odd Riemann zeta values. Integration over the complex structure results in coefficients of the low energy expansion that are rational numbers multiplying monomials in odd Riemann zeta values.

  17. Utilization of thorium in a Gas Turbine – Modular Helium Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahin, Hacı Mehmet; Erol, Özgür; Acır, Adem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance parameters for the original fuel in GT-MHR depending on time were found. ► A proper plutonium–thorium mixture ratio was found using the original fuel results. ► Performance comparison of plutonium mixture and original fuel was made. ► Comparison showed that weapons grade plutonium mixture can be used in the reactor. - Abstract: Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is one of the new types of the reactors with high efficiency and increased safety features. The usage of different kinds of fissile material in this reactor can increase the life of it. Weapons-grade plutonium (WGrPu), which can be acquired from the old dismantled nuclear weapons, can be an option in a GT-MHR. In order to increase the sustainability of the WGrPu resources this fuel can be mixed with thorium, which is a fertile material that can be found in the nature and has resources three times more than uranium. In this study, possibility of utilization of the weapons-grade plutonium–thorium mixture was investigated and an optimum mixture ratio was determined. The behavior of this mixture and the original fuel was studied by using MCNP5 1.4, Monteburns 2.0 and Origen 2.2 tools. Calculations showed that, a GT-MHR type reactor, which is using the original TRISO fuel particle mixture of 20% enriched uranium + natural uranium (original fuel) has an effective multiplication factor (k eff ) of 1.270. Corresponding to this k eff value the weapons grade plutonium/thorium oxide mixture was found 19%/81%. By using Monteburns Code, the operation time, which describes the time passed until the reactor reaches a k eff value of 1.02, was found as 515 days for the original fuel and 1175 days for the weapons grade plutonium mixture. Furthermore, the burn-up values for the original fuel and WGrPu fuels were found as 47.69 and 119.27 GWd/MTU, respectively.

  18. The utilization of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    The statistics of the wind energy in the three aerology stations in the Shahbanu Farah Dam region - over a period of eight years - were evaluated and analyzed. The average of maximal velocity calculations indicates a speed of 15 m/s. The yearly physical conversion value of this energy, is 150,000 kW/h which is quite sufficient for a family of five persons. On a larger scale, this power can be used to supply the energy required for the sediment dredging activities of the Shahbanu Farah Dam. (author)

  19. Modular Energy Management System Applicable to Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management system is defined as a flexible architecture. This proposal can be applied to home and residential areas when they include generation units. The system has been integrated and tested in a grid-connected microgrid prototype, where optimal power generation profiles...

  20. Tactical Fuel and Energy Strategy for The Future Modular Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-18

    Environmental Protection Agency ESSP Energy Strategic Security Plan EV Electric Vehicle FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Appendix...1992. Methanol can be used to make methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), oxygenate that is blended with gasoline to enhance octane and create cleaner...Military Occupation Specialty MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether MW Megawatt NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO North

  1. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E. A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  3. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  4. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  5. Sustainable energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.

    1996-12-31

    Finland tops the statistics for the industrialised world in the utilisation of bioenergy. In 1995 bioenergy, including peat-fired heat and power, accounted for 20 % of the total energy consumption. The declared goal of the government is to increase the use of bioenergy by not less than 25 % (1.5 million toe by the year 2005). Research and development plays a crucial role in the promotion of the expanded use of bioenergy in Finland. The aim is to identify and develop technologies for establishing and sustaining economically, environmentally and socially viable bioenergy niches in the energy system

  6. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  7. The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

  8. The role of small modular reactors in enhancing energy security in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, I. N.; Kuznestov, V.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors) to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower capital requirements, SMRs could also effectively address the energy needs of small developing countries with limited financial resources. Although SMRs can have substantially higher specific capital costs as compared to large-scale reactors, they may nevertheless enjoy significant economic benefits due to shorter build times, accelerated learning effects and co-siting economies, temporal and sizing flexibility of deployment, and design simplification. (author)

  9. Modular pump-turbine concept supporting the integration of renewable energy sources in a decentralised grid; Modulare Pumpturbine als Unterstuetzung bei der Einbindung alternativer Energien ins dezentrale Stromnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doujak, Eduard; Unterberger, Philipp; Bauer, Christian [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Energietechnik und Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems in Europe leads to several challenges in the energy market. Energy storage for stable grid operation has become a necessity. Pumped storage is the only technology available today that is able to store large amounts of energy efficiently and with low specific storage costs. The Vienna University of Technology is currently investigating how existing artificial lakes for snow production could be integrated in pumped storage production systems. A new modular pump turbine concept and its application prospects are presented. (orig.)

  10. State-of-Charge Balancing Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter with an Integrated Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of the electric vehicle industry, the reuse of second-life batteries in vehicles are becoming more attractive, however, both the state-of-charge (SOC inconsistency and the capacity inconsistency of second-life batteries have limits in their utilization. This paper focuses on the second-life batteries applied battery energy storage system (BESS based on modular multilevel converter (MMC. By analyzing the power flow characteristics among all sources within the MMC-BESS, a three-level SOC equilibrium control strategy aiming to battery capacity inconsistency is proposed to balance the energy of batteries, which includes SOC balance among three-phase legs, SOC balance between the upper and lower arms of each phase, and SOC balance of submodules within each arm. In battery charging and discharging control, by introducing power regulations based on battery capacity proportion of three-phase legs, capacity deviation between the upper and lower’s arm, and the capacity coefficient of the submodule into the SOC feedback control loop, SOC balance of all battery modules is accomplished, thus effectively improving the energy utilization of second-life battery energy storage system. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods are verified by results obtained from simulations and the experimental platform.

  11. Enabling Technologies for Ultra-Safe and Secure Modular Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Middleton, Bobby [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Carmelo [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Schleicher, Robert [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Atomics are pleased to respond to the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-e)’s request for information on innovative developments that may overcome various current reactor-technology limitations. The RFI is particularly interested in innovations that enable ultra-safe and secure modular nuclear energy systems. Our response addresses the specific features for reactor designs called out in the RFI, including a brief assessment of the current state of the technologies that would enable each feature and the methods by which they could be best incorporated into a reactor design.

  12. Enabling Technologies for Ultra-Safe and Secure Modular Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary E.; Middleton, Bobby; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Schleicher, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Atomics are pleased to respond to the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-e)'s request for information on innovative developments that may overcome various current reactor-technology limitations. The RFI is particularly interested in innovations that enable ultra-safe and secure modular nuclear energy systems. Our response addresses the specific features for reactor designs called out in the RFI, including a brief assessment of the current state of the technologies that would enable each feature and the methods by which they could be best incorporated into a reactor design.

  13. Analysis of China's energy utilization for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Wenwen

    2011-01-01

    China is the world's second-largest energy producer and consumer, so that it is very necessary to analyze China's energy situation for saving energy consumption and reducing GHG emission. Energy flow chart is taken as a useful tool for sorting out and displaying energy statistics data. Energy statistics data is the premise and foundation for analyzing energy situation. However, there exit many differences between China and foreign energy balance. Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. And the purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. We find that: (1) coal is the main energy in China, which accounted for 73.2% of total energy supply in 2007; (2) thermal power accounted for 83.2% of the total electricity supply, and 78.43% thermal power was based on coal; (3) in 2007, the secondary industrial sector consumed about 69.93% of energy; (4) China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007. - Research highlights: → Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. → The purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. → We find that China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007.

  14. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  15. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  16. Modular Hamiltonians for deformed half-spaces and the averaged null energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Thomas; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Wang, Huajia

    2016-09-01

    We study modular Hamiltonians corresponding to the vacuum state for deformed half-spaces in relativistic quantum field theories on {{R}}^{1,d-1} . We show that in addition to the usual boost generator, there is a contribution to the modular Hamiltonian at first order in the shape deformation, proportional to the integral of the null components of the stress tensor along the Rindler horizon. We use this fact along with monotonicity of relative entropy to prove the averaged null energy condition in Minkowski space-time. This subsequently gives a new proof of the Hofman-Maldacena bounds on the parameters appearing in CFT three-point functions. Our main technical advance involves adapting newly developed perturbative methods for calculating entanglement entropy to the problem at hand. These methods were recently used to prove certain results on the shape dependence of entanglement in CFTs and here we generalize these results to excited states and real time dynamics. We also discuss the AdS/CFT counterpart of this result, making connection with the recently proposed gravitational dual for modular Hamiltonians in holographic theories.

  17. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  18. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  19. Modular Hybrid Energy Concept Employing a Novel Control Structure Based on a Simple Analog System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control topology which enables the setup of a low cost analog system leading to the implementation of a modular energy conversion system. The modular concept is based on hybrid renewable energy (solar and wind and uses high voltage inverters already available on the market. An important feature of the proposed topology is a permanently active current loop, which assures short circuit protection and simplifies the control loops compensation. The innovative analogue solution of the control structure is based on a dedicated integrated circuit (IC for power factor correction (PFC circuits, used in a new configuration, to assure an efficient inverter start-up. The energy conversion system (control structure and maximum power point tracking algorithm is simulated using a new macromodel-based concept, which reduces the usual computational burden of the simulator and achieves high processing speed. The proposed novel system is presented in this article from concept, through the design and implementation stages, is verified through simulation and is validated by experimental results.

  20. Geothermal Energy Utilization for the Homeowner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how geothermal energy can be utilized for residential space heating. Background information on the resource introduce this natural source of energy, followed by an explanation of the development of the resource (mainly by drilling wells) and the extraction of the energy. Various types of heat convectors and heat exchangers are described, along with how to estimate energy requirements and the associated costs. Finally, regulations and tax advantages are covered together with additional sources of information and a list of agencies who can provide assistance.

  1. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  2. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In the future energy system a considerable increase in the penetration of renewable energy is expected, challenging the stability of the system, as both production and consumption will have fluctuating patterns. Hence, the concept of energy flexibility will be necessary in order for the consumption...... to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study...... the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...

  3. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  4. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  5. Thermodynamic basis for effective energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J. T.

    1977-10-15

    A major difficulty in a quantitative assessment of effective energy utilization is that energy is always conserved (the First Law of Thermodynamics). However, the Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that, although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be degraded to a state in which it is of no further use for performing tasks. Thus, in considering the present world energy crisis, we are not really concerned with the conservation of energy but with the conservation of its ability to perform useful tasks. A measure of this ability is thermodynamic availability or, a less familiar term, exergy. In a real sense, we are concerned with an entropy-crisis, rather than an energy crisis. Analysis of energy processes on an exergy basis provides significantly different insights into the processes than those obtained from a conventional energy analysis. For example, process steam generation in an industrial boiler may appear quite efficient on the basis of a conventional analysis, but is shown to have very low effective use of energy when analyzed on an exergy basis. Applications of exergy analysis to other systems, such as large fossil and nuclear power stations, are discussed, and the benefits of extraction combined-purpose plants are demonstrated. Other examples of the application of the exergy concept in the industrial and residential energy sectors are also given. The concept is readily adaptable to economic optimization. Examples are given of economic optimization on an availability basis of an industrial heat exchanger and of a combined-purpose nuclear power and heavy-water production plant. Finally, the utility of the concept of exergy in assessing the energy requirements of an industrial society is discussed.

  6. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  7. Thorium resources and energy utilization (14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, thorium reactor has been attracting attention from the viewpoint of safety. Regarding thorium as the resources for nuclear energy, this paper explains its estimated reserves in the whole world and each country, its features such as the situation of utilization, and the reason why it attracts attention now. The following three items are taken up here as the typical issues among the latest topics on thorium: (1) utilization of thorium as a tension easing measure against environmental effects involved in nuclear energy utilization, (2) thorium-based reactor as the next generation type reactor with improved safety, and (3) thorium utilization as the improvement policy of nuclear proliferation resistance. The outline, validity, and problems of these items are explained. Thorium reactor has been adopted as a research theme since the 1950s up to now mainly in the U.S. However, it is not enough in the aspect of technological development and also insufficient in the verification of reliability based on technological demonstration, compared with uranium-fueled light-water reactor. This paper explains these situations, and discusses the points for thorium utilization and future prospects. (A.O.)

  8. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed

  9. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  10. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  11. Design Study of Modular Nuclear Power Plant with Small Long Life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors Utilizing MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Muhammad; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Growing energy needed due to increasing of the world’s population encourages development of technology and science of nuclear power plant in its safety and security. In this research, it will be explained about design study of modular fast reactor with helium gas cooling (GCFR) small long life reactor, which can be operated over 20 years. It had been conducted about neutronic design GCFR with Mixed Oxide (UO2-PuO2) fuel in range of 100-200 MWth NPPs of power and 50-60% of fuel fraction variation with cylindrical pin cell and cylindrical balance of reactor core geometry. Calculation method used SRAC-CITATION code. The obtained results are the effective multiplication factor and density value of core reactor power (with geometry optimalization) to obtain optimum design core reactor power, whereas the obtained of optimum core reactor power is 200 MWth with 55% of fuel fraction and 9-13% of percentages.

  12. Energy capture and storage in asymmetrically multistable modular structures inspired by skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Narayanan; Harne, Ryan L.; Wang, K. W.

    2017-08-01

    The remarkable versatility and adaptability of skeletal muscle that arises from the assembly of its nanoscale cross-bridges into micro-scale assemblies known as sarcomeres provides great inspiration for the development of advanced adaptive structures and material systems. Motivated by the capability of cross-bridges to capture elastic strain energy to improve the energetic efficiency of sudden movements and repeated motions, and by models of cross-bridge power stroke motions and sarcomere contractile behaviors that incorporate asymmetric, bistable potential energy landscapes, this research develops and studies modular mechanical structures that trap and store energy in higher-energy configurations. Modules exhibiting tailorable asymmetric bistability are first designed and fabricated, revealing how geometric parameters influence the asymmetry of the resulting double-well energy landscapes. These experimentally-observed characteristics are then investigated with numerical and analytical methods to characterize the dynamics of asymmetrically bistable modules. The assembly of such modules into greater structures generates complex, multi-well energy landscapes with stable system configurations exhibiting different quantities of stored elastic potential energy. Dynamic analyses illustrate the ability of these structures to capture a portion of the initial kinetic energy due to impulsive excitations as recoverable strain potential energy, and reveal how stiffness parameters, damping, and the presence of thermal noise in micro- and nano-scale applications influence energy capture behaviors. The insights gained could foster the development of advanced structural/material systems inspired by skeletal muscle, including actuators that effectively capture, store, and release energy, as well as adaptive, robust, and reusable armors and protective devices.

  13. Waste utilization in electric energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parate, N.S.; Harris, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electric energy is an integral element of today's economy and the standard quality of life. The availability of energy at an affordable cost has always been of basic concern because of the intimate relationship of energy to our societal development and progress. Coal and Uranium are the primary alternative energy sources for large electric power plants. Coal remains the dominant fuel for electric generation. The pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology has the potential of utilizing all types of coal, including coal with high ash, high sulphur, and high moisture content. Fluidized bed combustion is a firing technique which fulfills today's pollution control requirements without downstream flue gas cleaning plants like scrubbers, baghouses, and precipitators

  14. Utilization of geothermal energy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, V.I.; Dvorov, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present geothermal energy is utilized in the USSR mostly for district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. The populations of 7 towns have district heating that is supplied by thermal waters. The population supplied totals about 125,000 people. The total area of greenhouses is 850,000 m 2 . Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations still remains negligible with the installed capacity of the single Pauzhetka station (Kamchatka) being 11 MW. another station at Mutnovka is currently under construction and is expected to be producing 50 MW by 1992 and 200 MW by 1998. The proven geothermal resources in the USSR provide hope for a significant increase in the utilization of the earth's deep heat in the near future

  15. Energy-, environmental and economic evaluation of energy crops utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary project is prepared in order to clarify the economic possibilities and rentability of energy crops. Examples of energy crop resource potential, environmental and economic consequences are calculated on the basis of existing data. Utilization of annual and perennial crops is evaluated with regard to the usual following of agricultural areas, and to the traditional power generation in a coal-fueled plant. Two technological options are discussed: one based on energy crop fuels supplementing the conventional coal fuel, and the other based on a separate biomass-fueled boiler, connected to the conventional coal-fueled unit. Implementation of the main project,following the preliminary one will permit to estimate the future prospects and strategies of energy crop utilization as a profitable energy resource. (EG)

  16. Indirect thermal control for improved reliability of Modular Multilevel Converter by utilizing circulating current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    semiconductor devices are comprehensively investigated. Also a novel control strategy by utilizing the circulating current is proposed to enhance the reliability performance of MMC in order to limit the amplitude of thermal cycles. It is concluded that the circulating current may change the losses and thermal...

  17. Voltage balancing in modular energy storage of power supply for micro resistance welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhushko Yu. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro resistance welding is one of the most effective ways to obtain permanent joints of metal parts. The quality of welded joints strongly depends on the characteristics of the power supply of welding equipment. The power supplies for micro resistance welding based on Energy Storage topology have a softer impact on the network than the ones based on Direct Energy topology. The use of supercapacitors for Energy Storage type power supplies makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of welding equipment and to improve its technical parameters. However, the feature of the supercapacitors is low value of the nominal voltage, which usually does not exceed 3 V. To provide higher voltage, the modules of supercapacitors connected in series are designed. In order to extend the life time of such modules, a voltage balancing system is required. A circuit for balancing the voltage of a modular supercapacitor energy storage of a power supply for micro resistance welding is proposed. The fragments of calculation of control units of a supercapacitor module cell are given. The simulation of the balancing circuit operation is carried out and time charts of the supercapacitor charge process are obtained. The operability and effectiveness of the proposed solution is confirmed. The advantage of the proposed circuit is the possibility of obtaining the high efficiency because of returning the excessive energy of the module cell back into the power supply.

  18. Modular groups in Cantorian E(∞) high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by the Moebius geometry of quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high-energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, the microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the Charlier-Zeldovich proposal of the fracticality of the universe today and the rather accurate estimate T c =(ln20/ln3)=2.726k. In particular the paper shows the link between the fix points of the modular groups of the vacuum and the golden mean phi=(1/(1+phi))=(Radical radicand 5 -1)/2 of E (∞) spacetime by analytical continuation of a Moebius transformation

  19. Hybrid external fixation in high-energy elbow fractures: a modular system with a promising future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, A; Stahl, S; Stein, H

    2000-12-01

    Severe, high-energy, periarticular elbow injuries producing a "floating joint" are a major surgical challenge. Their reconstruction and rehabilitation are not well documented. Therefore, the following reports our experience with treating such injuries caused by war wounds. Seven adults with compound open peri- and intra-articular elbow fractures were treated in hybrid ring tubular fixation frames. After debridement, bone stabilization, and neurovascular reconstructions, early controlled daily movements were started in the affected joint. These seven patients had together seven humeral, five radial, and six ulnar fractures. All fractures united at a median time of 180 days. No deep infection developed. The functional end results assessed by the Khalfayan functional score were excellent in two, good in one, and fair in four of these severely mangled upper extremities. None was amputated. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score has been shown to be unable to provide a reliable assessment for severe high-energy limb injuries surgically managed with the modular hybrid thin wire tubular external fixation system. This hybrid system is a very useful addition to the surgical armamentarium of orthopedic trauma surgeons. It both allows complex surgical reconstructions and reduces the incidence of deep infections in these heavily contaminated injuries. The hybrid circular (thin wire) external fixation system is very modular and may provide secure skeletal stabilization even in cases of severely comminuted juxta-articular fractures on both sides of the elbow joint (floating elbow) with severe damage to soft tissues. This fixation system allows individual fixation of forearm bone fractures, thus allowing the preservation of pronation-supination movements.

  20. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  2. BizWatts: A modular socio-technical energy management system for empowering commercial building occupants to conserve energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbinas, R.; Jain, R.K.; Taylor, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a socio-technical commercial building energy management system. • It was designed for directly engaging and connecting building occupants via feedback. • We collected an array of clickstream data for internal design validation. • A pilot study validated its ability to drive energy savings in commercial buildings. - Abstract: Commercial buildings represent a significant portion of energy consumption and environmental emissions worldwide. To help mitigate the environmental impact of building operations, building energy management systems and behavior-based campaigns designed to reduce energy consumption are becoming increasingly popular. In this paper, we describe the development of a modular socio-technical energy management system, BizWatts, which combines the two approaches by providing real-time, appliance-level power management and socially contextualized energy consumption feedback. We describe in detail the physical and virtual architecture of the system, which simultaneously engages building occupants and facility managers, as well as the main principles behind the interface design and component functionalities. A discussion about how the data collection capabilities of the system enable insightful commercial building energy efficiency studies and quantitative network analysis is also included. We conclude by commenting on the validation of the system, identifying current system limitations and introducing new research avenues that the development and deployment of BizWatts enables

  3. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Research on Utilization of Geo-Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Michaela; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; GeoEn Working Group

    2013-04-01

    The world's energy demand will increase year by year and we have to search for alternative energy resources. New concepts concerning the energy production from geo-resources have to be provided and developed. The joint project GeoEn combines research on the four core themes geothermal energy, shale gas, CO2 capture and CO2 storage. Sustainable energy production from deep geothermal energy resources is addressed including all processes related to geothermal technologies, from reservoir exploitation to energy conversion in the power plant. The research on the unconventional natural gas resource, shale gas, is focussed on the sedimentological, diagenetic and compositional characteristics of gas shales. Technologies and solutions for the prevention of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide are developed in the research fields CO2 capture technologies, utilization, transport, and CO2 storage. Those four core themes are studied with an integrated approach using the synergy of cross-cutting methodologies. New exploration and reservoir technologies and innovative monitoring methods, e.g. CSMT (controlled-source magnetotellurics) are examined and developed. All disciplines are complemented by numerical simulations of the relevant processes. A particular strength of the project is the availability of large experimental infrastructures where the respective technologies are tested and monitored. These include the power plant Schwarze Pumpe, where the Oxyfuel process is improved, the pilot storage site for CO2 in Ketzin and the geothermal research platform Groß Schönebeck, with two deep wells and an experimental plant overground for research on corrosion. In addition to fundamental research, the acceptance of new technologies, especially in the field of CCS is examined. Another focus addressed is the impact of shale gas production on the environment. A further important goal is the education of young scientists in the new field "geo-energy" to fight skills shortage in this field

  5. Computer simulation of thermal and fluid systems for MIUS integration and subsystems test /MIST/ laboratory. [Modular Integrated Utility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Liu, D. K.; Nunnery, W. J., Jr.; Brandli, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the SINDA (systems improved numerical differencing analyzer) computer program to simulate the operation of the NASA/JSC MIUS integration and subsystems test (MIST) laboratory. The MIST laboratory is designed to test the integration capability of the following subsystems of a modular integrated utility system (MIUS): (1) electric power generation, (2) space heating and cooling, (3) solid waste disposal, (4) potable water supply, and (5) waste water treatment. The SINDA/MIST computer model is designed to simulate the response of these subsystems to externally impressed loads. The computer model determines the amount of recovered waste heat from the prime mover exhaust, water jacket and oil/aftercooler and from the incinerator. This recovered waste heat is used in the model to heat potable water, for space heating, absorption air conditioning, waste water sterilization, and to provide for thermal storage. The details of the thermal and fluid simulation of MIST including the system configuration, modes of operation modeled, SINDA model characteristics and the results of several analyses are described.

  6. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Scaled Facility Design Approach for Pool-Type Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Small Modular Reactor Utilizing Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sangrok; Shin, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In low carbon era, nuclear energy is the most prominent energy source of electricity. For steady ecofriendly nuclear energy supply, Generation IV reactors which are future nuclear reactor require safety, sustainability, economics and non-proliferation as four criteria. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of these reactor type and Generation IV international forum (GIF) adapted three reference LFR systems which are a small and movable systems with long life without refueling, intermediate size and huge electricity generation system for power grid. NUTRECK (Nuclear Transmutation Energy Center of Korea) has been designed reactor called URANUS (Ubiquitous, Rugged, Accident-forgiving, Non-proliferating, and Ultra-lasting Sustainer) which is small modular reactor and using lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. To prove natural circulation capability of URANUS and analyze design based accidents, scaling mock-up experiment facility will be constructed. In this paper, simple specifications of URANUS will be presented. Then based on this feature, scaling law and scaled facility design results are presented. To validate safety feature and thermodynamics characteristic of URANUS, scaled mockup facility of URANUS is designed based on the scaling law. This mockup adapts two area scale factors, core and lower parts of mock-up are scaled for 3D flow experiment. Upper parts are scaled different size to reduce electricity power and LBE tonnage. This hybrid scaling method could distort some thermal-hydraulic parameters, however, key parameters for experiment will be matched for up-scaling. Detailed design of mock-up will be determined through iteration for design optimization.

  8. A modular function architecture for adaptive and predictive energy management in hybrid electric vehicles; Eine modulare Funktionsarchitektur fuer adaptives und vorausschauendes Energiemanagement in Hybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Andreas

    2009-10-27

    Due to the relatively low energy density of electrical energy storage devices, the control strategy of hybrid electric vehicles has to fulfil a variety of requirements in order to provide both, the availability of hybrid functions, and their efficient execution. Energy consuming functions such as electric drive or electric boost need a high amount of energy stored in the battery. On the other hand for the optimum use of the energy regeneration function a lower state of charge is preferable in order to enable storage of the kinetic energy of the vehicle in all situations, including upon deceleration from high speeds or downhill driving. These diverging requirements yield a conflict of objectives for the charging strategy of hybrid electric vehicles. This work proposes a way to overcome the restrictions on efficiency in hybrid electric vehicles without deteriorating overall driving performance by charging or discharging the traction battery, and by setting the energy management parametres according to the current and forthcoming driving situation. Specific charging and electric drive strategies are presented for various driving situations which are identified by sensors such as navigation systems, cameras or radar. Necessary sensor data fusion methods for driving situation identification are described and a modular function architecture for predictive energy management is derived that is plug-and-play compatible with a broad fleet of vehicles. In order to evaluate its potential, this work also focuses on the simulation of the energy functions and their implementation into an experimental vehicle. This allows measurements under real traffic conditions and a sensivity analysis of the main module interactions within the architecture. (orig.)

  9. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1993-01-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economical. In higher latitudes only seasonable use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy was to produce low temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treating of concrete. A substantial part of the solar heating installations is flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 m 2 . The collectors are produced by industry, as well as by small enterprises. In some cases selective coatings are used over the absorber plates; black nickel or chromium is the main coating material. Recently, new projects were launched to develop and produce advanced collectors with enhanced efficiency and reliability. Substantial progress has been made in the USSR in developing and producing photovoltaic cells, mainly for space applications. Terrestrial applications of photovoltaic is only in the very early stage. About 100 Kw of photovoltaic cells are produced annually in the USSR, based on mono or polycrystalline silicon. Some experimental photovoltaic-arrays in the range of several tenth of Kw are installed in different places. Research and development work is carried out to produce thin film cells. Effort are in progress to construct automated production lines for 1 MW per year of crystalline and amorphous silicon. In the Crimea, a solar power plant SES-5 (5 MW peak power) was commissioned some years ago. The plant is of a tower type, with a circular helioscope field. The plants working fluid is steam. The experienced gained demonstrates that this design concept has several disadvantages. The cost of electricity produced by such type plants extremely high. Recently, alternative types of solar power plants have been under development, in particular, a project

  10. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike (Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, Lihu' e, HI); Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce

  11. Aligning Utility Incentives with Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the financial effects on a utility of its spending on energy efficiency programs, how those effects could constitute barriers to more aggressive and sustained utility investment in energy efficiency.

  12. Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Chekan, Jonathan R; Dodd, Dylan; Hong, Pei-Ying; Radlinski, Lauren; Revindran, Vanessa; Nair, Satish K; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2014-09-02

    Enzymes that degrade dietary and host-derived glycans represent the most abundant functional activities encoded by genes unique to the human gut microbiome. However, the biochemical activities of a vast majority of the glycan-degrading enzymes are poorly understood. Here, we use transcriptome sequencing to understand the diversity of genes expressed by the human gut bacteria Bacteroides intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus grown in monoculture with the abundant dietary polysaccharide xylan. The most highly induced carbohydrate active genes encode a unique glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanase (BiXyn10A or BACINT_04215 and BACOVA_04390) that is highly conserved in the Bacteroidetes xylan utilization system. The BiXyn10A modular architecture consists of a GH10 catalytic module disrupted by a 250 amino acid sequence of unknown function. Biochemical analysis of BiXyn10A demonstrated that such insertion sequences encode a new family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that binds to xylose-configured oligosaccharide/polysaccharide ligands, the substrate of the BiXyn10A enzymatic activity. The crystal structures of CBM1 from BiXyn10A (1.8 Å), a cocomplex of BiXyn10A CBM1 with xylohexaose (1.14 Å), and the CBM from its homolog in the Prevotella bryantii B14 Xyn10C (1.68 Å) reveal an unanticipated mode for ligand binding. A minimal enzyme mix, composed of the gene products of four of the most highly up-regulated genes during growth on wheat arabinoxylan, depolymerizes the polysaccharide into its component sugars. The combined biochemical and biophysical studies presented here provide a framework for understanding fiber metabolism by an important group within the commensal bacterial population known to influence human health.

  13. The Modularized Software Package ASKI - Full Waveform Inversion Based on Waveform Sensitivity Kernels Utilizing External Seismic Wave Propagation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at www.rub.de/aski. The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full

  14. Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Meiling

    2014-08-18

    Enzymes that degrade dietary and host-derived glycans represent the most abundant functional activities encoded by genes unique to the human gut microbiome. However, the biochemical activities of a vast majority of the glycan-degrading enzymes are poorly understood. Here, we use transcriptome sequencing to understand the diversity of genes expressed by the human gut bacteria Bacteroides intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus grown in monoculture with the abundant dietary polysaccharide xylan. The most highly induced carbohydrate active genes encode a unique glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanase (BiXyn10A or BACINT-04215 and BACOVA-04390) that is highly conserved in the Bacteroidetes xylan utilization system. The BiXyn10A modular architecture consists of a GH10 catalytic module disrupted by a 250 amino acid sequence of unknown function. Biochemical analysis of BiXyn10A demonstrated that such insertion sequences encode a new family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that binds to xy-lose- configured oligosaccharide/polysaccharide ligands, the substrate of the BiXyn10A enzymatic activity. The crystal structures of CBM1 from BiXyn10A (1.8 Å), a cocomplex of BiXyn10A CBM1 with xylohexaose (1.14 Å), and the CBM fromits homolog in the Prevotella bryantii B 14 Xyn10C (1.68 Å) reveal an unanticipated mode for ligand binding. Aminimal enzyme mix, composed of the gene products of four of the most highly up-regulated genes during growth on wheat arabinoxylan, depolymerizes the polysaccharide into its component sugars. The combined biochemical and biophysical studies presented here provide a framework for understanding fiber metabolism by an important group within the commensal bacterial population known to influence human health.

  15. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna [ed.

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland has been

  16. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  17. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100-140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140-180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.

  18. A Small Modular Reactor Design for Multiple Energy Applications: HTR50S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X.; Tachibana, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Tazawa, Y.; Kunitomi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    HTR50S is a small modular reactor system based on HTGR. It is designed for a triad of applications to be implemented in successive stages. In the first stage, a base plant for heat and power is constructed of the fuel proven in JAEA's 950 .deg. C, 30MWt test reactor HTTR and a conventional steam turbine to minimize development risk. While the outlet temperature is lowered to 750 .deg. C for the steam turbine, thermal power is raised to 50MWt by enabling 40% greater power density in 20% taller core than the HTTR. However the fuel temperature limit and reactor pressure vessel diameter are kept. In second stage, a new fuel that is currently under development at JAEA will allow the core outlet temperature to be raised to 900 .deg. C for the purpose of demonstrating more efficient gas turbine power generation and high temperature heat supply. The third stage adds a demonstration of nuclear-heated hydrogen production by a thermochemical process. A licensing approach to coupling high temperature industrial process to nuclear reactor will be developed. The low initial risk and the high longer-term potential for performance expansion attract development of the HTR50S as a multipurpose industrial or distributed energy source.

  19. Small Modular Reactors: Nuclear Energy Market Potential for Near-term Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Sozoniuk, Vladislav; Rothwell, Geoffrey; ); Cometto, Marco; Paillere, Henri; ); Crozat, Matt; Genoa, Paul; Joon Kim, Tae; McGough, Mike; Ingersoll, Dan; Rickman, Robin; Stout, Dan; Halnon, Greg; Chenais, Jacques; Briffod, Francois-Xavier; Perrier, Sylvain; Shahrokhi, Farshid; Kaufer, Barry; Wasylyk, Andrew; Shropshire, David; ); Danrong, Song; Swinburn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Recent interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) is being driven by a desire to reduce the total capital costs associated with nuclear power plants and to provide power to small grid systems. According to estimates available today, if all the competitive advantages of SMRs were realised, including serial production, optimised supply chains and smaller financing costs, SMRs could be expected to have lower absolute and specific (per-kWe) construction costs than large reactors. Although the economic parameters of SMRs are not yet fully determined, a potential market exists for this technology, particularly in energy mixes with large shares of renewables. This report assesses the size of the market for SMRs that are currently being developed and that have the potential to broaden the ways of deploying nuclear power in different parts of the world. The study focuses on light water SMRs that are expected to be constructed in the coming decades and that strongly rely on serial, factory-based production of reactor modules. In a high-case scenario, up to 21 GWe of SMRs could be added globally by 2035, representing approximately 3% of total installed nuclear capacity. (authors)

  20. The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR), high efficiency, cost competitive, nuclear energy for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgliczynski, J.B.; Silady, F.A.; Neylan, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a small passively safe reactor with key technology developments in the US during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines, large active magnetic bearings, and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. The GT-MHR is the only reactor concept which provides a step increase in economic performance combined with increased safety. This is accomplished through its unique utilization of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity directly with the high temperature helium primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cannot be accomplished with another reactor concept. It retains the high levels of passive safety and the standardized modular design of the steam cycle MHTGR, while showing promise for a significant reduction in power generating costs by increasing plant net efficiency to a remarkable 47%

  1. Final report on the development of a 250-kW modular, factory-assembled battery energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D. [Omnion Power Engineering Corp., East Troy, WI (United States); Nerbun, W. [AC Battery Corp., East Troy, WI (United States); Corey, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1998-08-01

    A power management energy storage system was developed for stationary applications such as peak shaving, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve. Project activities included design, manufacture, factory testing, and field installation. The major features that characterize the development are the modularity of the production, its transportability, the power conversion method that aggregates power on the AC side of the converter, and the use of commonly employed technology for system components. 21 figs.

  2. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  3. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  4. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  5. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  6. Utilizing scalar electromagnetics to tap vacuum energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, F.; Bearden, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on E.T. Whittaker's previously unnoticed 1903-1904 papers which established a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in a standing forcefield free scalar potential, a method of directly engineering the ambient potential of the vacuum has been developed and realized experimentally. Adding Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable theory to classical electromagnetic, quantum mechanics, and general relativity produces supersets of each discipline. These supersets are joined by the common Whittaker subset, producing a unified field theory that is engineerable and tested. By treating the nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, several working model energy units have been produced which excite and organize the local vacuum, increase the local virtual photon flux between local vacuum and nucleus, establish coherent self-oscillations between the local excited vacuum and the affected nuclei, utilized the self-oscillating standing wave for self-pumping of the nuclei/mirrors, introduce a very tiny signal wave to the mirrors, and output into an external load circuit a powerful, amplified, time-reversed phase conjugate replica wave at 60 Hertz frequency and nominal 120 volt sine wave power. Several models have been built, ranging from 6 watts early on to one of 5 kilowatts. Both closed battery-less systems with damped positive feedback and open loop systems with battery-powered input have been successfully built. Open loop power gains of from 5 x 10 4 to 1.5 x 10 6 have been achieved. Antigravity experiments have also been successfully conducted where the weight of the unit was reduced by 90% in controlled experiments, with a signal wave input of 175 microwatts and an output of 1 kilowatt. The basic theory of the device is briefly explained and experimental results presented

  7. Proposal of 'Modular Heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo

    1994-01-01

    A new modular helical system named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  8. Proposal of 'modular heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo.

    1993-11-01

    A new modular helical configuration named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  9. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  10. Economic and financial aspects of geothermal energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazo, F.M.; Datuin, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the historical development of geothermal energy in the Philippines, its present status and future possibilities. It also illustrates the average power generation and utilization from primary energy sources (hydro, oil, coal, and geothermal energy) in the country from 1981 to 1988. A comparison is made between electricity generating costs and results of operations from these power sources, showing that geothermal energy utilization is very competitive. Moreover, it also discusses the economic viability of geothermal energy utilization as a result of separate studies conducted by World Bank and an Italian energy consulting firm

  11. A modular approach to inverse modelling of a district heating facility with seasonal thermal energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tordrup, Karl Woldum; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Nielsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We use a modular approach to develop a TRNSYS model for a district heating facility by applying inverse modelling to one year of operational data for individual components. We assemble the components into a single TRNSYS model for the full system using the accumulation tanks as a central hub conn...

  12. Conception for economical energy utilization and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H; Canzler, B

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed to study the factors which determine energy consumption within buildings and how to optimize such energy use. The parameters of the principal energy consumers, i.e., HVAC and lighting systems, were analyzed. Possibilities for obtaining economical energy supplies and for reducing energy consumption were studied with emphasis on adapting the building mechanical equipment and the building design and construction to each other. It was concluded that planning for energy conservation in buildings will decrease the cost of constructing and operating buildings if the architect, building contractor and building operator work together from the initial planning stages.

  13. Villa Design and Solar Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper goes through solar energy and what uses it has. It is also a guide in the choice of solar collectors for the real estate that I have drawn for the thesis work. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy from the Sun's light. Energy can be used to produce both heat and electricity through solar collectors and solar cells. Some of the benefits of solar energy is that it is completely free to extract, environmentally friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Disadvantages are that th...

  14. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed.

  15. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed

  16. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  17. Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, D.; Wolfson, M.

    2001-01-01

    This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects

  18. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  19. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  20. Utility and risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.; Wolters, J.

    1979-09-01

    The present report contains lectures of a seminar that was arranged by the programme group nuclear power and environment of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich . The items were: 1) Do we need nuclear energy. An attempt at a system analytic answer. 2) Energy production by means of nuclear fission. 3) The nuclear power plants. 4) Nuclear energy and radiation hazard. 5) Safety of nuclear power plants. (RW) [de

  1. Public utility service in energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abenante, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under the current legislation, the idea of public utility service is thoroughly expressed and settled within that of public service. Lacking a new definition, not all businesses in the electricity and gas industries are subjected to the authoritative and regulatory opinions of the Authority established by act 481/95 which can only be expressed in matters strictly concerning public services [it

  2. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    presents future work needed to expand the functionality and utility of the modular sensor.

  3. Coupling model of energy consumption with changes in environmental utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongming; Jim, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility changes by a proposed Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model. Based on the dynamic equilibrium of input–output economics theory, it considers three simulation scenarios: fixed-technology, technological-innovation, and green-building effect. It is applied to analyse Hong Kong in 1980–2007. Continual increase in energy consumption with rapid economic growth degraded environmental utility. First, energy consumption at fixed-technology was determined by economic outcome. In 1990, it reached a critical balanced state when energy consumption was 22×10 9 kWh. Before 1990 (x 1 9 kWh), rise in energy consumption improved both economic development and environmental utility. After 1990 (x 1 >22×10 9 kWh), expansion of energy consumption facilitated socio-economic development but suppressed environmental benefits. Second, technological-innovation strongly influenced energy demand and improved environmental benefits. The balanced state remained in 1999 when energy consumption reached 32.33×10 9 kWh. Technological-innovation dampened energy consumption by 12.99%, exceeding the fixed-technology condition. Finally, green buildings reduced energy consumption by an average of 17.5% in 1990–2007. They contributed significantly to energy saving, and buffered temperature fluctuations between external and internal environment. The case investigations verified the efficiency of the EUEC model, which can effectively evaluate the interplay of energy consumption and environmental quality. - Highlights: ► We explore relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility. ► An Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model is proposed. ► Technological innovation mitigates energy consumption impacts on environmental quality. ► Technological innovation decreases demand of energy consumption more than fixed technology scenario

  4. A Study on promotion of utilizing waste energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae Ho [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The utilization of waste energy occupying over 80% of alternative energy has been an important issue with the trend of large-sized waste incinerator. The object of this study is to seek the methods for the active application of waste energy, which is produced at the process of waste generation and disposal. It is expected to help energy saving, foreign currency saving and prevent environmental pollution by utilizing alternative energy actively. It should have basic information, related information for examining technical feasibility, and feasibility examination of the surroundings for developing the demand place. Moreover, it should enhance the energy saving by recommending use of waste energy with introducing recommendation system of installing waste energy collection system. It should also consider the support of the introduction of waste energy system as well as the aspect of regional energy policy. In addition, the development and distribution of applied technology for waste energy are needed. (author). 36 refs., 4 figs., 77 tabs.

  5. Modeling Chilled-Water Storage System Components for Coupling to a Small Modular Reactor in a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misenheimer, Corey Thomas

    The intermittency of wind and solar power puts strain on electric grids, often forcing carbonbased and nuclear sources of energy to operate in a load-follow mode. Operating nuclear reactors in a load-follow fashion is undesirable due to the associated thermal and mechanical stresses placed on the fuel and other reactor components. Various Thermal Energy Storage (TES) elements and ancillary energy applications can be coupled to nuclear (or renewable) power sources to help absorb grid instabilities caused by daily electric demand changes and renewable intermittency, thereby forming the basis of a candidate Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES). During the warmer months of the year in many parts of the country, facility air-conditioning loads are significant contributors to the increase in the daily peak electric demand. Previous research demonstrated that a stratified chilled-water storage tank can displace peak cooling loads to off-peak hours. Based on these findings, the objective of this work is to evaluate the prospect of using a stratified chilled-water storage tank as a potential TES reservoir for a nuclear reactor in a NHES. This is accomplished by developing time-dependent models of chilled-water system components, including absorption chillers, cooling towers, a storage tank, and facility cooling loads appropriate for a large office space or college campus, as a callable FORTRAN subroutine. The resulting TES model is coupled to a high-fidelity mPower-sized Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Simulator, with the goal of utilizing excess reactor capacity to operate several sizable chillers in order to keep reactor power constant. Chilled-water production via single effect, lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chillers is primarily examined in this study, although the use of electric chillers is briefly explored. Absorption chillers use hot water or low-pressure steam to drive an absorption-refrigeration cycle. The mathematical framework for a high-fidelity dynamic

  6. The strategy of European energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.; Kramer, M.; Sauquet, P.; Sire, D.; Venet, D.; Lenoir, J.

    2007-01-01

    After a relatively quiet period, the concentration movement in the energy sector is growing up again. What will be the limit of this dynamics? What will be tomorrow's European energy actors? Will it be a mix of big groups, medium-size and small companies with a specialized activity like today, or only big groups with multi-energy supply and production activities which will directly supply the end-users? What is the provisions foreseen by such groups to ensure the security of supplies? What are the synergies in terms of size and/or multi-energy offers? Five participants and a journalist have debated these questions at this round table. (J.S.)

  7. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  8. Development of technologies for utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In verifying the effectiveness of the deep geothermal resource exploration technology, development is being carried out on a fracture-type reservoir exploration method. The seismic exploration method investigates detailed structures of underground fracture systems by using seismic waves generated on the ground surface. Verification experiments for fiscal 1994 were carried out by selecting the Kakkonda area in which small fracture networks form reservoir beds. Geothermal resources in deep sections (deeper than 2000 m with temperatures higher than 350{degree}C) are promising in terms of amount of the resources, but anticipated with difficulty in exploration and impediments in drilling. To avoid these risks, studies are being progressed on the availability of resources in deep sections, their utilization possibility, and technologies of effective exploration and drilling. This paper summarizes the results of deep resource investigations during fiscal 1994. It also describes such technological development as hot water utilizing power generation. Development is performed on a binary cycle power generation plant which pumps and utilizes hot water of 150 to 200{degree}C by using a downhole pump. The paper also reports development on element technologies for hot rock power generation systems. It also dwells on development of safe and effective drilling and production technologies for deep geothermal resources.

  9. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  10. Utilization of superconductivity in energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.T.; Mikkonen, R.; Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    The technical potential of high temperature superconductors has been demonstrated in energy power applications. The magnetisation coils of the constructed 1.5 kW synchronous motor are made of bismuth-based material, the efficiency of the motor being 82 %. The same material is utilised in a 5 kJ magnetic energy storage in order to compensate for a short-term loss of power. Fast activation time and high efficiency are the benefits compared to traditional UPS systems. The operation temperature of 20-30 K enables the usage of mechanical cooling which is one major advantage compared to conventional liquid helium cooled systems. (orig.)

  11. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  12. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  13. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  14. Utilization of secondary energy resources of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a heat output of 4200 kW, a working agent R 600, a source of low-potential heat-circulating water: a 460 kW gas engine. The proposed scheme showed high efficiency of power supply of the town in comparison with the gas boiler. Keywords: heat pump; internal combustion engine metallurgical plant; energy efficiency ...

  15. Benefits and applications of modular hydroelectric pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koebbe, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on hydroelectric pumped storage which is the only proven and most efficient technology available for energy storage. It is used by utilities to provide peak and intermediate power and to optimize overall system performance. Because of increased environmental and regulatory constraints, few acceptable sites, long schedules, and huge financial commitments, large conventional pumped storage plants, are now virtually impossible to build. As an alternative, small modular pumped storage, with project sizes ranging from 25 MW to 200 MW, was created to overcome the difficulties of conventional projects. The modular approach involves standardizing the elements of a pumped storage plant by utilizing specialized siting techniques and optimizing design, equipment, and construction. Compared with conventional pumped storage, the modular design can reduce cost and expedite schedule; reduce environmental concerns and permitting obstacles; and expand applications of energy storage on a utility's system

  16. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  17. Modular implicits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present modular implicits, an extension to the OCaml language for ad-hoc polymorphism inspired by Scala implicits and modular type classes. Modular implicits are based on type-directed implicit module parameters, and elaborate straightforwardly into OCaml's first-class functors. Basing the design on OCaml's modules leads to a system that naturally supports many features from other languages with systematic ad-hoc overloading, including inheritance, instance constraints, constructor classes and associated types.

  18. Long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The atomic energy utilization and development in Japan have progressed remarkably, and already nuclear power generation has borne an important part in electric power supply, while radiation has been utilized in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine and so on. Now, atomic energy is indispensable for national life and industrial activity. The former long term plan was decided in September, 1978, and the new long term plan should be established since the situation has changed largely. The energy substituting for petroleum has been demanded, and the expectation to nuclear power generation has heightened because it enables stable and economical power supply. The independently developed technology related to atomic energy must be put in practical use. The peaceful utilization of atomic energy must be promoted, while contributing to the nuclear non-proliferation policy. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan decided the new long term plan to clearly show the outline of the important measures related to atomic energy development and utilization in 10 years hereafter, and the method of its promotion. The basic concept of atomic energy development and utilization, the long term prospect and the concept on the promotion, the method of promoting the development and utilization, and the problems of funds, engineers and location are described. (kako, I.)

  19. Arguments against the utilization of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The attempt is made to treat the subject 'nuclear energy' on a large scale. In this brochure, all important problems can only be discussed quite briefly; a great number of footnotes indicating further literature shall guide the reader to thorough study. The text is supposed to serve as a systematic introduction to the problems as well as for looking up individual partial aspects. A lot of space has been given to the presentation of those aspects that concern the risk of nuclear facilities, and the threat to man and environment by their operation. Moreover, fundamental political, scientific-sociological, economic and other social problems are discussed. The objective of this was to give the reader an idea of the social background before which the controversy about the nuclear energy is taking place today and what factors decide its development. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  1. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  2. Electromagnetic projectile acceleration utilizing distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit equations are derived for an electromagnetic projectile accelerator (railgun) powered by a large number of capacitive discharge circuits distributed along its length. The circuit equations are put into dimensionless form and the parameters governing the solutions derived. After specializing the equations to constant spacing between circuits, the case of lossless rails and negligible drag is analyzed to show that the electrical to kinetic energy transfer efficiency is equal to sigma/2, where sigma = 2mS/Lq 2 0 and m is the projectile mass, S the distance between discharge circuit, Lthe rail inductance per unit length, and q 0 the charge on the first stage capacitor. For sigma = 2 complete transfer of electrical to kinetic energy is predicted while for sigma>2 the projective-discharge circuit system is unstable. Numerical solutions are presented for both lossless rails and for finite rail resistance. When rail resistance is included, >70% transfer is calculated for accelerators of arbitrary length. The problem of projectile startup is considered and a simple modification of the first two stages is described which provides proper startup. Finally, the results of the numerical solutions are applied to a practical railgun design. A research railgun designed for repeated operation at 50 km/sec is described. It would have an overall length of 77 m, an electrical efficiency of 81%, a stored energy per stage of 105 kJ, and a charge transfer of <50 C per stage. A railgun of this design appears to be practicable with current pulsed power technology

  3. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian SMEs industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghandoor, A.; Al Salaymeh, M.; Al-Abdallat, Y.; Al-Rawashdeh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyze the energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian SMEs industries. ► We developed an energy balance for the Jordanian SMEs industries. ► The low efficiencies values suggest that many opportunities for better industrial energy utilizations still exist. - Abstract: This study presents detailed analysis of the energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by considering the flows of energy and exergy through the main end uses in the Jordanian industrial sector. To achieve this purpose, a survey covering 180 facilities was conducted and energy consumption data was gathered to establish detailed end-use balance for the Jordanian industrial sector. The energy end-use balance provides a starting point to estimate the site and embodied energy and exergy efficiencies. The average site energy and exergy efficiencies of the Jordanian SMEs industries sector are estimated as 78.3% and 37.9% respectively, while the embodied energy and exergy efficiencies are estimated as 58.9% and 21.2% respectively. The low efficiencies values suggest that many opportunities for better industrial energy utilizations still exist.

  4. Is increased energy utilization linked to greater cultural complexity? Energy utilization by Australian Aboriginals and traditional swidden agriculturalists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, L. [Expertisecentrum Duurzame Ontwikkeling en Instituut voor Biodiversiteit en Ecosysteem Dynamica ECDO/IBED, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    Theories have been proposed that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity. Indeed, available estimates of per capita non-food energy utilization by hunter - gatherers and by people practising swidden agriculture in wooded areas, focusing on fuel wood use, are roughly 1 - 2 orders of magnitude lower than for industrial societies. The latter are in the range of 0.8 - 3.4 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. However, apart from the use of fuel wood, the former estimates have not included work performed by burning vegetation. Here quantitative estimates are given of recent energy utilization linked to burning biomass by Australian Aboriginals and people practising traditional swidden agriculture. Per capita energy utilization linked to biomass burning by Australian Aboriginals is estimated at 1.6 x 10{sup 6} to 4.0 x 10{sup 7} MJ year{sup -1}. Estimated per capita energy utilization associated with burning biomass in traditional swidden agriculture in the tropical rainforests of Kalimantan and Venezuela, the dry forest of north-eastern Brazil and the miombo woodland of Zambia is in the range of 1.0 x 10{sup 5} to 6.3 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. The values for non-food energy utilization reported here are at variance with theories that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity.

  5. Utilization of solar and nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the world-wide energy supply situation appears to have eased at present, non-fossil primary energy sources and hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier will have to take over a long-term and increasing portion of the energy supply system. The only non-fossil energy sources which are available in relevant quantities, are nuclear energy, solar energy and hydropower. The potential of H 2 for the extensive utilization of solar energy is of particular importance. Status, progress and development potential of the electrolytic H 2 production with photovoltaic generators, solar-thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are studied and discussed. The joint German-Saudi Arabian Research, Development and Demonstration Program HYSOLAR for the solar hydrogen production and utilization is summarized. (orig.)

  6. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a technical handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This technical handbook includes comprehensive discussions on nature and occurrence of the geothermal resource, its development, utilization, economics, financing, and regulation. Information on pricing parameters for the direct use of geothermal energy is included as an appendix. (MRH)

  7. Solar thermal energy utilization: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Bibliographic series, which is periodically updated, cites documents published since 1957 relating to practical thermal utilization of solar energy. Bibliography is indexed by author, corporate source, title, and keywords.

  8. Analysis of energy and utility service demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The collection, analysis, and review of existing data on a community's service requirements are documented. The research focused on the analysis of energy-using activities including both micro activities such as space heating, cooking, lighting, and transportation; and macro activities such as providing shelter, health care, education, etc. The technical report describes the analytical framework developed for community description; describes an indexing system by which a catalog of services can be accessed; illustrates the application of the data to an existing community; and provides ancillary information on data availability. A catalog of data is presented which includes several sets of indices which facilitate access of data using various keys. Abstracts of 48 data sources are analyzed. Each abstract includes a description and evaluation of the data, a sampling of that data, an assessment as to how that data may be applied to other analyses, and a reference where the user can secure additional data. (MCW)

  9. Importance of Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frydryšková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the massive destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the end of Second World War, the atom was generally taken to be the primary symbol of the new era, the so-called ‘atomic age’, a prototypical modern conjuncture forever oscillating between the agonies of mass death and standardized terror, and the euphoria of tremendous economic transformation through the permanent resolution of the ever increasing need for electrical energy at little or no cost. After Hiroshima the symbolic meaning and presence of the atom crossed and recrossed the lines between popular culture, lived experience, political protest, strategic discourse, modern design, industry, medicine, and agriculture, that it truly became ‘atomic age’ whether one was in the US, France, China or anywhere else. 

  10. Thermal energy storage and utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The power output from a nuclear power plant or fossil fuel power plant operating under constant reactor (or furnace) and boiler conditions is varied by regulating the rate of turbine extraction steam and primary high pressure steam used to heat boiler feed water (BFW). During periods of low power demand, excess extraction steam is drawn off to heat excess quantities of boiler feed water. Such boiler feed water can be heated to the maximum extent possible and used to reheat interstage steam before being sent at slightly reduced temperature to the boilers. In this way, maximum use can be made of the thermal energy stored in the low vapor pressure organic material. Alternatively, or simultaneously, the stored hot LVP organic material can be used to raise intermediate pressure steam and this steam can be injected into the steam turbines between appropriate stages or into auxiliary turbines used solely for this purpose

  11. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  12. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lin [Energy Research Institute of the State Planning Commission, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author) 4 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  13. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dai

    1995-01-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author)

  14. Energy Resource Planning. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclescu, T.; Domschke, W.; Bazacliu, G.; Dumbrava, V.

    1996-01-01

    For a thermal power plants system, the primary energy resources cost constitutes a significant percentage of the total system operational cost. Therefore a small percentage saving in primary energy resource allocation cost for a long term, often turns out to be a significant monetary value. In recent years, with a rapidly changing fuel supply situation, including the impact of energy policies changing, this area has become extremely sensitive. Natural gas availability has been restricted in many areas, coal production and transportation cost have risen while productivity has decreased, oil imports have increased and refinery capacity failed to meet demand. The paper presents a mathematical model and a practical procedure to solve the primary energy resource allocation. The objectives is to minimise the total energy cost over the planning period subject to constraints with regards to primary energy resource, transportation and energy consumption. Various aspects of the proposed approach are discussed, and its application to a power system is illustrated.(author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  15. The modular pebble bed nuclear reactor - the preferred new sustainable energy source for electricity, hydrogen and potable water production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a joint project of Massachusetts Institute of technology, Nu-Tec Inc. and Proto Power. The elegant simplicity of graphite moderated pebble bed reactor is the basis for the 'generation four' nuclear power plants. High Temperature Gas Cooled (HTGC) nuclear power plant have the potential to become the preferred base load sustainable energy source for the new millennium. The great attraction of these helium cooled 'Generation Four' nuclear plant can be summarised as follows: Factory assembly line production; Modularity and ease of delivery to site; High temperature Brayton Cycle ideally suited for cogeneration of electricity, potable water and hydrogen; Capital and operating costs competitive with hydrocarbon plant; Design is inherently meltdown proof and proliferation resistant

  16. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  17. Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Hu Peng; Chen Zeshao; Jia Lei

    2005-01-01

    The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated

  18. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Chinese urban residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Dengjia; Liu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy and exergy use in China’s urban residential sector between 2002 and 2011 are analyzed. • The primary locations and causes of energy and exergy losses in the CURS are identified. • The large gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies great potential for energy saving. • The exergy utilization can be improved by using appropriate technology, management and policy. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy and exergy utilizations in the Chinese urban residential sector (CURS) are analyzed by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 2002 and 2011. The energy and exergy efficiencies of this sector are calculated to examine the potential for advancing the ‘true’ energy efficiency and determine the real energy losses. The results demonstrate large differences between the overall energy efficiencies (62.8–70.2%) and the exergy efficiencies (11.0–12.2%) for the years analyzed. The sizable gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies a high potential for energy savings in the CURS. Future energy saving strategies should pay more attention to the improvement in exergy efficiencies. Moreover, it is found that direct fuel use constituted the primary exergy losses of the CURS; coal-fired boiler heating systems cause approximately 35% of the total exergy losses. Gas stoves, cogeneration systems, coal stoves and gas water heaters constitute 15.3%, 15%, 5.5% and 4.9% of the total exergy losses, respectively

  19. The burnup capabilities of the Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor analyzed by the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Code MCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto E-mail: alby@neutron.kth.se; Gudowski, Waclaw E-mail: wacek@neutron.kth.se; Venneri, Francesco E-mail: venneri@lanl.gov

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the waste actinide burnup capabilities of a Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR, similar to the reactor being designed by General Atomics and Minatom for surplus weapons plutonium destruction) with the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code MCB, an extension of MCNP developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and University of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow. The GT-MHR is a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor, which can be powered with a wide variety of fuels, like thorium, uranium or plutonium. In the present work, the GT-MHR is fueled with the transuranic actinides contained in Light Water Reactors (LWRs) spent fuel for the purpose of destroying them as completely as possible with minimum reliance on multiple reprocessing steps. After uranium extraction from the LWR spent fuel (UREX), the remaining waste actinides, including plutonium are partitioned into two distinct types of fuel for use in the GT-MHR: Driver Fuel (DF) and Transmutation Fuel (TF). The DF supplies the neutrons to maintain the fission chain reaction, whereas the TF emphasizes neutron capture to induce a deep burn transmutation and provide reactivity control by a negative feedback. When used in this mode, the GT-MHR is called Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR). Both fuels are contained in a structure of triple isotropic coated layers, TRISO coating, which has been proven to retain fission products up to 1600 deg. C and is expected to remain intact for hundreds of thousands of years after irradiation. Other benefits of this reactor consist of: a well-developed technology, both for the graphite-moderated core and the TRISO structure, a high energy conversion efficiency (about 50%), well established passive safety mechanism and a competitive cost. The destruction of more than 94% of {sup 239}Pu and the other geologically problematic actinide species makes this reactor a valid proposal for the reduction of nuclear waste and the prevention of

  20. The burnup capabilities of the Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor analyzed by the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Code MCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gudowski, Waclaw; Venneri, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the waste actinide burnup capabilities of a Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR, similar to the reactor being designed by General Atomics and Minatom for surplus weapons plutonium destruction) with the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code MCB, an extension of MCNP developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and University of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow. The GT-MHR is a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor, which can be powered with a wide variety of fuels, like thorium, uranium or plutonium. In the present work, the GT-MHR is fueled with the transuranic actinides contained in Light Water Reactors (LWRs) spent fuel for the purpose of destroying them as completely as possible with minimum reliance on multiple reprocessing steps. After uranium extraction from the LWR spent fuel (UREX), the remaining waste actinides, including plutonium are partitioned into two distinct types of fuel for use in the GT-MHR: Driver Fuel (DF) and Transmutation Fuel (TF). The DF supplies the neutrons to maintain the fission chain reaction, whereas the TF emphasizes neutron capture to induce a deep burn transmutation and provide reactivity control by a negative feedback. When used in this mode, the GT-MHR is called Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR). Both fuels are contained in a structure of triple isotropic coated layers, TRISO coating, which has been proven to retain fission products up to 1600 deg. C and is expected to remain intact for hundreds of thousands of years after irradiation. Other benefits of this reactor consist of: a well-developed technology, both for the graphite-moderated core and the TRISO structure, a high energy conversion efficiency (about 50%), well established passive safety mechanism and a competitive cost. The destruction of more than 94% of 239 Pu and the other geologically problematic actinide species makes this reactor a valid proposal for the reduction of nuclear waste and the prevention of

  1. Wind energy in Denmark and within the Elsam utility area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, P.; Grauballe, J.

    1995-01-01

    At the turn of 1994, 3,700 wind turbines, with a total installed capacity of 540 MW were connected to the Danish utility grid. In 1994 these turbines fed 1,118 GWh wind energy into the grid, corresponding to approximately 3.3% of the total electricity consumption. The ELSAM utility area supplies the electric energy consumed by half the Danish population. The area has a large wind energy potential and approx. 75% of the installed wind energy capacity in Denmark is situated here accounting for 400 MW. In 1994 the ELSAM utilities supplied a total of 18,450 GWh with wind power contributing 850 GWh, i.e. 4.6% of the ELSAM sales to the consumers. (Author)

  2. Development and utilization of new energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Shiyuan (Academia Sinica, Beijing (CN). Energy Research Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Since the foundation of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Government has paid great attention to the development and utilization of new energy resources. Besides the development of biomass gas to provide energy for daily life in rural areas, China has also done much research and development in solar, wind, geothermal and marine energy to substitute alternative energy supplies, especially in the remote regions. Although China has abundant conventional energy resources the average energy resource per capita is low due to the large population. In recent years, the gap between energy consumption and supply has become larger and China will have to develop actively new energy industries at the same time as developing conventional energy. (author).

  3. Prospect of small modular reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huailin; Zhu Qingyuan; Wang Suli; Xia Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Small modular reactor has the advantages of modular construction, enhanced safety/robustness from simplified designs, better ecomonic, clean and carbon free, compatible with the needs of smaller utilities and diversified application. In this paper, the prospect of small modular reactor is discussed from technology development status, constraints, economic. (authors)

  4. Modular entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  5. Measures for carbon dioxide problem and utilization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Toshinori

    1992-01-01

    As global environment problems, there are water, expansion of deserts, weather, tropical forests, wild animals, ocean pollution, nuclear waste contamination, acid rain, ozone layer and so on, and population, foods, energy, and resources are the problems surrounding them. It is clear that these origins are attributed to the development and consumption largely dependent on the intention of developed countries and the population problem of developing countries. In this report, the discharge of carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect and its relation with energy are discussed. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration, its release from fossil fuel, the destruction of forests, the balance of carbon on the earth, the development of new energy such as solar energy, the transport of new energy, secondary energy system and the role of carbon dioxide, the transfer to low carbon fuel and the carbon reduction treatment of fuel, the utilization of unused energy and energy price, the efficiency of energy utilization, the heightening of efficiency of energy conversion, energy conservation and the breakaway from energy wasteful use culture, and the recovery, preservation and use of discharged carbon dioxide are described. (K.I.)

  6. ASKI: A modular toolbox for scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion and sensitivity analysis utilizing external forward codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing computational resources, the development of new numerically demanding methods and software for imaging Earth’s interior remains of high interest in Earth sciences. Here, we give a description from a user’s and programmer’s perspective of the highly modular, flexible and extendable software package ASKI–Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion–recently developed for iterative scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion. In ASKI, the three fundamental steps of solving the seismic forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update are solved by independent software programs that interact via file output/input only. Furthermore, the spatial discretizations of the model space used for solving the seismic forward problem and for deriving model updates, respectively, are kept completely independent. For this reason, ASKI does not contain a specific forward solver but instead provides a general interface to established community wave propagation codes. Moreover, the third fundamental step of deriving a model update can be repeated at relatively low costs applying different kinds of model regularization or re-selecting/weighting the inverted dataset without need to re-solve the forward problem or re-compute the kernels. Additionally, ASKI offers the user sensitivity and resolution analysis tools based on the full sensitivity matrix and allows to compose customized workflows in a consistent computational environment. ASKI is written in modern Fortran and Python, it is well documented and freely available under terms of the GNU General Public License (http://www.rub.de/aski.

  7. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory ini...... legal design and the problems that it causes for the water utilities that want to be resource–efficient and have a low–carbon footprint.......This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory...... initiatives are shortly described. One of the solutions needed is a reduction of energy use in the water utilities by their utilisation of renewable sources – acting as energy–smart water utilities. Such utilities are described in section 3. The policy and law regulating the water utilities are important...

  8. A multivariate-utility approach for selection of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S; Husseiny, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    A deterministic approach is devised to compare the safety features of various energy sources. The approach is based on multiattribute utility theory. The method is used in evaluating the safety aspects of alternative energy sources used for the production of electrical energy. Four alternative energy sources are chosen which could be considered for the production of electricity to meet the national energy demand. These are nuclear, coal, solar, and geothermal energy. For simplicity, a total electrical system is considered in each case. A computer code is developed to evaluate the overall utility function for each alternative from the utility patterns corresponding to 23 energy attributes, mostly related to safety. The model can accommodate other attributes assuming that these are independent. The technique is kept flexible so that virtually any decision problem with various attributes can be attacked and optimal decisions can be reached. The selected data resulted in preference of geothermal and nuclear energy over other sources, and the method is found viable in making decisions on energy uses based on quantified and subjective attributes. (author)

  9. Business model innovation for sustainable energy: German utilities and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The electric power sector stands at the beginning of a fundamental transformation process towards a more sustainable production based on renewable energies. Consequently, electric utilities as incumbent actors face a massive challenge to find new ways of creating, delivering, and capturing value from renewable energy technologies. This study investigates utilities' business models for renewable energies by analyzing two generic business models based on a series of in-depth interviews with German utility managers. It is found that utilities have developed viable business models for large-scale utility-side renewable energy generation. At the same time, utilities lack adequate business models to commercialize small-scale customer-side renewable energy technologies. By combining the business model concept with innovation and organization theory practical recommendations for utility mangers and policy makers are derived. - Highlights: • The energy transition creates a fundamental business model challenge for utilities. • German utilities succeed in large-scale and fail in small-scale renewable generation. • Experiences from other industries are available to inform utility managers. • Business model innovation capabilities will be crucial to master the energy transition

  10. Adaptable Energy Systems Integration by Modular, Standardized and Scalable System Architectures: Necessities and Prospects of Any Time Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Hinker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion and distribution of heat and electricity is characterized by long planning horizons, investment periods and depreciation times, and it is thus difficult to plan and tell the technology that optimally fits for decades. Uncertainties include future energy prices, applicable subsidies, regulation, and even the evolution of market designs. To achieve higher adaptability to arbitrary transition paths, a technical concept based on integrated energy systems is envisioned and described. The problem of intermediate steps of evolution is tackled by introducing a novel paradigm in urban infrastructure design. It builds on standardization, modularization and economies of scale for underlying conversion units. Building on conceptual arguments for such a platform, it is then argued how actors like (among others municipalities and district heating system operators can use this as a practical starting point for a manageable and smooth transition towards more environmental friendly supply technologies, and to commit to their own pace of transition (bearable investment/risk. Merits are not only supported by technical arguments but also by strategical and societal prospects like technology neutrality and availability of real options.

  11. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  12. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  13. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  14. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L (Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR); Sifford, Alex (Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  15. Geothermal energy utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L.; Sifford, Alex; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  16. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  18. 77 FR 28861 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, Small Modular Reactor Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ...: Renee Stone, Deputy Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... Renee Stone, U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585, or by email to: [email protected] . Dated: Issued in Washington, DC, on May 10, 2012. LaTanya R. Butler...

  19. Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

    Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

  20. Renewable energy utilization in 3 european cities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Energy production based on fossil fuels produces CO2, SO2 and NOx, which are harmful to the environment. It is agreed, both nationally and internationally, that it is necessary to considerably reduce the energy consumption. The difference between different European countries politically, financially, culturally, and socially needs to be acknowledged when energy initiatives are considered for implementation on a local as well as an international scale. This was the basis for the initiation of the project `Renewable Energy Utilization in 3 European Cities`. Three very different cities with different problems and thus different interests got together and joined efforts to develop action plans to increase renewable energy use to reduce the burden on the environment from energy consumption in the urban and regional areas. The work has been undertaken by the working group presented in appendix 3. (EG) ALTENER. 25 refs.

  1. Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves. P.T.C. Johnson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  2. View of atomic energy utilization in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke

    1998-01-01

    In five years from 1991 to 1996, the energy consumption in the world increased by the yearly rate of 1.5%, and in 1996, it reached about 8.4 billion t in terms of petroleum. The proportion that nuclear energy takes in it was 7.4%, following 39% of petroleum, 27% of coal and 24% of natural gas. In electric power generation field, nuclear power took 17% in the whole world, and 30% in Japan in 1995. As of the end of 1996, the nuclear power generation facilities in the world were 434 plants of 365 GWe output, and 51 plants of 43 GWe output were in operation in Japan. As the technologies of utilizing nuclear energy, there are the utilization of nuclear fission reaction, nuclear fusion reaction and radio-isotopes. In this report, the utilization of nuclear fission reaction is taken up. Pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, heavy water (CANDU) reactor and gas-cooled reactor, and nuclear fuel cycle are briefly explained. As for the performance of nuclear power generation, safety, reliability and economical efficiency are reported. The factors which exert effects to the development of nuclear energy utilization are the acceptance by public, economical efficiency and environmental problems. The range of possible installation capacity and the subjects for hereafter are described. (K.I.)

  3. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  4. Fusion--fission energy systems, some utility perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, R.A.; Burger, J.M.; Lotker, M.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the issues that are important in assessing fusion-- fission energy systems from a utility perspective are discussed. A number of qualitative systems-oriented observations are given along with some economic quantification of the benefits from fusion--fission hybrids and their allowed capital cost. (U.S.)

  5. 1989 basic plan for atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A Basic Plan for Atomic Energy Development and Utilization has been established each year based on the guidelines set up by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, with the aim of promoting the development and utilization of atomic energy schematically and efficiently. The Basic Plan shows specific projects to achieve the objectives specified in the Long-Range Plan for Atomic Energy Development and Utilization. The Basic Plan specifies efforts to be made for overall strengthening of safety measures (safety policies, safety research, disaster prevention, etc.), promotion of nuclear power generation, establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle (securing of uranium, technology for uranium enrichment, reprocessing, etc.), development of new types of power reactors (fast breeder reactor, new types of converter reactors, plutonium fuel processing technology), promotion of leading projects (nuclear fusion, utilization of radiations, atomic powered ships, high-temperature engineering tests), promotion of basic technology development (basic research, training of scientists and engineers), voluntary and active international activities (international cooperation), and acquisition of understanding and cooperation of the general public. (N,K.)

  6. The elastic free energy of a tandem modular protein under force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Eckels, Edward C; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Fernandez, Julio M

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have provided a theoretical framework for including entropic elasticity in the free energy landscape of proteins under mechanical force. Accounting for entropic elasticity using polymer physics models has helped explain the hopping behavior seen in single molecule experiments in the low force regime. Here, we expand on the construction of the free energy of a single protein domain under force proposed by Berkovich et al. to provide a free energy landscape for N tandem domains along a continuous polypeptide. Calculation of the free energy of individual domains followed by their concatenation provides a continuous free energy landscape whose curvature is dominated by the worm-like chain at forces below 20 pN. We have validated our free energy model using Brownian dynamics and reproduce key features of protein folding. This free energy model can predict the effects of changes in the elastic properties of a multidomain protein as a consequence of biological modifications such as phosphorylation or the formation of disulfide bonds. This work lays the foundations for the modeling of tissue elasticity, which is largely determined by the properties of tandem polyproteins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  8. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  9. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  10. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  11. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-07-06

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes.

  13. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1 the operational medium access control (O-MAC hybrid protocol and (2 the pheromone termite (PT model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1 determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2 pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10 that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes.

  14. Solutions for modular structure more energy efficiency; Baukasten-Loesungen fuer mehr Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, I.

    2008-06-15

    Presented is a customer oriented tool of electric motors with energy optimized solutions, and applicated in production fields like food-and beverage industry. It's a mechatronic drive system Movigear which unifies motor, gear and electronics in one device. (GL)

  15. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  16. Studies on a modular high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyto, D.

    1994-04-01

    Aim of the present thesis is the optimization of components for the construction of a high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI for the detection of the neutral pseudoscalar mesons π 0 , η, and η' at COSY. These mesons are distinguished by their decay into two γ quanta and can therefore be detected by means of a photon spectrometer. A concept of a 2-arm shower counter of pure CsI is presented. Conclusions on the energy resolution of such a calorimeter shall yield a test module, which is constructed of 5.5 CsI(pure) pyramide trunk, each of which possesses a length of 30 cm and an angular acceptance of 6 .6 . The geometry of the moduls is formed in such a way that its extension to a 2-arm shower counter is possible at any time. Hitherto 14 by teflon foils wrapped up crystals for the test module were tested. Their energy resolution varies at 0.66 MeV between 20 and 25 % FWHM. Furthermore a method was found, which allows to trim the position dependence to the required values. So for the position dependence of a crystal even a value of 1.1 % could be reached. The energy resolution amounted thereby to 22 % FWHM. A measurement of the energy resolution with 20 MeV protons yielded a value of 7 %. For the energy calibration of the single detector elements in a dynamic range between 1 MeV and 12 GeV with low-energy γ sources the charge response function of the photoelectron multiplier to be applied in the test module was determined in dependence on the light intensity. The measurement resulted that the photomultiplier at 40 MeV (related to a CsI(pure) reference crystal with an about twofold so high efficiency of the detectable light in comparison to the long pyramide trunks) deviates by 4 % and at 300 MeV by 38 % from the linear behaviour, while it at 500 MeV shows a deviation of 50 %

  17. Microalgal cultivation and utilization in sustainable energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakaniemi, A.-M.

    2012-07-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel and bioenergy production due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates and no need for external organic carbon supply. However, microalgal biomass cultivation for energy production purposes is still rare in commercial scale. Further research and development is needed to make microalgal derived energy sustainable and economically competitive. This work investigated cultivation of fresh water microalga Chlorella vulgaris and marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta and their utilization in production of hydrogen, methane, electricity, butanol and bio-oil after bulk harvesting the biomass. Growth of the two microalgae was studied in five different photobioreactor (PBR) configurations especially concentrating on the quantification and characterization of heterotrophic bacteria in non-axenic microalgal cultivations and microalgal utilization of different nitrogen sources. Anaerobic cultures used for the energy conversion processes were enriched from a mesophilic municipal sewage digester separately for production of H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and electricity from the two microalgal species. After culture enrichment, energy conversion yields of microalgal biomass to the different energy carriers were compared. In summary, this study demonstrated that both C. vulgaris and D. tertiolecta can be used for production of Hv(2), CHv(4), electricity, butanol and lipids. Based on this study C. vulgaris is more suitable for bioenergy production than D. tertiolecta. Depending on cellular lipid content, lipid utilization for bio-oil production and anaerobic digestion were the most potent means of converting C. vulgaris biomass to energy. The study also revealed diverse microbial communities in non-axenic microalgal photobioreactor cultures and in anaerobic consortia converting microalgal biomass to energy carriers

  18. Modularizing development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    a deeper and wider understanding of Korea’s development experience with the hope that Korea’s past can offer lessons for developing countries in search of sustainable and broad‐based development" (KSP 2011). To do so, the KSP provides users with a modularized set of policy narratives that represent Korea...

  19. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  20. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, J.; Eichelbroenner, M.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.) [de

  1. On Hybrid Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tala’t

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network (WSN, many applications have limited energy resources for data transmission. In order to accomplish a better green communication for WSN, a hybrid energy scheme can supply a more reliable energy source. In this article, hybrid energy utilization—which consists of constant energy source and solar harvested energy—is considered for WSN. To minimize constant energy usage from the hybrid source, a Markov decision process (MDP is designed to find the optimal transmission policy. With a finite packet buffer and a finite battery size, an MDP model is presented to define the states, actions, state transition probabilities, and the cost function including the cost values for all actions. A weighted sum of constant energy source consumption and a packet dropping probability (PDP are adopted as the cost value, enabling us to find the optimal solution for balancing the minimization of the constant energy source utilization and the PDP using a value iteration algorithm. As shown in the simulation results, the performance of optimal solution using MDP achieves a significant improvement compared to solution without its use.

  2. Recent Developments of Wave Energy Utilization in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Kramer, Morten

    2006-01-01

    by a more thorough description of three ongoing projects. These are Wave Dragon, Wave Star and Seawave Slot-cone Generator. Common for these projects are that they are being, or will soon be, tested in real sea and have benefited from the Danish Wave Energy Program. The work by the department......This paper aims at giving an overview of the developments researchers at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark (DCE), have been involved in within the field of wave energy utilization in Denmark over the past decade. At first a general introduction is given followed...... on these projects involves substantial laboratory testing, numerical simulations and real sea prototype testing....

  3. Urine transduction to usable energy: A modular MFC approach for smartphone and remote system charging

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, X. A.; Stinchcombe, A.; Greenman, J.; Ieropoulos, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports for the first time the full charging of a state-of-the-art mobile smartphone, using Microbial Fuel Cells fed with urine. This was possible by employing a new design of MFC that allowed scaling-up without power density losses. Although it was demonstrated in the past that a basic mobile phone could be charged by MFCs, the present study goes beyond this to show how, simply using urine, charges a modern-day smartphone. Several energy-harvesting systems have been tested and res...

  4. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in aModular Classroom Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Fisk,William J.; Lai, Chi-Ming; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2005-08-01

    The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air

  5. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  6. XEUS: Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s for Fission Fusion Hybrid Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Jeong, Wi S.; Son, Hyung M.

    2008-01-01

    World energy outlook requires environmental friendliness, sustain ability and improved economic feasibility. The Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s (XEUS) is being developed at the Seoul National University (SNU) to satisfy these demands. Generation IV (Gen IV) and fusion reactors are considered as candidates for the primary system. Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor which is one of the Gen IV concepts. Fusion Engineering Lifetime Integral Explorer (FELIX) is a fusion demonstration reactor for power generation. These two concepts are considered as dominant options for future nuclear energy source from the environmental, commercial and nonproliferation points of view. XEUS may as well be applied to the fusion-fission hybrid system. The system code is being developed to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the primary system. Compact and high efficiency heat exchangers are designed in the Loop Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS). Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) incorporates a Brayton cycle with supercritical fluid to achieve high power conversion ratio. The high volumetric energy density of the Brayton cycle enables designers to reduce the size and eventually the cost of the system when compared with that of the Rankine cycle. MOBIS is home to heat exchangers and turbo machineries. The advanced shell-and-tube or printed circuit heat exchanger is considered as heat transfer components to reduce size of the system. The supercritical fluid driven turbines and compressor are designed to achieve higher component efficiency. Thermo hydrodynamic characteristics of each component in MOBIS are demonstrated utilizing computational fluid dynamics software CFX R . Another key contributor to the reduction of capital costs per unit energy has to do with manufacturing and assembly processes that streamline plant construction by minimizing construction work and time. In a three

  7. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  8. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Hector; Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO 2 to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO 2 . The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO 2 . - Highlights: → We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. → Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. → Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. → Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. → Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  9. A single-phase multi-level D-STATCOM inverter using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoodeh, Pedram

    This dissertation presents the design of a novel multi-level inverter with FACTS capability for small to mid-size (10-20kW) permanent-magnet wind installations using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology. The aim of the work is to design a new type of inverter with D-STATCOM option to provide utilities with more control on active and reactive power transfer of distribution lines. The inverter is placed between the renewable energy source, specifically a wind turbine, and the distribution grid in order to fix the power factor of the grid at a target value, regardless of wind speed, by regulating active and reactive power required by the grid. The inverter is capable of controlling active and reactive power by controlling the phase angle and modulation index, respectively. The unique contribution of the proposed work is to combine the two concepts of inverter and D-STATCOM using a novel voltage source converter (VSC) multi-level topology in a single unit without additional cost. Simulations of the proposed inverter, with 5 and 11 levels, have been conducted in MATLAB/Simulink for two systems including 20 kW/kVAR and 250 W/VAR. To validate the simulation results, a scaled version (250 kW/kVAR) of the proposed inverter with 5 and 11 levels has been built and tested in the laboratory. Experimental results show that the reduced-scale 5- and 11-level inverter is able to fix PF of the grid as well as being compatible with IEEE standards. Furthermore, total cost of the prototype models, which is one of the major objectives of this research, is comparable with market prices.

  10. Impact of gas on utilities - competitive energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolican, M.

    1997-01-01

    The initiatives taken by Nova Scotia Power to have natural gas as a generating fuel was discussed. Nova Scotia Power customers have indicated to the Utility that along with reduced energy costs, they want choices, better services and innovative products. It was noted that coal is currently Nova Scotia Power's principal fuel, but the utility is working with the Cape Breton Development Corporation, their supplier, to bring the cost of coal down. The utility is also exploring the potential of coal bed methane in Pictou and Cumberland counties of Nova Scotia. However, the most promising competitive energy option for their customers is Sable Offshore natural gas. To bring natural gas as the generating fuel for electricity, the Utility is taking steps to convert its Tufts Cove Thermal Generating Station to natural gas and to pipe natural gas to the Trenton Generating Station by November 1999. Bringing natural gas to these two stations would establish a critical base level of demand for natural gas in the Halifax and New Glasgow-Trenton area. One of the important ingredients of this plan is the cost of piping the gas to market. It was suggested that the 'postage stamp' tolling system (i.e. one price for the gas delivered anywhere along the pipeline) favored by some, would not give Nova Scotians the economic advantages that they deserve. For this reason, Nova Scotia Power favours the 'point to point' tolling system, a system that is considered fair and efficient, and the one that has a better chance of producing competitive energy prices

  11. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  12. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The present paper gives a summary of the initiatives taken by the Deutscher Bundestag (Federal Assembly) for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy consideration of relevant secondary aspects like area planning, assessment of technology consequences, the introduction of the Verbandsklage (write of associations to enter in public proceedings) etc. It is an extended table of contents of the 7th and 8th election period. Fixed days was the 1rst of Jan, 1980. Apart from this temporary limitation, only the Enquete-Commission's report Future Nuclear Energy Policy was taken into consideration because in this report the discussion about energy policy of the last two election periods is brought to an end. (orig.) [de

  13. Paracellular transport and energy utilization in the renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan S L

    2017-09-01

    Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule. Knockout of claudin-2 in mice impairs proximal sodium and fluid reabsorption but is compensated by upregulation of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. This occurs at the expense of increased renal oxygen consumption, hypoxia of the outer medulla and increased susceptibility to ischemic kidney injury. Paracellular transport can be viewed as a mechanism to exploit the potential energy in existing electrochemical gradients to drive passive transepithelial transport without consuming additional energy. In this way, it enhances the efficiency of energy utilization by transporting epithelia.

  14. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  15. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  16. Solar and wind energy utilization at Sarawak Southern national parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahman, N.; Kolot, A.

    2006-01-01

    The intentions of renewable energy utilization in Sarawak national parks were to reduce the environmental impacts to the protected surrounding and to overcome fuel transportation problem, as most national parks in Sarawak are not viable for the state electricity grid connection. The study was conducted at three national parks in southern Sarawak; viz. Samusan, Tanjung Datu and Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park. The study focused on the effectiveness of the system implementation, energy load and associated problems. Both Samusan and Tanjung Datu National systems are hybrids, which consist of solar photovoltaic panels, wind turbine and diesel generators, whereas, Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park is a stand alone system of solar photovoltaic panels only. In addition, the inefficient energy usage was observed at Samusan National Park. The study have identified that lack of local expertise, spare parts availability, transportation and inefficient energy management as the major problems associated to the solar and wind energy system in all national parks studied. Albeit the problems mentioned, the study discovered that the systems were acceptably reliable and satisfactorily supply fraction of the energy requirements to the national parks communities

  17. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy: Critical environmental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Moore-O'Leary, K. A.; Johnston, D. S.; Abella, S.; Tanner, K.; Swanson, A.; Kreitler, J.; Lovich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists - including those from academia, industry, and government agencies - have only recently begun to quantify trade-off in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  18. Utility opinions on energy supply. Praise and reprimand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the opinions expressed by several electricity utilities on the cost-covering remuneration of electricity produced using renewable resources. Positive and negative aspects of the system - in the opinion of the utilities - are listed. Positive issues discussed include the improved economic viability of installations using renewable energy sources, preservation of know-how, increased use of renewables and the minimisation of economic risk for the builders of such installations. Negative issues noted include the general financial burden placed on all electricity consumers, the limits placed by parliament on the remuneration scheme, various hindrances still active in the implementation of such installations and possible competition with other schemes that further the use of electricity from renewable resources.

  19. Impacts of energy utilization in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, M.; Penner, K.; Seele, U.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the approach and the interim results of the Indonesian-German scientific co-operation on environmental impacts of future energy utilization in Indonesia. The aim of the planning study is to provide decision support for Indonesian authorities in order to develop environmentally compatible energy supply strategies. The environmental problems will focus on the island of Java with a population density of more than 800 inhabitants/km 2 which might reach 1200 within the next 25 years. Due to the further economic growth and the population increase the energy consumption of the industry, the traffic, and the household sector will increase significantly. In particular the polluting coal utilization will grow overproportionally because of declining oil reserves. Additionally, the industrial development is concentrated on the island of Java which covers only 8% of the land area of the country. A serious pollution of the sensitive tropical ecosystems in the future would be the consequence of this unbalanced developments if no efforts are made to reduce the pollutant emissions. Even today the air quality has already reached critical levels in many parts of Java. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, regulatory highlights for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This new publication informs readers about what the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) did in the past year, including important regulatory issues, trends and initiatives. The EUB is an agency of the provincial government, established to regulate Alberta's energy resource and utility sectors. It is part of the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The four main functions of the Board are regulatory initiatives, license applications, enforcement and information. This publication summarized the EUB's position regarding flaring (both solution gas flaring and well test flaring), and Board activities in the areas of animal health concerns, the gas over bitumen controversy, the deregulation of the electric industry and what it means to the EUB, improvements in data quality as a result of improved industry compliance in reporting, and a variety of issues related to the oil sands and the negotiated settlement process. Also, the Board has been proactive in the area of oilfield waste management guidelines, proliferation policies for gas processing facilities, sulphur recovery guidelines, and the expansion of the orphan well program to include facilities and pipelines. As a measure of the success of the EUB, a recent survey of 19 randomly selected focus groups praised EUB for its impartiality, fair and equitable enforcement and independence. It was also praised for its technically competent and experienced staff, its access to quality information and the clarity of its mandate, regulatory requirements and processes. The Board's efforts in the area of timely stakeholder consultation was highlighted. tabs., figs

  1. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, regulatory highlights for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This new publication informs readers about what the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) did in the past year, including important regulatory issues, trends and initiatives. The EUB is an agency of the provincial government, established to regulate Alberta`s energy resource and utility sectors. It is part of the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The four main functions of the Board are regulatory initiatives, license applications, enforcement and information. This publication summarized the EUB`s position regarding flaring (both solution gas flaring and well test flaring), and Board activities in the areas of animal health concerns, the gas over bitumen controversy, the deregulation of the electric industry and what it means to the EUB, improvements in data quality as a result of improved industry compliance in reporting, and a variety of issues related to the oil sands and the negotiated settlement process. Also, the Board has been proactive in the area of oilfield waste management guidelines, proliferation policies for gas processing facilities, sulphur recovery guidelines, and the expansion of the orphan well program to include facilities and pipelines. As a measure of the success of the EUB, a recent survey of 19 randomly selected focus groups praised EUB for its impartiality, fair and equitable enforcement and independence. It was also praised for its technically competent and experienced staff, its access to quality information and the clarity of its mandate, regulatory requirements and processes. The Board`s efforts in the area of timely stakeholder consultation was highlighted. tabs., figs.

  2. Enhanced understanding of energy ratepayers: Factors influencing perceptions of government energy efficiency subsidies and utility alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Allen, Myria W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores factors related to energy consumers' perceptions of government subsidies for utility provided energy efficiency (EE) programs and for utility providers' use of more clean/alternative energy sources. Demographic factors, attitudes, planned purchases, and perceptions of utility provider motives in relation to governmental and utility provider EE initiatives (i.e. providing discounts and coupons for CFL bulbs), plus the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages are investigated. Over 2000 respondents completed a 16 item phone survey. Hierarchical regression explained 38% of the variance in reactions regarding government subsidies of the cost of utility provided EE programs and 43% of the variance in perceptions involving whether utility companies should use of more clean or alternative forms of energy. Gender and party differences emerged. Loss-framed messages were more important when the issue was government subsidies. Both gain- and loss-framed messages were important when clean/alternative energy was the issue. - Highlights: • Over 2000 ratepayers were surveyed on their attitudes, planned behaviors and perceptions towards energy efficiency programs. • Almost 40% of how ratepayers feel about government subsidies and utility use of clean/alternative energy was explained. • Loss-framed messages were more effective when the dependent variable was ratepayer perception of government subsidies

  3. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies; Geschaeftsfeld Energieeffizienz. Strategien von Energieversorgern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed.

  4. Utilization of Solar Energy for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Juwari Purwo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to do a system simulation of air conditioning utilizing solar energy with single effect absorption refrigeration method, analyze the coefficient of performance (COP for each absorbent-refrigerant variable and compare the effectivity of every absorbent-refrigerant variable used. COP is a constant that denotes the effeciency of a refrigeration system, that is ratio of work or useful output to the amount of work or energy input. The higher the number of COP, the more efficient the system is. Absorbent-refrigerant (working fluids variables used in this research depend on its chemical and thermodynamics properties. Steps in this research are including data collection and tabulation from literature and do a simulation of air conditioning system both commercial air conditioning system (using electrical energy and solar energy air conditioning system with Aspen Plus software. Next, run the simulation for each working fluid variables used and calculate the COP for each variable. Subsequently, analyze and compare the effectivity of all variables used from COP value and economical point of view with commercial air conditioning system. From the result of the simulation, can be concluded that solar air conditioning can achieve 98,85 % of energy savings than commercial air conditioning. Furthermore, from the calculation of COP, the highest COP value is achieved by solar conditioning system with LiNO3-NH3 as working fluid where 55% of the composition is the refrigerant and 45% of absorbent.

  5. A proposal for the modular integration of the renewable energy sources, via hydrogen, and the Rankine power cycle; Una propuesta de integracion modular de las fuentes de energia renovables, via hidrogeno, y el ciclo de potencia Rankine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Dirzo, Rafael

    2004-07-01

    This thesis synthesizes the state-of-the-art of the modular integration of the renewable energy sources and the Ranking power cycle. This is possible to obtain due to the development of the hydrogen production technologies and with it the chemical storage of the energies solar, Aeolian (wind) and tidal, among others. The purpose of this thesis is the assessment of hydrogen as fuel, its obtaining through the breaking of the water molecule using the renewable energies and the thermodynamic analysis of two prototypes for its energy conversion into electricity and power, voltage and fixed frequency: the first one at laboratory scale of 800 W and the second one, on industrial scale of 1 GW of power. Included here is the synthesis of the increasing bibliography on the development of the hydrogen technologies and the renewable energies, passing through the mass and energy balance in the power cycles until proposing, at the level of Process Flow Charts of the results of the proposed prototypes. The products show the possibility of constructing and operating the experimental prototype, whereas the thermodynamic analysis suggests that the industrial prototype is viable. The economic analysis of both proposals is part of a doctorate project in process. [Spanish] Esta tesis sintetiza el estado del arte de la integracion modular de las fuentes de energia renovables y el ciclo de potencia Ranking. Esto es posible lograrlo debido al desarrollo de las tecnologias de produccion de hidrogeno y con ello el almacenamiento quimico de las energias solar, eolica y maremotriz, entre otras. Es objetivo de esta tesis la valoracion del hidrogeno como combustible, su obtencion a traves del rompimiento de la molecula del agua utilizando las energias renovables y el analisis termodinamico de dos prototipo para su conversion energetica en electricidad a potencia, voltaje y frecuencia fijos: el primero a escala de laboratorio de 800 W y el segundo, a escala industrial de 1 GW de potencia. Se

  6. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  7. Making It Count: Understanding the Value of Energy Efficiency Financing Programs Funded by Utility Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Utility customer-supported financing programs are receiving increased attention as a strategy for achieving energy saving goals. Rationales for using utility customer funds to support financing initiatives

  8. The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.E.; Lipps, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Due to relatively high operating temperatures, the gas-cooled reactor has the potential to serve a wide variety of energy applications. This paper discusses the energy applications which can be served by the modular HTGR, the magnitude of the potential markets, and the HTGR product cost incentives relative to fossil fuel competition. Advantages of the HTGR modular systems are presented along with a description of the design features and performance characteristics of the current reference HTGR modular systems

  9. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  10. The universal modular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A new and patented design for offshore wellhead platforms has been developed to meet a 'fast track' requirement for increased offshore production, from field locations not yet identified. The new design uses modular construction to allow for radical changes in the water depth of the final location and assembly line efficiency in fabrication. By utilizing high strength steels and structural support from the well conductors the new design accommodates all planned production requirements on a support structure significantly lighter and less expensive than the conventional design it replaces. Twenty two platforms based on the new design were ready for installation within 18 months of the project start. Installation of the new platforms began in 1992 for drilling support and 1993 for production support. The new design has become the Company standard for all future production platforms. Large saving and construction costs have been realized through its light weight, flexibility in both positioning and water depth, and its modular construction

  11. Decision modelling tools for utilities in the deregulated energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, S. [Process Vision Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the deregulation of the energy market on decision making and optimisation in utilities and demonstrates how decision support applications can solve specific encountered tasks in this context. The themes of the thesis are presented in different frameworks in order to clarify the complex decision making and optimisation environment where new sources of uncertainties arise due to the convergence of energy markets, globalisation of energy business and increasing competition. This thesis reflects the changes in the decision making and planning environment of European energy companies during the period from 1995 to 2004. It also follows the development of computational performance and evolution of energy information systems during the same period. Specifically, this thesis consists of studies at several levels of the decision making hierarchy ranging from top-level strategic decision problems to specific optimisation algorithms. On the other hand, the studies also follow the progress of the liberalised energy market from the monopolistic era to the fully competitive market with new trading instruments and issues like emissions trading. This thesis suggests that there is an increasing need for optimisation and multiple criteria decision making methods, and that new approaches based on the use of operations research are welcome as the deregulation proceeds and uncertainties increase. Technically, the optimisation applications presented are based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and the dedicated Power Simplex algorithm supplemented with stochastic scenario analysis for decision support, a heuristic method to allocate common benefits and potential losses of coalitions of power companies, and an advanced Branch- and-Bound algorithm to solve efficiently nonconvex optimisation problems. The optimisation problems are part of the operational and tactical decision making process that has become very complex in the recent years. Similarly

  12. Survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports fiscal 2000 survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania. In Australia and New Zealand, renewable energy has already fairly been used. In Australia, it is promoted on the government policy level, with cost reduction and improved reliability in progress. The growth of 2% is set as a target in the year 2010. Promising are biomass and wind, while contributory in the long run are photovoltaic energies. New installations of hydraulic power generation are few, but potential is high for mini hydraulic power generation. Social interest is also comparatively high in renewable energies and greenhouse effect gas. However, further technological development is necessary for a full-scale contribution to global environmental problems. The situation in other south Pacific nations depends on their policy, economic condition and level of industrialization; each country heavily imports diesel oil for power generation, is under-developed industry-wise, and is a low income nation. The countries are desperately in need of foreign investment for the purpose of solving these problems. (NEDO)

  13. Advanced ceramics for nuclear heat utilization and energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deep; Purohit, R.D.; Sinha, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years concerns related to global warming and green house gas emissions have focused the attention towards lowering the carbon foot print of energy generation. In this scenario, nuclear energy is considered as one of the strongest options to take on the challenges. Further, the nuclear heat, originated from the fission of nuclear fuels may be utilized not only by conversion to electricity using conventional techniques, but also may be used for production of hydrogen by splitting water. In the endeavor of realizing sustainable energy generation technologies, ceramic materials find key role as critical components. This paper covers an overview of various ceramic materials which are potential candidates for energy and hydrogen generation devices. These include solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectric oxides and sodium conducting beta-alumina for alkali metal thermoelectric converters (AMTEC). The materials, which are generally complex oxides often need to be synthesized using chemical methods for purity and compositional control. Further, ceramic materials offer advantages in terms of doping different cations to engineer defects and maneuver properties. Nonetheless, shaping of ceramics to complex components is a challenging task, due to which various techniques such as isopressing, tape-casting, extrusion, slurry coating, spray deposition etc. are employed. The paper also provides a highlight of fabrication techniques and demonstration of miniature devices which are at various stages of development. (author)

  14. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  15. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  16. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  17. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  18. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  19. Systems dynamics (SD) strategy for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) marketing - Conquest at the MIT Energy Laboratory (Pres. MIT Energy Initiative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, T. H. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This reactor has the specification as the power is 330 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. In the plant design, it is planned for electricity generation of 100 MWe and thermal applications of seawater desalination where the life span is a 60-year operation design and three-year refueling cycle. Regarding of the licensing, the standard design was approved from the Korean regulator in mid-2012 and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a plan to build a demonstration plant to operate from 2017. According to the previous study of the marketing strategy of the Canadian small reactor, Safe LOW-POwer Kritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) reactor had been investigated in 1988. Therefore, it is interesting to compare SMART and SLOWPOKE. In this work, it is to find out the strategy of the successful marketing of SMART and suggest continuous marketing prospects. There are specifications and parameters of SMART in Tables 1 and 2. The public acceptance (PA) had been studies as safety-public interpretation, SLOWPOKE safety-experience and process, and economics in the previous paper of the SLOWPOKE, which was about the marketing strategy for the commercial nuclear reactor. The highly cognitive networking based dynamical modeling was discussed where the system is treated by a complex and non-linear way. The linear networking of the interested issue was changed by the SD algorithm where the feedback and multiple connections are added to the original networking theory. The non-linear method has shown the complexity of the marketing strategy, especially for the NPP which is the very expensive and safety focused facility.

  20. Systems dynamics (SD) strategy for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) marketing - Conquest at the MIT Energy Laboratory (Pres. MIT Energy Initiative)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    This reactor has the specification as the power is 330 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. In the plant design, it is planned for electricity generation of 100 MWe and thermal applications of seawater desalination where the life span is a 60-year operation design and three-year refueling cycle. Regarding of the licensing, the standard design was approved from the Korean regulator in mid-2012 and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a plan to build a demonstration plant to operate from 2017. According to the previous study of the marketing strategy of the Canadian small reactor, Safe LOW-POwer Kritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) reactor had been investigated in 1988. Therefore, it is interesting to compare SMART and SLOWPOKE. In this work, it is to find out the strategy of the successful marketing of SMART and suggest continuous marketing prospects. There are specifications and parameters of SMART in Tables 1 and 2. The public acceptance (PA) had been studies as safety-public interpretation, SLOWPOKE safety-experience and process, and economics in the previous paper of the SLOWPOKE, which was about the marketing strategy for the commercial nuclear reactor. The highly cognitive networking based dynamical modeling was discussed where the system is treated by a complex and non-linear way. The linear networking of the interested issue was changed by the SD algorithm where the feedback and multiple connections are added to the original networking theory. The non-linear method has shown the complexity of the marketing strategy, especially for the NPP which is the very expensive and safety focused facility

  1. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  2. Investigation of small and modular-sized fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Umetsu, Yoichiro; Akatsu, Minoru; Kasai, Shigeo; Konomura, Mamoru; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, feasibility of the multipurpose small fast reactor, which could be used for requirements concerned with various utilization of electricity and energy and flexibility of power supply site, is discussed on the basis of examination of literatures of various small reactors. And also, a possibility of economic improvement by learning effect of fabrication cost is discussed for the modular-sized reactor which is expected to be a base load power supply system with lower initial investment. (1) Multipurpose small reactor (a) The small reactor with 10MWe-150MWe has a potential as a power source for large co-generation, a large island, a middle city, desalination and marine use. (b) Highly passive mechanism, long fuel exchange interval, and minimized maintenance activities are required for the multipurpose small reactor design. The reactor has a high potential for the long fuel exchange interval, since it is relatively easy for FR to obtain a long life core. (c) Current designs of small FRs in Japan and USA (NERI Project) are reviewed to obtain design requirements for the multipurpose small reactor. (2) Modular-sized reactor (a) In order that modular-sized reactor could be competitive to 3200MWe twin plant (two large monolithic reactor) with 200kyenWe, the target capital cost of FOAK is estimated to be 260kyen/yenWe for 800MWe modular, 280kyen/yenWe for 400MWe modular and 290kyen/yenWe for 200MWe by taking account of the leaning effect. (b) As the result of the review on the current designs of modular-sized FRs in Japan and USA (S-PRISM) from the viewpoint of economic improvement, since it only be necessary to make further effort for the target capital cost of FOAK, since the modular-sized FRs requires a large amount of material for shielding, vessels and heat exchangers essentially. (author)

  3. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  4. Preliminary feasibility study of modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    In the future, electric utilities will be required to make a switch-over to a more flexible and dynamic form of power supply due to the slowing growth of power demand, increasing uncertainty, the stagnating economy of increasing scale, the bottleneck of transmission and so on. Nuclear technology would also be required to adapt to this changing environment surrounding its development. The long term prospect of energy demand and nuclear power growth, and the evolution of commercial reactors in Japan are shown. The design of 1,300 MWe advanced LWRs has been completed, and as the reactors of next generation, the ultralarge LWRs of 1,500 - 1,800 MWe are suggested. However, there can be an alternative future for nuclear power development, and in this paper, the possibility for altering the image of conventional nuclear power technology by developing modular reactors which are economical even at small capacity, and can be sited in urban areas just like conventional thermal power plants is examined. The factors for the economical evaluation of modular reactors, learning effect and scale effect on the economy, the case study on a modular high temperature reactor designed by Interatom-GHT, and the possibility of siting in urban areas due to the system of inherent safety are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Climatological background for the utilization of energy from the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterio, S.; Barabaro, S.; Coppolino, S.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the main climatological factors characterizing a given place or area is fundamental for the utilization of energy from the Sun and for other applications. This paper collects and analyses the daily, monthly and yearly average climatic data (insolation, sunshine, state of the sky, air temperature and relative humidity) provided by sixty thermopluviometric stations variously distributed in the territory of Sicily. The analysis is here performed both with a purely applicative view and in order to point out the connection between climate and physical environment. It leads to a better knowledge of solar climate and constitutes the basis for equally interesting further developments in the various fields of applied climatology: geomorfology, agriculture, biology, ecology, bioclimatology, etc

  6. Geothermal energy utilized in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the geothermal resources and reserves that have been estimated for selected aquifers in the Northwest German Basin, the Upper Rhine Graben and the South German Molasse Basin. The highest reserves (31 · 10 18 J) are located in the Malm aquifer in the Molasse Basin. Geothermal energy is utilized in 15 localities using low enthalpy water. The total installed capacity is about 8 MW t . Two small new installations (Waldsee, Weiden) have been realized in the last years. In another project (Bruchsal) the doublet, which is necessary because of the high saline water, is now in a working order. A prefeasibility study for a Hot Dry Rock system has been performed by a German-French group. The HDR test site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben

  7. Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong

    Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non

  8. Energy and resource utilization of deinking sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Rui; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Gaojin; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion technique was applied in deinking sludge from the pulp and papermaking industrial to indagate the utilization of sludge biomass to energy, and the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolytic products of deinking sludge were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The static tubular furnace as an applied industrial research was used to study deinking sludge pyrolysis. The solid, gas and liquid of products was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass (GC/MS), respectively. The results revealed that the weight-loss process of deinking sludge was a non-isothermal reaction and composed of four stages, i.e. dewater stage, volatile releasing stage, carbon burnout stage and some calcium carbonate decomposition. Pyrolytic products from deinking sludge in the static tubular furnace were comprised of the gaseous (29.78%), condensed liquid (bio-oil, 24.41%) and solid residues (45.81%). The volatiles from deinking sludge pyrolyzing were almost aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. styrene, toluene and benzene and few acids and the solid was calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that can be reused as paper filler. Deinking sludge was converted into high-grade fuel and chemicals by means of thermochemical conversion techniques, hence, pyrolysis of paper deinking sludge had a promising development on the comprehensive utilization.

  9. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  10. Research and utilization of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.S.; Aditya, S.K.; Mazumder, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh is an energy deficit and low-economy country with high population density. Per-capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world. The only dependable indigenous gas, which is the major primary energy source in the country, is used mainly for the production of electricity and fertilizer. If it is burnt at an annual 10% growth rate of consumption, may not last more than 15-20 years. Around 30% of the people of the country have connections to the national grid line. In the villages, where 80% of the population live, the situation is worse. Even if it is possible to take the electric grid line to all villages of the country, which will be an extremely difficult and expensive work to do, the majority of the village houses will not be able to have electric connections due to poverty. No nuclear power station exists in the country and the possibility of setting up any in the near future is limited due to non-availability of funds. Hydroelectric resources are also low because of the flat terrain of the country. The fuel import bill also occupies a significant portion of the total amount of export earnings. Conventional resources in Bangladesh are utterly inadequate for supplying the energy needs to bring in a significant improvement in our economy. On the other hand when our gas reserves will be exhausted it will be difficult for us even to maintain the energy supply for the development of our country unless we find alternate sources of energy. Solar energy availability in Bangladesh is high around 5KWH/day per meter square or 2.6 10/sup 11/ MWH/year on the total surface area of the country. This is equivalent to the output of about 30GW capacity utility plant for 100 years assuming 10% efficiency of the solar devices. Large-scale production of electricity from new, renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Wind power is difficult to exploit economically in regions with wind speeds bellow 5 m/s yearly average. Solar thermal power plants come

  11. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio; Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko.

    1991-01-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km 2 yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko

    1991-06-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km{sup 2} yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.).

  13. The transfer of technologies for biomass energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneiders, H H [German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Eschborn (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    The first part of the paper presents the common perception of technology transfer as a trade relationship rather than a systematic approach to establish a complex technological capacity in a given field. It aims to correct this misperception by introducing some other ideas: (a) the need to support the people, adjust the relevant organizations and establish the capacities to provide the products and services; (b) the typical life cycles of technologies from the initial concept to the final stages of transfer and sustainable dissemination; (c) the needs and expectations of the groups targeted by the technologies for biomass energy utilization. The second part of the paper discusses one example of successful technology transfer: the use of large biomass-burning stoves for food preparation in public institutions and private restaurants in East Africa. The third part of the paper highlights two non-technological barriers to the transfer of biomass energy technologies: (a) weak market forces and business interests and a large number of State activities and projects and (b) conflicting interests of end-users, craftsmen, private and public project partners, which can threaten the success of the attempted technology transfer, even after local adaptation. Finally, suggestions are made for overcoming some of these problems. (author)

  14. The transfer of technologies for biomass energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiders, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents the common perception of technology transfer as a trade relationship rather than a systematic approach to establish a complex technological capacity in a given field. It aims to correct this misperception by introducing some other ideas: (a) the need to support the people, adjust the relevant organizations and establish the capacities to provide the products and services; (b) the typical life cycles of technologies from the initial concept to the final stages of transfer and sustainable dissemination; (c) the needs and expectations of the groups targeted by the technologies for biomass energy utilization. The second part of the paper discusses one example of successful technology transfer: the use of large biomass-burning stoves for food preparation in public institutions and private restaurants in East Africa. The third part of the paper highlights two non-technological barriers to the transfer of biomass energy technologies: (a) weak market forces and business interests and a large number of State activities and projects and (b) conflicting interests of end-users, craftsmen, private and public project partners, which can threaten the success of the attempted technology transfer, even after local adaptation. Finally, suggestions are made for overcoming some of these problems. (author)

  15. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  16. Modular invariance, chiral anomalies and contact terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, D.

    1988-03-01

    The chiral anomaly in heterotic strings with full and partial modular invariance in D=2n+2 dimensions is calculated. The boundary terms which were present in previous calculations are shown to be cancelled in the modular invariant case by contact terms, which can be obtained by an appropriate analytic continuation. The relation to the low energy field theory is explained. In theories with partial modular invariance, an expression for the anomaly is obtained and shown to be non zero in general. (author)

  17. ECUT (Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies) program: Biocatalysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Larry

    1989-03-01

    The Annual Report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1988 research activities and accomplishments, for the Biocatalysis Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Division. The ECUT Biocatalysis Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The Biocatalysis Project is a mission-oriented, applied research and exploratory development activity directed toward resolution of the major generic technical barriers that impede the development of biologically catalyzed commercial chemical production. The approach toward achieving project objectives involves an integrated participation of universities, industrial companies and government research laboratories. The Project's technical activities were organized into three work elements: (1) The Molecular Modeling and Applied Genetics work element includes research on modeling of biological systems, developing rigorous methods for the prediction of three-dimensional (tertiary) protein structure from the amino acid sequence (primary structure) for designing new biocatalysis, defining kinetic models of biocatalyst reactivity, and developing genetically engineered solutions to the generic technical barriers that preclude widespread application of biocatalysis. (2) The Bioprocess Engineering work element supports efforts in novel bioreactor concepts that are likely to lead to substantially higher levels of reactor productivity, product yields and lower separation energetics. Results of work within this work element will be used to establish the technical feasibility of critical bioprocess monitoring and control subsystems. (3) The Bioprocess Design and Assessment work element attempts to develop procedures (via user-friendly computer software) for assessing the energy-economics of biocatalyzed chemical production processes, and initiation of technology transfer for advanced bioprocesses.

  18. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  19. Local sharing of cogeneration energy through individually prioritized controls for increased on-site energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sharing of surplus heat and electricity produced by CHP plants in different types of buildings. • Individually prioritized control of CHP plants with direct local sharing and minimal storage capacity. • Energy sharing reduced primary energy consumption by 1–9% with biogas. • Excess energy minimized by thermal tracking. - Abstract: All over the world, including Japan, there are targets to decrease building energy consumption and increase renewable energy utilization. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants increase energy efficiency and are becoming popular in Japan. CHP plants produce both heat and power simultaneously, but there is not always a need for both. A cluster of several different buildings can increase total efficiency and reduce primary energy (PE) consumption by sharing excess heat and electricity between neighboring buildings. If the generated energy comes from renewable sources, energy sharing makes it easier to reach the net zero energy balance. By adjusting CHP sizes and operation patterns, the wasted heat and primary energy consumption can be minimized. Energy sharing has been explored in situations with identical buildings and centrally administered energy systems before, but not with different building types with separate systems. In this study, a cluster of Japanese office and residential buildings were combined to allow heat and electricity sharing based on cogeneration, using individually prioritized control (IPC) systems. TRNSYS simulation was used to match energy generation with pregenerated demand profiles. Absorption cooling was utilized to increase the benefits of local heat generation. Different CHP operation modes and plant sizes were tested. The benefit of surplus energy sharing depends on the CHP capacities and the fuel type. When using biogas, larger CHP plants provided lower total primary energy consumption, in the most extreme case lowering it by 71%, compared to the conventional case. Using natural gas

  20. Modular 3D printed lab-on-a-chip bio-reactor for the biochemical energy cascade of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podwin, Agnieszka; Dziuban, Jan A

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the sandwiched polymer 3D printed lab-on-a-chip bio-reactor for the biochemical energy cascade of microorganisms. Euglenas and yeast were separately and simultaneously cultured for 10 d in the chip. As a result of the experiments, euglenas, light-initialized and nourished by CO 2 —a product of ethanol fermentation handled by yeast—generated oxygen, based on the photosynthesis process. The presence of oxygen in the bio-reactor was confirmed by the colorimetric method—a bicarbonate (pH) indicator. Preliminary studies towards the obtainment of an effective source of oxygen are promising and further research should be done to enable the utility of the bio-reactor in, for instance, microbial fuel cells. (paper)

  1. Modular 3D printed lab-on-a-chip bio-reactor for the biochemical energy cascade of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwin, Agnieszka; Dziuban, Jan A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the sandwiched polymer 3D printed lab-on-a-chip bio-reactor for the biochemical energy cascade of microorganisms. Euglenas and yeast were separately and simultaneously cultured for 10 d in the chip. As a result of the experiments, euglenas, light-initialized and nourished by CO2—a product of ethanol fermentation handled by yeast—generated oxygen, based on the photosynthesis process. The presence of oxygen in the bio-reactor was confirmed by the colorimetric method—a bicarbonate (pH) indicator. Preliminary studies towards the obtainment of an effective source of oxygen are promising and further research should be done to enable the utility of the bio-reactor in, for instance, microbial fuel cells.

  2. The role of nuclear energy in reducing the environmental impact of China's energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zongxin; Sun, Yuliang

    1998-01-01

    It is presented in this paper the current status of China's energy market and the projections of its future development. China's energy market, currently and in the next decades, is mainly characterized by rapidly increasing demand and dominant role of coal which is directly related to serious environmental pollution. The role of nuclear energy utilization in improving the primary energy infrastructure is addressed. Status and development of nuclear power generation are described. Potential of introducing nuclear energy into heat market is discussed. An overview of the research and development work of water cooled low temperature heating reactors and gas-cooled high temperature gas cooled reactors in China is given and the technical and safety features of these two reactor types are briefly described. (author)

  3. Dualisme Modular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natas Setiabudhi Daryono Putra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dualisme merupakan konsep filsafat yang menyatakan bahwa segala sesuatu memiliki dua hal yang berlawanan atau prinsip. Hidup dan mati, laki dan perempuan, siang dan malam, jiwa dan raga, sehat dan sakit, kaya dan miskin, baik dan buruk, halal dan haram, pro dan kontra, aktif dan pasif, statis dan dinamis, tampan dan buruk rupa, besar dan kecil, panjang dan pendek, manis dan pahit, mahal dan murah, kuat dan lemah, dan seterusnya. Dalam konteks karya ini merupakan representasi dari manusia yang pada dasarnya memiliki 2 kepribadian, baik dan buruk. Keduanya diterjemahkan ke dalam konsep modular dalam menyusun sebuah konfigurasi karya. Pesan yang ingin penulis sampaikan adalah seseorang tidak bisa dinilai dari “baju atau seragam” yang ia pakai. Selain itu keseimbangan dalam baik dan buruk yang direpresentasikan dengan modul positif dan negatif menjadi ambigu dalam kaitan dengan pahala dan dosa dalam Islam. Karya ini meminjam gambar Rubin’s vase/goblet (vas/piala Rubin karya seorang psikolog gestalt Edgar Rubin asal Denmark yang ditransformasi menjadi sebuah karya keramik 3 dimensional [1]. Vas/piala Rubin ini secara perseptual memiliki 2 makna, yaitu gambar vas/piala dan siluet wajah dari samping yang saling berhadapan (pengaruh antarobjek dan latar secara bergiliran. Proses kreasi berasal dari pengalaman empirik personal yang dihubungkan dengan teori-teori pendukung. Perpaduan keduanya menghasilkan karya seni yang merupakan representasi dari realitas. Dalam penciptaan karya seni rupa sebenarnya tidak ada metode baku seperti halnya dalam riset pada umumnya. Proses kreasi kadang berdasarkan intuisi, pengalaman personal yang dominan dan mengandung narasi yang sangat subjektif. Kesemuanya itu dikaitkan dengan disiplin ilmu lainnya (sosial, ekonomi, budaya dan politik untuk menghasilkan sebuah representasi. Modular Dualism Abstract. Dualism is the concept that everything has two opposite sides or principles. Life and death, male and female, day

  4. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  5. Utilization of net energy analysis as a method of evaluating energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gi Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Hah, Yung Joon

    1994-01-01

    It can be said that the upturn of Korean nuclear power program started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States since the late 70's. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type in U.S., considering the current U.S. trend of construction on the new plants. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it may be desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a method of comparing two energy systems in terms of energy investment and a brief result from energy economic analysis of nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant to illustrate the methodology. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (lOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, it can be used as a screening process in decision making

  6. Renewable Energy Power System Modular SIMulators: RPM-Sim User's Guide (Supersedes October 1999 edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialasiewicz, J.T.; Muljadi, E.; Nix, G.R.; Drouilhet, S.

    2001-03-28

    This version of the RPM-SIM User's Guide supersedes the October 1999 edition. Using the VisSimTM visual environment, researchers developed a modular simulation system to facilitate an application-specific, low-cost study of the system dynamics for wind-diesel hybrid power systems. This manual presents the principal modules of the simulator and, using case studies of a hybrid system, demonstrates some of the benefits that can be gained from understanding the effects of the designer's modifications to these complex dynamic systems.

  7. Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

  8. Exploring Modularity in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    the effects of modularity and integrality on a range of different analytical levels in service architectures. Taking a holistic approach, the authors synthesize and empirically deploy a framework comprised of the three most prevalent themes in modularity and service design literature: Offering (service...... insights on the mirroring hypothesis of modularity theory to services. Originality/value The paper provides a conceptualization of service architectures drawing on service design, modularity, and market relationships. The study enriches service design literature with elements from modularity theory...

  9. Modular robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs

  10. Modular properties of 6d (DELL) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, G.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    If super-Yang-Mills theory possesses the exact conformal invariance, there is an additional modular invariance under the change of the complex bare charge [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. The low-energy Seiberg-Witten prepotential ℱ( a), however, is not explicitly invariant, because the flat moduli also change a - → a D = ∂ℱ/∂ a. In result, the prepotential is not a modular form and depends also on the anomalous Eisenstein series E 2. This dependence is usually described by the universal MNW modular anomaly equation. We demonstrate that, in the 6 d SU( N) theory with two independent modular parameters τ and \\widehat{τ} , the modular anomaly equation changes, because the modular transform of τ is accompanied by an ( N -dependent!) shift of \\widehat{τ} and vice versa. This is a new peculiarity of double-elliptic systems, which deserves further investigation.

  11. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  12. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  13. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (DEC VAX VMS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  14. Report of the workshop Energy Utility and Solar Water Heater 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The title workshop was organized to increase the interest of energy utilities for the Solar Water Heater campaign by providing representatives of the utilities with information about the technical and marketing aspects of solar boilers, and to stimulate knowledge transfer between the energy utilities about the method, the possibilities and bottlenecks of solar water heater projects

  15. 24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (of the type affected by the energy conservation measure) after implementation of the energy...) Utility benchmarking. HUD will pursue benchmarking utility consumption at the project level as part of the... convene a meeting with representation of appropriate stakeholders to review utility benchmarking options...

  16. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  17. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  18. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  19. Multi utility - a successful conception for energy supply companies?; Multi-Utility - Erfolgskonzept fuer Energieversorger? Zusammenwachsen der Maerkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C. [LBD-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-06-02

    Multi-utility is seen as the most promising marketing strategy for energy companies. In the future, experts say, only the combined supply of electricity, natural gas, water, waste management and services will allow companies to grow. But are today's multi-utility-products answering the needs of the customers? The author goes further into this question and finds the answer: Multi-utility needs to be further developed. Only products from growth and competition markets can generate additional margins. (orig.) [German] Multi-Utility gilt als die Marketingstrategie fuer Energieversorger. Nur wer zukuenftig Strom, Gas, Wasser, Entsorgung und Service aus einer Hand anbietet, heisst es in der Branche, kann im Markt wachsen. Doch inwieweit entspricht das heutige Multi-Utility-Angebot wirklich dem Kundenbeduerfnis? Die Verfasserin geht dieser Frage nach und kommt zu dem Schluss: Die Multi-Utility-Palette muss weiterentwickelt werden. Nur mit Produkten aus Wachstums- und Wettbewerbsmaerkten kann zusaetzliche Marge generiert werden. (orig.)

  20. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.

  1. Fretting-corrosion behavior in hip implant modular junctions: The influence of friction energy and pH variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royhman, Dmitry; Patel, Megha; Runa, Maria J; Wimmer, Markus A; Jacobs, Joshua J; Hallab, Nadim J; Mathew, Mathew T

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there has been increasing concern in the orthopedic community over the use of hip implant modular devices due to an increasing number of reports of early failure, failure that has been attributed to fretting-corrosion at modular interfaces. Much is still unknown about the electrochemical and mechanical degradation mechanisms associated with the use of such devices. Accordingly, the purpose of our study was to develop a methodology for testing the fretting-corrosion behavior of modular junctions. A fretting-corrosion apparatus was used to simulate the fretting-corrosion conditions of a CoCrMo hip implant head on a Ti6Al4V hip implant stem. The device features two perpendicularly-loaded CoCrMo pins that articulated against a Ti6Al4V rod. A sinusoidal fretting motion was applied to the rod at various displacement amplitudes (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200μm) at a constant load of 200N. Bovine calf serum at two different pH levels (3.0 and 7.6) was used to simulate the fluid environment around the joint. Experiments were conducted in two modes of electrochemical control - free-potential and potentiostatic. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were done before and after the fretting motion to assess changes in corrosion kinetics. In free potential mode, differences were seen in change in potential as a function of displacement amplitude. In general, VDrop (the drop in potential at the onset of fretting), VFretting, (the average potential during fretting), ΔVFretting (the change in potential from the onset of fretting to its termination) and VRecovery (the change in potential from the termination of fretting until stabilization) appeared linear at both pH levels, but showed drastic deviation from linearity at 100μm displacement amplitude. Subsequent EDS analysis revealed a large number of Ti deposits on the CoCrMo pin surfaces. Potentiostatic tests at both pH levels generally showed increasing current with increasing displacement amplitude. Electrochemical

  2. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment.

  3. Long-term atomic energy research, development and utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the revised version of the last long-range program (June, 1972), and covers the measures and plans for promoting the research, development and utilization of nuclear power in some in some ten years ahead. The basic policy lines include the assurance of peaceful use of atomic energy, safety assurence and public support, independence and international cooperation and the planned implementation of nuclear research and development projects. The target scale of nuclear power development is estimated at 33 million kilowatts by fiscal 1985 and 60 million kilowatts by fiscal 1990, respectively. The improvement and standardization of light water reactors are to be further carried on till fiscal 1980 and after. Sodium-cooled reactors, which use the oxide fuel based on the mixture of plutonium and uranium, will be developed. A prototype reactor of about 300,000 kilowatt electric capacity will reach criticality in the second half of 1980's. The research and development of the advanced thermal reactors, for which plutonium and depleted uranium are used, will be encouraged. Multipurpose high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are also to be developed. The measures for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle including the procurement of natural and enriched uranium, the reprocessing of spent fuel, the use of plutonium and the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are described. Nuclear fusion, nuclear ships, the use of radiation, safety studies, fundamental studies and the training of scientists and technicians are stipulated, respectively. The promotion of nuclear research and development projects is explained in detail. (Okada, K.)

  4. U.S. utilities' experiences with the implementation of energy efficiency programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Courtney

    In the U.S., many electric utility companies are offering demand-side management (DSM) programs to their customers as ways to save money and energy. However, it is challenging to compare these programs between utility companies throughout the U.S. because of the variability of state energy policies. For example, some states in the U.S. have deregulated electricity markets and others do not. In addition, utility companies within a state differ depending on ownership and size. This study examines 12 utilities' experiences with DSM programs and compares the programs' annual energy savings results that the selected utilities reported to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The 2009 EIA data suggests that DSM program effectiveness is not significantly affected by electricity market deregulation or utility ownership. However, DSM programs seem to generally be more effective when administered by utilities located in states with energy savings requirements and DSM program mandates.

  5. Can energy utilities play a role in local political energy savings programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Danish municipalities are putting climate change high on the agenda with action plans and targets to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To reach these targets the municipalities need to engage citizens and the local business sector. In order to find new routes on how to engage and motivate local...... businesses to achieve GHG reductions, seven Danish municipalities (Copenhagen, Albertslund, Allerød, Ballerup, Herning, Kolding and Næstved) have joined forces in an EU LIFE project “Carbon 20”. A key element in the Carbon 20 project is to offer an energy screening free of charge for the participating...... the screening to small companies since the savings are rather limited in absolute terms. This article will focus on the appropriateness of using energy utilities (or consultants working on their behalf) in a local political context of engaging the local business sector in achieving energy savings and GHG...

  6. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  7. Dealing with the paradox of energy efficiency promotion by electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, José Luís; Martins, António Gomes; Jorge, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Utility-based Demand-Side Management (DSM) programmes started after the oil crises of the 70's and were adopted by utilities as a standard practice. However, deregulation of the electricity industry threatened DSM. More recent concerns regarding energy dependence and environmental impact of energy use caused renewed attention on the utilities role in energy efficiency fostering. EE is presently a cross-cutting issue, influencing energy policy definition and regulatory activity worldwide. Some instruments for influencing the behaviour of electric utilities in the market are used by regulators, corresponding to both impositions and stimuli, such as defining savings targets or decoupling profits from energy sales. The paper addresses categories of regulatory instruments and refers to examples of countries and regions using these identified categories of instruments. Although some cases show voluntary involvement of utilities in EE promotion on the grounds of customer retention strategies, there is a clear prevalence of regulatory constrained markets where utilities rationally engage in energy efficiency promotion

  8. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... a number of theoretical and managerial implications are identified. From a management point of view, the most im-portant finding is that modularization needs to be configured for the two competitive situations, i.e. 1) the volume flexible configuration focusing on generational product variety and 2......) the mix flexible con-figuration focusing on the simultaneous product variety. These two views are in particular different in respect to the understanding of product modularization. All in all, modularization needs to be, and can be, configured in regard to the specific task, which is believed constituting...

  9. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  10. Modular Flooring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  11. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m"2, the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m"2, the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  12. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  13. Atomic energy policy of Japan, especially plutonium utilization policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity of plutonium use in Japan is discussed. Basic policy regarding plutonium use and future plutonium utilization programme is described including such an aspect as management of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons

  14. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. [Space heating energy demand modeling; Program HEATLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.; Johnson, G.R.; Somervell, W.L. Jr.; Sparling, E.W.; Dreiseitly, E.; Macdonald, B.C.; McGuirk, J.P.; Starr, A.M.

    1976-11-01

    Research conducted between 1 July 1975 and 31 October 1976 is reported. A ''physical-adaptive'' model of the space-conditioning demand for energy and its response to changes in weather regimes was developed. This model includes parameters pertaining to engineering factors of building construction, to weather-related factors, and to socio-economic factors. Preliminary testing of several components of the model on the city of Greeley, Colorado, yielded most encouraging results. Other components, especially those pertaining to socio-economic factors, are still under development. Expansion of model applications to different types of structures and larger regions is presently underway. A CRT-display model for energy demand within the conterminous United States also has passed preliminary tests. A major effort was expended to obtain disaggregated data on energy use from utility companies throughout the United States. The study of atmospheric variability revealed that the 22- to 26-day vacillation in the potential and kinetic energy modes of the Northern Hemisphere is related to the behavior of the planetary long-waves, and that the midwinter dip in zonal available potential energy is reflected in the development of blocking highs. Attempts to classify weather patterns over the eastern and central United States have proceeded satisfactorily to the point where testing of our method for longer time periods appears desirable.

  15. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  16. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  17. Plasma generator utilizing dielectric member for carrying microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklufi, M.E.; Brock, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a system in which electromagnetic energy is used to generate a plasma from a gas. It comprises a reaction chamber which is evacuated to less than ambient pressure and into which the gas is introduced; and a nonconductive member for carrying the electromagnetic energy and for emitting the electromagnetic energy so that a plasma is formed from the gas

  18. Theoretical potential and utilization of renewable energy in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ahmad Ludin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, renewable energy is gaining more attention than other resources for electricity generation in the world. For Afghanistan that has limited domestic production of electric power and is more dependent on the unstable imported power from neighboring countries which pave the way to raise the cost of energy and increased different technical and economic problems. The employment of renewable energy would not only contribute to the independence of energy supply but also can achieve the socio-economic benefits for the country which is trying to rebuild its energy sector with a focus on sustainable energy for its population. From a theoretical point of view, there is a considerable potential of renewable energies such as solar energy, wind power, hydropower, biomass and geothermal energy available in the country. However, despite the presence of widespread non-agricultural and non-residential lands, these resources have not been deployed efficiently. This paper assesses the theoretical potential of the aforementioned types of renewable energies in the country. The study indicates that deployment of renewable energies can not only supplement the power demand but also will create other opportunities and will enable a sustainable energy base in Afghanistan.

  19. Technology utilization and energy efficiency: Lessons learned and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of energy efficiency within the context of economic and environmental policy making is quite complex. Relatively poor economic performance ratings can weaken the validity of some energy supply systems which tend to reduce energy inputs for specific volumes of output, but don't minimize total cost per unit product; and industry is often slow to adopt new technologies, even those proven to reduce total costs. In this paper, the problems connected with growth in energy requirements in relation to product are first examined within the context of world economic performance history. Three key elements are shown to explain the differences in energy intensity and consumption typology among various countries, i.e., availability of energy sources, prices and government policies. Reference is made to the the role of recent energy prices and policies in the United States whose industrialization has been directly connected with the vast availability of some energy sources. In delineating possible future energy scenarios, the paper cites the strong influence of long term capital investment on the timing of the introduction of energy efficient technologies into industrial process schemes. It illustrates the necessity for flexibility in new energy strategies which are to take advantage the opportunities offered by a wide range of alternative energy sources now being made available through technological innovation

  20. Energy and Environment Guide to Action - Chapter 7.0: Electric Utility Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the authorites that state legislatures have granted to PUCs to regulate electricity and reliability, as these authorities directly affect utilities' and customers' investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and CHP.

  1. Energy and Environment Guide to Action - Chapter 7: Electric Utility Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the authorites that state legislatures have granted to PUCs to regulate electricity and reliability, as these authorities directly affect utilities' and customers' investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and CHP.

  2. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  3. Portable modular detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  4. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  5. Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

  6. Implementing Workload Postponing In Cloudsim to Maximize Renewable Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Enida Sheme; Neki Frashëri

    2016-01-01

    Green datacenters has become a major research area among researchers in academy and industry. One of the recent approaches getting higher attention is supplying datacenters with renewable sources of energy, leading to cleaner and more sustainable datacenters. However, this path poses new challenges. The main problem with existing renewable energy technologies is high variability, which means high fluctuation of available energy during different time periods on a day, month or year...

  7. Environmental impacts of of energy exploitation and utilization in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewoye, R. O.

    1999-01-01

    This is the lead paper of the conference and presented by the Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of the Environment. It highlights the significant role of energy in the affairs of mankind, present available energy resources and their contributions to global energy supply. The particular case of Nigeria with its high dependence on fossil fuel, whose development and usage has proved to have significant environmental consequences necessitating the development of adequate strategies for mitigating environmental impacts

  8. Heavier tax burden on energy utilities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostenrijk, A.J.; Van Peer, A.J.M.; Thomas, B.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    In order for the energy market to develop into a market with business economical starting points, competition and free access the Dutch Electric Power Law is revised. Part of the Energy Distribution Law (WED, abbreviated in Dutch) came into effect February 1, 1997. The WED also has far-going fiscal consequences for the energy market and people working in that market. The companies have to pay corporation taxes, are not allowed to activate goodwill and to deduct environmental investments anymore. 2 figs

  9. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method....

  10. Environmental task for energy utilities. Reporting and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    According to the Dutch Energy Distribution Law one of the tasks of energy distribution companies is to stimulate the efficient and environment-friendly use of energy. In order to be able to carry out this legal environmental task energy distribution companies can make use of a specific percentage of the energy tariff. The conditions are formulated in the so-called Environmental Action Plan (MAP, abbreviated in Dutch). The General Auditor in the Netherlands carried out an investigation into the public reporting activities of energy distribution companies with respect to the fore-mentioned legal task and supervision of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in 1997. It is concluded that the supervision of the Ministry shows several inadequacies and that other interested parties would benefit from an improved reporting by the energy distribution companies. The first recommendation (to improve the supervision) is adopted by the Ministry. There is disagreement between the General Auditor and the Association of Energy Distribution Companies (EnergieNed) on the second recommendation. 9 refs

  11. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  12. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  13. Profiles in Renewable Energy: Case Studies of Successful Utility-Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    increasingly interested in acquiring hands-on experience with renewable energy technologies in order to plan establish contracts to purchase QFs' power output at "avoided cost," or the cost that the utility state utility regulations. Utility power purchase contracts, which many projects received under the

  14. The Legal Conditions for Water Utilities Eco-Innovation as Energy Smart Water Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Welfare and green growth rest havely on an appropriate supply of safe water, the provision of adequate sewage, and on energy services. These services are interdependent, as water is an integral part of electric-power generation. Energy is also an integrated part of water services, as satisfying w...

  15. Industrial energy utilization patterns in a developing country: a case study of selected industries in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. (Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia))

    1991-01-01

    Energy utilization patterns in three factories involved in cement production, textile manufacturing, and food processing in Ethiopia are discussed. The study uses data of energy consumption and products to obtain specific energy consumption figures for two of the factories. Results show areas of apparent energy losses and corresponding conservation possibilities. (author).

  16. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  17. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  18. Optimal benefits of utilizing renewable energy technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties, ttherefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged globally and it is possible that China, India, Brazil and South Africa (CIBS) would develop ...

  19. The energy issue. Demand and potentials, utilization, risks, costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinloth, K.

    1997-01-01

    Will the demand for energy be growing or decreasing in future? How are prosperity and energy consumption linked up? How can the CO 2 reduction target announced at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro be achieved? What is the price for ''''benign'''' energy as compared to ''''malignant'''' energy? What is the future contribution to energy supplies that can be expected from renewable energy sources? What are the good and the evil aspects of nuclear energy? These are questions that will sooner or later concern us all, and in any case when it comes to paying the bill for our present squandering. The author Klaus Heinloth, a renown expert in this field, presents with this book a scientifically well-founded and unbiased analysis and source of information that may serve politicians as a basis for objective debates about the future energy policy. Provided with a generous grant by the Heraeus foundation, the author was free to pursue his studies and inquiries independent of industry and relevant associations, and collect, evaluate and analyse the required information. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To meet the rising demand for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the sustainability of human civilization, an environmentally techno – economically feasible waste treatment method is very important to treat waste. Several ...

  1. Valuable technical advice in sale of energy utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The buying and merging of energy companies is a dynamic market. Merging companies is a complex process. The expertise of the Dutch research institute for the electric power industry KEMA can be used to support potential buyers of energy companies [nl

  2. Fusion utilization projections in the United States energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.

    1979-11-01

    The following topics are discussed in some detail in this report: (1) applications of fusion energy, (2) fusion implementation in the US energy system, (3) reactor performance requirements, (4) technology for electric applications, and (5) technology for synthetic fuel/chemical applications

  3. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    ... of employment affects the choice of fuel used for cooking and the type preferred. ... In India, use of biomass. Nigerian Journal of ... of poverty in Nigeria which has favoured the choice of firewood energy ... The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive ... cooking energy and the value of men or women's time.

  4. Biotechnological storage and utilization of entrapped solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sumana; Schiavone, Marc; Nayak, Amiya; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-03-01

    Our laboratory has recently developed a device employing immobilized F0F1 adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that allows synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine 5'-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate using solar energy. We present estimates of total solar energy received by Earth's land area and demonstrate that its efficient capture may allow conversion of solar energy and storage into bonds of biochemicals using devices harboring either immobilized ATPase or NADH dehydrogenase. Capture and storage of solar energy into biochemicals may also enable fixation of CO2 emanating from polluting units. The cofactors ATP and NADH synthesized using solar energy could be used for regeneration of acceptor D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate from 3-phosphoglycerate formed during CO2 fixation.

  5. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, I.; Selg, V.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km 2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  6. Utilization of secondary energy - major uses in the fermentation and beverage industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H J

    1986-01-01

    With 18,5% the fermentation and beverage industry (not including liquors, wine and champagne) has the highest share of energy consumption within the food industry. At the same time, these two branches dispose of high secondary energy potentials which remain to be exploited yet. Secondary energy utilization primarily consists in the economic cooling of wort providing for the utilization of process water (80-82/sup 0/C), utilization of air-containing or air-void water vapors from wort boiling processes for technological heating processes, utilization of refrigerator super-heat enthalpies, the use of energy, conserving high-short heaters for larger units, in particular, and utilization of flue gas enthalpies with gaseous energy sources as the most efficient ones.

  7. Control room conceptual design of nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Qianqian; Qu Ronghong; Zhang Liangju

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual design of the control room layout for the nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors has been developed. The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors may need to be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands to realize the economic efficiency. There are many differences between the multi-modular plant and the current NPPs in the control room. These differences may include the staffing level, the human-machine interface design, the operation mode, etc. The potential challenges of the human factor engineering (HFE) in the control room of the multi-modular plant are analyzed, including the operation workload of the multi-modular tasks, how to help the crew to keep situation awareness of all modules, and how to support team work, the control of shared system between modules, etc. A concept design of control room for the multi-modular plant is presented based on the design aspect of HTR-PM (High temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble bed module). HFE issues are considered in the conceptual design of control room for the multi-modular plant and some design strategies are presented. As a novel conceptual design, verifications and validations are needed, and focus of further work is sketch out. (author)

  8. Modularity and Economic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance to the organ......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...... markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential...

  9. Assessment of the Turkish utility sector through energy and exergy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluating the utility sector in terms of energetic and exergetic aspects. In this regard, energy and exergy utilization efficiencies in the Turkish utility sector over a wide range of period from 1990 to 2004 are assessed in this study. Energy and exergy analyses are performed for eight power plant modes, while they are based on the actual data over the period studied. Sectoral energy and exergy analyses are conducted to study the variations of energy and exergy efficiencies for each power plants throughout the years, and overall energy and exergy efficiencies are compared for these power plants. The energy utilization efficiencies for the overall Turkish utility sector range from 32.64% to 45.69%, while the exergy utilization efficiencies vary from 32.20% to 46.81% in the analyzed years. Exergetic improvement potential for this sector are also determined to be 332 PJ in 2004. It may be concluded that the methodology used in this study is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral and subsectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in the sector studied. It is also expected that the results of this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies

  10. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  11. An overview of biomass energy utilization in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Golusin, Mirjana T. [Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-01-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising the standard of living. Biomass has been used by mankind as an energy source for thousands of years. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Vojvodina. Contribution of the renewable energy sources in the total consumption of energy in Vojvidina is less than 1%, i.e. it amounts to 280 KWh/year. Production of biodiesel in the year 2008 was 0.07 million tons, what is for 133% higher with respect to the production in the year 2007 (0.03 million tons). In Vojvodina, as the raw materials for bioethanol production are seen primarily sugar beet, corn, wheat surpluses, potato surpluses and waste potato, as well as the raw materials intended for these purposes grown on the uncultivated soils, such as hybrid broomcorn, Jerusalem artichoke and triticale. With introduction of new technologies for cultivation and collecting of biomass production of the electrical energy could be raised to 6.4 GWh/m{sup 2} year, what, with retention of the contemporary consumption, would represent the significant 9% of the total consumption in the province. According to programme of realisation of energy strategy of Vojvodina/Serbia in the field of the renewable energy sources for to period till the year 2010 and its completion, till the year 2015, in Vojvodina could be created conditions for the employment of about 24,000 workers, i.e. 4000 employed for maintenance of the newly constructed plants, 17,000 employed on designing and manufacturing of plants and 3000 employed in auxiliary activities. (author)

  12. Information-to-free-energy conversion: Utilizing thermal fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's demon is a hypothetical creature that can convert information to free energy. A debate that has lasted for more than 100 years has revealed that the demon's operation does not contradict the laws of thermodynamics; hence, the demon can be realized physically. We briefly review the first experimental demonstration of Maxwell's demon of Szilard's engine type that converts information to free energy. We pump heat from an isothermal environment by using the information about the thermal fluctuations of a Brownian particle and increase the particle's free energy.

  13. Energy utilization in surface mining project : with case study illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.; De, Amitosh

    1992-01-01

    The importance of reducing energy consumption per tonne of output in the mining projects needs an innovative approach and style to change the behaviour and postures of the technical characteristics. The need for suitable energy policy can not be overlooked with the addition of new large size surface mining projects having a lot of technological development. But the immediate prescription to the problem is to pinpoint specific high energy consuming areas prefixed by thorough diagnosis and followed by deep scientific thought into it. To that extent this paper makes a primary attempt to characterise the various problems. (author). 7 tabs

  14. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  15. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-04-06

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  16. Utilization of geothermal energy for drying fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arason, S.; Arnason, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about industrial uses of geothermal energy for drying of fish products. Drying is an ancient method for preservation of foods, the main purpose of which is to increase the preservation time. For drying, an external source of energy is needed to extract water. In this paper an emphasis is placed on drying fish and associated processes, and how geothermal energy can be used to substitute oil or electricity. The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories have been experimenting with different methods of drying, and several drying stations have been designed for indoor drying of fish products. Today there are more than a dozen companies in this country which are drying fish indoors using for that purpose electricity and/or geothermal energy. Further possibilities are available when fish processing plants are located in geothermal areas

  17. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  18. Environmental accounting and reporting of energy utility companies. Research notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskanen, E.; Heininen, M.; Heurlin, E.; Lovio, R.; Paenkaelaeinen, M.

    1997-09-01

    The research note consists of articles written by a number of authors. The aim of the articles is to describe general development trends of environmental accounting and reporting from the point of view of the energy sector

  19. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukitaka, E-mail: yukitaka@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO{sub 2} direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO{sub 2} electrolysises, and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO{sub 2} emission.

  20. Inverter for interfacing advanced energy sources to a utility grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A transistor is operated in the PWM mode such that a hlaf sine wave of current is delivered first to one-half of a distribution transformer and then the other as determined by steering thyristors operated at the fundamental sinusoidal frequency. Power to the transistor is supplied by a dc source such as a solar array and the power is converted such that a sinusoidal current is injected into a utility at near unity power factor.

  1. Modular Hydropower Engineering and Pilot Scale Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, Phillip C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Emrgy has developed, prototyped and tested a modular hydropower system for renewable energy generation. ORNL worked with Emrgy to demonstrate the use of additive manufacturing in the production of the hydrofoils and spokes for the hydrokinetic system. Specifically, during Phase 1 of this effort, ORNL printed and finished machined patterns for both the hydrofoils and spokes that were subsequently used in a sand casting manufacturing process. Emrgy utilized the sand castings for a pilot installation in Denver, CO, where the parts represented an 80% cost savings from the previous prototype build that was manufactured using subtractive manufacturing. In addition, the castings were completed with ORNL’s newly developed AlCeMg alloy that will be tested for performance improvements including higher corrosion resistance in a water application than the 6160 alloy used previously

  2. Methods of determining incremental energy costs for economic dispatch and inter-utility interchange in Canadian utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, M.E.; El-Hawary, F.; Mbamalu, G.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to ten Canadian utilities to determine the methods the utilities use in determining the incremental cost of delivering energy at any time. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: generation, transmission and general. The generation section dealt with heat rates, fuel, operation and maintenance, startup and shutdown, and method of prioritizing and economic evaluation of interchange transactions. Transmission dealt with inclusion of transmission system incremental maintenance costs, and transmission losses determination. The general section dealt with incremental costs aspects, and various other economic considerations. A summary is presented of responses to the questionnaire

  3. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  4. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  5. Trends and prospects for the energy industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Dr. Bupp notes that income redistribution is the major issue in the energy problem, with energy producers the current winners and consumers the big losers as money in the US flows from the northeast to the south and southwest. Also, the relative political success of allocating gas and oil income is offset by disappointment in the synthetic-fuels, nuclear, and fossil-fuels industries. He feels that some compromise is needed between the free-market advocates and the regulators so that cooperation between the private and public sectors can replace the current stalemate that is creating unacceptable financial burdens. Finally, he observes that serious thought and planning is particularly called for to overcome the inertia in nuclear power policy and to reorder energy budget priorities

  6. Choice of Locations for Wind Energy Utilization With GIS Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kuzevič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using of renewable energy sources, among which we can classify, wind energy, meet the requirements of environmental acceptable. The renewable energy sources have significant role in meeting the targets of Kyoto Protocol and they have very important role in the field of local and regional development and employment. Potential builder of wind plant have to take to consideration many different factors. Power of wind is one of these factors. Wind power can be estimate from measured data at the climatologically stations and airports. Choice of potential locality is by influenced many others factor, such as quantity and parameters obstacles, elevation, accessibility location for building machines, distance from connection of high voltage, etc. For examination locality we can use the GIS tools.

  7. Future nuclear energy utilization in view of the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuendig, M.

    1990-01-01

    The tried and proven system of dividing duties between government and business should be continued. A double 'no', preserving the legal basis for the future use of nuclear energy, should therefore be the answer to the two bills aimed against it in Switzerland. Conservation, research and substitution efforts of private industry can be rewarded by providing the necessary framework. The creation of indirect incentives should further support these efforts, without federal intervention. For this reason and with the same resoluteness, the 'energy article' has to be rejected. (author)

  8. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  9. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-01-01

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  10. How energy derivatives can add value for municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamplen, B.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges that municipal electric utilities (MEUs) face in the new deregulated power market in North America were discussed. This presentation also highlighted the factors that affected the risk that companies in the U.S. Mid-West were exposed to in June 1998. During that time, MEUs had to deal with financial fallouts and price spikes as a result of very high temperatures, generation outages, and transmission line relief. The focus is on price risk and credit risk and how a strong risk management team can be instrumental in avoiding price spikes like those that occurred in June 1998

  11. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  12. Utilization of low-energy electron accelerators in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    There are more than 20 electron accelerators in Korea. Most of those are installed in factories for heat-resistant cables, heat-shrinkable cables, radial tires, foams, tube/ films, curing, etc. Four low-energy electron accelerators are in operation for research purposes such as polymer modification, purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, modification of semiconductor characteristics, etc. (author)

  13. Utilization of low-energy electron accelerators in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Cheol

    2003-01-01

    There are more than 20 electron accelerators in Korea. Most of those are installed in factories for heat-resistant cables, heat-shrinkable cables, radial tires, foams, tube/ films, curing, etc. Four low-energy electron accelerators are in operation for research purposes such as polymer modification, purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, modification of semiconductor characteristics, etc. (author)

  14. Efficient energy management measures in steel industry for economic utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderbir Singh Grewal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy efficient Induction Machines (IM is explained in reference to power consumption savings. In energy efficient IM, losses for various Horse Power (HP ratings are summarized for bringing effective changes in design. Emphasis is laid on how load factor, speed & power quality affect machine’s efficiency. Replacement of conventional IM of higher power rating is done with required energy efficient Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM to enhance the performance at variable speeds near rated power outputs. Results of the proposed approach will give substantial savings in energy & loss reduction. The field data of Jindal Steel Rolling Mill (JSRM at Hisar, Haryana (India is taken into consideration. This paper proposes a non-intrusive air gap torque method for efficiency estimation of in-service IMs. This approach gives results considering stray-load and friction-windage loss according to IEC standard and IEEE112-B standard. The proposed method is validated experimentally whose effectiveness is witnessed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  15. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  16. Specialization can drive the evolution of modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa-Soto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organismal development and many cell biological processes are organized in a modular fashion, where regulatory molecules form groups with many interactions within a group and few interactions between groups. Thus, the activity of elements within a module depends little on elements outside of it. Modularity facilitates the production of heritable variation and of evolutionary innovations. There is no consensus on how modularity might evolve, especially for modules in development. We show that modularity can increase in gene regulatory networks as a byproduct of specialization in gene activity. Such specialization occurs after gene regulatory networks are selected to produce new gene activity patterns that appear in a specific body structure or under a specific environmental condition. Modules that arise after specialization in gene activity comprise genes that show concerted changes in gene activities. This and other observations suggest that modularity evolves because it decreases interference between different groups of genes. Our work can explain the appearance and maintenance of modularity through a mechanism that is not contingent on environmental change. We also show how modularity can facilitate co-option, the utilization of existing gene activity to build new gene activity patterns, a frequent feature of evolutionary innovations.

  17. Development and testing of a digital RF control system and development of a modular data acquisition system for the energy stabilisation of the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, Asim

    2009-01-01

    approximately unchanged. To achieve the required amplitude stability of 8 .10 -5 further improvements to the control algorithm are needed. Within the framework of this thesis, an universal and modular data acquisition system was put into operation, being the basis of an active energy stabilization system for the electron beam by means of time of flight analysis. The required analysing system was designed and installed. First tests showed that relative energy shifts of 7.6.10 -5 can be measured reliably. Meanwhile, the modular data acquisition system is used for diagnostic purposes and for the processing of additional signals. These include the acquisition of beam currents, the monitoring of temperatures and the control of the high-voltage platform. (orig.)

  18. Rational energy use and the gas utility. An economic analysis of energy efficiency strategies on the space heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, C.

    1994-01-01

    Apart from the political authorities, also the supply utilities may contribute to a more widespread rational energy use. This investigtion focuses on the gas utilities, which have a wide range of options for higher energy efficiency, especially on the space heating market. These options are analyzed in the framework of the process of company straategy planning. Particular interest is taken in the product-political strategy of forward integration. (orig.) [de

  19. Making the Connection: Beneficial Collaboration Between Army Installations and Energy Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the Army should be considered. Reduced Adverse Impacts on the Environment Reduce harmful emissions and discharges from energy and fuel use. Conduct...NOTE: “Facilities” consist of cogenerators , other industrial generators, and qualifying facilities that are selling energy to industrial or...acceptable mission and environmental impacts ,6 favorable utility rates, and favor- able renewable energy credits and incentives. Fort Carson partnered

  20. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  1. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  2. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  3. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal......–airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using...... the actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...

  4. Trends in energy 2005. Utility value chain optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fens, T.; IJsbrandy, C.; Van Druten, A.; De Rooij, S.; Van de Rhee, R.; Rookmaaker, J.; Spaans, P.; Pulles, L.

    2005-01-01

    Trends in Energy 2005 has been written around a number of events that were observed in research that was carried out in 2004: the full market opening mid 2004, the likely unbundling of distribution networks in some form, security of supply issues, fuel mix in the generation portfolio and the associated investment strategies, the rise of intelligent metering, certificates of origin for electricity, the most likely movement towards the suppliers model ('leveranciersmodel') and finally emissions management emerging from Kyoto that is coming into force. These events have been interpreted from the perspective of the units in the energy value chain: production, trade, transmission, distribution, metering and sales, the latter is the mostly the direct contact for the end customer

  5. The Utilization of Solar Energy by Way of Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested to produce hydrogen gas by photolytic splitting of water, and to feed it into a hydrogen economy. One approach to obtain good yields in photolysis consist in the application of asymmetric membranes that release the different, reactive, primary products of the photochemical reaction on opposite sides of the membranes so that a back reaction is prevented. Through this solar-chemical option a very large part of the energy needs of mankind could be covered in the long run. (author)

  6. Utilization of solar energy through photosynthesis and artificial water photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    The plants build up organic matter with a carbon content of the order of 1011 t/year by means of photochemistry. Energy farming for the production of liquid or gaseous fuel is discussed. Yet the abiotic photolysis of water with production of hydrogen is preferable. By means of synthetic, asymmetric, photochemically active, membranes the primary products of water photolysis could be spatially separated so that their recombination is prevented.(author)

  7. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil A., E-mail: nafromer@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: diallo@wag.caltech.edu [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  8. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromer, Neil A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies

  9. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, Neil A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2013-11-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  10. Basis for an innovative partnership. City utilities and Swisscom sign an agreement on energy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O.

    1999-01-01

    The seven big Swiss city utilities (IGSS) prepare themselves jointly to the liberalised energy market. Recently, they signed with a delegation of 'Swisscom Immobilien AG' (the building management subsidiary of the largest telecommunication company in Switzerland) an agreement on energy services. This is a win-win opportunity in the long term. Swisscom interest is to find one single competent and efficient partner for the seven cities. Today the company has to make business with 600 different electric utilities for the power supply to its 2000 buildings in Switzerland. The city utilities are interested in offering new energy services [de

  11. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structure; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Pratt, A.; Lunacek, M.; Mittal, S.; Wu, H.; Jones, W.

    2015-06-15

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is not well understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load. used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load.

  12. Service Modularity and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    , platform-based and mass-customized service business models, comparative research designs, customer perspectives and service experience, performance in context of modular services, empirical evidence of benefits and challenges, architectural innovation in services, modularization in multi-provider contexts......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design...

  13. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  14. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  15. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  16. Economic evaluations of fusion-based energy storage systems in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of introducing a fusion energy storage system, which consists of a fusion-fission reactor and a water-splitting process, in an electric utility was investigated. The fusion energy storage system was assumed to be run during off-peak periods in order to make use of unused, low fuel cost capacity of an electric utility. The fusion energy storage system produces both fissile fuel and hydrogen. The produced hydrogen was assumed to be transmitted through and stored in existing natural gas trunklines for later use during peak-load hours. The peaking units in the utility were assumed to burn the hydrogen. Reserve power is usually cheap on systems with heavy nuclear fission reactor installation. The system studied utilizes this cheap energy for producing expensive fuel. The thermochemical water-splitting process was employed to recover thermal energy from the fusion-fission reactor system. The cost of fusion energy storage systems as well as the value of produced fuel were calculated. In order to simulate the operations of the fusion energy storage system for a multi-year planning period, a computer program, FESUT (Fusion Energy Simulation at the University of Texas), was developed for the present study. Two year utility simulations with the fusion energy storage system were performed

  17. Generation and energy utilization of methane form industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebek, M.

    2009-01-01

    At the production site of a natural ingredients manufacturer for the food industry was necessary the adjustment of the WWTP to the enlargement of the production and its complement with a pre-treatment. The core of the treatment plan tis an UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor where the wastewater is removed under anaerobic conditions. The main advantages of this treatment ar the operation stability and the high methane production. The biogas generated is cleaned before it is used during the production process as an energy resource. (Author)

  18. Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

  19. Life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation by comprehensive biogas-digestate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Song, Dan

    2012-06-01

    In the context of global energy shortages and climate change, developing biogas plants with links to agricultural system has become an important strategy for cleaner rural energy and renewable agriculture. In this study, a life-cycle energy and environmental assessment was performed for a biogas-digestate utilization system in China. The results suggest that biogas utilization (heating, illumination, and fuel) and comprehensive digestate reuse are of equal importance in the total energy production of the system, and they also play an important role in systemic greenhouse gas mitigation. Improvement can be achieved in both energy production and emissions mitigation when the ratio of the current three biogas utilization pathways is adjusted. Regarding digestate reuse, a tradeoff between energy and environmental performance can be obtained by focusing on the substitution for top-dressing, base fertilizers, and the application to seed soaking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  1. A Comparative Case Study of Electric Utility Companies’ Use of Energy Democracy in Strategic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan McKasy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial increase in distributed renewable energy resources is changing the face of the energy environment, leading to strategic communication efforts by key stakeholders. The energy democracy movement supports this transformation from fossil fuels to distributed renewable energy and aims for equitable involvement of publics in energy decision making. These tenets challenge utility company earnings as they are directly related to energy sales and infrastructure returns on investment. Proposals by electric utility companies to restructure net-metering policies as a solution to financial issues have been criticized as prohibitive to the success of renewable energy advancement. To address these disagreements, the Edison Electric Institute and a communication firm, Maslansky & Partners, created The Future of Energy: A Working Communication Guide for Discussion. This handbook provides utility companies with strategic communication guidelines to portray themselves as supportive of renewables within a dynamic energy industry. We posit that aspects of the energy democracy movement have been employed by electric utility companies, as shown through the use of the handbook, as a strategy for communicating with customers in discussions around net metering. We examine two case studies in states with recent controversial net-metering policy changes by analyzing utility company websites and press releases for the use of the communication handbook terminology. We found that, in both cases, the suggested language was used to position their companies as pro-renewable energy and their utility-scale projects as more equitable for their customers. In addition, we found differences between each company’s use of key terms from the handbook. We posit that this is due to the temporal context of each net-metering debate at the time of the handbook release. Conclusions and future directions for research in the growing area of energy democracy are discussed.

  2. A Steady-State Analysis Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Connected to Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modular multilevel converters (MMCs have shown great potential in the area of multi-megawatt wind energy conversion system (WECS based on permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. However, the studies in this area are few, and most of them refer to the MMC used in high-voltage direct current (HVDC systems, and hence the characteristics of the PMSG are not considered. This paper proposes a steady-state analysis method for MMCs connected to a PMSG-based WECS. In the proposed method, only the wind speed (operating condition is required as input, and all the electrical quantities in the MMC, including the amplitudes, phase angles and their harmonics, can be calculated step by step. The analysis method is built on the proposed d-q frame mathematical model. Interactions of electrical quantities between the MMC and PMSG are comprehensively considered. Moreover, a new way to calculate the average switching functions are adopted in order to improve the accuracy of the analysis method. Applications of the proposed method are also presented, which includes the characteristic analysis of capacitor voltage ripples and the capacitor sizing. Finally, the accuracy of the method and the correctness of the analysis are verified by simulations and experiments.

  3. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  4. Innovative utilization of renewable energy sources to combat climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju-Jeantly, T.; Nuortio, K.; Hotta, A.; Coda-Zabetta, E.; Palonen, J.; Kokki, S. (Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)), Email: kalle.nuortimo@fwfin.com, Email: arto.hotta@fwfin.com, Email: juha.palonen@fwfin.com, Email: sami.kokki@fwfin.com

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become a difficult challenge for both legislators and technologists. The need to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} has resulted in several new global and local agreements (the Kyoto protocol, Bali agreement etc., EU-emission trading directive) all driving tightening environmental legislation. /1/ Foster Wheeler as a global supplier of power equipment, has taken the challenge to respond to these environmental, social and political challenges. Products such as state-of-the-art boilers and gasifiers for heat and electricity generation from biomass are offered and further developed. Generally, biomass is considered to be a clean renewable energy source. Emissions are lower when firing biomass instead of fossil fuel, and the amount of SO{sub 2} released to the atmosphere is minimal due to the low sulfur content of the fuel. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions are zero. /2/ Even though biomass can locally have a fairly large contribution in energy production, it will not be a global solution alone to mitigate the climate problem. Biomass currently accounts for about 10 % of world primary energy use, two thirds of which is used for small scale cooking and heating in developing countries. Biomass production is subject to a range of sustainability constraints, such deforestation etc. Coal will remain an important source for energy also in the future. Therefore it is important to develop clean coal solutions. The first, already existing solutions is to burn coal in high efficiency large Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers and cofire biomass. This way the biomass can be burned with much better efficiency than in small biomass fired plants. The co-firing of biomass in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) power plant will even enable a carbon negative solution for coal firing. The future solution will be CCS. A possible future solution to combat global warming and ensure sustainable power production can be large power plants fuelled by algae combined with CCS. Algae

  5. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  6. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  7. History of, and recent progress in, wind-energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1995-01-01

    This review presents the current status of wind turbine technology and recent advances in understanding the long history of wind energy. Reasons for the convergence of technologies solutions towards a horizontal axis concept with two or three blades are discussed, and the advances in materials science are identified as determinants of the change toward increasing optimum turbine size. The modest environmental impacts of wind turbines are illustrated by recent life-cycle analyses, and the economic incentive structure and power buy-back rates in different countries are invoked to explain the variation in wind technology penetration in countries with similar resource potentials. Finally, the possible future role of wind technology is discussed, based on resource estimates, competing land demands, government commitments and technological trends, including the recent offshore wind farm developments. 83 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Energy utilization under different dietary regime in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, M.A.H.

    1982-01-01

    The present system of ruminant nutrition in egypt depends upon the agroindustrial by - products, crop residues and limited quantities of green fodders. Any future development will come through introducing non-traditional materials in ruminant rations and through benefiting from the recent scientific developments occurred in our understanding to the ruminal and post-ruminal digestion. Four rations, were tested throughout the present investigation, these diets consisted of molasses as low-cost, readily fermentable source of energy and as a good carrier for urea, and rice straw . On this diet the supply of amino acids may not be sufficient for moderate production levels by the animals.Hence, amino acids shortage and imbalance, in such animals has had to be expected

  9. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  10. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  11. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  12. Pumped hydroelectric storage utilization assessment: Forerunner of renewable energy integration or Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    KOUGIAS IOANNIS; SZABO SANDOR

    2017-01-01

    Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is the main utility-scale storage technology. Although PHS systems generally constitute a fraction of generation, they receive increasing attention due to their potential balancing role towards higher penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES). In the European context it is widely believed that PHS are key elements of the ongoing energy transition. The present analysis examines if this assumption is valid and PHS utilization grows parallel to RES...

  13. Energy utilization associated with regular activity breaks and continuous physical activity: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenemor, S P; Homer, A R; Perry, T L; Skeaff, C M; Peddie, M C; Rehrer, N J

    2018-06-01

    To quantify and compare energy utilization associated with prolonged sitting alone, or interrupted with regular activity breaks and/or an additional bout of continuous physical activity. Thirty six adults (11 males, BMI 24.1 ± 4.6) completed four interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with 2-min of walking every 30 min (RAB), (3) prolonged sitting with 30-min of continuous walking at the end of the day (SIT + PA), (4) a combination of the activities in (2) and (3) above (RAB + PA). All walking was at a speed and incline corresponding to 60% V̇O 2max . Energy utilization over 7 h for each intervention was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Compared to SIT, SIT + PA increased total energy utilization by 709 kJ (95% CI 485-933 kJ), RAB by 863 kJ (95% CI 638-1088 kJ), and RAB + PA by 1752 kJ (95% CI 1527-1927 kJ) (all p energy utilization between SIT + PA and RAB, however, post-physical activity energy utilization in RAB was 632 kJ greater than SIT + PA (95% CI 561-704 kJ; p energy utilization compared to a single bout of continuous activity; however the total energy utilization is similar. Combining activity breaks with a longer continuous bout of activity will further enhance energy utilization, and in the longer term, may positively affect weight management of a greater magnitude than either activity pattern performed alone. ANZCTR12614000624684. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Utilization of Classifications in High-Energy Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Bill

    2012-03-01

    The history of high-energy gamma observations stretches back several decades. But it was with the launch of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) in 1991 onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) [1], that the field entered a new era of discovery. At the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, incoming particles of light, photons, interact with matter mainly by producing electron-positron pairs and this process dominates above an energy of 10-30MeV depending on the material. To a high degree the directionality of the incoming gamma ray is reflected in the e+ and e-, and hence the detection of the trajectories of the e+e- pair can be used to infer the direction of the originating photon. Measuring these high-energy charged particles is the domain of high-energy particle physics and so it should be of little surprise that particle physicists played a significant role in the design and construction of EGRET, as well as the design and implementation of analysis methods for the resulting data. Prior to EGRET, only a handful of sources in the sky were known as high-energy gamma-ray emitters. During EGRET's 9-years mission the final catalog included over 270 sources including new types such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). This set the stage for the next-generation mission, the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) [2]. Very early in the EGRET mission, the realization that the high-energy gamma-ray sky was extremely interesting led to a competition to develop the next-generation instruments. The technology used in EGRET was frozen in the late 1970s and by 1992, enormous advances had been made in experimental particle physics. In particular the effort to develop solid state detectors, targeted for use at the Super Conducting Super Collider (SSC), had made the technology of silicon strip detectors (SSDs) commercially viable for use in large area arrays. Given the limitations imposed by the space environment (e.g., operate in a vacuum, scarce

  15. Guide for biogas energy utilization in Hokkaido; Hokkaido bio gas energy riyo guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of smoothly introducing biogas plants to Hokkaido in the future, the following were conducted: collection of the data on samples of development/introduction of biogas plants, survey of the organizations concerned, etc., study of economical efficiency, etc. Those were arranged as a guide for biogas energy utilization in Hokkaido. In the biogas plant, organic matters such as animal faces, garbage, etc. are anaerobicly fermented at medium temperatures between 35 and 38 degrees C or at about 55 degrees C to obtain biogas including methane gas of approximately 60%. From this gas, heat is obtained by gas boiler, and also electricity and heat are obtained by gas cogeneration or fuel cells. In the case of introducing the biogas plant using animal faces as raw material in Hokkaido, it is important to cover all the electricity and heat used to maintain the plant with the biogas obtained, from a viewpoint of economical efficiency. In the present situation, it is the most economical for each farmer to introduce an individual plant to be installed and to obtain the power generated and heat. (NEDO)

  16. Geothermal energy resources of the USSR and their utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, W

    1961-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the areas with the highest geothermal gradient are found in the region of Kamchatka, in the Kuriles, and in western Turkmenia. Test drilling in Kamchatka has produced hot water at a temperature of 200/sup 0/C from a depth of 100-300 m. If a pressure of 300-400 kPa is maintained, the wells can bring the fluids to the surface as a two-phase mixture of steam and hot water. In 1961, plans were being made for the construction of a 12 MW power plant and several greenhouses. Other heat sources were being developed to heat the city of Petropavlovsk. In the northern Cauacasus, hot water is encountered only at depths greater than about 2.5 km, but the quantity available is sufficient to provide the heating needs of several major cities. In the Republic of Daghestan, test drilling has revealed hot water sources which are pressurized to 1.6 MPa, and which produce at a rate of 100 m/sup 3//h. Enormous geothermal energy resources are located in artesian reservoirs beneath western Siberia, over an extent of 3 million km/sup 2/.

  17. Studies on functional polymer films utilizing low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Also in adhesives and tackifiers, with the expansion of the fields of application, the required characteristics have become high grade and complex. As one of them, the instantaneous hardening of adhesives can be taken up. In the field of lamination works, the low energy type electron beam accelerators having the linear filament of accelerating voltage below 300 kV were developed in 1970s, and the interest in the development of electron beam-handened adhesives has heightend. The authors have carried out research aiming at heightening the functions of the polymer films obtained by electron beam hardening reaction, and developed the adhesives. In this report, the features of electron beam hardening reaction, the structure and properties of electron beam-hardened polymer films and the molecular design of electron beam-hardened monomer oligomers are described. The feature of electron beam hardening reaction is the cross-linking of high degree as the structure of oligomers is maintained. By controlling the structure at the time of electron beam hardening, the heightening of the functions of electron beam-hardened polymer films is feasible. (K.I.)

  18. Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies was evaluated. The input data were derived from assessment of existing biogas systems, present knowledge on anaerobic digestion process management and technologies for biogas system operating conditions in Germany. The energy balance was evaluated as Primary Energy Input to Output (PEIO) ratio, to assess the process energy efficiency, hence, the potential sustainability. Results indicate that the PEIO correspond to 10.5-64.0% and 34.1-55.0% for single feedstock digestion and feedstock co-digestion, respectively. Energy balance was assessed to be negative for feedstock transportation distances in excess of 22 km and 425 km for cattle manure and for Municipal Solid Waste, respectively, which defines the operational limits for respective feedstock transportation. Energy input was highly influenced by the characteristics of feedstock used. For example, agricultural waste, in most part, did not require pre-treatment. Energy crop feedstock required the respect cultivation energy inputs, and processing of industrial waste streams included energy-demanding pre-treatment processes to meet stipulated hygiene standards. Energy balance depended on biogas yield, the utilization efficiency, and energy value of intended fossil fuel substitution. For example, obtained results suggests that, whereas the upgrading of biogas to biomethane for injection into natural gas network potentially increased the primary energy input for biogas utilization by up to 100%; the energy efficiency of the biogas system improved by up to 65% when natural gas was substituted instead of electricity. It was also found that, system energy efficiency could be further enhanced by 5.1-6.1% through recovery of residual biogas from enclosed digestate storage units. Overall, this study provides bases for more detailed assessment

  19. Energy and exergy analysis at the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Sattar, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Abdessalam, H.; Shahruan, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, sectoral energy and exergy analysis model is applied to the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia by considering the energy and exergy flows from 1990 to 2003. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the sub-sectors and devices used in these two sectors. It has been found the hydroelectric power plant sub-sector is more energy and exergy efficient compared to the thermal power plant sub-sector. The energy and exergy efficiencies of utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are compared with a few other countries around the world as well. The utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are found to be more efficient than that of Thailand, Brunei, China, and Vietnam in 1999

  20. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  2. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  3. [Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In our second year of current funding cycle, we have investigated the Ar diffusion properties and microstructures of K-feldspars and the application of domain theory to natural K-feldspars. We completed a combined TEM and argon diffusion study of the effect of laboratory heat treatment on the microstructure and kinetic properties of K-feldspar. We conclude in companion papers that, with one minor exception, no observable change in the diffusion behavior occurs during laboratory extraction procedures until significant fusion occurs at about 1100 degrees C. The effect that is observed involves a correlation between the homogenization of cryptoperthite lamelle and the apparent increase in retentivity of about 5% of the argon in the K-feldspar under study. We can explain this effect of both as an artifact of the experiment or the loss of a diffusion boundary. Experiments are being considered to resolve this question. Refinements have been made to our experimental protocol that appears that greatly enhance the retrieval of multi-activation energies from K-feldspars. We have applied the multi-domain model to a variety of natural environments (Valles Caldera, Red River fault, Appalachian basin) with some surprising results. Detailed 40 Ar/ 39 Ar coverage of the Red River shear zone, thought to be responsible for the accommodation of a significant fraction of the Indo-Asian convergence, strongly suggests that our technique can precisely date both the termination of ductile strike-slip motion and the initiation of normal faulting. Work has continued on improving our numerical codes for calculating thermal histories and the development of computer based graphing tools has significantly increased our productivity

  4. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravena Santos Raulino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of vibration during interval training would raise oxygen consumption VO2 to the extent necessary for weight management and to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus for prescribing the exercise program in question. METHODS: VO2, measured breath by breath, was evaluated at rest and during the four experimental conditions to determine energy expenditure, metabolic equivalent MET, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat, and rate of fat oxidation. Eight young sedentary females age 22±1 years, height 163.88± 7.62 cm, body mass 58.35±10.96 kg, and VO2 max 32.75±3.55 mLO2.Kg-1.min-1 performed interval training duration = 13.3 min to the upper and lower limbs both with vibration 35 Hz and 2 mm, 40 Hz and 2 mm, 45 Hz and 2 mm and without vibration. The experimental conditions were randomized and balanced at an interval of 48 hours. RESULTS: the addition of vibration to exercise at 45 Hz and 2 mm resulted in an additional increase of 17.77±12.38% of VO2 compared with exercise without vibration. However, this increase did not change the fat oxidation rate p=0.42 because intensity of exercise 29.1±3.3 %VO2max, 2.7 MET was classified as mild to young subjects. CONCLUSION: despite the influence of vibration on VO2 during exercise, the increase was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not reach the minimum recommendation of exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.

  5. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from “purely” sensible to “hybrid” sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating...

  6. Modularization and Flexibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, R. M.

    Publications in the fields of educational science, organization theory, and project management were analyzed to identify the possibilities that modularization offers to institutions of higher professional education and to obtain background information for use in developing a method for modularization in higher professional education. It was…

  7. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  8. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  9. Unutilized energy utilizing systems. ; Power and levelling measures and unutilized energies. Miriyo energy katsuyo system. ; Denryoku fuka heijunka taisaku to miriyo energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuromoto, E. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-12

    This paper explains quantitatively performance of heat storage tanks contributing largely to levelling power loads, and promoting and spreading more effective use of unutilized energies. A model case was used to compare differences in effectiveness of unutilized energy utilization with and without use of heat storage tanks. The heat demand used was a value in a day with a peak room cooling demand, and a heat supply system using water heat source heat pumps that utilize sewage treated water was used to manufacture cold water. As a result, the effective utilization rate of unutilized energy was increased to about 1.3 times when heat storage tanks were used. Effectiveness of a heat storage tank comes from its capability that excess amount of cold water manufactured during nighttime when heat demand falls by utilizing sewage treated water is stored in the heat storage tank, and the stored cold water can be supplied being mixed with cold water manufactured during daytime when heat demand rises sharply in daytime. Because sewage treated water has its annual temperature difference stabilized at about 10[degree]C, a heat pump utilizing the sewage treated water can reduce power required to produce heat of 1 Gcal by about 40% during room heating and about 15% during room cooling over the heating tower type heat pump. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Basic plan of the development and utilization of atomic energy in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission reported to the prime minister on March 28, 1980, on the basic plan of the development and utilization of atomic energy in 1980 that it was decided as the original draft of the plan. This draft of the basic plan in 1980 was referred to the Nuclear Safety Commission on March 27, 1980. Japan relies the most of primary energy upon imported petroleum, therefore it is important to save oil consumption and to promote the development and utilization of substitute energy to petroleum. The development and utilization of atomic energy must be promoted as the most important subject in energy policy, because it is the most promising substitute energy. The scale of the total nuclear power generation in Japan is 35 plants with about 28 million kW capacity, including those under construction and in preparation. But owing to the difficulty in the location of new plants, the attainment of 1985 target is behind schedule. The development and utilization of atomic energy are in progress in Japan, but more efforts to promote them are necessary. Japan contributes positively to the formation of the new order based on the results of INFCE. As for the basic policy in 1980, the strengthening of the measures to secure safety, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of new power reactors, the research and development of nuclear fusion, the promotion of the utilization of radiation and others are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  11. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  12. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis...... identified structure within the literature, which revealed how the research area evolved between 1990 and 2015. Based on this search, the paper establishes the basis for analyzing the structure of modularity literature. Findings Factors were identified within the literature, demonstrating how it has evolved...... from a primary focus on the modularity of products to a broader view of the applicability of modularity. Within the last decade, numerous research areas have emerged within the broader area of modularity. Through core-periphery analysis, eight emerging sub-research areas are identified, of which one...

  13. Designing Modular Robotic Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Marti, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the design of modular robotic objects that may enhance playful experiences. The approach builds upon the development of modular robotics to create a kind of playware, which is flexible in both set-up and activity building for the end-user to allow easy creation of games....... Key features of this design approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, activity design by end-users, and creative exploration of play activities. These features permit the use of such modular playware by a vast array of users, including disabled...... children who often could be prevented from using and taking benefits from modern technologies. The objective is to get any children moving, exchanging, experimenting and having fun, regardless of their cognitive or physical ability levels. The paper describes two prototype systems developed as modular...

  14. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  15. Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Simon; Baerny, Jennifer K.; Mattor, Nathan; Stoulil, Don; Miller, Ronald; Marston, Theodore

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of an energy source whose reactants are plentiful and whose products are benign is hard to measure, but at no time in history has this energy source been more needed. Nuclear fusion continues to promise to be this energy source. However, the path to market for fusion systems is still regularly a matter for long-term (20 + year) plans. This white paper is intended to stimulate discussion of faster commercialization paths, distilling guidance from investors, utilities, and the wider energy research community (including from ARPA-E). There is great interest in a small modular fusion system that can be developed quickly and inexpensively. A simple model shows how compact modular fusion can produce a low cost development path by optimizing traditional systems that burn deuterium and tritium, operating not only at high magnetic field strength, but also by omitting some components that allow for the core to become more compact and easier to maintain. The dominant hurdles to the development of low cost, practical fusion systems are discussed, primarily in terms of the constraints placed on the cost of development stages in the private sector. The main finding presented here is that the bridge from DOE Office of Science to the energy market can come at the Proof of Principle development stage, providing the concept is sufficiently compact and inexpensive that its development allows for a normal technology commercialization path.

  16. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  17. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from "purely" sensible to "hybrid" sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating the porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactions are accompanied by significant heat effects, or by manufacturing them entirely of such oxides. In this way solar heat produced during on-sun operation can be used (in addition to sensibly heating the porous solid) to power the endothermic reduction of the oxide from its state with the higher metal valence to that of the lower; the thermal energy can be entirely recovered by the reverse exothermic oxidation reaction (in addition to sensible heat) during off-sun operation. Such sensible and thermochemical storage concepts were tested on a solar-irradiated receiver- heat storage module cascade for the first time. Parametric studies performed so far involved the comparison of three different SiC-based receivers with respect to their capability of supplying solar-heated air at temperatures sufficient for the reduction of the oxides, the effect of air flow rate on the temperatures achieved within the storage module, as well as the comparison of different porous storage media made of cordierite with respect to their sensible storage capacity.

  18. Numerical investigation of the energy performance of an Opaque Ventilated Façade system employing a smart modular heat recovery unit and a latent heat thermal energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, Thierno M.O.; Zhao, Xudong; Dugue, Antoine; Bonnamy, Paul; Javier Miguel, Francisco; Martinez, Asier; Theodosiou, Theodoros; Liu, Jing-Sheng; Brown, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An innovative E2VENT ventilated façade system is presented and modelled with TRNSYS. •The energy efficiency of the system is assessed for five climates in Europe. •The E2VENT retrofitting system is compared with a traditional retrofit method. •The E2VENT system achieves 16.5–23.5% primary energy saving. •The E2VENT system saves twice as much primary energy as the traditional retrofit. -- Abstract: The building sector is responsible for more than 40% of the EU’s total energy consumption. To reduce the energy consumption in buildings and to achieve the EU’s fossil fuel saving targets for 2020 and beyond 2050, the energy efficient retrofitting strategies are critically important and need to be implemented effectively. This paper presents a dynamic numerical investigation of the energy performance of an innovative façade integrate-able energy efficient ventilation system (E2VENT) that incorporates a smart modular heat recovery unit (SMHRU) and a latent heat thermal energy system (LHTES). A number of component simulation models, including SMHRU, LHTES, Cladding and Building Energy Management System (BEMS), were developed and then integrated using the TRNSYS software which is an advanced building energy performance simulation tool. On this basis, sizing, optimisation and characterisation of the system elements including the HVAC system and insulation layer thickness were carried out. The overall energy efficiency of the E2VENT system and its impact on the energy performance of a post-retrofit building were then investigated. In particular, the heating and cooling energy performance of the E2VENT façade module was numerically studied at five different climatic conditions in Europe. Furthermore, the innovative E2VENT retrofitting was compared with traditional retrofittings in terms of the energy efficiency and primary energy savings. It was found that the innovative E2VENT solution can achieve 16.5–23.5% building primary energy saving and

  19. Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.

  20. High-Voltage DC-DC Converter Topology for PV Energy Utilization - Investigation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploited the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) energy system with high-voltage (HV) output DC-DC converter. Classical boost converters are used for both renewable energy integration and HV applications, but limited by reducing output/efficiency in performance. Moreover, as parasitic...... elements suppress the power transfer ratio, converter needs to maximize the PV energy utilization. This investigation study focused to include additional parasitic elements (voltage-lift technique) to a standard DC-DC buck converter and to overcome all the above drawbacks to maximize the PV power...

  1. Analysis of energy and materials utilization for packaging liquid basic and luxury foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebersbach, K F

    1981-01-01

    By the help of the product 'packaging' the quantities of the energy and materials used are demonstrated analytically within the single stages of the production and utilization of these goods. Alternatives for a better utilization of energy and materials are to be demonstrated. - A methodology for setting up analyses and alternatives is to be introduced which a) is generally accepted in investigations of this kind and b) permits controlled measures for improving the energy and materials balances. Several considerations made the authors select the packagings for beer and soft drinks as the subjects of the project. The usual packagings for these beverages are dealt with.

  2. Indirect Measurement of Energy Density of Soft PZT Ceramic Utilizing Mechanical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruan, Muangjai; Unruan, Sujitra; Inkong, Yutthapong; Yimnirun, Rattikorn

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on an indirect measurement of energy density of soft PZT ceramic utilizing mechanical stress. The method works analogous to the Olsen cycle and allows for a large amount of electro-mechanical energy conversion. A maximum energy density of 350 kJ/m3/cycle was found under 0-312 MPa and 1-20 kV/cm of applied mechanical stress and electric field, respectively. The obtained result is substantially higher than the results reported in previous studies of PZT materials utilizing a direct piezoelectric effect.

  3. Energy bill of the municipal utilities at Heerlen: part of the customers' information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poell, W A.G.

    1980-11-01

    A new invoice form now being sent to customers of the combined municipal utilities in Heerlen, Netherlands, provides customers with information that will encourage them to conserve energy. Changes in the invoice involve the utilities' internal operating procedure as well as the annual energy bill and the monthly installment invoice. To make the customer energy-conscious and aware of the effect of conservation measures, the bill states for purposes of comparison the annual consumption of the preceding period. The gas-consumption-related figures appearing on the bill have been modified to account for the calorific value and the ambient temperature in the corresponding period.

  4. Rational energy utilization and utilization of solar energy in the open-air swimming pool and in the multiple purpose hall at Wiehl. Final report. Pt. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillon, H; Jensch, K; Pentenrieder, J; Biasin, K; Dreisbach, K; Fruehauf, H J

    1982-12-01

    The test operation in Wiehl has shown that the waste heat utilization of an ice-sport ground especially in connection with the heat supply of an open-air swimming pool can be technically and functionally performed. Unter the given operating conditions annual cost savings of approx. 45.000 DM are yielded as against conventional systems. In addition to this advantage regarding works-economy the heat pump system also offers the advantage of considerable primary energy conservation. Apart from these very important findings also essential knowledge of details with regard to design, control, energy consumption and behaviour of the individual systems of this complex system have been obtained.

  5. Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ► We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ► We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ► We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ► Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ► Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

  6. Possibilities and Barriers for Energy Conservation in a Liberalised Electricity Market: Danish Utility Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1999-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets in Europe is in progress. The expressed goal is to promote efficiency through commercial competition, with lower energy prices for consumers as a consequence. This priority raises some complex questions in relation to the desire of creating a sustainable energy...... a sustainable energy development in efficiency and energy conservation. The electric utilities play an important role in this relation, but their priority is of commercial nature rather than concern for the environment. This dilemma is analyzed in more detail in the paper....

  7. Analysis of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet with indirect combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiang; Cheng, Kunlin; Zhang, Silong; Zhang, Duo; Bao, Wen; Han, Jiecai

    2016-01-01

    The working process of scramjet with regenerative cooling, which was actually the chemical recuperation process, was analyzed in view of energy cascade utilization. The indirect combustion was realized through pyrolysis reaction of fuel. The relative yields of thermal exergy obtained by indirect combustion have been predicted both assuming an ideal pyrolysis reaction and using the experimental results of thermal pyrolysis of n-decane. The results showed that the influence mechanism of regenerative cooling improved the scramjet engine performance by the energy cascade utilization, and the combustion process was supposed to be designed with the cooling process together to utilize the chemical energy of fuel in a more effective way. A maximum value of 11% of the relative yield was obtained with the ideal pyrolysis reaction while a value less than 3% existed in the thermal pyrolysis experiments because of the domination of chemical kinetics rather than chemical thermodynamics in the real experiments. In spite of the difference between the ideal and the present experimental results, the indirect combustion was prospective to achieve a better energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet if the pyrolysis reaction was further optimized. The results in this paper were beneficial for the performance optimization of a regenerative cooling scramjet. - Highlights: • A new method of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet. • 11% exergy loss is reduced by ideal pyrolysis reaction with indirect combustion. • Regenerative cooling with chemical recuperation can improve engine performance.

  8. Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Jones, Pierce H.; Kipp, M. Jennison

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation

  9. Modular cogeneration for commercial light industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhuja, R.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of gas utilities' efforts to market small cogeneration systems could be helpful to entrepreneurs now venturing into this area. Orders have been placed with Thermo Electron, USA for 15 Tecogen modular cogeneration units. Applications range from an airline catering kitchen to a university swimming pool. 5 figures, 1 table.

  10. A Comparison of Modular Verification Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Maretti, Niels

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents and compares three techniques for mechanized verification of state oriented design descriptions. One is a traditional forwardgeneration of a fixed point characterizing the reachable states. The two others can utilize a modular structure provided by the designer. Onerequires...

  11. Modular sequent calculi for classical modal logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, David; Maffezioli, Paolo

    This paper develops sequent calculi for several classical modal logics. Utilizing a polymodal translation of the standard modal language, we are able to establish a base system for the minimal classical modal logic E from which we generate extensions (to include M, C, and N) in a modular manner. Our

  12. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  13. Energy utilities and environment-related energy services in the year 2008. Scenario study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    Insight is given into of the developments in the sector energy distribution companies and the consequences for the demand for energy services. Next, an overview is given of which energy services should be developed to meet the changed needs of the market. Three scenarios have been set up and are discussed in this brochure: (1) a Steady State scenario (unchanged policy of energy distribution companies); (2) Alliance scenario (strategic cooperation between energy distribution companies and retailers and installation businesses); and (3) Autonomous Development scenario (energy distribution companies develop and offer new services)

  14. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  15. Business model innovation for Local Energy Management: a perspective from Swiss utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Facchinetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful deployment of the energy transition relies on a deep reorganization of the energy market. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver of this process. This work contributes to this topic by providing to potential Local Energy Management stakeholders and policy makers a conceptual framework guiding the Local Energy Management business model innovation. The main determinants characterizing Local Energy Management concepts and impacting its business model innovation are identified through literature reviews on distributed generation typologies and customer/investor preferences related to new business opportunities emerging with the energy transition. Afterwards, the relation between the identified determinants and the Local Energy Management business model solution space is analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with managers of Swiss utilities companies. The collected managers’ preferences serve as explorative indicators supporting the business model innovation process and provide insights to policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management.

  16. Cultivation of energy crops. Environmental impacts, competitive utilization and potentials; Anbau von Energiepflanzen. Umweltauswirkungen, Nutzungskonkurrenzen und Potenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2013-04-15

    This background paper under consideration reports on the utilization of energy crops with regard to energy supply and climate change. Energy crops are renewable plants which are grown only for energy utilization. The harvested biomass is prepared for the power supply, heat supply and fuel supply by means of different usage paths.

  17. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  18. Biomass energy and the environmental impacts associated with its production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass is the first-ever fuel used by humankind and is also the fuel which was the mainstay of the global fuel economy till the middle of the 18th century. Then fossil fuels took over because fossil fuels were not only more abundant and denser in their energy content, but also generated less pollution when burnt, in comparison to biomass. In recent years there is a resurgence of interest in biomass energy because biomass is perceived as a carbon-neutral source of energy unlike net carbon-emitting fossil fuels of which copious use has led to global warming and ocean acidification. The paper takes stock of the various sources of biomass and the possible ways in which it can be utilized for generating energy. It then examines the environmental impacts, including impact vis a vis greenhouse gas emissions, of different biomass energy generation-utilization options. (author)

  19. Active pipe-embedded structures in buildings for utilizing low-grade energy sources: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Jinbo; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade energy sources such as geothermal energy, favorable ambient air and industrial waste heat etc. exist widely. Sufficient utilization of these low-grade energy sources may reduce our daily dependence on high-grade energy sources such as electricity resulting in reduced emission of green house gas for environmental conservation. Active pipe-embedded structure as floor/ceiling usually with water as the medium to carry heat or coolth may utilize these low-grade energy sources for providing space air-conditioning. Compact arrangement of pipes in the structure may significantly enlarge heat transfer surface between the slab mass and water in the pipe allowing substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. Application of the heat or coolth storage capacity of this structure for preheating or pre-cooling is also one among the advantages of this structure for shifting load and exploiting the nighttime cheap electricity tariff in some regions. This paper presents the technology of the active pipe-embedded structure for utilizing widely existing low-grade energy sources following by a comprehensive review on the heat transfer calculation models of this structure and its practical applications in real building systems for space air-conditioning. This review shows that more works on the active structure, especially simple and transient models for dynamic and accurate performance prediction and easy integration with existing building energy simulation packages, are worthwhile for further promoting the practical application wherever the low-grade energy sources are favorable. (author)

  20. Present status of nuclear energy development and utilization in Japan 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    Today, world energy demands continue to increase, and over the middle and long-term, access to petroleum supplies may become difficult. At the same time, such serious environmental problems as global warming and acid rain, which are caused by the burning of fossil fuels, have drawn great public attention, and the international community has urged that solutions to them should be found. Because nuclear power offers an economically efficient, stable supply of energy whose production has little adverse effect on the environment, the world has recognized the necessity of continuing to develop and use it. The changing international political situation, however, has complicated nuclear energy matters. In Japan, particularly the collapse of the former Soviet Union and North Korea's announcement of its intention to withdraw from the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty have been cause for concern. Under these circumstances, it has become increasingly important for Japan to secure stable sources of energy, since Japan is dependent on imports for its energy supply. To that end, Japan has steadily promoted the development and utilization of nuclear energy. In fiscal 1992, nuclear power accounted for 28.2 % of the total power generated by Japanese electric utilities. Japan has also worked steadily to develop a nuclear fuel cycle, which is important to the long-term stability of the energy supply. This publication describes the present status of nuclear energy development and utilization in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  1. Modular programming method at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Katsuragi, Satoru

    1982-02-01

    In this report the histories, concepts and a method for the construction and maintenance of nuclear code systems of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are presented. The method is mainly consisted of novel computer features. The development process of the features and experiences with them which required many man-months and efforts of scientists and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer are also described. One of the features is a file handling program named datapool. The program is being used in code systems which are under development at JAERI. The others are computer features such as dynamic linking, reentrant coding of Fortran programs, interactive programming facility, document editor, quick system output viewer and editor, flexible man-machine interactive Fortran executor, and selective use of time-sharing or batch oriented computer in an interactive porgramming environment. In 1980 JAERI has replaced its two old computer systems by three FACOM M-200 computer systems and they have such features as mentioned above. Since 1981 most code systems, or even big single codes can be changed to modular code systems even if the developers or users of the systems will not recognize the fact that they are using modular code systems. The purpose of this report is to describe our methodology of modular programming from aspects of computer features and some of their applications to nuclear codes to get sympathetic understanding of it from persons of organizations who are concerned with the effective use of computers, especially, in nuclear research fields. (author)

  2. 10th World Energy Conference. Division 2. Conservation in energy utilization. [30 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 papers and a position paper. All of the abstracts will appear both in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  3. Enhancing the utilization of photovoltaic power generation by superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Kumar, P.; Foreman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system can enhance large scale utilization of PV generation. With SMES support, power generated from PV arrays van be fully utilized under different weather conditions and PV penetrations can be increased to significant levels without causing adverse effects to the power system. Coupled with PV generation, a SMES system is even more effective in performing diurnal load leveling. A coordinated PV/SMES operation scheme is proposed and demonstrated under different weather conditions

  4. Basic plans of nuclear energy development and utilization for fiscal 1982 (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Commission to the Prime Minister, concerning the basic plans of nuclear energy development and utilization for fiscal 1982, was presented; the NSC has decided on the plans drawn up by the Prime Minister. Nuclear power generation as the nucleus of petroleum substitutes must be developed steadily. For the purpose, nuclear fuel cycle should be established, including the securing of uranium resources, uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing, and waste management. The contents are as follows: the strengthening of nuclear safety measures, the promotion of nuclear power generation, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of advanced types of reactors, the research on nuclear fusion, the research and development of nuclear powered ships, the promotion of radiation utilization, the strengthening of basis for nuclear energy development and utilization, the promotion of international cooperation, the strengthening of safeguard and nuclear material protection measures, fiscal 1982 budgets related to nuclear energy. (Mori, K.)

  5. Analyses of Public Utility Building - Students Designs, Aimed at their Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Marek Adam

    2017-10-01

    Public utility buildings are formally, structurally and functionally complex entities. Frequently, the process of their design involves the retroactive reconsideration of energy engineering issues, once a building concept has already been completed. At that stage, minor formal corrections are made along with the design of the external layer of the building in order to satisfy applicable standards. Architecture students do the same when designing assigned public utility buildings. In order to demonstrate energy-related defects of building designs developed by students, the conduct of analyses was proposed. The completed designs of public utility buildings were examined with regard to energy efficiency of the solutions they feature through the application of the following programs: Ecotect, Vasari, and in case of simpler analyses ArchiCad program extensions were sufficient.

  6. Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, P.; Svensson, I.L.; Trygg, L.

    2010-01-01

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

  7. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    . Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance

  8. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  9. Economics of the modular reactor as new-generation nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1987-01-01

    This paper lists thirteen advantages which could be effectuated by modular reactors. These advantages are derived basically from the general attributes of modularization, i.e., continuity of production, smallness of size/capacity, ease of standardization, and built-in passive safety. This paper also suggests a general direction in which the development of modular reactors evolve, and a possible nuclear application where modular reactors be effectively utilized. (author)

  10. Life cycle assessment of woody biomass energy utilization: Case study in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Okuda, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a woody biomass utilization system that would result in increased net energy production through wood pellet production, along with energy recovery processes as they relate to household energy demand. The direct environmental load of the system, including wood pellet production and utilization processes, was evaluated. Furthermore, the indirect load, including the economic impact of converting the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system into a woody biomass-based system, on the entire society was also evaluated. Gifu Prefecture in Japan was selected for a case study, which included a comparative evaluation of the environmental load and costs both with and without coordination with the wood pellet production process and the waste-to-energy of municipal solid waste process, using the life cycle assessment methodology. If the release of greenhouse gases from the combustion of wood pellets is included in calculations, then burning wood pellets results in unfavorable environmental consequences. However, when the reduced indirect environmental load due to the utilization of wood pellets versus petroleum is included in calculations, then favorable environmental consequences result, with a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by 14,060 ton-CO 2eq . -- Highlights: ► We evaluate economic and environmental impact of woody biomass utilization in household. ► Wood pellet utilization for house heating is advantageous to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ► Reduction effect of greenhouse gas will be canceled out if carbon neutrality were considered. ► Net greenhouse gas emissions considering conversion of an ordinal energy system will be minus. ► Wood pellet utilization is advantageous not only in global warming but also for resource conservation.

  11. A composite efficiency metrics for evaluation of resource and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Siyu; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Polygeneration systems are commonly found in chemical and energy industry. These systems often involve chemical conversions and energy conversions. Studies of these systems are interdisciplinary, mainly involving fields of chemical engineering, energy engineering, environmental science, and economics. Each of these fields has developed an isolated index system different from the others. Analyses of polygeneration systems are therefore very likely to provide bias results with only the indexes from one field. This paper is motivated from this problem to develop a new composite efficiency metrics for polygeneration systems. This new metrics is based on the second law of thermodynamics, exergy theory. We introduce exergy cost for waste treatment as the energy penalty into conventional exergy efficiency. Using this new metrics could avoid the situation of spending too much energy for increasing production or paying production capacity for saving energy consumption. The composite metrics is studied on a simplified co-production process, syngas to methanol and electricity. The advantage of the new efficiency metrics is manifested by comparison with carbon element efficiency, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency. Results show that the new metrics could give more rational analysis than the other indexes. - Highlights: • The composite efficiency metric gives the balanced evaluation of resource utilization and energy utilization. • This efficiency uses the exergy for waste treatment as the energy penalty. • This efficiency is applied on a simplified co-production process. • Results show that the composite metrics is better than energy efficiencies and resource efficiencies

  12. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  13. Duality ensures modular covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao; Yu Ming

    1989-11-01

    We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)

  14. The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile material than it consumes. It is also unique in that it has the capability to utilize as fuel the long-life radioactive actinides (primarily plutonium, and the minor actinides, neptunium, americium, and curium) present as waste in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels. This capability provides a means for converting long-life actinide radioactive wastes to elements whose lifetimes and thus storage needs are much shorter, namely, hundreds of years. This could clearly focus and potentially alleviate a controversial aspect (waste disposal) of the nuclear option. While it does not change the need for, or timing of, an initial high-level waste (HLW) repository, the conversion of actinides could change in a dramatic way the time period required for safe storage of nuclear waste and potentially the number and criteria for future repositories. This work considers the potential for utilizing LWR actinides in the ALMR fuel cycle

  15. National strategic planing for the utilization and development of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, B. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, T. H.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    It is followed that results and contents of National strategic planning for the utilization and development of nuclear energy. Our team makes an effort to carry out pre-research on establishment of the fourth Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan(CNEPP). To establish CNEPP, we analyzed domestic and global environment and trends of nuclear energy including the result of patent analysis, and find ways to link and coordinate other national plans concerned with nuclear energy. Upon the analysis we produce the final draft absorbing comments from the above-mentioned public discussions

  16. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  17. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography with abstracts - Cumulative volume 1944/1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography, up to 1974 inclusive, of articles and books on utilization of wind power in energy generation. Worldwide literature is surveyed, and short abstracts are provided in many cases. The citations are grouped by subject: (1) general; (2) utilization; (3) wind power plants; (4) wind power generators (rural, synchronous, remote station); (5) wind machines (motors, pumps, turbines, windmills, home-built); (6) wind data and properties; (7) energy storage; and (8) related topics (control and regulation devices, wind measuring devices, blade design and rotors, wind tunnel simulation, aerodynamics). Gross-referencing is aided by indexes of authors, corporate sources, titles, and keywords.

  18. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seventeen. Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Iowa governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eleven. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Florida governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Estimating the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives in carrying out the present study are twofold, namely to estimate the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector and to compare those of various countries with each other. In this regard, Turkey is given as an illustrative example with its latest figures in 2002 since the data related to the following years are still being processed. Total energy and exergy inputs in this year are calculated to be 3257.20 and 3212.42 PJ, respectively. Annual fuel consumptions in space heating, water heating and cooking activities as well as electrical energy uses by appliances are also determined. The energy and exergy utilization efficiency values for the Turkish residential-commercial sector are obtained to be 55.58% and 9.33%, respectively. Besides this, Turkey's overall energy and exergy utilization efficiencies are found to be 46.02% and 24.99%, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the necessity of the planned studies toward increasing exergy utilization efficiencies in the sector studied

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eighteen. Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nine. Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Connecticut governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Five. Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arizona governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.