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Sample records for energy transport characteristics

  1. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  2. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book. Sixth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, G.; Holcomb, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics that characterize transportation activity and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this publication is to present a large amount of relevant data in an easily retrievable and usable format with the statistical data shown in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes (highway, air, water, rail, and pipeline) is treated separately, and aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented. The highway mode, accounting for over 77% of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with. Topics in this include vehicle stock characteristics, fuel efficiency, household vehicle ownership and use, fleet automobiles, buses, and trucks. Data are presented on each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively. Trends in vehicle and engine characteristics related to fuel economy are summarized. Emphasis is placed on vehicles and engines for highway use.

  4. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireev Victor V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  5. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hyamaguc@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-tanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Iwamoto, Yuhiro [Department of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering. - Highlights: • Temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid (TSMF) has a great heat transport ability. • Magnetically-driven heat transport device using binary TSMF is proposed. • The basic heat transport characteristics are investigated. • Boiling of the organic mixture effectively enhances the heat transfer. • A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed.

  6. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering. - Highlights: • Temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid (TSMF) has a great heat transport ability. • Magnetically-driven heat transport device using binary TSMF is proposed. • The basic heat transport characteristics are investigated. • Boiling of the organic mixture effectively enhances the heat transfer. • A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed.

  7. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  8. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering.

  9. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  10. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes -- highway, air, water, rail, pipeline -- is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  11. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  12. Transportation energy data book: Edition 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Morris, M.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 12 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes--highway, air, water, rail, pipeline--is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  14. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  15. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  16. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  17. Energy use for transport in 22 Nordic towns; Energibruk til transport i 22 nordiske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, Petter; Larsen, Synnoeve Lyssand; Roee, Per Gunnar

    1994-07-01

    This report presents the methods used and the results obtained from an investigation of relationships between energy use for transport and the physical urban structure of 22 towns in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It is found that urban planning is very important for the inhabitants' average energy use for transport. High population density in the inner and central areas of a town tends to reduce the energy use. The composition of trades and the commuting frequency between the town and its surroundings affect the energy use to the same degree as does the urban planning. The energy data are based on the oil companies' information on the sales of gasoline and auto diesel oil from the filling stations in each town and on the public transport companies' information on the energy use of their vehicles. The energy data are combined with physical and socio economical characteristics of each town.

  18. The Factors Influencing Transport Energy Consumption in Urban Areas: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport energy consumption accounts for about one third of total energy consumption in EU. Despite significant advances in transport technology and fuel formulation, transport energy consumption has increased in most EU countries over the last three decades. This increase in consumption occurred as a result of factors such as higher car ownership, a growth in automobile use and an increase in vehicle distances traveled. As travel and land-use are a function of one another, it is often hypothesized that changing urban structure can result in changes in energy consumption. Understanding how different land use characteristics may influence travel behaviour and the corresponding energy consumption is crucial for planners and policy makers in order to develop strategic actions to shrink the environmental footprint of the urban transportation sector. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the connections between land use, travel behavior and energy consumption. In particular, this paper seeks to identify the determinants of transport energy consumption in urban areas by reviewing evidence from empirical studies. To this aim, nine characteristics of land use are presented and their effects on both travel behaviour and energy use are discussed Our review shown that, in contrast to the focus on the effect of the built environment on travel, only few researchers have empirically investigated the linkage between the built environment and transportation energy use. The research described in this paper has been developed within the PON04a2_E Smart Energy Master project. It represents part of a much broader research project aimed at the development of an integrated model of urban energy efficiency.

  19. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  20. Energy use for transport in 22 Nordic towns; Energibruk til transport i 22 nordiske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, Petter; Larsen, Synnoeve Lyssand; Roee, Per Gunnar

    1994-07-01

    This report presents the methods used and the results obtained from an investigation of relationships between energy use for transport and the physical urban structure of 22 towns in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It is found that urban planning is very important for the inhabitants' average energy use for transport. High population density in the inner and central areas of a town tends to reduce the energy use. The composition of trades and the commuting frequency between the town and its surroundings affect the energy use to the same degree as does the urban planning. The energy data are based on the oil companies' information on the sales of gasoline and auto diesel oil from the filling stations in each town and on the public transport companies' information on the energy use of their vehicles. The energy data are combined with physical and socio economical characteristics of each town.

  1. A review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. Exploratory development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Luo, L.; Sauce, G. [LOCIE, Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget-Du-Lac cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents a review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. For the transportation of high-temperature heat energy, the chemical catalytic reversible reaction is almost the only way available, and there are several reactions have been studied. For the relatively low-temperature heat energy, which exists widely as waste heat, there are mainly five researching aspects at present: chemical reversible reactions, phase change thermal energy storage and transportation, hydrogen-absorbing alloys, solid-gas adsorption and liquid-gas absorption. The basic principles and the characteristics of these methods are discussed. (author)

  2. Transport synthetic acceleration for long-characteristics assembly-level transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika, M R; Adams, M L

    2000-02-01

    The authors apply the transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme to the long-characteristics spatial discretization for the two-dimensional assembly-level transport problem. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. Thus, in the acceleration step, the authors take advantage of features of the long-characteristics discretization that make it particularly well suited to assembly-level transport problems. The main contribution is to address difficulties unique to the long-characteristics discretization and produce a computationally efficient acceleration scheme. The combination of the long-characteristics discretization, opposing reflecting boundary conditions (which are present in assembly-level transport problems), and TSA presents several challenges. The authors devise methods for overcoming each of them in a computationally efficient way. Since the boundary angular data exist on different grids in the high- and low-order problems, they define restriction and prolongation operations specific to the method of long characteristics to map between the two grids. They implement the conjugate gradient (CG) method in the presence of opposing reflection boundary conditions to solve the TSA low-order equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices; they prove that the long-characteristics discretization yields an SPD matrix. They present results of the acceleration scheme on a simple test problem, a typical pressurized water reactor assembly, and a typical boiling water reactor assembly.

  3. Transport synthetic acceleration for long-characteristics assembly-level transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika, M.R.; Adams, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The authors apply the transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme to the long-characteristics spatial discretization for the two-dimensional assembly-level transport problem. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. Thus, in the acceleration step, the authors take advantage of features of the long-characteristics discretization that make it particularly well suited to assembly-level transport problems. The main contribution is to address difficulties unique to the long-characteristics discretization and produce a computationally efficient acceleration scheme. The combination of the long-characteristics discretization, opposing reflecting boundary conditions (which are present in assembly-level transport problems), and TSA presents several challenges. The authors devise methods for overcoming each of them in a computationally efficient way. Since the boundary angular data exist on different grids in the high- and low-order problems, they define restriction and prolongation operations specific to the method of long characteristics to map between the two grids. They implement the conjugate gradient (CG) method in the presence of opposing reflection boundary conditions to solve the TSA low-order equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices; they prove that the long-characteristics discretization yields an SPD matrix. They present results of the acceleration scheme on a simple test problem, a typical pressurized water reactor assembly, and a typical boiling water reactor assembly

  4. Transport Synthetic Acceleration for Long-Characteristics Assembly-Level Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika, Michael R.; Adams, Marvin L.

    2000-01-01

    We apply the transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme to the long-characteristics spatial discretization for the two-dimensional assembly-level transport problem. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. Thus, in the acceleration step, we take advantage of features of the long-characteristics discretization that make it particularly well suited to assembly-level transport problems. Our main contribution is to address difficulties unique to the long-characteristics discretization and produce a computationally efficient acceleration scheme.The combination of the long-characteristics discretization, opposing reflecting boundary conditions (which are present in assembly-level transport problems), and TSA presents several challenges. We devise methods for overcoming each of them in a computationally efficient way. Since the boundary angular data exist on different grids in the high- and low-order problems, we define restriction and prolongation operations specific to the method of long characteristics to map between the two grids. We implement the conjugate gradient (CG) method in the presence of opposing reflection boundary conditions to solve the TSA low-order equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices; we prove that the long-characteristics discretization yields an SPD matrix. We present results of our acceleration scheme on a simple test problem, a typical pressurized water reactor assembly, and a typical boiling water reactor assembly

  5. Urban form and energy use for transport. A Nordic experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P

    1995-02-10

    The main research problem addressed in this thesis is the possible influence of several urban form variables on the amount of transportation, on the modal split between different means of transport, and on energy use for transportation. This problem is elucidated through five empirical investigations covering different geographic levels in a Nordic context, from individual employees and households to commuting regions. A main feature of the study is the combination of socioeconomic and urban form variables in empirical investigations, employing techniques of multivariate analysis. The investigations of residential areas and job sites have been based on travel surveys, while the investigations where the units of analysis are towns or regions have been based on fuel sales. The socioeconomic data have been collected from official statistics and from questionnaires. It is found that urban form variables exert important influences on transportation energy use. Urban density affects energy use for transportation. A central location of residences as well as workplaces is favourable with respect to energy conservation on an intra-urban scale, but not in a wider geographical context, where decentralization into several dense, relatively self-contained local communities distributed over the region is the most energy-saving pattern of regional development. Urban form characteristics favourable for minimizing transport energy requirements also seem favourable for energy conservation in buildings. 160 refs., 39 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  7. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Freight Transportation Energy Use : Volume 1. Summary and Baseline Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The overall design of the TSC Freight Energy Model is presented. A hierarchical modeling strategy is used, in which detailed modal simulators estimate the performance characteristics of transportation network elements, and the estimates are input to ...

  9. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Lund, H.; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  10. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors

  11. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  12. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  13. Europe of energy and transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruete, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN), based in Brussels, reports to Jacques Barrot, Vice-President of the European Commission, Commissioner for Transport and Andris Piebalgs, Commissioner for Energy. The Directorate-General for Energy and Transport is headed by Matthias Ruete and has a staff of over 1000 people in ten Directorates located in Brussels and Luxembourg. In addition to the development of Community transport and energy policies, including dealing with State aid, the Directorate-General is responsible for managing the financial support programmes for the trans-European networks, technological development and innovation. In this paper, M. Ruete tells us more about these missions

  14. Transition strategy of the transportation energy and powertrain in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hewu; Ouyang Minggao

    2007-01-01

    The problems of the transportation energy and environment are the major challenges faced globally in the 21st century and are especially serious for China. The future 20 years is the strategic opportunity period of the transition of the transportation energy and powertrain system for China. The greatest characteristics of hydrogen economy lie in its diversity of the primary energy source, the unification of energy carrier and the greening of energy transformation. Development of hydrogen energy transportation powertrain system is suitable for China from the views of the situation of Chinese resources and energy sources, the urban and rural layouts, the superiority of later development and the successful practices of clean cars and electric vehicle development projects. The transition of the transportation energy powertrain system includes three parts: the transition of the energy structure, the transition of the powertrain system and the transition of the fuel infrastructure. The technical pathways of energy powertrain system transition includes expending the use of gaseous fuel to prompt the multiform of the transportation energy and to prepare for the transition of the infrastructure simultaneously, developing and promoting the hybrid technology to solve the current energy and environment problems and to prepare for the transition of powertrain system, and focusing on the research and development and demonstration of fuel cell vehicles and the hydrogen energy technology to prompt the earlier formation of the market of fuel cell vehicles. The goal in the near and medium term of transition is to reduce the fuel consumption by 100 million ton in 2020 by substituting and saving, and the long-term goal is to setup the infrastructure of hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle as the main one replacing the petroleum internal combustion engine vehicle. In order to realize the strategic goals of the transition, the four-phases strategic periods and research and development

  15. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  16. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  17. Ballistic energy transport via perfluoroalkane linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Energy transport in perfluoroalkanes oligomers of various chain lengths was studied. ► Cross-peaks among C=O stretch and CH bending modes were recorded using RA 2DIR. ► Efficient constant-speed energy transport with the speed of 1150 m/s is found. ► Ballistic energy transport mechanism is suggested. - Abstract: Intramolecular energy transport in a series of perfluoroalkane oligomers with various chain lengths of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 carbon atoms terminated by a carboxylic acid moiety on one end and –CF{sub 2}H group on another end is studied by relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. Perfluoroalkane oligomers adopt an extended structure with antiperiplanar orientation of the neighboring carbon atoms. The energy transport initiated by exciting the C=O stretching mode of the acid was recorded by measuring a cross-peak amplitude between the C=O stretch and the C–H bending mode as a function of the waiting time between the excitation and probing. A linear dependence of energy transport time vs. chain length is found, which suggests a ballistic energy transport mechanism. The energy transport speed, measured from the chain-length dependence of the half-rise time, T{sub ½}, was found to be ca. 1150 m/s, which is close to the longitudinal speed of sound in Teflon polymers.

  18. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  19. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  20. High-Energy Beam Transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Farrell, J.A.; Liska, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to be installed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) at Richland, Washington. The linear accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power, continuous-duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread either to a lithium target or a beam stop. A periodic quadrupole and bending-magnet system provides the beam transport and focusing on target with small beam aberrations. A special rf cavity distributes the energy in the beam so that the Bragg Peak is distributed within the lithium target. Operation of the rf control system, the Energy Dispersion Cavity (EDC), and the beam transport magnets is tested on the beam stop during accelerator turn-on. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostic techniques and noninterceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports using a cluster system to simplify maintenance and alignment techniques

  1. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  2. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  3. Path creation in Nordic energy and road transport systems – The role of technological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Klitkou, Antje; Borup, Mads

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews path-creation processes in road transport systems in the Nordic countries: e-mobility in Denmark, hydrogen and fuel-cell electrical vehicles in Norway, and advanced biofuels in Finland and Sweden. The study builds on the path creation literature, which seeks to explain the emer......This paper reviews path-creation processes in road transport systems in the Nordic countries: e-mobility in Denmark, hydrogen and fuel-cell electrical vehicles in Norway, and advanced biofuels in Finland and Sweden. The study builds on the path creation literature, which seeks to explain...... the emergence of new technological pathways. Drawing on recent insights concerning the differences between design- and manufacturing-intensive technologies, the paper analyses the influence of technological characteristics on path creation processes. The case comparison indicates that technological...... characteristics seem to have greater influence on the content of activities in the later phase rather than the early phase of path creation processes. The analysis also emphasises that barriers to path creation processes differ depending on technological characteristics. This highlights the importance...

  4. Universal transport characteristics of multiple topological superconducting wires with large charging energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashuba, Oleksiy; Trauzettel, Bjoern [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Timm, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The system with multiple Majorana states coupled to the normal lead can potentially support the interaction between Majorana fermions and electrons. Such system can be implemented by several floating topological superconducting wires with large charging energy asymmetrically coupled to two normal leads. The analysis of the renormalization flow shows that there is a single fixed point - the strong coupling limit of isotropic antiferromagnetic Kondo model. The topological Kondo-like interaction leads also to the selective renormalization of the tunneling coefficients, strongly enhancing one component and suppressing others. Thus, charging energy crucially changes the transport properties of the system leading to the universal single-channel conductance independently from the values of the initial leads-wires coupling.

  5. Users evaluation of transport mode characteristics with special attention to public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Berenos, M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the influence of public transport use on the evaluation of transport mode characteristics. Based on stated choice data, several multinomial logit models that include parameters representing differences between users and non-users of public transport are estimated. The estimation

  6. Gibbs Free-Energy Gradient along the Path of Glucose Transport through Human Glucose Transporter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huiyun; Bourdon, Allen K; Chen, Liao Y; Phelix, Clyde F; Perry, George

    2018-06-11

    Fourteen glucose transporters (GLUTs) play essential roles in human physiology by facilitating glucose diffusion across the cell membrane. Due to its central role in the energy metabolism of the central nervous system, GLUT3 has been thoroughly investigated. However, the Gibbs free-energy gradient (what drives the facilitated diffusion of glucose) has not been mapped out along the transport path. Some fundamental questions remain. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of GLUT3 embedded in a lipid bilayer to quantify the free-energy profile along the entire transport path of attracting a β-d-glucose from the interstitium to the inside of GLUT3 and, from there, releasing it to the cytoplasm by Arrhenius thermal activation. From the free-energy profile, we elucidate the unique Michaelis-Menten characteristics of GLUT3, low K M and high V MAX , specifically suitable for neurons' high and constant demand of energy from their low-glucose environments. We compute GLUT3's binding free energy for β-d-glucose to be -4.6 kcal/mol in agreement with the experimental value of -4.4 kcal/mol ( K M = 1.4 mM). We also compute the hydration energy of β-d-glucose, -18.0 kcal/mol vs the experimental data, -17.8 kcal/mol. In this, we establish a dynamics-based connection from GLUT3's crystal structure to its cellular thermodynamics with quantitative accuracy. We predict equal Arrhenius barriers for glucose uptake and efflux through GLUT3 to be tested in future experiments.

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  8. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  9. Gate-tunable transport characteristics of Bi2S3 nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Colin; Ali, Ahmed H.; Alsaqqa, Ali M.; Rahman, Ajara A.; Whittaker-Brooks, Luisa; Sambandamurthy, Ganapathy

    2018-02-01

    Electrical transport and resistance noise spectroscopy measurements are performed on individual, single crystalline Bi2S3 nanowires in the field-effect geometry. The nanowires exhibit n-type conduction and device characteristics such as activation energy, ON/OFF ratio, and mobility are calculated over a temperature range of 120-320 K and at several bias values. The noise magnitude is measured between 0.01 and 5 Hz at several gate voltages as the device turns from it's OFF to ON state. The presence of mid-gap states which act as charge traps within the band gap can potentially explain the observed transport characteristics. Sulfur vacancies are the likely origin of these mid-gap states which makes Bi2S3 nanowires appealing for defect engineering as a means to enhance its optoelectronic properties and also to better understand the important role of defects in nanoscale semiconductors.

  10. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  11. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  12. ADVANCES IN ZERO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Othman

    2017-01-01

    Hyperloop mass transportation systems are activelydeveloped at the moment. They represent the forefront development of the ZeroEnergy Transportation systems where air drag is minimized by travelling in avacuum and friction is reduced by non-contact bearings. Hyperloop supportersare confident that the cost of their transportation systems would be lowcompared to existing transportation systems because of the low loss andtherefore low energy consumption as well as other cost-saving techniquesdoc...

  13. Bibliography for transportation energy conservation. [578 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, Sarah J.

    1976-05-01

    A listing is given of 578 reports, books, articles, and conference papers on transportation and energy. Coverage is primarily on U. S. developments and research from 1970 to 1975. Following a section of citations of general works on energy, the bibliography contains two main parts: ''Energy for Transportation'' and ''Transportation of Energy.'' Within each of these topics the arrangement is multimodal (at the urban, regional, national, or international level), then by mode. Selected information sources are listed in the last part. Within each section, entries are arranged alphabetically by author or, lacking an author, by title. References were drawn from the Transportation Center Library collection and other libraries in the Northwestern University system. An earlier bibliography, Transportation and Energy, compiled by the Transportation Center Library in March 1974, forms the basis for the arrangement and provides coverage from 1970 to 1973.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm).

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Energy transition in transport sector from energy substitution perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wangmin; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Song; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    Power and heating generation sector and transport sector contribute a highest GHG emissions and even air pollutions. This paper seeks to investigate life cycle costs and emissions in both the power sector and transport sector, and evaluate the cost-emission efficient (costs for one unit GHG emissions) of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional gasoline based vehicles under two electricity mix scenarios. In power sector, wind power and PV power will be cost comparative in 2030 forecasted with learning curve method. With high subsidies, new energy cars could be comparative now, but it still has high costs to lower GHG emissions. When the government subsidy policy is reversible, the emission reduction cost for new energy vehicle consumer will be 900/ton. According to the sensitive analysis, the paper suggests that the government implement policies that allocate the cost to the whole life cycle of energy production and consumption related to transport sector energy transition and policies that are in favor of new energy vehicle consumers but not the new energy car producers.

  18. Characteristics of toroidal energy deposition asymmetries in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Neuhauser, J.; Leuterer, F.; Mueller, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Large toroidal and poloidal asymmetries with characteristics which are sensitively dependent on q a , the vertical position of the plasma, and the type of additional heating are observed in the energy flow to the ASDEX divertor target plates. The largest asymmetries and total energy depositions are observed during lower hybrid wave injection experiments with approximately 50% of the input energy going to the combined divertor targets and shields. A maximum localized energy density loading of 10 MJ/m 2 is typical under these conditions. Measurements of the asymmetries are consistent with a model in which magnetic islands and ergodicity due to intrinsic magnetic perturbations dominate the energy transpot across the primary magnetic separatrix. The results emphasize the essential role of resonant magnetic perturbations in determining the performance of tokamaks and demonstrate that non-axisymmetric effects caused by small perturbations become increasingly important in determining the transport properties as the injected power is increased. (orig.)

  19. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  20. Energy transition in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Bruno; Genest, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Within the European framework, France has committed to a 20% reduction of its GHG emission by 2020 compared with 1990, and reaching the 'factor 4' by 2050. The 2005 POPE Act (the French Energy Policy Guidance Act) makes climate change a priority of the energy policy, setting out a 3% yearly reduction of our country's GHG emissions. This means combining energy efficiency and restraint, as is highlighted by the first chapter of the 'energy transition road-map'. Energy is a major component of transport. Designing its transition requires us to question the very organisation of our society: materials and their usage, the means of transport to favour and the infrastructures to implement, costs for competitiveness, the organisation of work and commuting... At a global scale, needs for mobility are increasing, as is the urgent need to deal with environmental problems. There are huge emerging markets for public transport, increasingly efficient and smart cars, information and transmission networks, infrastructures, the organisation of transport... However, France has all the assets to become a world leader in carbon-free transport. Succeeding in this change means organising the service to meet the needs of all, people, businesses, transport operators and industry, starting this transition right away. Policies must clearly define objectives and the means of achieving them through coordinated actions within a long term approach. The ESEC formulates a set of proposals in this direction

  1. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  2. Interfacial transport characteristics in a gas-liquid or an immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Aoki, S.; Aritomi, M.; Kozawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a review for an interfacial transport characteristics of mass, momentum and energy in a gas-liquid or a immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow with wavy interface which have been studied in our division. In the experiment, a characteristic of wave motion and its effect to the turbulence near the interface as well as overall flow characteristics like pressure drop, position of the interface were investigated in an air-water, an air-mercury and a water-liquid metal stratified flow. On the other hand, several models based on the mixing length model and a two-equation model of turbulence, with special interfacial boundary conditions in which the wavy surface was regarded as a rough surface correspond to the wavy height, a source of turbulent energy equal to the wave energy and a damped-turbulence due to the surface tension, were proposed to predict the flow characteristics and the interfacial heat transfer in a fully developed and an undeveloped stratified flow and examined by the experimental data. (author)

  3. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.

    1989-06-01

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  4. An energy-optimal solution for transportation control of cranes with double pendulum dynamics: Design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Wu, Yiming; Chen, He; Fang, Yongchun

    2018-03-01

    Underactuated cranes play an important role in modern industry. Specifically, in most situations of practical applications, crane systems exhibit significant double pendulum characteristics, which makes the control problem quite challenging. Moreover, most existing planners/controllers obtained with standard methods/techniques for double pendulum cranes cannot minimize the energy consumption when fulfilling the transportation tasks. Therefore, from a practical perspective, this paper proposes an energy-optimal solution for transportation control of double pendulum cranes. By applying the presented approach, the transportation objective, including fast trolley positioning and swing elimination, is achieved with minimized energy consumption, and the residual oscillations are suppressed effectively with all the state constrains being satisfied during the entire transportation process. As far as we know, this is the first energy-optimal solution for transportation control of underactuated double pendulum cranes with various state and control constraints. Hardware experimental results are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, whose superior performance is reflected by being experimentally compared with some comparative controllers.

  5. Transport Sector Energy 2010; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Today, transport accounts for a quarter of Sweden's energy consumption which consists almost exclusively of fossil fuels. But with the increasing demands for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, the sector's conversion to other fuels or energy sources will have a major impact the next years. This situation is expected to expand the requirements for statistics of energy consumption of the transport sector. The publication is divided into two parts. Chapter 2 describes the official energy statistics for the transport sector and Chapter 3 presents a breakdown of energy use in passenger and freight services for the respective modes.

  6. Energy, enterprises and transports: how conciliate competitiveness and responsibility; Energie, entreprises et transports: comment concilier competitivite et responsabilite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    The meeting on the enterprises and transports competitiveness in a context of energy conservation, organized in Nice the 15 april 2003, took place three topics: are the competitiveness of enterprises and the energy consumptions mastership reconcilable? What are the solutions to answer the market demands with a decrease of the energy consumption? Concerning the goods transport, must we leave the road transport? The whole texts of the round tables and the open and exit allocution are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Trends in passenger transport energy use in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Jiyong; Schipper, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Having a clear understanding of transport energy use trends is crucial to identifying opportunities and challenges for efficient energy use for the transport sector. To this date, however, no detailed analysis has been conducted with regard to rapidly growing passenger transport energy use in South Korea. Using bottom-up data developed from a variety of recent sources, we described the trends of transport activity, energy use, and CO 2 emissions from South Korea's transport sector since 1986 with a particular focus on its passenger transport. By decomposing the trends in passenger transport energy use into activity, modal structure, and energy intensity, we showed that while travel activity has been the major driver of the increase in passenger transport energy use in South Korea, the increase was to some extent offset by the recent favorable structural shift toward bus travel and away from car travel. We also demonstrated that while bus travel has become less energy intensive since the Asian Financial Crisis, car travel has become increasingly energy intensive.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 – energy; Chapter 3 – highway vehicles; Chapter 4 – light vehicles; Chapter 5 – heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 – alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 – fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 – household vehicles; Chapter 9 – nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 – transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 – greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 – criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms is also included for the reader’s convenience.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  16. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  17. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  18. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  20. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  1. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.

    2002-12-04

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www.cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4 - criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 6 - highway vehicles; Chapter 7 - light vehicles; Chapter 8 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 9 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 11 - household vehicles; and Chapter 12- nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  4. Which energy for the 21 century transports; Quelles energies pour les transports au 21. siecle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Lovelock, J

    2005-07-01

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO{sub 2} by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm)

  6. Analysis of Transportation Energy Consumption: En Route Towards Carbon Reduction for Sustainable Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Asmah Hassan, Sitti

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the estimation of transportation energy consumption based on the travel behaviour characteristics of the population in the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The travel behaviour characteristics include the travel distance, travel speed, number of trips per day, and modal share of the transport, which only focused on the trips that were made inside the campus. The travel behaviour data were collected through online and pencil-and-paper questionnaire survey involving 1000 respondents including staffs and students, which is equivalent to 25% of the total population. The result from the survey showed that a total of 1897 trips per day were made by the motorised vehicle owners including car and motorcycle owners. The total trip length per day was 1056.29 km with an average speed of 45km/h. The average trip for each person was four trips per day. The estimate energy consumption from the motorised vehicles in this campus was reported to be 1.25E9 MJ.

  7. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  10. Characteristics of Sucrose Transport through the Sucrose-Specific Porin ScrY Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping eSun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-specific porin (ScrY is a transmembrane protein that allows for the uptake of sucrose under growth-limiting conditions. The crystal structure of ScrY was resolved before by X-ray crystallography, both in its uncomplexed form and with bound sucrose. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of the transport mechanism of ScrY. To date, there has not yet been any clear demonstration for sucrose transport through the ScrY.Here, the dynamics of the ScrY trimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer as well as the characteristics of sucrose translocation were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The potential of mean force (PMF for sucrose translocation through the pore showed two main energy barriers within the constriction region of ScrY. Energy decomposition allowed to pinpoint three aspartic acids as key residues opposing the passage of sucrose, all located within the L3 loop. Mutation of two aspartic acids to uncharged residues resulted in an accordingly modified electrostatics and decreased PMF barrier. The chosen methodology and results will aid in the design of porins with modified transport specificities.

  11. Energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor ( review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.

    2010-09-01

    Presented below is the review of the results of experimental studies of energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor with vertical rotation axis. Influence of main geometry parameters of the rotor on its energy characteristics has been analyzed. It is shown that Darrieus rotor may have the higher level of energy characteristics than the best propeller wind turbines.

  12. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic ...

  13. Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task I. Industry summary. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-11

    Task 1 of an energy study of ship transportation systems to identify the various operating or service sectors of the marine transportation industry and determine the numbers and types of vessels, their operating characteristics and energy consumption, is presented. The analysis includes all powered water-borne craft with the exception of those owned or operated by a government and fixed offshore production platforms. The approach is described. The broad sectors covered are: the ocean shipping, the Great Lakes, the coastal shipping, offshore, inland waterways, and the fishing and miscellaneous sectors. Recreational boats are covered. Information in the appendices covers marine fuel consumption calculations, essential trade routes, conversion factors, and merchant vessels of the US. (MCW)

  14. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  16. Energy use in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R. R.

    1977-10-15

    Brief data and information on consumption of oil-based fuels in New Zealand transport are presented. Then the role of the private car, conservation attitudes and behavior, social impacts of energy conservation are discussed. Apart from the methanol and LP-gas options which do not conserve energy, but only substitute energy sources by local supplies, noticeable fuel savings without sacrificing mobility and changing living patterns can be achieved only by concerted implementation of a package of measures.

  17. Energy position of the transport path in disordered organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelerich, J O; Jansson, F; Gebhard, F; Baranovskii, S D; Nenashev, A V

    2014-01-01

    The concept of transport energy is the most transparent theoretical approach to describe hopping transport in disordered systems with steeply energy dependent density of states (DOS), in particular in organic semiconductors with Gaussian DOS. This concept allows one to treat hopping transport in the framework of a simple multiple-trapping model, replacing the mobility edge by a particular energy level called the transport energy. However, there is no consensus among researchers on the position of this transport level. In this article, we suggest a numerical procedure to find out the energy level most significantly contributing to charge transport in organic semiconductors. The procedure is based on studying the effects of DOS modifications on the charge carrier mobility in straightforward computer simulations. We also show why the most frequently visited energy, computed in several numerical studies to determine the transport energy, is not representative for charge transport. (paper)

  18. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  19. Energy transport in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core

  20. Energy transport in dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supritz, C. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)]. E-mail: christoph.supritz@uni-ulm.de; Engelmann, A. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Reineker, P. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core.

  1. Transportation energy scenario analysis technical report No. 1: examination of four existing scenarios. [Projections for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. J.; LaBelle, S. J.; Millar, M.; Walbridge, E. W.

    1978-03-01

    This project aims to provide the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) with a long-range forecasting framework in which to evaluate potential changes to the U.S. Transportation system. This initial report examines four existing, but diverse, 50-year scenarios of the future. It describes the scenarios and summarizes the changes in the major transportation system variables that would occur through the year 2025 in each scenario. Projections of variables of interest to TEC are explored, including passenger or ton miles and energy consumption. Each is reported for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025 under four scenarios: success, moderate economic growth, energy crisis, and transformation. The philosophy of this project is that the transportation system must support future lifestyles; by examining potential future lifestyles the required transportation system changes can be deduced. The project: (a) develops a set of scenarios that span likely futures; (b) describes the lifestyles in each scenario in order; (c) determines the characteristics of the transportation system supporting those lifestyles; (d) indicates transportation technologies and policies necessary in that system; and (e) derives the energy characteristics of that system. The implications of the four existing scenarios are examined with emphasis on current TEC electric-vehicle development. This preliminary investigation will be followed by detailed-scenario building (modifying existing scenarios or developing new ones) and generation of lifestyles and transportation system demands under each of the scenarios. This work will be reported in October 1978.

  2. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  3. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, D [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)

  4. 2nd Annual European Energy and Transport Conference. Building energy and transport infrastructures for tomorrow's Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is already the second in a series of Annual Energy and Transport Conferences launched last year on the initiative of the Directorate-General for Energy and Transport and dedicated to combining a number of formerly scattered Europe-wide events into a single event with the aim of raising the profile of the two sectors and improving coherence. The theme chosen in 2001 was safety and security. The 2002 conference provided the forum for a debate on Europe's major infrastructure networks. The main targeted objectives are Firstly, practical, in-depth discussion of the future shape of the major trans-European energy and transport networks by 2010-2020 and, secondly, dissemination of the results of European research and technological development (RTD) programmes. The conference also provided a platform to float ideas and present programmes, approaches and results obtained at European or national level in these sectors. (Author)

  5. An extended step characteristic method for solving the transport equation in general geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.; Pevey, R.E.; Parish, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for applying the discrete ordinates method to solve the Boltzmann transport equation on arbitrary two-dimensional meshes has been developed. The finite difference approach normally used to approximate spatial derivatives in extrapolating angular fluxes across a cell is replaced by direct solution of the characteristic form of the transport equation for each discrete direction. Thus, computational cells are not restricted to the geometrical shape of a mesh element characteristic of a given coordinate system. However, in terms of the treatment of energy and angular dependencies, this method resembles traditional discrete ordinates techniques. By using the method developed here, a general two-dimensional space can be approximated by an irregular mesh comprised of arbitrary polygons. Results for a number of test problems have been compared with solutions obtained from traditional methods, with good agreement. Comparisons include benchmarks against analytical results for problems with simple geometry, as well as numerical results obtained from traditional discrete ordinates methods by applying the ANISN and TWOTRAN-II computer programs

  6. Ultrafast Microscopy of Energy and Charge Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Libai

    The frontier in solar energy research now lies in learning how to integrate functional entities across multiple length scales to create optimal devices. Advancing the field requires transformative experimental tools that probe energy transfer processes from the nano to the meso lengthscales. To address this challenge, we aim to understand multi-scale energy transport across both multiple length and time scales, coupling simultaneous high spatial, structural, and temporal resolution. In my talk, I will focus on our recent progress on visualization of exciton and charge transport in solar energy harvesting materials from the nano to mesoscale employing ultrafast optical nanoscopy. With approaches that combine spatial and temporal resolutions, we have recently revealed a new singlet-mediated triplet transport mechanism in certain singlet fission materials. This work demonstrates a new triplet exciton transport mechanism leading to favorable long-range triplet exciton diffusion on the picosecond and nanosecond timescales for solar cell applications. We have also performed a direct measurement of carrier transport in space and in time by mapping carrier density with simultaneous ultrafast time resolution and 50 nm spatial precision in perovskite thin films using transient absorption microscopy. These results directly visualize long-range carrier transport of 220nm in 2 ns for solution-processed polycrystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. The spatially and temporally resolved measurements reported here underscore the importance of the local morphology and establish an important first step towards discerning the underlying transport properties of perovskite materials.

  7. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, SC

    2001-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2-energy; Chapter 3-greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4-criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5-transportation and the economy; Chapter 6-highway vehicles; Chapter 7-light vehicles; Chapter 8-heavy vehicles; Chapter 9-alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10-fleet vehicles; Chapter 11-household vehicles; and Chapter 12-nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience

  9. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Analysis and optimization of indicators of energy and resource consumption of gas turbine and electric drives for transportation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Seroshtanov, I. V.; Begalko, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of statistical indicators of energy and resource consumption in oil and gas transportation by the example of one of the regions of Russia. The article analyzes engineering characteristics of compressor station drives. Official statistical bulletins on the fuel and energy resources of the region in the pipeline oil and gas transportation system were used as the initial data.

  11. Energy consumption in the Transport Sector 2008; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    Transport energy use in Sweden increased by 80% during the period 1970 to 2008. Today, the transport sector is responsible for a quarter of Sweden's energy use. Since the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels its conversion to other fuels/energy sources will have a major impact in the coming years, with the increasing requirements to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The first chapter reports the official energy statistics for the transport sector. The second chapter presents a breakdown of energy use for freight and passengers for each transport modes. However, it is important to emphasize that the division of personal and freight does not belong to the official energy statistics

  12. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  13. Quasibound states and transport characteristics of Au chains with a substitutional S impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyniak-Adamczewska, M; Kostyrko, T

    2013-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of short gold atom chains with a single sulfur impurity were studied using density functional theory. It is found that the role of the impurity atom in the transport properties is twofold. First, it acts as a scattering center in the dominating 6s-orbital transmission channel and generally leads to a decrease of the transmission function in a wide energy region around the Fermi level. Second, it gives rise to a quasibound state manifesting as a peak near the Fermi level both in the partial density of states as well as in the transmission function. Because of the hybridization of the sulfur 3p and gold 5d orbitals in its formation, the quasibound state moves locally upward in the gold 5d transmission channel and brings about an enhancement of the transmission function in a narrow energy region near the Fermi level. The height of the peak of the quasibound state in the transmission function depends significantly on the position of the impurity in the chain and its energy varies with the bias voltage. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics become asymmetric with a departure of the impurity from the central position in the chain and they are nonlinear for small values of the voltage (V < 0.1 V). It is proposed that a careful analysis of the I–V characteristics or the voltage dependence of the differential conductance may be used for unambiguous location of the light impurity in experiments with gold chains. (paper)

  14. TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED PWR LOCA GENERATED DEBRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAJI, A. K.; MARSHALL, B.

    2000-01-01

    In the unlikely event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), break jet impingement would dislodge thermal insulation FR-om nearby piping, as well as other materials within the containment, such as paint chips, concrete dust, and fire barrier materials. Steam/water flows induced by the break and by the containment sprays would transport debris to the containment floor. Subsequently, debris would likely transport to and accumulate on the suction sump screens of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps, thereby potentially degrading ECCS performance and possibly even failing the ECCS. In 1998, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a generic study (Generic Safety Issue-191) to evaluate the potential for the accumulation of LOCA related debris on the PWR sump screen and the consequent loss of ECCS pump net positive suction head (NPSH). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), supporting the resolution of GSI-191, was tasked with developing a method for estimating debris transport in PWR containments to estimate the quantity of debris that would accumulate on the sump screen for use in plant specific evaluations. The analytical method proposed by LANL, to predict debris transport within the water that would accumulate on the containment floor, is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combined with experimental debris transport data to predict debris transport and accumulation on the screen. CFD simulations of actual plant containment designs would provide flow data for a postulated accident in that plant, e.g., three-dimensional patterns of flow velocities and flow turbulence. Small-scale experiments would determine parameters defining the debris transport characteristics for each type of debris. The containment floor transport methodology will merge debris transport characteristics with CFD results to provide a reasonable and conservative estimate of debris transport within the containment floor pool and

  15. The Modelling Analysis of the Response of Convective Transport of Energy and Water to Multiscale Surface Heterogeneity over Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, G.; Hu, Z.; Ma, Y.; Ma, W.

    2017-12-01

    The land-atmospheric interactions over a heterogeneous surface is a tricky issue for accurately understanding the energy-water exchanges between land surface and atmosphere. We investigate the vertical transport of energy and water over a heterogeneous land surface in Tibetan Plateau during the evolution of the convective boundary layer using large eddy simulation (WRF_LES). The surface heterogeneity is created according to remote sensing images from high spatial resolution LandSat ETM+ images. The PBL characteristics over a heterogeneous surface are analyzed in terms of secondary circulations under different background wind conditions based on the horizontal and vertical distribution and evolution of wind. The characteristics of vertical transport of energy and heat over a heterogeneous surface are analyzed in terms of the horizontal distribution as well as temporal evolution of sensible and latent heat fluxes at different heights under different wind conditions on basis of the simulated results from WRF_LES. The characteristics of the heat and water transported into the free atmosphere from surface are also analyzed and quantified according to the simulated results from WRF_LES. The convective transport of energy and water are analyzed according to horizontal and vertical distributions of potential temperature and vapor under different background wind conditions. With the analysis based on the WRF_LES simulation, the performance of PBL schemes of mesoscale simulation (WRF_meso) is evaluated. The comparison between horizontal distribution of vertical fluxes and domain-averaged vertical fluxes of the energy and water in the free atmosphere is used to evaluate the performance of PBL schemes of WRF_meso in the simulation of vertical exchange of energy and water. This is an important variable because only the energy and water transported into free atmosphere is able to influence the regional and even global climate. This work would will be of great significance not

  16. Energy efficiency development possibilities in public transport; Joukkoliikenteen energiatehokkuuden kehittaemismahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteniemi, J.; Pasanen, P.; Latvala, M.; Pohjola, T. (Bionova Consulting, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Environmental values, energy efficiency and climate impact have taken an essential role in the public affairs in the past years, and their weight in decision making is constantly increasing. One of HSL strategic goals is to promote low emissions transport. Public transport energy efficiency is good when compared to passenger cars today. However, the car energy and climate efficiency is improving substantially and the development is set to continue at least until 2020, supported by the EU directive on new car sales emission limits. The rapid development of passenger car emissions poses an increasing challenge for the energy and climate efficiency of public transport services. There are national and international binding goals for energy and climate efficiency development until the year 2020, and non-binding goals until the year 2050. The goals which impact public transport sector are 9 % improvement in energy efficiency by 2016 when compared to 2005 level, and national binding goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % and using 20 % of renewables in transport sector by 2020. By 2050, the targeted greenhouse gas reduction goals are up to 80 % of all emissions when compared to the 1990 emission levels. The public transport services provided by HSL use 628 GWh energy annually, which produces about 314 million public transport trips. The diesel and natural gas used by the buses represents two thirds of the energy consumption, whereas their share of the produced trips is about one half. The rail rolling stock energy consumption is one seventh of the whole. Circa one fifth of the energy is used by the transport infrastructure, such as stations, rail switch heating and the depots. In energy efficiency terms metro and train are clear leaders. One kilowatt hour of energy takes a passenger 10 km in metro and 29,9 km in a train. Correspondingly the passenger could travel in a tramway 4,4 km, in a diesel bus 2,7 km and in a natural gas bus 2,1 km and in a passenger car

  17. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limanond, Thirayoot; Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj; Srikaew, Artit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: → Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. → The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. → The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  18. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limanond, Thirayoot, E-mail: tlimanond@yahoo.co [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Srikaew, Artit [School of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: {yields} Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. {yields} The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. {yields} The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  2. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  3. Paracellular transport and energy utilization in the renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan S L

    2017-09-01

    Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule. Knockout of claudin-2 in mice impairs proximal sodium and fluid reabsorption but is compensated by upregulation of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. This occurs at the expense of increased renal oxygen consumption, hypoxia of the outer medulla and increased susceptibility to ischemic kidney injury. Paracellular transport can be viewed as a mechanism to exploit the potential energy in existing electrochemical gradients to drive passive transepithelial transport without consuming additional energy. In this way, it enhances the efficiency of energy utilization by transporting epithelia.

  4. An investigation on energy consumption trend in Japan. Transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2005-08-01

    Although energy consumption in the industry sector has almost been stable, energy consumption in the transportation (passenger and freight) sector has increased much after the oil crisis. The increase of energy consumption in the passenger sector can be attributed to the increase in transportation by private passenger vehicles; while the increase in the freight sector was due to the modal shift to trucks. Among transportation methods, automobiles, i.e. passenger vehicles and trucks, are now dominant in terms of energy consumption and also in terms of amount of transportation. Therefore implementing energy conservation measures relating to automobiles is very important in order to suppress the energy consumption in the transportation sector. This report summarizes the results of investigation on energy conservation measures, especially relevant to automobiles. It was found from the investigation that most promising and effective technologies or measures are promoting market penetration of vehicles satisfying ''top runner standard'', development and employment of hybrid vehicles, and introduction of vehicles with ''idling-stop'' systems. (author)

  5. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    system. From a budget perspective, a bioenergy system reduces the nitrogen level in the ecological system. The systems investigated show similar characteristics regarding withdrawals of nutrients. The results indicate that biomass for energy can be transported long distances without losing its environmental benefits.

  6. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marique, Anne-Françoise; Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: ► The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. ► Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. ► Energy savings can be achieved by reducing distances to travel through a good mix between activities at the

  7. Long-term Energy Efficiency Improvement for Transport, Technology Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Binsbergen, A.J.; Erkens, A.; Hamel, B.

    1994-01-01

    In part one of this report, general transport and transport-flow measures are described. By using other modes of transport than road-vehicles, it is possible to save energy. An advanced park-and-ride system can lead to a 27% reduction in energy use per passengerkilometre; in 2040 at most 10% of the

  8. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators.

  9. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators

  10. Classical convective energy transport in large gradient regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Large gradients in density and temperature occur near the edge in H-mode plasmas and in the core of tokamak plasmas with negative central shear. Transport in these regions may be comparable to neoclassical. Standard neoclassical theory does not apply when the gradient lengths are comparable to an ion orbit excursion, or banana width. A basic question for neoclassical transport in large gradient regions is: do ion-ion collisions drive particle transport? Near the plasma edge in H-mode, where ion orbit loss requires that the ion energy transport be convective, neoclassical particle transport due to ion-ion collisions may play an important role. In negative central shear plasmas, where transport is inferred to be near neoclassical, it is important to have accurate predictions for the neoclassical rate of energy and particle transport. A simple 2-D slab model has been used, with a momentum-conserving collision operator, to show that ion-ion collisions do drive particle transport. When the gradients are large, the open-quotes field particleclose quotes contribution to the particle flux is non-local, and does not cancel the open-quotes test particleclose quotes contribution, which is local. Solutions of the kinetic equation are found which show that the steepness of the density profile, for increasing particle flux, is limited by orbit averaging. The gradient length is limited by the thermal gyroradius, and the convective energy flux is independent of ion temperature. This will allow an ion thermal runaway to occur, if there are no other ion energy loss mechanisms

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Use of artificial neural networks for transport energy demand modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, Yetis Sazi; Ceylan, Halim

    2006-01-01

    The paper illustrates an artificial neural network (ANN) approach based on supervised neural networks for the transport energy demand forecasting using socio-economic and transport related indicators. The ANN transport energy demand model is developed. The actual forecast is obtained using a feed forward neural network, trained with back propagation algorithm. In order to investigate the influence of socio-economic indicators on the transport energy demand, the ANN is analyzed based on gross national product (GNP), population and the total annual average veh-km along with historical energy data available from 1970 to 2001. Comparing model predictions with energy data in testing period performs the model validation. The projections are made with two scenarios. It is obtained that the ANN reflects the fluctuation in historical data for both dependent and independent variables. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the transport energy-forecasting problem

  13. Characteristics of Energy Transport of Li-conditioned and non-Li-conditioned Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, S.; Kaye, S.M.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Paul, S.; Wan, B.

    2009-01-01

    The transport properties of NSTX plasmas obtained during the 2008 experimental campaign have been studied and are reported here. Transport trends and dependences have been isolated, and it is found that both electron and ion energy transport coefficients have strong dependences on local values of n(del)T, which in turn is strongly dependent on local current density profile. Without identifying this dependence, it is difficult to identify others, such as the dependence of transport coefficients on B p (or q), I p and P heat . In addition, a comparison between discharges with and without Lithium wall conditioning has been made. While the trends in the two sets of data are similar, the thermal transport loss, especially in the electron channel, is found to strongly depend on the amount of Lithium deposited, decreasing by up to 50% of its no-Lithium value.

  14. Which energy for the 21 century transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Lovelock, J.

    2005-01-01

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO 2 by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy confinement and transport of H-mode plasmas in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Hajime

    2005-02-01

    A characteristic feature of the high-confinement (H-mode) regime is the formation of a transport barrier near the plasma edge, where steepening of the density and temperature gradients is observed. The H-mode is expected to be a standard operation mode in a next-step fusion experimental reactor, called ITER-the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. However, energy confinement in the H-mode has been observed to degrade with increasing density. This is a critical constraint for the operation domain in the ITER. Investigation of the main cause of confinement degradation is an urgent issue in the ITER Physics Research and Development Activity. A key element for solving this problem is investigation of the energy confinement and transport properties of H-mode plasmas. However, the influence of the plasma boundary characterized by the transport barrier in H-modes on the energy transport of the plasma core has not been examined sufficiently in tokamak research. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the energy confinement properties of H-modes in a variety of density, plasma shape, seed impurity concentration, and conductive heat flux in the plasma core using the experimental results obtained in the JT-60U tokamak of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Comparison of the H-mode confinement properties with those of other tokamaks using an international multi-machine database for extrapolation to the next step device was also one of the main subjects in this study. Density dependence of the energy confinement properties has been examined systematically by separating the thermal stored energy into the H-mode pedestal component determined by MHD stability called the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and the core component governed by gyro-Bohm-like transport. It has been found that the pedestal pressure imposed by the destabilization of ELM activities led to a reduction in the pedestal temperature with increasing density. The core temperature for each

  16. Hydrogen energy for the transportation sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Qiangmao

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier for providing a clean, reliable and affordable energy supply. This paper provides a blueprint for the hydrogen energy in the transportation sector in the future of China. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part answers this question: why is China interested in hydrogen energy? The second part describes the possibility of a hydrogen fuel cell engine and a hydrogen internal-combustion engine in the transportation in China in the near future. The final part describes the production of hydrogen in China. (author)

  17. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marique, Anne-Francoise, E-mail: afmarique@ulg.ac.be; Reiter, Sigrid, E-mail: Sigrid.Reiter@ulg.ac.be

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  18. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  19. Risks in U.S. energy material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, A.L.; Rhoads, R.E.; Andrews, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    For the past five years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been conducting a programme to study the safety of transporting energy materials. The overall objectives of the programme are to develop information on the safety of transporting hazardous materials required to support the major energy cycles in the USA. This information was developed for use in making energy policy decisions; in designing and developing new or improved transportation systems for these materials; to help establish research priorities; and as an aid in developing effective transportation safety regulations. Risk analysis was selected as the methodology for performing these studies. This methodology has been applied to rail and highway shipments of nuclear fuel cycle materials and liquid and gaseous fossil fuels. Studies of the risks of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train and uranium ore concentrates (yellow cake) by truck were expected to be issued early in 1981. Analyses of the risks of transporting reactor waste and transuranic wastes are in progress. The work completed to date for nuclear material transportation makes it possible to estimate the transportation risks for the entire fuel cycle in the USA. Results of the assessment are presented in this paper. Because the risk analysis studies for the transportation of gasoline, propane and chlorine have been performed using a methodology, basic assumptions and data that are consistent with the studies that have been performed for nuclear materials, comparisons between the risks for nuclear materials and these materials can also be made. It should be noted that it is not the intention of these comparisons to judge the safety of one industry in comparison with another. These comparisons can, however, provide some insights into the regulatory philosophy for hazardous materials transportation. The remaining sections of the paper briefly review the risk-analysis methodology used in these studies, provide an overview of the systems

  20. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Indirect Energy for Road and Railway Transportation in Sweden; Indirekt energi foer svenska vaeg- och jaernvaegstransporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Daniel K.

    2005-02-01

    Besides energy for propulsion, there are a number of considerable indirect energy categories in the life-cycle of transport systems, e.g. construction and maintenance of infrastructure, and manufacture and service of vehicles. Indirect energy represents 64-66% of the total amount of energy used in the railway sector, while the corresponding share in the road sector is 42-45%. Consequently, decision-making and planning processes regarding transport infrastructure and environmental impacts should also consider indirect energy-use. Two energy case studies have been carried through; the railroad project Botniabanan in the north of Sweden, and the motorway tunnel Soedra Laenken in Stockholm. The result for Botniabanan corresponds with the Swedish railroad average, but Botniabanan contributes to decreased energy use in the transport sector as a whole. The infra structural energy use for Soedra Laenken is considerably higher than the Swedish road average. Soedra Laenken also contributes to an increase of the energy use in the transport sector as a whole.

  2. Trends in transportation energy use, 1970--1988: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Steiner, R.; Meyers, S.

    1992-05-01

    Personal mobility and timely movement of goods have become increasingly important around the world, and energy use for transportation has grown rapidly as a consequence. Energy is used in transportation for two rather different activities: moving people, which we refer to as passenger travel, and moving freight. While freight transport is closely connected to economic activity, much of travel is conducted for personal reasons. In the OECD countries, travel accounts for around 70% of total transportation energy use. In contrast, freight transport accounts for the larger share in the Former East Bloc and the developing countries (LDCs). In our analysis, we focus on three elements that shape transportation energy use: activity, which we measure in passenger-km (p-km) or tonne-km (t-km), modal structure (the share of total activity accounted for by various modes), and modal energy intensities (energy use per p-km or t-km). The modal structure of travel and freight transport is important because there are often considerable differences in energy intensity among modes. The average 1988 average energy use per p-km of different travel modes in the United States (US), West Germany, and Japan are illustrated. With the exception of rail in the US, bus and rail travel had much lower intensity than automobile and air travel. What is perhaps surprising is that the intensity of air travel is only slightly higher than that of automobile travel. This reflects the much higher utilization of vehicle capacity in air travel and the large share of automobile travel that takes place in urban traffic (automobile energy intensity in long-distance driving is much lower than the average over types of driving).

  3. Decarbonizing Sweden’s energy and transportation system by 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramstoft, Rasmus; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Decarbonizing Sweden’s transportation sector is necessary to realize its long-term vision of eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy system by 2050. Within this context, this study develops two scenarios for the transportation sector: one with high electrification (EVS......) and the other with high biofuel and biomethane utilization (BIOS). The energy system model STREAM is utilized to compute the socioeconomic system cost and simulate an integrated transportation, electricity, gas, fuel refinery, and heat system. The results show that electrifying a high share of Sweden’s road...... transportation yields the least systems cost. However, in the least-cost scenario (EVS), bioenergy resources account for 57% of the final energy use in the transportation sector. Further, a sensitivity analysis shows that the costs of different types of cars are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative...

  4. Preparation and characterization of nano-sized phase change emulsions as thermal energy storage and transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Zhang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The nano-sized phase change emulsions are prepared by using D-phase method. • The thermo-physical and transport properties are experimentally investigated. • The influence of surfactant on the melting temperature and latent heat of water is clarified. • The phase change emulsion can be used as the heat transfer fluid in a thermal energy storage system. - Abstract: Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a kind of two-phase heat transfer fluid with phase change material (PCM) dispersed in carrier fluid. It has received intensive attractions in recent years due to the fact that it can be used as both the thermal energy storage material and transport medium simultaneously in a thermal energy storage system. In the present study, nano-sized PCEs are prepared by the D-phase method with n-hexadecane and n-octadecane as PCMs. The thermo-physical and transport properties are characterized to facilitate the applications. The droplet size distribution of the PCE is measured by a Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, and the results show that the droplet size distributions are similar at different mass fractions. The rheological behavior and viscosity of the PCE are measured by a rheometer, which shows that the PCEs at mass fractions below 30.0 wt% are Newtonian fluids, and the viscosities are dependent on both the mass fraction and temperature. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is employed to analyze the phase change characteristics of the PCE, and the results indicate large supercooling degree of water and PCM in the PCE. The melting temperature and latent heat of water in the PCE are much smaller than those of pure water. The thermal conductivities of the PCE with different mass fractions at different temperatures are measured by the transient hot-wire method. Furthermore, the energy transport characteristics of the PCEs are evaluated on the basis of the measured thermo-physical and transport properties. The results suggest that the PCEs show a drastic

  5. Energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transportation sector, 1988-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Camdali, Unal

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at examining energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transportation sector. Unlike the previous studies, historical data is used to investigate the development of efficiencies of 17 years period from 1988 to 2004. The energy consumption values in tons-of-oil equivalent for eight transport modes of four transportation subsectors of the Turkish transportation sector, including hard coal, lignite, oil, and electricity for railways, oil for seaways and airways, and oil and natural gas for highways, are used. The weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated for each mode of transport by multiplying weighting factors with efficiency values of that mode. They are then summed up to calculate the weighted mean overall efficiencies for a particular year. Although the energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transport sector are slightly improved from 1988 to 2004, the historical pattern is cyclic. The energy efficieny is found to range from 22.16% (2002) to 22.62% (1998 and 2004) with a mean of 22.42±0.14% and exergy efficiency to range from 22.39% (2002) to 22.85% (1998 and 2004) with a mean of 22.65±0.15%. Overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the transport sector consist mostly of energy and exergy efficiencies of the highways subsector in percentages varying from 81.5% in 2004 to 91.7% in 2002. The rest of them are consisted of other subsectors such as railways, seaways, and airways. The overall efficiency patterns are basically controlled by the fuel consumption in airways in spite of this subsector's consisting only a small fraction of total. The major reasons for this are that airways efficiencies and the rate of change in fuel consumption in airways are greater than those of the others. This study shows that airway transportation should be increased to improve the energy and exergy efficiencies of the Turkish transport sectors. However, it should also be noted that no innovations and other advances in transport technologies are

  6. Testing the transport energy-environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the EU27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo-Romero, M.P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transport activities are essential for economic and social development. Nevertheless, the transport sector has also shown the fastest growth in energy consumption in the European Union and its contribution to increasing greenhouse gas emissions merits the thorough attention of academics and policy makers. In this paper we analyze the relationship of economic growth and transport activities with transport final energy consumption. Energy Kuznets curves are estimated for a panel data set covering the EU27 countries in the period 1995–2009 for total transport energy use, household transport energy use, and productive transport energy use (all three in absolute and per capita energy use terms). The productive transport energy use and gross value added relationship are further considered as per hour worked. Finally, the control variables of energy prices and differences in the economic structures are tested. Empirical results show that the elasticity of transport energy use with respect to gross value added in per capita terms decreases from a threshold for the three transport energy consumption variables, but the turning point of improved environmental quality is not reached in any instance. - Highlights: • Transport EKCs are estimated for the EU countries in the 1995–2009 period. • Total, household and production activity transport energy uses are analyzed. • Data support a concave shape, but the turning point is not reached. • Richer countries have more limited potential for energy efficiency policies. • EKCs elasticity values are considered to support policy interpretations.

  7. Influence of embodied energy in the energy efficiency of optical transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mata, Javier; Ye, Yabin; Lopez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    An energy model including both operational and embodied energy is proposed to evaluate the performance evolution of optical transport networks in a multi-period study up to 15 years. Significant improvements in energy efficiency per GHz and energy reductions can be achieved for flexi-grid OFDM-ba...

  8. Transport growth in Bangkok: Energy, environment, and traffic congestion. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, J. [Asia Regional Office, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-07-01

    Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is a physically and economically complexcity with a complicated transport system. With daily traffic congestion averaging 16 hours, the air quality is such that to breathe street level pollution for 8 eight hours is roughly equivalent to smoking nine cigarettes per day. Estimates suggest idling traffic costs up to $1.6 billion annually. Energy use within the transport sector is on a steady rise with an estimated increase in 11 years of two and one half times. Severe health impacts have begun to effect many residents - young children and the elderly being particularly vulnerable. Bangkok`s air quality and congestion problems are far from hopeless. Great potential exists for Bangkok to remedy its transport-related problems. The city has many necessary characteristics that allow an efficient, economical system of transport. For example, its high density level makes the city a prime candidate for an efficient system of mass transit and the multitude and close proximity of shops, street vendors, restaurants, and residential areas is highly conducive to walking and cycling. Technical knowledge and capacity to devise and implement innovative policies and projects to address air quality and congestion problems is plentiful. There is also consensus among Bangkokians that something needs to be done immediately to clear the air and the roads. However, little has been done. This report proposes a new approach to transport planning for Bangkok that integrates consideration of ecological, social, and financial viability in the process of making decisions regarding managing existing infrastructure and investments in new infrastructure. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Simulation of current-voltage characteristics of a MOS structure considering the tunnel transport of carriers in semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, M I

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a tunnel charge transport in the near-surface region of silicon on the electrical characteristics of MOS structures with a 2-3 nm insulator layer is studied theoretically. An equilibrium condition for the substrate is assumed. The cases of an Al and polySi gate are considered. The possibility of a 'double' (in Si and through SiO 2 ) tunnelling expands the energy range of transported particles, which increases one of the components of the total tunnel current. The proposed model allows for the improved simulation of gate current in MOSFETs, which is especially important for highly-doped substrates

  10. Analytic approach to auroral electron transport and energy degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamnes, K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of a beam of auroral electrons with the atmosphere is described by the linear transport equation, encompassing discrete energy loss, multiple scattering, and secondary electrons. A solution to the transport equation provides the electron intensity as a function of altitude, pitch angle (with respect to the geomagnetic field) and energy. A multi-stream (discrete ordinate) approximation to the transport equation is developed. An analytic solution is obtained in this approximation. The computational scheme obtained by combining the present transport code with the energy degradation method of Swartz (1979) conserves energy identically. The theory provides a framework within which angular distributions can be easily calculated and interpreted. Thus, a detailed study of the angular distributions of 'non-absorbed' electrons (i.e., electrons that have lost just a small fraction of their incident energy) reveals a systematic variation with incident angle and energy, and with penetration depth. The present approach also gives simple yet accurate solutions in low order multi-stream approximations. The accuracy of the four-stream approximation is generally within a few per cent, whereas two-stream results for backscattered mean intensities and fluxes are accurate to within 10-15%. (author)

  11. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  12. Decarbonizing Sweden’s energy and transportation system by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bramstoft

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decarbonizing Sweden’s transportation sector is necessary to realize its long-term vision of eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the energy system by 2050. Within this context, this study develops two scenarios for the transportation sector: one with high electrification (EVS and the other with high biofuel and biomethane utilization (BIOS. The energy system model STREAM is utilized to compute the socioeconomic system cost and simulate an integrated transportation, electricity, gas, fuel refinery, and heat system. The results show that electrifying a high share of Sweden’s road transportation yields the least systems cost. However, in the least-cost scenario (EVS, bioenergy resources account for 57% of the final energy use in the transportation sector. Further, a sensitivity analysis shows that the costs of different types of cars are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative analysis of the scenarios.

  13. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  14. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  15. Transportation energy in global cities: Sustainable transportation comes in from the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Peter; Kenworthy, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    The energy, environmental and social benefits of sustainable transportation, i.e, public transit, biking and walking, have long been recognized but are now mainstream in global and local transportation policy debates. However, the economic value of sustainable transportation has always been seen as secondary, unless many external costs were included. The results of a new global study show that cities with significant sustainable transportation systems have reduced costs on road construction and maintenance; better operating cost recovery and fuel-efficiency; fewer road accidents and less air pollution. In overall terms, the percentage of city funds going to transportation is reduced. The data show that cities with the most roads have the highest transportation costs and the most rail-oriented cities have the lowest. Further, the most sprawling cities have the highest direct and indirect costs for transportation. Thus, strategies to contain sprawl, to reurbanize, to build new rail systems info car-dependent suburbs with focussed sub-centers, and to facilitate biking and walking, not only will improve energy efficiency but will reduce costs to the economy of a city. Strategies that build freeways and add to sprawl will do the opposite. Trends indicate that moves toward sustainable urban patterns are beginning. The need to operationalize sustainable transportation strategies in planning and engineering practice and in the politics of infrastructure funding remains a major challenge. Some cities are showing how this can be done. (author)

  16. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  17. Present and future energy consumption for passenger transportation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, M.; Wolffram, U.

    1981-01-01

    Passenger transportation in Germany was investigated in order to determine real energy consumption. For typical passengers, energy consumption for overland travel and charter flights was studied. The energy needed for air traffic was compared with that for transportation overland (railway, car, bus), taking into account transportation to the airport or railway station. Transportation makes up about 17% of German primary energy consumption, i.e., road traffic 14%, railway traffic 1.6%, and air traffic 1%. Specific energy consumption (overland travel) of intercity trains, airplanes and cars is in the proportion 1.0 to 3.7 to 4.0 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 2.4 to 3.1 by the year 2000. For holiday trips, specific energy consumption for bus, train, car and airplane travel is in the proportion 1.0 to 1.4 to 3.6 to 3.4 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 1.4 to 2.5 to 2.9 by 2000. (ESA)

  18. Modelling transport energy demand: A socio-technical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anable, Jillian; Brand, Christian; Tran, Martino; Eyre, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Despite an emerging consensus that societal energy consumption and related emissions are not only influenced by technical efficiency but also by lifestyles and socio-cultural factors, few attempts have been made to operationalise these insights in models of energy demand. This paper addresses that gap by presenting a scenario exercise using an integrated suite of sectoral and whole systems models to explore potential energy pathways in the UK transport sector. Techno-economic driven scenarios are contrasted with one in which social change is strongly influenced by concerns about energy use, the environment and well-being. The ‘what if’ Lifestyle scenario reveals a future in which distance travelled by car is reduced by 74% by 2050 and final energy demand from transport is halved compared to the reference case. Despite the more rapid uptake of electric vehicles and the larger share of electricity in final energy demand, it shows a future where electricity decarbonisation could be delayed. The paper illustrates the key trade-off between the more aggressive pursuit of purely technological fixes and demand reduction in the transport sector and concludes there are strong arguments for pursuing both demand and supply side solutions in the pursuit of emissions reduction and energy security.

  19. Taxes to influence energy use in road transportation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Prafula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to achieve a shift towards renewable energy will be difficult to achieve without a change in the energy use in road transportation in Australia. The transport sector in Australia is heavily reliant on oil and is responsible for contributing 18.1%, of Australia's annual greenhouse gas emissions. This paper examines the current Australian tax policy and its inability to make an impact on transport choices that would reduce energy use and emissions and promote alternative energy use. Some of the current taxes such as the luxury car tax can be singled out as a tax that has passed its “use-by” date. The paper explores how the Australian Government can use targeted taxation measures in order to encourage the purchase of low energy consumption and low-emission vehicles, reduce the number of registered cars on Australian roads and control the use of cars as a means of personal transportation. A comprehensive tax measure suggested in this paper is the luxury energy tax based on the premise that energy use in transportation is a luxury and should be taxed appropriately in order to curb its use and bring about a behaviour change in the choice and usage of motor vehicles.

  20. Transport characteristics in Au/pentacene/Au diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshiaki; Naka, Akiyoshi; Hiroki, Masanobu; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Someya, Takao; Fujiwara, Akira

    2018-03-01

    We have used scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM) to study the structure of a pentacene thin film grown on a Au layer with and shown that it consists of randomly oriented amorphous pentacene clusters. We have also investigated the transport properties of amorphous pentacene in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diode structure and shown that the current is logarithmically proportional to the square root of the applied voltage, which indicates that transport occurs as the result of hopping between localized sites randomly distributed in space and energy.

  1. IFPEN Transports Energy Carnot Institute. Annual report 2016. Innovating mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Under the authority of IFP Energies nouvelles, the IFPEN Transports Energie Carnot Institute develops efficient, clean and sustainable technological innovations in the fields of power-train and propulsion systems, energy sectors and industrial thermal processes with CO_2 capture. IFPEN Transports Energie Carnot Institute is a R and D center serving industry, leader in the fields of transport and energy: - Innovative solutions to address technological challenges and market needs (high-efficiency, low-emission power-trains, power-train electrification, energy optimization and onboard control, alternative fuels with low CO_2 emissions, energy generation based on chemical looping combustion); - High-performance experimental resources and digital tools resulting in innovations with reduced costs and development times; - A proactive industrial protection policy; - Support for industrial sectors, covering a very broad range of technological readiness levels; - Transfer of R and D results via joint product development with licensing out operations, strategic partnerships and collaborative research agreements; - An innovation support policy, aimed particularly at micro-companies, SMEs and intermediate-sized companies. IFPEN Transports Energie Carnot Institute has close ties with industry: from micro-companies, SMEs and intermediate-sized companies to major industrial groups; A strong commitment within competitiveness clusters (Mov'eo, LUTB, Systematic, Astech, etc.); A leadership of the automobile sector and the Transport Alliance within the Carnot Institutes; A synergy with networks of academic partners and R and D laboratories with an international influence

  2. Worldwide transportation/energy demand, 1975-2000. Revised Variflex model projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1980-03-01

    The salient features of the transportation-energy relationships that characterize the world of 1975 are reviewed, and worldwide (34 countries) long-range transportation demand by mode to the year 2000 is reviewed. A worldwide model is used to estimate future energy demand for transportation. Projections made by the forecasting model indicate that in the year 2000, every region will be more dependent on petroleum for the transportation sector than it was in 1975. This report is intended to highlight certain trends and to suggest areas for further investigation. Forecast methodology and model output are described in detail in the appendices. The report is one of a series addressing transportation energy consumption; it supplants and replaces an earlier version published in October 1978 (ORNL/Sub-78/13536/1).

  3. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P. [Systems and Control Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] Smokers, R.T.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for West-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a baseline case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario it is outlined how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various existing and future transport technologies and the corresponding modal split. Based on this information, expected energy consumption features of the various transport modes are described, data on the present fuel supply and electricity generation system are provided, and estimations of the future energy system are given. Then, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the future passenger transport systems are calculated and these impacts are compared with the current system. The conclusion is that a large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions is possible in several ways, but that each option will cause many problems because drastic policy measures will have to be introduced, which may affect economic growth and the lifestyles of individuals. 4 figs., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

  4. High-Energy Beam Transport in the Hanford FMIT Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Potter, R.C.; Liska, D.J.; Giles, P.M.; Wilson, M.T.; Cole, T.R.; Caldwell, C.J. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) for the Hanford Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility's Linear Accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power continuous duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread. Both periodic and nonperiodic systems have been designed to transport and shape the beam as required by the liquid lithium target. An energy spreader system distributes the Bragg Peak within the lithium. A beam spreader and a beam stop have been provided for tune-up purposes. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostics techniques and non-interceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports

  5. Road transport-related energy consumption: Analysis of driving factors in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraihi, Rafaa; Abdallah, Khaled ben; Abid, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of urban population and the development of road infrastructures in Tunisian cities have brought about many environmental and economic problems, including the rise scored in energy consumption and the increase in the quantity of gas emissions arising from road transport. Despite the critical nature of such problems, no policies have yet been adopted to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper aims to determine driving factors of energy consumption change for the road mode. It uses decomposition analysis to discuss the effects of economic, demographic and urban factors on the evolution of transport energy consumption. The main result highlighted in the present work is that vehicle fuel intensity, vehicle intensity, GDP per capita, urbanized kilometers and national road network are found to be the main drivers of energy consumption change in the road transport sector during 1990–2006 period. Consequently, several strategies can be elaborated to reduce road transport energy. Economic, fiscal and regulatory instruments can be applied in order to make road transport more sustainable. -- Highlights: •We are interested in determining driving factors of transport energy consumption growth in Tunisia. •We use decomposition analysis approach. •Vehicle fuel and road vehicle intensities are found to be principal factors. •Motorization and urbanization are also found to be responsible

  6. Direct measurement of superdiffusive energy transport in disordered granular chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Martínez, Alejandro J; Phenisee, Sean E; Kevrekidis, P G; Porter, Mason A; Yang, Jinkyu

    2018-02-13

    Energy transport properties in heterogeneous materials have attracted scientific interest for more than half of a century, and they continue to offer fundamental and rich questions. One of the outstanding challenges is to extend Anderson theory for uncorrelated and fully disordered lattices in condensed-matter systems to physical settings in which additional effects compete with disorder. Here we present the first systematic experimental study of energy transport and localization properties in simultaneously disordered and nonlinear granular crystals. In line with prior theoretical studies, we observe in our experiments that disorder and nonlinearity-which individually favor energy localization-can effectively cancel each other out, resulting in the destruction of wave localization. We also show that the combined effect of disorder and nonlinearity can enable manipulation of energy transport speed in granular crystals. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate superdiffusive transport. Furthermore, our numerical computations suggest that subdiffusive transport should be attainable by controlling the strength of the system's external precompression force.

  7. Low-energy ion beam extraction and transport: Experiment--computer comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaedtke, P.; Brown, I.; Fojas, P.

    1994-01-01

    Ion beam formation at low energy (∼1 keV or so) is more difficult to accomplish than at high energy because of beam blowup by space-charge forces in the uncompensated region within the extractor, an effect which is yet more pronounced for heavy ions and for high beam current density. For the same reasons, the extracted ion beam is more strongly subject to space charge blowup than higher energy beams if it is not space-charge neutralized to a high degree. A version of vacuum arc ion source with an extractor that produces low-energy metal ion beams at relatively high current (∼0.5--10 kV at up to ∼100 mA) using a multi-aperture, accel--decel extractor configuration has been created. The experimentally observed beam extraction characteristics of this source is compared with those predicted using the AXCEL-INP code, and the implied downstream beam transport with theoretical expectations. It is concluded that the low-energy extractor performance is in reasonable agreement with the code, and that good downstream space charge neutralization is obtained. Here, the code and the experimental results are described, and the features that contribute to good low-energy performance are discussed

  8. Plasma thermal energy transport: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.

    Experiments on the transport across the magnetic field of electron thermal energy are reviewed (Alcator, Frascati Torus). In order to explain the experimental results, a transport model is described that reconfirmed the need to have an expression for the local diffusion coefficient with a negative exponent of the electron temperature

  9. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  10. High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-03-01

    We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI97. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM is extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation and fission process, we have also implemented a new model, GEM, by which the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus can be described. According to the extension of the applicable energy, we have upgraded the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data by employing new systematics. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field has been implemented for the beam transport calculations. In this upgrade, some new tally functions are added and the format of input of data has been improved very much in a user friendly manner. Due to the implementation of these new calculation functions and utilities, consequently, NMTC/JAM enables us to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than before. This report serves as a user manual of the code. (author)

  11. The effect of outsourcing and situational characteristics on physical distribution transportation efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bienstock, Carol C

    1994-01-01

    This research examined the outsourcing decision for the logistics function of motor carrier transportation. A full factorial design was executed on a simulated transportation network to investigate how the efficiency of motor carrier transportation was affected by how it was structured (private/leased fleet versus contract carrier transportation) and the characteristics of the transportation activities. Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA) offered a useful theoretical framework for consideration o...

  12. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  13. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2006-11-01

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  14. Gyrokinetic theory for particle and energy transport in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falessi, Matteo Valerio; Zonca, Fulvio

    2018-03-01

    A set of equations is derived describing the macroscopic transport of particles and energy in a thermonuclear plasma on the energy confinement time. The equations thus derived allow studying collisional and turbulent transport self-consistently, retaining the effect of magnetic field geometry without postulating any scale separation between the reference state and fluctuations. Previously, assuming scale separation, transport equations have been derived from kinetic equations by means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis and spatio-temporal averaging. In this work, the evolution equations for the moments of the distribution function are obtained following the standard approach; meanwhile, gyrokinetic theory has been used to explicitly express the fluctuation induced fluxes. In this way, equations for the transport of particles and energy up to the transport time scale can be derived using standard first order gyrokinetics.

  15. Long distance bioenergy logistics. An assessment of costs and energy consumption for various biomass energy transport chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suurs, R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to create the possibility of obtaining an insight in the key factors of the title system, a model has been developed, taking into account different production systems, pretreatment operations and transport options. Various transport chains were constructed, which were subjected to a sensitivity analysis with respect to factors like transport distance, fuel prices and equipment operation times. Scenarios are analysed for Latin-America and Europe for which the distinguishing parameters were assumed to be the transport distances and biomass prices. For both regions the analysis concerns a situation where ship transports are applied for a coastal and for an inland biomass supply. For European biomass a train transport was considered as well. In order to explore possibilities for improvement, the effects of these variables on costs and energy consumption within a chain, were assessed. Delivered biomass can be converted to power or methanol. Model results are as follows: Total costs for European bioenergy range from 11.2-21.2 euro/GJ MeOH for methanol and 17.4-28.0 euro/GJ e for electricity. For Latin-America, costs ranges are 11.3-21.8 euro/GJ MeOH for methanol and 17.4-28.7 euro/GJ e for electricity. The lower end of these ranges is represented by transport chains that are characterised by the use of high density energy carriers such as logs, pellets or liquid fuels (these are the most attractive for all scenarios considered). The transport of chips should be avoided categorically due to their low density and high production costs. Transport chains based on the early production of liquid energy carriers such as methanol or pyrolysis oil seem to be promising alternatives as well. With respect to energy consumption, the transport of chips is highly unfavourable for the same reasons as stated above. The use of pelletizing operations implies a high energy input, however due to energy savings as a result of more efficient transport operations, this energy loss is

  16. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  17. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  18. International comparisons of energy and environmental efficiency in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, Khaled; Belloumi, Mounir; De Wolf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides an international comparison of the energy intensity and the carbon dioxide intensity in road transport for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. This paper attempts to perform a comparative analysis to find the most appropriate mapping of the energy performance in road transport taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable energy development, namely road transport-related energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions. An important result of the study is the inverse relationship between energy efficiency and environmental efficiency. Through the calculated Theil coefficient, our empirical findings highlight the existence of spatial and temporal disparities between countries. In 2012, Tunisia occupies the 48th and the 38th rank respectively in terms of energy and environmental efficiency. Based on a general index of energy performance in the road transport sector, it is deemed to have a medium–high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank. The study shows the importance of enhancing a number of policies for the road transport system through the joint improvement of the fuel price policy, of the road infrastructure policy and of the fuel-efficient road vehicles policy, in order to maintain sustainable energy road transport. - Highlights: • The paper presents an international comparative analysis of the energy performance. • The road transport is analyzed for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. • There is no convergence between energy and environmental efficiencies. • Tunisia has a medium-high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank in 2012. • The findings show the importance of enhancing some policies for the road transport.

  19. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  20. Transportation and energy efficiency: Promised potentials, serious roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft-Oliver, T.V.

    1995-12-31

    Transportation is both a critical element of achieving national economic development goals and a major consumer of scarce and expensive energy resources. Improvements in access and mobility from reduced congestion, higher speeds, additional non motorized and pedestrian options, and better mass transit will result in reductions in energy use in most cases. Additional improvements in vehicle efficiency are possible but will not meet the needs of the region for transportation and energy efficiency improvements in the absence of these other improvements. The barriers to success in the transport sector are obvious on a superficial level. They include lack of road space, inadequate or incomplete road networks, insufficient mass transit capacity, predation of pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle space by motor vehicles, and financing. The lack of progress in solving many of these problems over the past ten to twenty years indicates that there are underlying issues not yet addressed. Perceptions of these problems have changed since the middle 1970s and early 1980s as international lending and technical assistance began to focus on transportation. In those early years the problems were described as financial, and `meeting demand` challenges. The World Bank is now conducting a review of their Transport Sector Policy. While the review has not progressed to a final document and certainly not to articulation or transformation of Bank policy, early drafts reflect a view that past failures to improve transportation circumstances are human resource and institutional problems.

  1. Effects of energy constraints on transportation systems. [Twenty-six papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, R. K. [ed.

    1977-12-01

    Twenty-six papers are presented on a variety of topics including: energy and transportaton facts and figures; long-range planning under energy constraints; technology assessment of alternative fuels; energy efficiency of intercity passenger and freight movement; energy efficiency of intracity passenger movement; federal role; electrification of railroads; energy impact of the electric car in an urban enviroment; research needs and projects in progress--federal viewpoint; research needs in transportation energy conservation--data needs; and energy intensity of various transportation modes--an overview. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  2. Gate-dependent asymmetric transport characteristics in pentacene barristors with graphene electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wang-Taek; Min, Misook; Jeong, Hyunhak; Kim, Dongku; Jang, Jingon; Yoo, Daekyung; Jang, Yeonsik; Kim, Jun-Woo; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chung, Seungjun; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Lee, Hyoyoung; Wang, Gunuk; Lee, Takhee

    2016-11-25

    We investigated the electrical characteristics and the charge transport mechanism of pentacene vertical hetero-structures with graphene electrodes. The devices are composed of vertical stacks of silicon, silicon dioxide, graphene, pentacene, and gold. These vertical heterojunctions exhibited distinct transport characteristics depending on the applied bias direction, which originates from different electrode contacts (graphene and gold contacts) to the pentacene layer. These asymmetric contacts cause a current rectification and current modulation induced by the gate field-dependent bias direction. We observed a change in the charge injection barrier during variable-temperature current-voltage characterization, and we also observed that two distinct charge transport channels (thermionic emission and Poole-Frenkel effect) worked in the junctions, which was dependent on the bias magnitude.

  3. The transport sector's energy usage in 2011; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ellen; Kadic, Zinaida; Lindblom, Helen

    2012-11-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of the Sweden's energy consumption. As the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels, its conversion to other fuel-/energy types have a major impact in the coming years with the increasing requirements for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This situation is expected to change and expand requirements for statistics on the transport sector's energy use. Since 2008, as a result of the increased interest, the Swedish Energy Agency publish an annual collection of statistics for the transport sector.

  4. Program of actions for energy conservation in the equipment for the urban public transportation; Programa de acciones para el ahorro de la energia en los equipos de transporte publico urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhez Arellano, L.I. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The Facultad de Ingenieria of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM), in its postgraduate program in Transport Engineering carries out research projects aimed at the appropriate operation of the urban public transportation, in the definition of the transportation networks and their exploitation as well as in the energy conservation and efficient use of the energy for its operation. This paper embodies the lines of interest of this program. The proper operation characteristics and the energy consumption of the different types of vehicles used in urban public transportation mainly depend on the application they have been designed for. Nevertheless, an important point is to know, in the most concrete and specific form, the nature and other possible utilization options of the different urban transportation systems, as well as its energy impact and the possibility of a well oriented energy conservation. The purpose of this paper is to present in a concrete manner the different types of vehicles used in the urban public transportation, making an energy comparison, besides setting forth a program of actions tending to the energy saving for the vehicles that nowadays operate in the main cities of our country. The main actions are pointed out and the basic characteristics for their initiation, which can be summarized in three large groups: -action in the proper enterprises and with existing vehicular park. -actions over the management and exploitation of the transportation systems. -action for the utilization of new equipment and more efficient vehicles. A detailed explanation of each one of these actions and their impact on the energy consumption are the final purpose of this study. [Espanol] La Facultad de Ingenieria de la Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM), dentro de su programa de Postrado en Ingenieria del Transporte realiza proyectos de investigacion tendientes en la buena operacion de los transportes publicos urbanos, en la definicion de

  5. Program of actions for energy conservation in the equipment for the urban public transportation; Programa de acciones para el ahorro de la energia en los equipos de transporte publico urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhez Arellano, L I [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Facultad de Ingenieria of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM), in its postgraduate program in Transport Engineering carries out research projects aimed at the appropriate operation of the urban public transportation, in the definition of the transportation networks and their exploitation as well as in the energy conservation and efficient use of the energy for its operation. This paper embodies the lines of interest of this program. The proper operation characteristics and the energy consumption of the different types of vehicles used in urban public transportation mainly depend on the application they have been designed for. Nevertheless, an important point is to know, in the most concrete and specific form, the nature and other possible utilization options of the different urban transportation systems, as well as its energy impact and the possibility of a well oriented energy conservation. The purpose of this paper is to present in a concrete manner the different types of vehicles used in the urban public transportation, making an energy comparison, besides setting forth a program of actions tending to the energy saving for the vehicles that nowadays operate in the main cities of our country. The main actions are pointed out and the basic characteristics for their initiation, which can be summarized in three large groups: -action in the proper enterprises and with existing vehicular park. -actions over the management and exploitation of the transportation systems. -action for the utilization of new equipment and more efficient vehicles. A detailed explanation of each one of these actions and their impact on the energy consumption are the final purpose of this study. [Espanol] La Facultad de Ingenieria de la Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM), dentro de su programa de Postrado en Ingenieria del Transporte realiza proyectos de investigacion tendientes en la buena operacion de los transportes publicos urbanos, en la definicion de

  6. Policy study: energy conservation in transportation in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, J

    1978-09-01

    The present study is an initial effort to apply social system analysis to transportation energy conservation, in order to prepare the ground for a team effort of transportation and energy specialists, regional planners, policy analysis and generalists, and government administrators - with additional imputs from commerce, industry and the community at large. The task of this study has been to inventory the principal factors and inputs in the field of transportation energy demand and possible conservation, estimate their magnitudes and relations, and arrange in a tentative but reasoned pattern - where there were before only so many scattered data, technical studies with a limited focus, sectoral programs and decisions, and vague impressions about the serviceability, the impacts and the social value of the product.

  7. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joung-min; Akiyama, Yuto; Kakinuma, Tomoyuki; Mori, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical V G above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge

  8. Characteristics of nonlocally-coupled transition of the heat transport in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Itoh, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Inagaki, S.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of characteristics between a nonlocal transport phenomenon and an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) in the Large Helical Device is performed with a transient transport analysis and from the viewpoint of a dynamic behavior of transport state. The electron ITB is characterized by a jump of electron temperature gradient. In contrast, the transient transport analysis indicates the nonlocal transport phenomenon is characterized by a jump of electron heat flux. And seen from the viewpoint of the dynamic behavior of transport state, the physical mechanism of the appearance of the nonlocal transport phenomenon is found to be qualitatively different from that of the formation of the electron ITB. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Energy intensity in road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrés, Lidia; Padilla, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that have influenced the energy intensity trend of the Spanish road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles over the period 1996–2012. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of these factors and to inform the design of measures to improve energy efficiency in road freight transport. The paper uses both annual single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition analysis. The results suggest that the decrease in the energy intensity of Spanish road freight in the period is explained by the change in the real energy intensity index (lower energy consumption per tonne-kilometre transported), which is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index (greater share in freight transport of those commodities the transportation of which is more energy intensive). The change in energy intensity is analysed in more depth by quantifying the contribution of each commodity through the attribution of changes in Divisia indices. -- Highlights: •We examine energy intensity of Spanish road freight transport over 1996–2012. •We employ single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition. •Energy intensity reduction is explained by the change in real energy intensity index. •This is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index. •The attribution of Divisia indices changes gives the contribution of each commodity

  10. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalenoja, H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

  11. Impacts of energy subsidy reform on the Malaysian economy and transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaymani, Saeed; Kari, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is paying a high level of subsidies on the consumption of energy (about 5% of its GDP). Therefore, reforming the energy subsidies, as planned by the government, will have a significant impact on household welfare and energy-intensive sectors, such as the transport sector. This study employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to highlight the transmission channels through which the removal of energy subsidies affects the domestic economy. The findings show that the shock increases real GDP and real investment, while decreasing Malaysian total exports and imports. The removal of energy subsidies also decreases the aggregate energy demand, and, consequently, decreases the level of carbon emissions in the Malaysian economy. In addition, households experience significant falls in their consumption and welfare. The transport sector is significantly influenced through an increase in production costs due to an increase in the prices of intermediate inputs. The total output and total exports of the whole transport sector decrease while its imports increase. In addition, the use of all kinds of transport by households decreases significantly. The Malaysian energy subsidy reform, leads to an initial decrease in CO 2 emissions and demand for electricity, gas, and petroleum products in the entire transport sector. - Highlights: • Malaysia pays a high level of subsidy on consumption of energy. • The transportation sector in this country is the highest energy consumer among others. • A general equilibrium model used to analyse the effects of energy subsidy reform. • The shock increases real GDP and decreases energy and carbon emission in this sector. • It is not beneficial for the transport sector as decreases the output of this sector

  12. Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; De-Lille, G.; Ge, Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the temperature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on the development and application of alternative technologies to vapour compression refrigeration systems that have the potential to reduce the overall energy consumption and environmental impacts. The review and analysis indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from conventional diesel engine driven vapour compression refrigeration systems commonly employed in food transport refrigeration can be as high as 40% of the greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicle's engine. For articulated vehicles over 33 ton, which are responsible for over 80% of refrigerated food transportation in the UK, the reject heat available form the engine is sufficient to drive sorption refrigeration systems and satisfy most of the refrigeration requirements of the vehicle. Other promising technologies that can lead to a reduction in CO 2 emissions are air cycle refrigeration and hybrid systems in which conventional refrigeration technologies are integrated with thermal energy storage. For these systems, however, to effectively compete with diesel driven vapour compression systems, further research and development work is needed to improve their efficiency and reduce their weight

  13. The energy phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanolis, S.

    1993-01-01

    This book gives popular answers to questions concerning the characteristics, origin, conversion and utilization of energy. The forms of energy, energy sources, power generation, natural energy conversion processes, energy consumption, and energy transport and storage are illustrated. (orig.) [de

  14. Study of radiative ablation to low-Z material and energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiamin; Ding Yaonan; Miao Wenyong; Sun Kexu; Yi Rongqing; Chen Zhenglin; Wang Hongbin; Li Sanwei; Wang Yaomei; Wen Shuhuai; Zheng Zhijian; Zhang Wenhai; Yu Yanning

    1998-12-01

    X-ray emissions from the gold foil target, irradiated by 0.35 μm laser on the Xingguang facility, have been studied. A clean and intense X-ray source has been obtained from the rear of gold foil target by selection of irradiating laser parameters. Then, characteristics of radiation ablation to low-Z materials C 8 H 8 and C 10 H 16 O 5 and energy transport have been investigated comprehensively. Experimental results show that mass ablative rate of C 10 H 16 O 5 are greater than those of C 8 H 8 due to its better match with the ablative source spectra

  15. ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS IN GALACTIC SUPERBUBBLES. I. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Schnee, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple continuous-time random-walk model for the transport of energetic particles accelerated by a collection of supernova explosions in a galactic superbubble, developed to simulate and highlight signatures of anomalous transport on the particles' evolution and their spectra in a multi-shock context. We assume standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory for each shock encounter. The superbubble (an OB stars association) is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks bounded by a random surface. The model is based on two coupled stochastic differential equations and is applied for protons and alpha particles. Using characteristic values for a typical bubble, our simulations suggest that acceleration and transport in the bubble may be sub-diffusive. In addition, a spectral break in the particles' evolution and spectra is evident located at ≈10 15 eV for protons and ≈3 × 10 15 eV for alphas. Our simulations are consistent with a bubble's mean magnetic field strength of ≈1 μG and a shock separation distance ∼0.1 × the characteristic radius of the bubble. The simulations imply that the diffusion coefficient (for the elementary shock acceleration process) is ∼ 27 cm 2 s –1 at 1 GeV/c. While the sub-diffusive transport is readily attributed to the stochastic nature of the acceleration time according to DSA theory, the spectral break appears to be an artifact of transport in a finite medium. These simulations point to a new and intriguing phenomenon associated with the statistical nature of collective acceleration of high-energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles.

  16. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  17. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E; Jennings, Merrisa

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  18. A systems approach to energy management and policy in commuter rail transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owan, Ransome Egimine

    1998-12-01

    This research is motivated by a recognition of energy as a significant part of the transportation problem. Energy is a long-term variable cost that is controllable. The problem is comprised of: the limited supply of energy, chronic energy deficits and oil imports, energy cost, poor fuel substitution, and the undesirable environmental effects of transportation fuels (Green House Gases and global warming). Mass transit systems are energy intensive networks and energy is a direct constraint to the supply of affordable transportation. Commuter railroads are also relatively unresponsive to energy price changes due to travel demand patterns, firm power needs and slow adoption of efficient train technologies. However, the long term energy demand is lacking in existing transportation planning philosophy. In spite of the apparent oversight, energy is as important as urban land use, funding and congestion, all of which merit explicit treatment. This research was conducted in the form of a case study of New Jersey Transit in an attempt to broaden the understanding of the long-term effects of energy in a transportation environment. The systems approach method that is driven by heuristic models was utilized to investigate energy usage, transit peer group efficiency, energy management regimes, and the tradeoffs between energy and transportation, a seldom discussed topic in the field. Implicit in systems thinking is the methodological hunt for solutions. The energy problem was divided into thinking is the methodological hunt for solutions. The energy problem was divided into smaller parts that in turn were simpler to solve. The research presented five heuristic models: Transit Energy Aggregation Model, Structural Energy Consumption Model, Traction Power Consumption Model, Conjunctive Demand Model, and a Managerial Action Module. A putative relationship was established between traction energy, car-miles, seasonal and ambient factors, without inference of direct causality. The co

  19. Powder Materials and Energy Efficiency in Transportation: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Fernand D. S.

    2012-03-01

    The transportation industry accounts for one quarter of global energy use and has by far the largest share of global oil consumption. It used 51.5% of the oil worldwide in 2003. Mobility projections show that it is expected to triple by 2050 with associated energy use. Considerable achievements recently have been obtained in the development of powder and powder-processed metallic alloys, metal matrix composites, intermetallics, and carbon fiber composites. These achievements have resulted in their introduction to the transportation industry in a wide variety of transportation components with significant impact on energy efficiency. A significant number of nano, nanostructured, and nanohybrid materials systems have been deployed. Others, some of them incorporating carbon nanotubes and graphene, are under research and development and exhibit considerable potential. Airplane redesign using a materials and functional systems integration approach was used resulting in considerable system improvements and energy efficiency. It is expected that this materials and functional systems integration soon will be adopted in the design and manufacture of other advanced aircrafts and extended to the automotive industry and then to the marine transportation industry. The opportunities for the development and application of new powder materials in the transportation industry are extensive, with considerable potential to impact energy utilization. However, significant challenges need to be overcome in several critical areas.

  20. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  1. Trends in passenger transport and freight energy use in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendiluce, Maria; Schipper, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides for the first time a complete analysis of recent trends in activity, carbon emissions, modal shares, energy intensities, vehicle use and fuels in the Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008 and discusses policy options. Passenger and freight activities have increased in Spain and are projected to continue, presenting a challenge for sustainable mobility efforts; emissions have increased, mainly fueled by the rise in activity; modal shares have pulled away from public transport, with a decrease in bus and rail, towards an increase in car and air travel; energy intensities, though initially decreasing, are currently increasing; and fuel use has taken over 37% of Spanish final energy consumption. To target these issues the Spanish government has focused its efforts in targeting energy efficiency through dieselization, which has not led to positive results. More recently policies and measures have been directed towards redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. Little has been done to reduce activity besides some anecdotic public awareness campaigns. Activity reduction may be achieved with regulations, restrictions and mobility plans; by increasing high speed rail and rail freight transport; by improving intermodality and tying the Spanish rail network with the EU; and with more urban transport planning at local level. - Highlights: → Complete analysis of recent trends in Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008. → Passenger and freight activities have driven GHG emissions increase. → Modal shares have pulled away from public transport. → Policy efforts targeted energy efficiency and redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. → Little has been done to reduce activity.

  2. Direct Effect of Dielectric Surface Energy on Carrier Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujun; Tang, Qingxin; Tian, Hongkun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tong, Yanhong; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R; Liu, Yichun

    2018-05-09

    The understanding of the characteristics of gate dielectric that leads to optimized carrier transport remains controversial, and the conventional studies applied organic semiconductor thin films, which introduces the effect of dielectric on the growth of the deposited semiconductor thin films and hence only can explore the indirect effects. Here, we introduce pregrown organic single crystals to eliminate the indirect effect (semiconductor growth) in the conventional studies and to undertake an investigation of the direct effect of dielectric on carrier transport. It is shown that the matching of the polar and dispersive components of surface energy between semiconductor and dielectric is favorable for higher mobility. This new empirical finding may show the direct relationship between dielectric and carrier transport for the optimized mobility of organic field-effect transistors and hence show a promising potential for the development of next-generation high-performance organic electronic devices.

  3. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  4. Renewable energies in the transport sector: Costs and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Alternative fuels based on renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen from RES, have potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, to increase supply security and energy diversity. Transition from a fossil fuels based transport to future sustainable and clean transport is a long term and cost intensive process, especially for hydrogen use in transport. Hydrogen infrastructure is missing and most of hydrogen technologies are still at developing stage.This paper examines the economics of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. The current and future costs of alternative fuels as well as the costs of the provided energy services are analysed in a dynamic framework till the year 2050. The goal is to identify the market chance of alternative fuels in a long term (till 2050). A rapid increase of fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen on the market is not expected before 2030, mainly because the costs of the fuel cells are still very high and because their efficiency, as well as the travelling range, is rather moderate.However, the use of alternative fuels in transport sector is very dependent on the political will. If political preferences, like e.g. zero-emission-vehicles, gain strong relevance this new fuels could accelerate its market penetration significantly

  5. Consumer Views on Transportation and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, E.

    2003-08-01

    This report has been assembled to provide the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with an idea of how the American public views various transportation, energy, and environmental issues. An issue that still needs attention from EERE is the finding that the public tends to lack information about hybrid vehicles, hydrogen, and alternative fuels for passenger vehicles. Also, the public seems to want fuel-efficiency improvements and cleaner fuels, but is not very willing to pay for these benefits. The public also says that it supports initiatives to promote energy conservation over increased production and that it is willing to make changes such as driving less in an effort to reduce oil consumption.

  6. Energy efficiency in transport and mobility from an eco-efficiency viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uson, Alfonso Aranda; Capilla, Antonio Valero; Bribian, Ignacio Zabalza; Scarpellini, Sabina; Sastresa, Eva Llera

    2011-01-01

    European Union countries' current energy policies for the transport sector promote, amongst other initiatives; urban mobility plans, the renewal of fleets of cars and industrial vehicles and the introduction of biofuel. From the point of view of eco-efficiency and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), energy policies must go further. The objective of this paper is to analyse the current transport model and the policies on energy efficiency being promoted in the EU from a LCA point of view. Special attention has been paid to private vehicles, in assessing the environmental impact of the various stages of manufacture, their use and disposal, and the consequences of plans to renew fleets. How old should a vehicle ideally be so that when it is changed, the embodied energy in the materials of the vehicle is less than the gain in energy efficiency due to changing the model for example? In addition the paper analyses the different means of transport in the energy consumption-time ratio from a LCA viewpoint. The fact that reducing transport times leads to greater energy consumption gives rise to the question: how long does nature take to repair the environmental damage caused?

  7. Energy and the transport sector. [For countries with no fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, P E

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the current energy situation from both the global viewpoint and the viewpoint of countries with no indigenous sources of fossil fuels. The lack of fossil fuels necessitates a substitution with indigenous sources of energy, where feasible. Long-distance railway transport is a self-evident element in the expanding transport sector. In view of the proven high energy efficiency of electric railway systems, there is every incentive for a more active investment policy in railway electrification. This applies to both medium-distance transportation of freight and passengers and different electric mass transit systems.

  8. Long term energy demand projections for croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puksec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with a share of almost one third of final energy demand. That is why improving energy efficiency and implementing different mechanisms that would lead to energy savings in this sector would be relevant. Through th...

  9. Using SDO's AIA to investigate energy transport from a flare's energy release site to the chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G. D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIA's EUV channels brightened simultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK. Aims: To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIA's 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 Å channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIA's nominal temperature response functions available through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop footpoint on 2001 April 24 with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on timescales comparable to AIA's image cadence. Methods: The nine emission lines observed by CDS cover a wide range of formation temperature from about 0.05 to 8 MK. Line brightenings observed early during the CDS flare occurred at temperatures less than about 0.7 MK, with the largest values around 0.1 MK. These brightenings were consistent with the flare's energy transport being dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Because all of AIA's EUV channels are sensitive to emission from plasma in the 0.1 to 0.7 MK temperature range, we show that all of AIA's EUV channels will brighten simultaneously during flares like this, in which energy transport is dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Results: The 2010 July 31 flare observed by AIA and RHESSI displays this behavior, so we conclude that such beams likely dominated the flare's energy transport early during the event. When thermal conduction from a reconnection-heated, hot (~10 MK) plasma dominates the energy transport, the AIA channels that are sensitive to emission from such temperatures (particularly the 94 and 131 Å channels) will brighten earlier than the channels that are not sensitive to such temperatures (171 and 211 Å). Conclusions: Thus

  10. Interactions Between Channel Topography and Hydrokinetic Turbines: Sediment Transport, Turbine Performance, and Wake Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Craig Steven

    Accelerating marine hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy development towards commercial viability requires investigating interactions between the engineered environment and its surrounding physical and biological environments. Complex and energetic hydrodynamic and morphodynamic environments desired for such energy conversion installations present difficulties for designing efficient yet robust sustainable devices, while permitting agency uncertainties regarding MHK device environmental interactions result in lengthy and costly processes prior to installing and demonstrating emerging technologies. A research program at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), University of Minnesota, utilized multi-scale physical experiments to study the interactions between axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines, turbulent open channel flow, sediment transport, turbulent turbine wakes, and complex hydro-morphodynamic processes in channels. Model axial-flow current-driven three-bladed turbines (rotor diameters, dT = 0.15m and 0.5m) were installed in open channel flumes with both erodible and non-erodible substrates. Device-induced local scour was monitored over several hydraulic conditions and material sizes. Synchronous velocity, bed elevation and turbine performance measurements provide an indication into the effect channel topography has on device performance. Complimentary experiments were performed in a realistic meandering outdoor research channel with active sediment transport to investigate device interactions with bedform migration and secondary turbulent flow patterns in asymmetric channel environments. The suite of experiments undertaken during this research program at SAFL in multiple channels with stationary and mobile substrates under a variety of turbine configurations provides an in-depth investigation into how axial-flow hydrokinetic devices respond to turbulent channel flow and topographic complexity, and how they impact local and far-field sediment transport characteristics

  11. Key ratios for energy and climate 2012 - Buildings and transportation of municipal and county; Nyckeltal energi och klimat 2012 - Byggnader och transporter i kommun och landsting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This is the second report that presents key ratios on energy and climate for municipalities, county councils and regions. It has been developed through a collaboration between SKL and Energy Agency. The key ratios show inter alia a sharply increased share of renewable fuels in public transport and some reduction in energy in both commercial and residential premises. The main content is derived from the data on energy use in their own premises and transport in 2012 reported by those who sought support for energy efficiency improvement in municipalities and county from the Swedish Energy Agency.

  12. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    use are largely lost in the current fossil fuel dominated energy systems. Sustainable transport development requires solutions from an overall renewable energy system in which integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energy needs assistance. Technologies of alternative vehicle fuels...... in transport may play a role in furthering such integration. The objective of this research is to make a contribution to the development of methodologies to identify and develop future sustainable transport systems as well as to apply such methodologies to the case of China. In particular, the methodological...... development focuses on 1) identifying suitable transport technologies and strategies based on renewable energy and 2) evaluating such technologies from the perspective of overall renewable energy system integration. For this purpose, a methodological framework involving the research fields of both...

  13. An assessment on seasonal analysis of wind energy characteristics and wind turbine characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, E. Kavak; Akpinar, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents seasonal variations of the wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in the regions around Elazig, namely Maden, Agin and Keban. Mean wind speed data in measured hourly time series format is statistically analyzed for the six year period 1998-2003. The probability density distributions are derived from the time series data and their distributional parameters are identified. Two probability density functions are fitted to the measured probability distributions on a seasonal basis. The wind energy characteristics of all the regions is studied based on the Weibull and Rayleigh distributions. Energy calculations and capacity factors for the wind turbine characteristics were determined for wind machines of different sizes between 300 and 2300 kW. It was found that Maden is the best region, among the regions analyzed, for wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics

  14. Enhanced energy deposition symmetry by hot electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; Mack, J.; Stover, E.; VanHulsteyn, D.; McCall, G.; Hauer, A.

    1981-01-01

    High energy electrons produced by resonance absorption carry the CO 2 laser energy absorbed in a laser fusion pellet. The symmetrization that can be achieved by lateral transport of the hot electrons as they deposit their energy is discussed. A K/sub α/ experiment shows a surprising symmetrization of energy deposition achieved by adding a thin layer of plastic to a copper sphere. Efforts to numerically model this effect are described

  15. 3D-mapping optimization of embodied energy of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Johnson, Sara J. [Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Physics Department, Clarion, PA 16214 (United States); Grant, Gabriel B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent development of Google Earth, an information service that provides imagery and three-dimensional data depicting the entire Earth, provides an opportunity to use a new method of navigating information to save energy in the real world. Google Earth uses Keyhole Markup Language (KML) for modeling and storing geographic features and information for display in the Google Earth Client. This paper will analyze the potential of this novel and free geographic mapping service to reduce embodied energy of transportation in two ways. First, at the consumer level, Google Earth will be studied to map the automobile route that uses the least fuel and maintains vehicle velocities at their individual maximum fuel efficiency. The same analysis for single destination trips could be used to optimize fleet vehicle routes such as garbage or recycling collection trucks. The secondary benefit of ecological education will also be explored. Fuel used could be converted into monetary units based on the current price of gas, pollution/greenhouse gas emissions, or ecological footprints to improve driving habits. Secondly, KML overlays will be analyzed for use of determining: (1) raw material and products availability as a function of location, and (2) modes of transportation as a function of emissions. These overlays would enable manufacturers access to an easily navigable method to optimize the life cycle of their products by minimizing embodied energy of transportation. The most efficient transportation methods and travel routes could be calculated. This same tool would be useful for architects to obtain Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating points for the green design of buildings. Overall, the analysis completed finds that the flexibility and visual display of quantitative information made available by Google Earth could have a significant impact at conserving fuel resources by reducing the embodied energy of transportation on a global scale. (author)

  16. Energy transition in the transport sector. An action plan: how to finance the exploitation of sources of energy efficiency of the sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Legrand, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This report aims at identifying measures to be implemented during coming years in order energy consumption of the transport sector to become consistent with energy scenarios, and at studying how these measures could be funded. After a presentation of the situation of the transport sector in terms of energy consumption (energy consumption by the different sub-sectors, greenhouse effect, relationship with mobility, issue of infrastructures and related investments) and of its objectives, this study proposes an overview of the content of various scenarios (NegaWatt, Ademe, Ministry of Ecology, Greenpeace). It proposes a brief overview and discussion of energy saving potentials and sources, and presents issues related to energy efficiency in the transport sector. It develops an action plan aimed at exploiting energy efficiency sources in transports. This action plan notably comprises: a political signal for a more efficient mobility, a support to change in mobility, actions in town planning to ease energy efficiency in transports, a more efficient use of the rolling stock, infrastructures for a more efficient transport sector, a price signal in favour of a more efficient transport. The next parts of the study discuss expenses of the transport sector, incomes and funding tools for energy efficiency in transports, financial needs for efficiency improvement, financial resources, and propose a road map

  17. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  18. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indati, M S; Leong, Y P; Ghate, A T

    2013-01-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  19. Transport energy modeling with meta-heuristic harmony search algorithm, an application to Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Huseyin; Ceylan, Halim; Haldenbilen, Soner; Baskan, Ozgur [Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Pamukkale University, Muh. Fak. Denizli 20017 (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    This study proposes a new method for estimating transport energy demand using a harmony search (HS) approach. HArmony Search Transport Energy Demand Estimation (HASTEDE) models are developed taking population, gross domestic product and vehicle kilometers as an input. The HASTEDE models are in forms of linear, exponential and quadratic mathematical expressions and they are applied to Turkish Transportation sector energy consumption. Optimum or near-optimum values of the HS parameters are obtained with sensitivity analysis (SA). Performance of all models is compared with the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) projections. Results showed that HS algorithm may be used for energy modeling, but SA is required to obtain best values of the HS parameters. The quadratic form of HASTEDE will overestimate transport sector energy consumption by about 26% and linear and exponential forms underestimate by about 21% when they are compared with the MENR projections. This may happen due to the modeling procedure and selected parameters for models, but determining the upper and lower values of transportation sector energy consumption will provide a framework and flexibility for setting up energy policies. (author)

  20. Simulation of a low energy beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yao; Liu Zhanwen; Zhang Wenhui; Ma Hongyi; Zhang Xuezhen; Zhao Hongwei; Yao Ze'en

    2012-01-01

    A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance intense proton source and a low energy beam transport line with dual-Glaser lens were designed and fabricated by Institute of Modern Physics for a compact pulsed hadron source at Tsinghua. The intense proton beams extracted from the ion source are transported through the transport line to match the downstream radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH was used to carry out the beam transport simulations and optimize the magnetic field structures of the transport line. Emittance growth due to space charge and spherical aberrations of the Glaser lens were studied in both theory and simulation. The results show that narrow beam has smaller aberrations and better beam quality through the transport line. To better match the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, a shorter transport line is desired with sufficient space charge neutralization. (authors)

  1. Radial transport of high-energy runaway electrons in ORMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Swain, D.W.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The transport of high-energy runaway electrons near the outside of a low-density ORMAK discharge is investigated by measuring the flux of runaways to the outer limiter during and after an inward shift of the plasma column. The experimental results are interpreted through a runaway confinement model which includes both the classical outward displacement of the runaway orbit with increasing energy and an additional runaway spatial diffusion coefficient which simulates an unspecified source of anomalous transport. Diffusion coefficients in the range D approximately equal to 10 2 -10 4 cms -1 are found under various discharge conditions indicating a significant non-collisional runaway transport near the outside of the discharge, particularly in the presence of MHD instability. (author)

  2. Energy system aspects of hydrogen as an alternative fuel in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesohl, Stephan; Merten, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Considering the enormous ecological and economic importance of the transport sector the introduction of alternative fuels-together with drastic energy efficiency gains-will be a key to sustainable mobility, nationally as well as globally. However, the future role of alternative fuels cannot be examined from the isolated perspective of the transport sector. Interactions with the energy system as a whole have to be taken into account. This holds both for the issue of availability of energy sources as well as for allocation effects, resulting from the shift of renewable energy from the stationary sector to mobile applications. With emphasis on hydrogen as a transport fuel for private passenger cars, this paper discusses the energy systems impacts of various scenarios introducing hydrogen fueled vehicles in Germany. It identifies clear restrictions to an enhanced growth of clean hydrogen production from renewable energy sources (RES). Furthermore, it points at systems interdependencies that call for a priority use of RES electricity in stationary applications. Whereas hydrogen can play an increasing role in transport after 2030 the most important challenge is to exploit short-mid-term potentials of boosting car efficiency

  3. Effects of Energy Deposition Characteristics on Localised Forced Ignition of Homogeneous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipal Patel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the characteristic width of the energy deposition profile and the duration of energy deposition by the ignitor on localised forced ignition of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures have been analysed using simplified chemistry three-dimensional compressible Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS for different values of root-mean-square turbulent velocity fluctuation. The localised forced ignition is modelled using a source term in the energy transport equation, which deposits energy in a Gaussian manner from the centre of the ignitor over a stipulated period of time. It has been shown that the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration over which ignition energy is deposited have significant influences on the success of ignition and subsequent flame propagation. An increase in the width of ignition energy deposition (duration of energy deposition for a given amount of ignition energy has been found to have a detrimental effect on the ignition event, which may ultimately lead to misfire. Moreover, an increase in u′ gives rise to augmented heat transfer rate from the hot gas kernel, which in turn leads to a reduction in the extent of overall burning for both stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures but the detrimental effects of high values of u′ on localised ignition are particularly prevalent for fuel-lean mixtures.

  4. Logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film: the S-curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Mansoor, S. Bin

    2013-10-01

    The logistic characteristics of the averaged heat flux are investigated across the thin film incorporating the S-curve. Temporal behaviour of the heat flux vector is computed using the Boltzmann transport equation. The dispersion relations are introduced to account for the frequency dependent phonon transport across the film. The influence of film width on the characteristics of the averaged heat flux is also examined. It is found that temporal behaviour of the averaged heat flux follows the S-curve. The S-curve characteristics change for different film widths. The time to reach 95% steady value of the averaged heat flux is short for the film with small widths, which is attributed to the ballistic behaviour of phonons in the film.

  5. Logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film: the S-curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Mansoor, S. Bin

    2013-01-01

    The logistic characteristics of the averaged heat flux are investigated across the thin film incorporating the S-curve. Temporal behaviour of the heat flux vector is computed using the Boltzmann transport equation. The dispersion relations are introduced to account for the frequency dependent phonon transport across the film. The influence of film width on the characteristics of the averaged heat flux is also examined. It is found that temporal behaviour of the averaged heat flux follows the S-curve. The S-curve characteristics change for different film widths. The time to reach 95% steady value of the averaged heat flux is short for the film with small widths, which is attributed to the ballistic behaviour of phonons in the film

  6. Numerical solution of the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This study presents three numerical algorithms to solve the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics. The algorithms have been developed taking into account delayed neutrons and they have been implemented into the novel MCART code, which solves the neutron transport equation for two-dimensional geometry and an arbitrary number of energy groups. The MCART code uses regular mesh for the representation of the spatial domain, it models up-scattering, and takes advantage of OPENMP and OPENGL algorithms for parallel computing and plotting, respectively. The code has been benchmarked with the multiplication factor results of a Boiling Water Reactor, with the analytical results for a prompt jump transient in an infinite medium, and with PARTISN and TDTORT results for cross section and source transients. The numerical simulations have shown that only two numerical algorithms are stable for small time steps

  7. Numerical solution of the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto, E-mail: alby@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study presents three numerical algorithms to solve the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics. The algorithms have been developed taking into account delayed neutrons and they have been implemented into the novel MCART code, which solves the neutron transport equation for two-dimensional geometry and an arbitrary number of energy groups. The MCART code uses regular mesh for the representation of the spatial domain, it models up-scattering, and takes advantage of OPENMP and OPENGL algorithms for parallel computing and plotting, respectively. The code has been benchmarked with the multiplication factor results of a Boiling Water Reactor, with the analytical results for a prompt jump transient in an infinite medium, and with PARTISN and TDTORT results for cross section and source transients. The numerical simulations have shown that only two numerical algorithms are stable for small time steps.

  8. Continuous Energy Photon Transport Implementation in MCATK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Terry R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sweezy, Jeremy Ed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nolen, Steven Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pritchett-Sheats, Lori A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK) code development team has implemented Monte Carlo photon transport into the MCATK software suite. The current particle transport capabilities in MCATK, which process the tracking and collision physics, have been extended to enable tracking of photons using the same continuous energy approximation. We describe the four photoatomic processes implemented, which are coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, pair-production, and photoelectric absorption. The accompanying background, implementation, and verification of these processes will be presented.

  9. A study of energy efficiency of transport sector in China from 2003 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William; Zhou, Guanghui; Yeung, Iris M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The activity effect accounts for 98.05% increase in energy use. • Only Eastern’s structural effect contributes energy savings. • Intensity effect contributes energy saving in −4.24% of total energy changes. • Energy-mix effect is insignificant. - Abstract: As one of the three high-energy consumption sectors (industry, building, and transportation) in China, the transport sector faced a devastating resource and environment challenge. The transport sector was reportedly responsible for about 15.9% of the country’s total final energy consumption in 2008. This paper investigates the energy consumption and efficiency of China’s transport sector from 2003 to 2009. The transport energy data of 30 China administrative regions were divided into “three-belts” (Eastern, Western, and Central areas), and the corresponding turnovers were reported and analyzed using an index decomposition analysis (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index). The energy data and turnover of the transport sector indicated that the high growth rate of turnover results is attributed to the high growth rate of diesel, assuming that diesel is the major fuel for freight transport. The growth of diesel is the main contributor to the overall growth of energy consumption. The growth rate of gasoline has become minimal since 2006. Since 2005, all three-belt areas, with regard to the effectiveness of energy conservation policies, have continuously improved their energy efficiencies based on the results of decomposition analysis. The energy intensity effect shows that the energy conservation and efficiency policies were more effective in the Central and Western areas than that in the Eastern area. On the other hand, the regional shift effect indicates that the policies favor to the Eastern area since only its regional shift effect contributes energy savings since 2008. The energy-mix effect is insignificant, which indicates that it is not necessary to conduct CO 2 emission decomposition

  10. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  11. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO 2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO 2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products. -- Highlights: •Transport sector in China are analyzed from a global perspective. •Passenger transport turnover reduction and modal shifts is less sensitive to carbon price. •Bio-fuel, electricity and H 2 will play an important role for carbon mitigation in transport sector. •The transport sector is more difficult to decarbonize than other sectors

  12. Estimation of the characteristic energy of electron precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from simultaneous observations (on 13 February 1996, 9 November 1998, and 12 February 1999 with the IRIS, DASI and EISCAT systems are employed in the study of the energy distribution of the electron precipitation during substorm activity. The estimation of the characteristic energy of the electron precipitation over the common field of view of IRIS and DASI is discussed. In particular, we look closely at the physical basis of the correspondence between the characteristic energy, the flux-averaged energy, as defined below, and the logarithm of the ratio of the green-light intensity to the square of absorption. This study expands and corrects results presented in the paper by Kosch et al. (2001. It is noticed, moreover, that acceleration associated with diffusion processes in the magnetosphere long before precipitation may be controlling the shape of the energy spectrum. We propose and test a "mixed" distribution for the energy-flux spectrum, exponential at the lower energies and Maxwellian or modified power-law at the higher energies, with a threshold energy separating these two regimes. The energy-flux spectrum at Tromsø, in the 1–320 keV range, is derived from EISCAT electron density profiles in the 70–140 km altitude range and is applied in the "calibration" of the optical intensity and absorption distributions, in order to extrapolate the flux and characteristic energy maps.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation; particle acceleration

  13. Estimation of the characteristic energy of electron precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo

    Full Text Available Data from simultaneous observations (on 13 February 1996, 9 November 1998, and 12 February 1999 with the IRIS, DASI and EISCAT systems are employed in the study of the energy distribution of the electron precipitation during substorm activity. The estimation of the characteristic energy of the electron precipitation over the common field of view of IRIS and DASI is discussed. In particular, we look closely at the physical basis of the correspondence between the characteristic energy, the flux-averaged energy, as defined below, and the logarithm of the ratio of the green-light intensity to the square of absorption. This study expands and corrects results presented in the paper by Kosch et al. (2001. It is noticed, moreover, that acceleration associated with diffusion processes in the magnetosphere long before precipitation may be controlling the shape of the energy spectrum. We propose and test a "mixed" distribution for the energy-flux spectrum, exponential at the lower energies and Maxwellian or modified power-law at the higher energies, with a threshold energy separating these two regimes. The energy-flux spectrum at Tromsø, in the 1–320 keV range, is derived from EISCAT electron density profiles in the 70–140 km altitude range and is applied in the "calibration" of the optical intensity and absorption distributions, in order to extrapolate the flux and characteristic energy maps.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation; particle acceleration

  14. Exciton shelves for charge and energy transport in third-generation quantum-dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel; Singh, Vivek; Noh, Hyunwoo; Casamada, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Cha, Jennifer; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystallites with size-dependent quantum-confined energy levels. While they have been intensively investigated to utilize hot-carriers for photovoltaic applications, to bridge the mismatch between incident solar photons and finite bandgap of semiconductor photocells, efficient charge or exciton transport in quantum-dot films has proven challenging. Here we show development of new coupled conjugated molecular wires with ``exciton shelves'', or different energy levels, matched with the multiple energy levels of quantum dots. Using single nanoparticle and ensemble device measurements we show successful extraction and transport of both bandedge and high-energy charge carriers, and energy transport of excitons. We demonstrate using measurements of electronic density of states, that careful matching of energy states of quantum-dot with molecular wires is important, and any mismatch can generate midgap states leading to charge recombination and reduced efficiency. Therefore, these exciton-shelves and quantum dots can lead to development of next-generation photovoltaic and photodetection devices using simultaneous transport of bandedge and hot-carriers or energy transport of excitons in these nanostructured solution-processed films.

  15. Forecasting household transport energy demand in South African cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available in South Africa have over the recent past increased at a rate more than any other household expenditure item (StasSA, 2008). Transport energy from fuel, forms a large component of the transport costs for both private car and public transport trips... by the Constitution to plan and manage the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner. The services include water, sanitation, electricity and transport. Some of the management instruments used by local government include Integrated Development...

  16. Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)

  17. Degradation of energy confinement or degradation of plasma-heating. What is the main definite process for Plasma transport in stellarator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedynin, O.I.; Andryuklina, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of plasma energy balance in stellarators and tokamaks depends on the different assumptions made and may give different and even contradictory results. When assuming full power absorption by thermal plasmas, paradoxical results can be obtained: degradation of the energy confinement time with heating power as well as degradation of plasma thermal conductivity in very short times (t<< tau:E) during power modulation experiments are deduced. On the other hand, assuming that plasma transport characteristics do not change while pain plasma parameters (density and temperature, their gradients, etc.) are kept constant, leads to conclude that heating efficiency is not unity and that it depends on both, plasma parameters and heating power. In this case no contradiction is found when analyzing plasma energy balances. In this paper the results of ECRH experiments on L-2M will be presented. The experiments were aimed to try to answer this important question. Analyses of the fast processes occurring during the switch off phase of the ECR heating, modulation of the heating power, and specific plasma decay phase, have lead to the conclusion that plasma transport characteristics remaining unchanged during fast variations of the heating power is the correct assumption. 2 refs

  18. HETFIS: High-Energy Nucleon-Meson Transport Code with Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    A model that includes fission for predicting particle production spectra from medium-energy nucleon and pion collisions with nuclei (Z greater than or equal to 91) has been incorporated into the nucleon-meson transport code, HETC. This report is primarily concerned with the programming aspects of HETFIS (High-Energy Nucleon-Meson Transport Code with Fission). A description of the program data and instructions for operating the code are given. HETFIS is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM computers and is readily adaptable to other systems

  19. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  20. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  1. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  2. Energy efficiency in industry and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscoe, J.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of energy issues has changed since the 1970s as improvements have been made in energy efficiency. The present capacity for surplus energy production in economically advanced countries reflects a decrease in energy requirements as well as new production sources. At the same time, the energy crisis can be seen as having discouraged improvements in energy efficiency because of its negative impact on growth. And the centrally planned economies remain highly inefficient energy users. Economic growth encourages the use of new technologies which are likely to be less energy-intensive than those they replace. Permanent gains in energy efficiency are derived from structural changes in the economy and from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies. This article addresses the prospect of increased energy conservation, particularly in industry (the end-use which consumes the most energy) and transportation. Although investments in projects to promote energy conservation are more cost-effective and environment-friendly than investments in energy supply, there is still widespread support for the latter. Developing countries naturally give preference to quantitative growth, with an increasing consumption of energy, but in these countries, too, more efficient use of energy could greatly reduce demand. The policies of international development agencies which still favour increasing energy supply over conservation need to change. Awareness of the need to reduce energy demand is, however, growing worldwide. (author)

  3. Panorama 2009 - transport energies: advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    More than 98% of all transport fuels are petroleum-based, but there has been a multiplication of alternative energies driven by high motor fuel prices and the need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many pathways are contenders in the quest to choose replacements for petroleum-based motor fuels. What are the pros and cons of the energy sources under consideration for use in the near or distant future?

  4. Consumer Views on Transportation and Energy (Third Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report has been assembled to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with an idea of how the American public views various transportation, energy, and environmental issues. The data presented in this report have been drawn from multiple sources: surveys conducted by the Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that are commissioned and funded by EERE, Gallup polls, news organization polls, surveys conducted by independent groups and academic institutions, and other sources.

  5. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  6. Analysis of Circular Development and Investment Possibilities (Transport, Energy and Building Related to International Sports Event Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Bálint

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.

  7. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO 2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO 2 /ha,year) and costs for CO 2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO 2 ) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO 2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO 2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  8. The design of Smart Energy Systems for 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    , heating and transport sectors, and on using the flexibility in demands and various short term and longer term storage in the different sectors. Such a redesign also entails that the Smart Energy System is comprised of a number of smart grid infrastructures for different sectors in the energy system, i...

  9. Global transportation scenarios in the multi-regional EFDA-TIMES energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlich, P.; Hamacher, T.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of the transportation sector on the role of fusion power in the energy system of the 21st century. Key indicators in this context are global passenger and freight transportation activities, consumption levels of fuels used for transportation purposes, the electricity generation mix and greenhouse gas emissions. These quantities are calculated by means of the global multi-regional EFDA-TIMES energy system model. For the present study a new transportation module has been linked to the EFDA-TIMES framework in order to arrive at a consistent projection of future transportation demands. Results are discussed implying various global energy scenarios including assumed crossovers of road transportation activities towards hydrogen or electricity infrastructures and atmospheric CO 2 concentration stabilization levels at 550 ppm and 450 ppm. Our results show that the penetration of fusion power plants is only slightly sensitive to transportation fuel choices but depends strongly on assumed climate policies. In the most stringent case considered here the contribution of electricity produced by fusion power plants can become as large as about 50% at the end of the 21st century. This statement, however, is still of preliminary nature as the EFDA-TIMES project has not yet reached a final status.

  10. Transport energy demand modeling of South Korea using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geem, Zong Woo

    2011-01-01

    Artificial neural network models were developed to forecast South Korea's transport energy demand. Various independent variables, such as GDP, population, oil price, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount, were considered and several good models (Model 1 with GDP, population, and passenger transport amount; Model 2 with GDP, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount; and Model 3 with oil price, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount) were selected by comparing with multiple linear regression models. Although certain regression models obtained better R-squared values than neural network models, this does not guarantee the fact that the former is better than the latter because root mean squared errors of the former were much inferior to those of the latter. Also, certain regression model had structural weakness based on P-value. Instead, neural network models produced more robust results. Forecasted results using the neural network models show that South Korea will consume around 37 MTOE of transport energy in 2025. - Highlights: → Transport energy demand of South Korea was forecasted using artificial neural network. → Various variables (GDP, population, oil price, number of registrations, etc.) were considered. → Results of artificial neural network were compared with those of multiple linear regression.

  11. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  12. Improved age-diffusion model for low-energy electron transport in solids. II. Application to secondary emission from aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubus, A.; Devooght, J.; Dehaes, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The ''improved age-diffusion'' model for secondary-electron transport is applied to aluminum. Electron cross sections for inelastic collisions with the free-electron gas using the Lindhard dielectric function and for elastic collisions with the randomly distributed ionic cores are used in the calculations. The most important characteristics of backward secondary-electron emission induced by low-energy electrons on polycrystalline Al targets are calculated and compared to experimental results and to Monte Carlo calculations. The model appears to predict the electronic yield, the energy spectra, and the spatial dependence of secondary emission with reasonable accuracy

  13. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, M. [Google Research, Venice, California 90291 (United States); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shabani, A. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lloyd, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rabitz, H. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k{sub B}λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap.

  14. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, M.; Shabani, A.; Lloyd, S.; Rabitz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k B λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap

  15. Managing energy demand through transport policy: What can South Africa learn from Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderschuren, Marianne; Lane, T.E.; Korver, W.

    2010-01-01

    For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and ineffective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context-pros, cons and implementation viability are identified.

  16. Managing energy demand through transport policy. What can South Africa learn from Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderschuren, Marianne [Centre for Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Lane, T.E. [Centre for Transport Studies, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Korver, W. [Goudappel Coffeng BV (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and in effective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context - pros, cons and implementation viability are identified. (author)

  17. Managing energy demand through transport policy: What can South Africa learn from Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderschuren, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.vanderschuren@uct.ac.z [Centre for Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Lane, T.E., E-mail: lane.tanya@gmail.co [Centre for Transport Studies, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Korver, W., E-mail: WKorver@goudappel.n [Goudappel Coffeng BV (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and ineffective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context-pros, cons and implementation viability are identified.

  18. Energy material transport, now through 2000, system characteristics and potential problems. Task 3. Final report - petroleum transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1979-03-01

    This report contains a summary characterization of the petroleum transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems that may impact petroleum transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contribute to the evaluation of research and development needs and priorities in future programs. The system characterization in Section 3 includes a review of petroleum product movements, modal operations and comparisons, and transportation regulations and safety. This system overview summarizes domestic production and consumption scenarios to the year 2000. A median scenario based on published projections shows that the US will probably rely on foreign oil to supply between 40 and 50 percent of domestic petroleum needs throughout the balance of the century. Potential problems in petroleum transportation were identified by the analysis and prioritization of current issues. The relative priorities of problem concerns were judged on the basis of their overall impact on the system and the immediacy of this potential impact. Two classes of concern are distinguished: 1. Potential problems that appear to require new programmatic action, in addition to effort already committed, to minimize the possible future impact of these concerns. 2. Latent concerns that may increase or decrease in priority or entirely change in nature as they develop. While the trend of these concerns should be monitored, new program action does not appear necessary at this time.

  19. Environmental Development Plan for Transportation Energy Conservation. FY 79 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-12-15

    This is the first annual update of the Environment Development Plan (EDP) for the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation program. It identifies the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with the division's transportation programs. These programs include the research, development, demonstration and assessment (RDD and A) of seventeen transportation technologies and several strategy and policy development and implementation projects. The transportation technologies projects deal with highway transport including electric vehicles, marine transport and pipeline transport. This EDP presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns stemming from these programs.

  20. Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: An energy and environmental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, M.; Ulgiati, S.; Basosi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, worldwide air transportation has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.5%. Forecasts confirm that this could be the average increase rate for the next 20 years, although recent oscillation of oil price translated into a slowing down of such a trend, with several air companies forced out of business. Within this framework, low cost airlines keep increasing their market share, in so making airplane to compete with terrestrial transport modalities, not only for medium and long distance, but also for short trips. This is because air transport is obviously faster than transport by trains and cars, and most often it also is a cheaper option in money terms. In spite of its apparent success, air transportation is a source of concern for many analysts, because it is considered as the more energy intensive and polluting transport modality. In order to explore the correctness of such an issue, we compared air transportation to high speed trains and other modern terrestrial modalities, by using a 'whole-system' approach. The present study applies an LCA-like approach, by taking into account all the energy and materials directly and indirectly required to make and operate infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, railways, highways) and vehicles. Efficiency and environmental loading are assessed by means of Material Flow Accounting, Embodied Energy Analysis and Emergy Synthesis methods. Results point out that the gap among the environmental performances of air, road and railway modalities is significantly narrower than expected. The thermodynamic and environmental costs of road and railway infrastructure cannot be disregarded as negligible. In a selected number of cases these transport modalities perform even worse than the air transportation mode, where infrastructures play a much smaller role.

  1. Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: An energy and environmental comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, M.; Basosi, R. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Complex Systems Investigation, University of Siena, via Alcide De Gasperi 2, 53100 Siena (Italy); Ulgiati, S. [Department of Sciences for the Environment, ' ' Parthenope' ' University of Napoli, Centro Direzionale, Isola C4, I-80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    In the last 15 years, worldwide air transportation has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.5%. Forecasts confirm that this could be the average increase rate for the next 20 years, although recent oscillation of oil price translated into a slowing down of such a trend, with several air companies forced out of business. Within this framework, low cost airlines keep increasing their market share, in so making airplane to compete with terrestrial transport modalities, not only for medium and long distance, but also for short trips. This is because air transport is obviously faster than transport by trains and cars, and most often it also is a cheaper option in money terms. In spite of its apparent success, air transportation is a source of concern for many analysts, because it is considered as the more energy intensive and polluting transport modality. In order to explore the correctness of such an issue, we compared air transportation to high speed trains and other modern terrestrial modalities, by using a ''whole-system'' approach. The present study applies an LCA-like approach, by taking into account all the energy and materials directly and indirectly required to make and operate infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, railways, highways) and vehicles. Efficiency and environmental loading are assessed by means of Material Flow Accounting, Embodied Energy Analysis and Emergy Synthesis methods. Results point out that the gap among the environmental performances of air, road and railway modalities is significantly narrower than expected. The thermodynamic and environmental costs of road and railway infrastructure cannot be disregarded as negligible. In a selected number of cases these transport modalities perform even worse than the air transportation mode, where infrastructures play a much smaller role. (author)

  2. Intercity passenger transportation: energy efficiency and conservation case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate a methodology for energy analysis and to advance technical knowledge on the energy conservation potential in intercity passenger transportation, this paper reports findings of a case study of the Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal multimodal system. From a total (direct and indirect) energy perspective for origin-destination travel, energy efficiency and conservation potential of technological improvements, modal shifts and increased load factors are reported. 11 refs.

  3. Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that in order to identify least cost solutions of the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources into current or future 100% renewable energy supplies one has to take a Smart Energy Systems approach. This paper outline why and how to do so. Traditionally......, significant focus is put on the electricity sector alone to solve the renewable energy integration puzzle. Smart grid research traditionally focuses on ICT, smart meters, electricity storage technologies, and local (electric) smart grids. In contrast, the Smart Energy System focuses on merging the electricity......, heating and transport sectors, in combination with various intra-hour, hourly, daily, seasonal and biannual storage options, to create the flexibility necessary to integrate large penetrations of fluctuating renewable energy. However, in this paper we present the development and design of coherent Smart...

  4. Technology data for energy plants. Individual heating plants and energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The present technology catalogue is published in co-operation between the Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk and includes technology descriptions for a number of technologies for individual heat production and energy transport. The primary objective of the technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for the work with energy planning and the development of the energy sector, including future outlooks, scenario analyses and technical/economic analyses. The technology catalogue is thus a valuable tool in connection with energy planning and assessment of climate projects and for evaluating the development opportunities for the energy sector's many technologies, which can be used for the preparation of different support programmes for energy research and development. The publication of the technology catalogue should also be viewed in the light of renewed focus on strategic energy planning in municipalities etc. In that respect, the technology catalogue is considered to be an important tool for the municipalities in their planning efforts. (LN)

  5. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  6. An estimation of the energy and exergy efficiencies for the energy resources consumption in the transportation sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Sattar, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ahmed, S.; Hashim, U.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to apply the useful energy and exergy analysis models for different modes of transport in Malaysia and to compare the result with a few countries. In this paper, energy and exergy efficiencies of the various sub-sectors are presented by considering the energy and exergy flows from 1995 to 2003. Respective flow diagrams to find the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Malaysian transportation sector are also presented. The estimated overall energy efficiency ranges from 22.74% (1999) to 22.98% (1998) with a mean of 22.82+/-0.06% and that of overall exergy efficiency ranges from 22.44% (2000) to 22.82% (1998) with a mean of 22.55+/-0.12%. The results are compared with respect to present energy and exergy efficiencies in each sub-sector. The transportation sector used about 40% of the total energy consumed in 2002. Therefore, it is important to identify the energy and exergy flows and the pertinent losses. The road sub-sector has appeared to be the most efficient one compared to the air and marine sub-sectors. Also found that the energy and exergy efficiencies of Malaysian transportation sector are lower than that of Turkey but higher than Norway

  7. Solar energy applications in transportation facilities : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the literature and other sources to determine the types of application that have been made of solar energy in the transportation field. The use of solar energy for powering automatic traffic counters, v...

  8. Thermal characteristic of insulation for optimum design of RI transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.

    2002-01-01

    A package to transport the high level radioactive materials in required to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions as well as normal transport conditions according to IAEA and domestic regulations. The regulations require that the package should maintain the shielding, thermal and structural integrities to release no radioactive material. Thermal characteristics of insulations were evaluated and optimum insulation thickness was deduced for RI transport package. The package has a maximum capacity of 600 Curies for Ir-192 sealed source. The insulation thickness was decided with 10 mm of polyurethane form to maintain the thermal safety under fire accident condition. Thermal analysis was carried out for RI transport package, and it was shown that the thermal integrity of the package was maintained. The results obtained this study will be applied to a basic data for design of RI transport cask

  9. Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.

  10. US energy conversion and use characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-02-01

    The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

  11. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  12. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries.......The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  13. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Energy utilization and greenhouse-gas emissions: Transportation sector, topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, K.G.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the report is to compare the emissions of greenhouse gases for alternative end-use technologies in the transportation sector. Scientists assert that global warming is occurring and will continue to occur as a result of increasing concentrations of certain gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the focus of this analysis because they are believed to cause three-fourths of the global warming effect and because energy production and use are a significant source of these emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector occur during energy production, conversion, transportation and end-use. This analysis compares alternative transportation sector fuel/technology choices in terms of their total fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases. The emphasis of this report is on the end use comparison. The fuel-cycle emissions comparison was developed in a companion report

  17. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelkovic, Z.; Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N.; König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T.; Neidherr, D.; Schmidt, S.; Steinmann, J.; Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G.

    2015-01-01

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency

  18. Energy Coupling Factor-Type ABC Transporters for Vitamin Uptake in Prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, Guus B.; Dosz-Majsnerowska, Maria; ter Beek, Josy; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2012-01-01

    Energy coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a subgroup of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in the uptake of vitamins and micronutrients in prokaryotes. In contrast to classical ABC importers, ECF transporters do not make use of water-soluble substrate binding proteins or domains

  19. Hybrid shared/distributed parallelism for 3D characteristics transport solvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmani, M.; Roy, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a new hybrid parallel model for solving large-scale 3-dimensional neutron transport problems used in nuclear reactor simulations. Large heterogeneous reactor problems, like the ones that occurs when simulating Candu cores, have remained computationally intensive and impractical for routine applications on single-node or even vector computers. Based on the characteristics method, this new model is designed to solve the transport equation after distributing the calculation load on a network of shared memory multi-processors. The tracks are either generated on the fly at each characteristics sweep or stored in sequential files. The load balancing is taken into account by estimating the calculation load of tracks and by distributing batches of uniform load on each node of the network. Moreover, the communication overhead can be predicted after benchmarking the latency and bandwidth using appropriate network test suite. These models are useful for predicting the performance of the parallel applications and to analyze the scalability of the parallel systems. (authors)

  20. Algorithm of Energy Efficiency Improvement for Intelligent Devices in Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinaroviča Anna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the use of systems and devices with artificial intelligence in the motor vehicle driving. The main objective of transport operations is a transportation planning with minimum energy consumption. There are various methods for energy saving, and the paper discusses one of them – proper planning of transport operations. To gain proper planning it is necessary to involve the system and devices with artificial intelligence. They will display possible developments in the choice of one or another transport plan. Consequently, it can be supposed how much the plan is effective against the spent energy. The intelligent device considered in this paper consists of an algorithm, a database, and the internet for the connection to other intelligent devices. The main task of the target function is to minimize the total downtime at intermediate stations. A specific unique PHP-based computer model was created. It uses the MySQL database for simulation data storage and processing. Conclusions based on the experiments were made. The experiments showed that after optimization, a train can pass intermediate stations without making multiple stops breaking and accelerating, which leads to decreased energy consumption.

  1. Electrical energy conversion and transport an interactive computer-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karady, George G

    2013-01-01

    Provides relevant material for engineering students and practicing engineers who want to learn the basics of electrical power transmission, generation, and usage This Second Edition of Electrical Energy Conversion and Transport is thoroughly updated to address the recent environmental effects of electric power generation and transmission, which have become more important in conjunction with the deregulation of the industry. The maintenance and development of the electrical energy generation and transport industry requires well-trained engineers who are able to use mode

  2. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  3. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  4. Transport calculation of medium-energy protons and neutrons by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Syuuichi; Hirayama, Hideo; Katoh, Kazuaki.

    1978-09-01

    A Monte Carlo transport code, ARIES, has been developed for protons and neutrons at medium energy (25 -- 500 MeV). Nuclear data provided by R.G. Alsmiller, Jr. were used for the calculation. To simulate the cascade development in the medium, each generation was represented by a single weighted particle and an average number of emitted particles was used as the weight. Neutron fluxes were stored by the collisions density method. The cutoff energy was set to 25 MeV. Neutrons below the cutoff were stored to be used as the source for the low energy neutron transport calculation upon the discrete ordinates method. Then transport calculations were performed for both low energy neutrons (thermal -- 25 MeV) and secondary gamma-rays. Energy spectra of emitted neutrons were calculated and compared with those of published experimental and calculated results. The agreement was good for the incident particles of energy between 100 and 500 MeV. (author)

  5. Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.

    1997-01-01

    A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects

  6. Energy efficiency of urban transportation system in Xiamen, China. An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanxin; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Casazza, Marco; Cui, Shenghui; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated life cycle approach is used to study Urban Transport Metabolism (UTM). • A selection of different material, energy and environmental assessment methods is synergically applied. • The study is based on an accurate inventory of infrastructure, machinery and operative resource costs. • Results show that the different methods provide much needed insight into different aspects of UTM. • Innovative Bus Rapid Transport shows better resource and environmental performance than Normal Bus Transport system. - Abstract: An integrated life cycle approach framework, including material flow analysis (MFA), Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), exergy analysis (EXA), Emergy Assessment (EMA), and emissions (EMI) has been constructed and applied to examine the energy efficiency of high speed urban bus transportation systems compared to conventional bus transport in the city of Xiamen, Fujian province, China. This paper explores the consistency of the results achieved by means of several evaluation methods, and explores the sustainability of innovation in urban public transportation systems. The case study dealt with in this paper is a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system compared to Normal Bus Transit (NBT). All the analyses have been performed based on a common yearly database of natural resources, material, labor, energy and fuel input flows used in all life cycle phases (resource extraction, processing and manufacturing, use and end of life) of the infrastructure, vehicle and vehicle fuel. Cumulative energy, material and environmental support demands of transport are accounted for. Selected pressure indicators are compared to yield a comprehensive picture of the public transportation system. Results show that Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) shows much better energy and environmental performance than NBT, as indicated by the set of sustainability indicators calculated by means of our integrated approach. This is because of the higher efficiency of such

  7. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria; Analyse de l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdani, Sid Ahmed

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this communication is analyze the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria and to show the areas of possible rationalization in this sector. Our approach is to analyze the existing configuration of the sector and its impact on energy consumption, by developing a sectional model Bottom Up, where the transport park has been modified by the means used. We have shown that the potential to improve the transport system energy efficiency is important and have recommended some options aimed at the sector organisation and aimed at increasing the relative part of transport systems to make it more energy efficient. [French] L'objectif de cette communication est d'analyser l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport algerien et de montrer les gisements de rationalisation possibles dans ce secteur. Notre approche consiste a analyser la configuration existante du secteur et son impact sur la consommation d'energie, en elaborant un modele sectoriel Bottom Up, ou le parc de transport a ete desagrege par moyen utilise. Nous avons montre que le potentiel d'amelioration de la performance energetique du systeme de transport est important et avons recommande quelques options ciblant l'organisation du secteur et visant a augmenter la part relative de moyens de transport plus efficace energetiquement.

  8. Inclusive planning in transport and energy STI-policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Hansen, Meiken; Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2017-01-01

    Transition to a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system is of global interest, and implies social challenges for the developed world including the European Union. In particular, the energy consumption related to transport constitutes a significant challenge. If not serious changes are made...... of securing a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system. Furthermore, responsible research and innovation should take into account both the required changes in all citizens’ daily life due to this transition as well as the driving force of grassroot innovation movements....

  9. U. K. surface passenger transport sector. Energy consumption and policy options for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, D; Monteath, I G; Lawler, K A

    1978-12-01

    Forecasts of U.K. energy consumption in this sector for four future scenarios based on different economic growth rates, energy prices, and energy conservation policies, show that by the year 2000, private transport will probably account for 76-94% of total energy consumption in surface passenger transport. A 33% increase in the average miles-per-gallon fuel consumption through technological improvements in private vehicles, conversion of private vehicles to diesel oil, additional fuel taxation equivalent to 25 or 50% fuel price increase, a 10% reduction in average car engine size (encouraged by taxation), and changes in public transport technology offer energy savings of about 20, 5-10, 6.3 or 12.5, 2-4, and 2%, respectively. There is considerable uncertainty about the outcome of these options.

  10. Simulations of neutron transport at low energy: a comparison between GEANT and MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, N; Altieri, S

    2002-06-01

    The use of the simulation tool GEANT for neutron transport at energies below 20 MeV is discussed, in particular with regard to shielding and dose calculations. The reliability of the GEANT/MICAP package for neutron transport in a wide energy range has been verified by comparing the results of simulations performed with this package in a wide energy range with the prediction of MCNP-4B, a code commonly used for neutron transport at low energy. A reasonable agreement between the results of the two codes is found for the neutron flux through a slab of material (iron and ordinary concrete), as well as for the dose released in soft tissue by neutrons. These results justify the use of the GEANT/MICAP code for neutron transport in a wide range of applications, including health physics problems.

  11. The EU-Africa Energy Partnership: Towards a mutually beneficial renewable transport energy alliance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Michael B.; Ryan, Rachel; Oloruntoba, Richard; Heidt, Tania von der; Ryan, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's EU-Africa Energy Partnership, with respect to its emphasis on transport fuels, aims to ensure that Member States can fulfil agreed upon commitments to sustainable energy via the importation of biomass grown in sub-Saharan Africa. This policy aims to reduce the dependence of developing sub-Saharan nations on fossil-fuels, while ensuring the global proliferation of alternative transport energy generation as a means to combat climate change. Though the policy seems equitable in theory, and indeed mutually beneficial, several important issues arise. The paper examines the EU-Africa Energy Policy in the context of biofuels in particular, with a view to identifying potential flaws and imbalances and making policy recommendations. Aside from establishing critical uncertainties, the study adduces environmental science, historical comparanda and economic theory in order to assess the various threats associated with aspects of the policy, especially in light of previous policies that have stifled the development of sub-Saharan economies. In addition, the paper has substantial relevance to developing and newly industrialized nations in Asia and South America also seeking to invest in biomass cultivation and production.

  12. RF energy harvesting and transport for wireless autonomous sensor network applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyrouz, S.; Visser, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    "RF Energy Harvesting and Transport for Wireless Autonomous Sensor Network Applications: Principles and Requirements" - For wireless energy transfer over longer distances, the far-field transfer of RF energy may be used. We make a distinction between harvesting RF energy from signals present in the

  13. LOO: a low-order nonlinear transport scheme for acceleration of method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lulu; Smith, Kord; Forget, Benoit; Ferrer, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new physics-based multi-grid nonlinear acceleration method: the low-order operator method, or LOO. LOO uses a coarse space-angle multi-group method of characteristics (MOC) neutron transport calculation to accelerate the fine space-angle MOC calculation. LOO is designed to capture more angular effects than diffusion-based acceleration methods through a transport-based low-order solver. LOO differs from existing transport-based acceleration schemes in that it emphasizes simplified coarse space-angle characteristics and preserves physics in quadrant phase-space. The details of the method, including the restriction step, the low-order iterative solver and the prolongation step are discussed in this work. LOO shows comparable convergence behavior to coarse mesh finite difference on several two-dimensional benchmark problems while not requiring any under-relaxation, making it a robust acceleration scheme. (author)

  14. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  15. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    is the use of biofuel (ethanol) and synthetic fuel (methanol) for internal combustion cars. An increase in the fraction of electricity delivered by fluctuating sources like wind power will lead to excess electricity production and the two aforementioned scenarios have a substantial effect on the decrease...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  17. Uncertainty characteristics of EPA's ground-water transport model for low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Man-Sung

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment is an essential step either in design or in licensing processes to ensure the safety of any proposed radioactive waste disposal facilities. Since performance assessment requires the use of computer codes, understanding the characteristics of computer models used and the uncertainties of the estimated results is important. The PRESTO-EPA code, which was the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis for low-level-waste rulemaking, is widely used for various performance assessment activities in the country with no adequate information available for the uncertainty characteristics of the results. In this study, the groundwater transport model PRESTO-EPA was examined based on the analysis of 14 C transport along with the investigation of uncertainty characteristics

  18. Exergetic, technological and economic study for transport of nuclear fuel energy to distant consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, V.V.; Dobrovol'skij, S.P.; Shiryaev, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    Seven versions of energy transport from HTGR base power source are considered. Energy trasnport using electricity is taken as the main variant. The most promising among considered systems is the variant with steam conversion of methane, which can be used for three methods of energy transport: by converted gas, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Exergetic method of analysis was used to compare different products, used by heat and electric showed that exergetic and economic efficiency of HTGR energy transport by hydrogen appeared to be the highest. Besides this, absolute ecologic purity is provided

  19. Energy minibands degeneration induced by magnetic field effects in graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villagrana, R. A.; Carrera-Escobedo, V. H.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Madrigal-Melchor, J.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2017-12-01

    Energy minibands are a basic feature of practically any superlattice. In this regard graphene superlattices are not the exception and recently miniband transport has been reported through magneto-transport measurements. In this work, we compute the energy miniband and transport characteristics for graphene superlattices in which the energy barriers are generated by magnetic and electric fields. The transfer matrix approach and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism have been implemented to calculate the energy minibands and the linear-regime conductance. We find that energy minibands are very sensitive to the magnetic field and become degenerate by rising it. We were also able to correlate the evolution of the energy minibands as a function of the magnetic field with the transport characteristics, finding that miniband transport can be destroyed by magnetic field effects. Here, it is important to remark that although magnetic field effects have been a key element to unveil miniband transport, they can also destroy it.

  20. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  1. EDF energy generation UK transport of irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R. [EDF Energy, London, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    This paper give an overview of irradiated fuel transport in the UK. It describes the design of irradiated fuel flask used by EDF Energy; operational experience and good practices learnt from over 50 years of irradiated fuel transport. The AGRs can store approximately 9 months generation of spent fuel, hence the ability to transport irradiated fuel is vital. Movements are by road to the nearest railhead, typically less than 2 miles and then by rail to Sellafield, up to 400 miles, for reprocessing or long term storage. Road and rail vehicles are covered. To date in the UK: over 30,000 Magnox flask journeys and over 15,000 AGR A2 flask journeys have been carried out.

  2. High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, K.; Takada, H.; Meigo, S.; Ikeda, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgrade version of NMTC/JAERI97. The available energy range of NMTC/JAM is, in principle, extended to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons including the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. We compare the calculations by NMTC/JAM code with the experimental data of thin and thick targets for proton induced reactions up to several 10 GeV. The results of NMTC/JAM code show excellent agreement with the experimental data. From these code validation, it is concluded that NMTC/JAM is reliable in neutronics optimization study of the high intense spallation neutron utilization facility. (author)

  3. Who puts the most energy into energy conservation? A segmentation of energy consumers based on energy-related behavioral characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Brunner, Thomas A.; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify and describe different types of energy consumers in a more comprehensive way than previous segmentation studies using cluster analysis. Energy consumers were segmented based on their energy-related behavioral characteristics. In addition to purchase- and curtailment-related energy-saving behavior, consumer classification was also based on acceptance of policy measures and energy-related psychosocial factors, so the used behavioral segmentation base was more comprehensive compared to other studies. Furthermore, differentiation between the energy-saving purchase of daily products, such as food, and of energy efficient appliances allowed a more differentiated characterization of the energy consumer segments. The cluster analysis revealed six energy consumer segments: the idealistic, the selfless inconsequent, the thrifty, the materialistic, the convenience-oriented indifferent, and the problem-aware well-being-oriented energy consumer. Findings emphasize that using a broader and more distinct behavioral base is crucial for an adequate and differentiated description of energy consumer types. The paper concludes by highlighting the most promising energy consumer segments and discussing possible segment-specific marketing and policy strategies. - Highlights: ► By applying a cluster-analytic approach, new energy consumer segments are identified. ► A comprehensive, differentiated description of the different energy consumer types is provided. ► A distinction between purchase of daily products and energy efficient appliances is essential. ► Behavioral variables are a more suitable base for segmentation than general characteristics.

  4. Energy and transport policy for the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasises the role of financing research for the rational usage of energy. Independence of the industry from imports and nuclear power programme to cover the envisaged needs are considered before tackling the subject of financial aid to the railways. The future policy of transport development is also outlined. (I.G.)

  5. The matching of characteristics of the turbo-supercharging system and two-stroke transport diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Алёхин, Сергей Алексеевич; Герасименко, Владимир Петрович; Опалев, Василий Анатольевич

    2013-01-01

    The basic problems of the matching of characteristics of turbo-supercharging units and two-stroke transport diesel engines with various number of cylinders are considered. Influence of the number of impeller tiers and other geometrical parameters on the pressure characteristic of the centrifugal compressor and joint action of the compressor and the piston engine is investigated. Effective measures on the optimum coordination of a mechanical turbo-supercharging with a transport diesel engin...

  6. Radiation induced low-energy electron transport in a tissue environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.; Dingfelder, M.; Ozturk, N.; Christou, C.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Friedland, W.; Wilson, W.E.; Paretzke, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) track simulation codes are used extensively in radiobiology to quantify the spatial distributions of interactions initiated by the absorption of ionizing radiation. The spatial patterns of ionization and excitation are instrumental for assessing the formation of damage clusters in DNA and chromosomes leading to such biologic endpoints as cellular transformation and mutation. The MC codes rely on an extensive database of elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections to follow the production and slowing of secondary electrons. Because of inherent uncertainties in this database we are exploring the sensitivity of MC results to the details of the cross sections used with emphasis on low-energy electrons, i.e., track ends, that are anticipated to play a dominant role in damage cluster formation. Simulations of electron transport using gas or liquid based interaction cross sections illustrate substantial difference in the spectra of electrons with energies less than about 50 eV. In addition, the electron yields from MC simulations appear to be nearly a factor of five larger than our recent measurements of electron transport spectra in water (ice) at electron energies of about 10 eV. Examples of the changes in electron transport spectra for variations in the electron scattering cross sections used for the MC calculations will be illustrated and compared with an evolving database of measured spectra of electrons from ion induced secondary electron transport in thin foils. These measurements provide guidance for assessment of elastic and elastic cross sections appropriate to condensed phase transport. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-01ER-63233; the National Cancer Institute, Grant No. 1R01CA93351-01A1; and the European Community under Contract No. FIGH-CT-1999-00005

  7. Modeling light-duty plug-in electric vehicles for national energy and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Di; Aliprantis, Dionysios C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets forth a family of models of light-duty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) fleets, appropriate for conducting long-term national-level planning studies of the energy and transportation sectors in an integrated manner. Using one of the proposed models, three case studies on the evolution of the U.S. energy and transportation infrastructures are performed, where portfolios of optimum investments over a 40-year horizon are identified, and interdependencies between the two sectors are highlighted. The results indicate that with a gradual but aggressive introduction of PEVs coupled with investments in renewable energy, the total cost from the energy and transportation systems can be reduced by 5%, and that overall emissions from electricity generation and light-duty vehicle (LDV) tailpipes can be reduced by 10% over the 40-year horizon. The annual gasoline consumption from LDVs can be reduced by 66% by the end of the planning horizon, but an additional 800 TWh of annual electricity demand will be introduced. In addition, various scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions are investigated. It is found that GHG emissions can be significantly reduced with only a marginal cost increment, by shifting electricity generation from coal to renewable sources. - Highlights: • We model plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for long-term national planning studies. • Realistic travel patterns are used to estimate the vehicles' energy consumption. • National energy and transportation system interdependencies are considered. • Case studies illustrate optimum investments in energy and transportation sectors. • PEVs synergistically with renewable energy can aggressively reduce GHG emissions

  8. Transport of accelerator produced high energy neutrons though concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar Rao, G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Development of a computational system for estimating the production and transport of high energy neutrons in particle accelerators is reported. The energy-angle distribution of neutrons from accelerated ions bombarding thick targets is calculated by a hybrid nuclear reaction model code, ALICE-91, modified to suit the purpose. Subsequent transmission of these neutrons through concrete slabs is treated using the anisotropic source-flux iteration technique (ASFIT) in the framework of a coupled neutron-gamma transport. Several parameters of both the codes have been optimized to obtain the transmitted dose through concrete. The calculations are found to be accurate and at the same time faster compared to the detailed Monte Carlo calculations. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Economic and Environmental Considerations for Zero-emission Transport and Thermal Energy Generation on an Energy Autonomous Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontina Petrakopoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost and environmental impact of fossil-fuel energy generation in remote regions can make renewable energy applications more competitive than business-as-usual scenarios. Furthermore, energy and transport are two of the main sectors that significantly contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions. This paper focuses on the generation of thermal energy and the transport sector of a fossil fuel-based energy independent island in Greece. We evaluate (1 technologies for fully renewable thermal energy generation using building-specific solar thermal systems and (2 the replacement of the vehicle fleet of the island with electric and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. The analysis, based on economic and environmental criteria, shows that although solar thermal decreases greenhouse gases by 83%, when compared to the current diesel-based situation, it only becomes economically attractive with subsidy scenarios equal to or higher than 50%. However, in the transport sector, the sum of fuel and maintenance costs of fuel-cell and electric vehicles is found to be 45% lower than that of the current fleet, due to their approximately seven times lower fuel cost. Lastly, it will take approximately six years of use of the new vehicles to balance out the emissions of their manufacturing phase.

  10. Directing energy transport in organic photovoltaic cells using interfacial exciton gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S Matthew; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-04-28

    Exciton transport in organic semiconductors is a critical, mediating process in many optoelectronic devices. Often, the diffusive and subdiffusive nature of excitons in these systems can limit device performance, motivating the development of strategies to direct exciton transport. In this work, directed exciton transport is achieved with the incorporation of exciton permeable interfaces. These interfaces introduce a symmetry-breaking imbalance in exciton energy transfer, leading to directed motion. Despite their obvious utility for enhanced exciton harvesting in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), the emergent properties of these interfaces are as yet uncharacterized. Here, directed exciton transport is conclusively demonstrated in both dilute donor and energy-cascade OPVs where judicious optimization of the interface allows exciton transport to the donor-acceptor heterojunction to occur considerably faster than when relying on simple diffusion. Generalized systems incorporating multiple exciton permeable interfaces are also explored, demonstrating the ability to further harness this phenomenon and expeditiously direct exciton motion, overcoming the diffusive limit.

  11. Energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27: A dynamic dematerialization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R.; Ziolkowski, Bozydar

    2015-01-01

    Energy use in the European Union's (EU) transport sector amounted to 340 Mtoe in 1999 with the following increasing trend up to 379 Mtoe in 2007 and a decrease from 2008 on, down to 365 Mtoe in 2010. This changing pattern posed several fundamental questions and uncertainties regarding the broader picture of energy efficiency and environmental protection. One of them refers to absolute changes in energy use efficiency in the transport sector over time and the ways of measuring efficiency. Traditional scientific approaches conceptualized to measure efficiency of energy use do not address annual dynamics of changes in the energy use in a given sector per capita. Thus, they are not precise enough for political and methodological purposes as they do not reflect the exact amount of energy consumed in the respective countries and societies. This paper shows a possible solution to this problem and a new perspective on measuring energy efficiency by using the product generational dematerialization (PGD) indicator. The PGD indicator allows for measuring energy efficiency as a dynamic change of consumption and population occurring simultaneously. Thus, it provides an extension to the traditional methodology commonly used for measuring efficiency. To visualize a practical application of this approach, the paper provides an example of evaluating energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27 in 2000–2010. The results of the analysis show a clear materialization tendency in the transport sector (the energy consumption change exceeded the population growth) until 2007 and a reverse tendency (dematerialization) between 2008 and 2010. As energy consumption has a direct impact on environmental quality and exhaustion of natural resources, the paper points out the necessity of extending sustainable resource management policies by new methodologies and providing more efficient solutions for energy consumption in the transport sector. - Highlights: • PGD indicator proves a

  12. Modeling gravity effects on water retention and gas transport characteristics in plant growth substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions....... Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air...... that estimates the gas percolation threshold based on the pore size distribution. The model successfully captured measured data for all investigated media and demonstrated the implications of the poorly-understood shift in gas percolation threshold with improved gas percolation in reduced gravity. Finally, using...

  13. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-31

    The main contribution of this report is to characterize the underlying residential and transport sector end use energy consumption in India. Each sector was analyzed in detail. End-use sector-level information regarding adoption of particular technologies was used as a key input in a bottom-up modeling approach. The report looks at energy used over the period 1990 to 2005 and develops a baseline scenario to 2020. Moreover, the intent of this report is also to highlight available sources of data in India for the residential and transport sectors. The analysis as performed in this way reveals several interesting features of energy use in India. In the residential sector, an analysis of patterns of energy use and particular end uses shows that biomass (wood), which has traditionally been the main source of primary energy used in households, will stabilize in absolute terms. Meanwhile, due to the forces of urbanization and increased use of commercial fuels, the relative significance of biomass will be greatly diminished by 2020. At the same time, per household residential electricity consumption will likely quadruple in the 20 years between 2000 and 2020. In fact, primary electricity use will increase more rapidly than any other major fuel -- even more than oil, in spite of the fact that transport is the most rapidly growing sector. The growth in electricity demand implies that chronic outages are to be expected unless drastic improvements are made both to the efficiency of the power infrastructure and to electric end uses and industrial processes. In the transport sector, the rapid growth in personal vehicle sales indicates strong energy growth in that area. Energy use by cars is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 11percent, increasing demand for oil considerably. In addition, oil consumption used for freight transport will also continue to increase .

  14. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective simulation of 'transport-land uses' policies in Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The current trends of urban dynamics in the Third World are alarming with regard to climate change, because they are giving an increasingly important role to cars-to the detriment of public and non-motorized transportation. Yet this is the type of energy consumption that is expected to grow the fastest, in business-as-usual scenarios. How can these market-based urban trends be influenced? What level of emissions reduction can be achieved? This article shows that first, there is a relevant and urgent need to tackle the urban dynamics of cities in developing countries focusing on the 'transport-land uses' couple, and second, that existing transport technologies and decision-helping tools are already available to take up the climate change challenge. Through the application of an integrated 'transport-land uses' model, TRANUS, this study demonstrates that transit technologies affordable to an emerging city like Bangalore can significantly curb the trajectories of energy consumption and the ensuing carbon dioxide emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban planning. Furthermore, this study establishes that there are tools which are available to facilitate the necessary policy-making processes. These tools allow stakeholders to discuss different political alternatives integrating energy issues, based on quantitative assessments

  15. Turbulence and transport characteristics of a barrier in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A; Shimizu, A; Nakano, H; Ohsima, S; Itoh, K; Iguchi, H; Yoshimura, Y; Minami, T; Nagaoka, K; Takahashi, C; Kojima, M; Nishimura, S; Isobe, M; Suzuki, C; Akiyama, T; Nagashima, Y; Ida, K; Toi, K; Ido, T; Itoh, S-I; Matsuoka, K; Okamura, S; Diamond, P H

    2006-01-01

    Turbulence and zonal flow at a transport barrier are studied with twin heavy ion beam probes in a toroidal helical plasma. A wavelet analysis is used to extract turbulence properties, e.g. spectra of both density and potential fluctuations, the coherence and the phase between them and the dispersion relation. Particle transport estimated from the fundamental characteristics is found to clearly rise with their intermittent activities after the barrier is broken down. Time-dependent analysis reveals that the intermittency of turbulence is correlated with the evolution of the stationary zonal flow

  16. Turbulence and transport characteristics of a barrier in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.

    2005-10-01

    Turbulence and zonal flow at a transport barrier are studied with twin heavy ion beam probes in a toroidal helical plasma. A wavelet analysis is used to extract turbulence properties, e.g., spectra of both density and potential fluctuations, coherence and phase between them, and the dispersion relation. Particle transport estimated from the fundamental characteristics is found to clearly rise with their intermittent activities after the barrier is broken down. The time-dependent analysis reveals that intermittency of turbulence is correlated with evolution of stationary zonal flow. (author)

  17. Assessing links between energy consumption, freight transport, and economic growth: evidence from dynamic simultaneous equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Samia; Saidi, Samir; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2018-06-01

    We investigate this study to examine the relationship between economic growth, freight transport, and energy consumption for 63 developing countries over the period of 1990-2016. In order to make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we apply the income level of countries to divide the global panel into three sub-panels, namely, lower-middle income countries (LMIC), upper-middle income countries (UMIC), and high-income countries (HIC). Using the generalized method of moments (GMM), the results prove evidence of bidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and freight transport for all selected panels and between economic growth and energy consumption for the high- and upper-middle income panels. For the lower-middle income panel, the causality is unidirectional running from energy consumption to economic growth. Also, the results indicate that the relationship between freight transport and energy use is bidirectional for the high-income countries and unidirectional from freight transport to energy consumption for the upper-middle and lower-middle income countries. Empirical evidence demonstrates the importance of energy for economic activity and rejects the neo-classical assumption that energy is neutral for growth. An important policy recommendation is that there is need of advancements in vehicle technology which can reduce energy intensity from transport sector and improve the energy efficiency in transport activity which in turn allows a greater positive role of transport in global economic activity.

  18. Dynamic linkages among transport energy consumption, income and CO2 emission in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azlina, A.A.; Law, Siong Hook; Nik Mustapha, Nik Hashim

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between income, energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in Malaysia using time-series data during 1975 to 2011. This study also attempts to validate the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis. Applying a multivariate model of income, energy consumption in the transportation sector, carbon emissions, structural change in the economy and renewable energy use, the empirical evidence confirmed that there is a long-run relationship between the variables as shown by the result of co-integration analysis. The results indicate that the inverted U-shape EKC hypothesis does not fully agree with the theory. The coefficient of squared GDP is not statistically different from zero. The time duration and the annual data used for the present study do not seem to strongly validate the existence of EKC hypothesis in the case of Malaysia. Causality test shows that the relationship between GDP and CO 2 is unidirectional. The Granger causality test results reveal that emissions Granger-cause income, energy consumption and renewable energy use. Moreover, we find that income Granger-causes energy consumption and renewable energy use, and both structural change and renewable energy use Granger-cause energy consumption in road transportation. - Highlights: • We examine the dynamic relationship among energy consumption in transportation sector, income and CO 2 and also attempts to validate the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis. • We used a multivariate approach based on VECM. • The inverted U-shape EKC hypothesis is not valid in the case of Malaysia. • Uni-directional causality exists from emission to income, energy consumption and renewable energy use. • Income Granger-causes energy consumption and renewable energy use, and both structural change and renewable energy use Granger-cause energy consumption in road transportation

  19. Transport and energy policy. Looking to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T [European Commission (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    In the quest of filling human needs, transport and energy do not appear to be the most exciting territories. They come in only later in the vast chain of commodities and services necessary in the smooth operation of a modern market economy. However, current concerns about pollution and the future of our planet have lifted these issues to the top of the agenda. The objective of this paper is to give a glance at the complexity of possible futures facing us. Indeed, one of the main objectives is to show that there are different paths to be taken and we can influence our future. Furthermore, it will be shown that a key element in planning for different futures is the proper choice of energy policy objectives and instruments. An even bigger impact could be expected from the changing paradigms in transport demand patterns. (au)

  20. Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...

  1. Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...

  2. NMTC/JAM, Simulates High Energy Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear-Meson Transport Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furihata, Shiori

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NMTC/JAM is an upgraded version of the code system NMTC/JAERI97. NMTC/JAERI97 simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nucleon-meson transport processes. It implements an intra-nuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the pre-equilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. A geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique is implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The code can simulate both the primary spallation reaction and the secondary particle transport in the intermediate energy region from 20 MeV to 3.5 GeV by the use of the Monte Carlo technique. The code has been employed in combination with the neutron-photon transport codes available to the energy region below 20 MeV for neutronics calculation of accelerator-based subcritical reactors, analyses of thick target spallation experimented and so on. 2 - Methods: High energy nuclear reactions induced by incident high energy protons, neutrons and pions are simulated with the Monte Carlo Method by the intra-nuclear nucleon-nucleon reaction probabilities based on an intra-nuclear nucleon cascade model followed by the particle evaporation including high energy fission process. Jet-Aa Microscopic transport model (JAM) is employed to simulate high energy nuclear reactions in the energy range of GeV. All reaction channels are taken into account in the JAM calculation. An intra-nuclear cascade model (ISOBAR code) taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects

  3. Temperature-dependent electrical characteristics and carrier transport mechanism of p-Cu2ZnSnS4/n-GaN heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niteesh Reddy, Varra; Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Gunasekhar, K. R.; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2018-04-01

    This work explores the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics and carrier transport mechanism of Au/p-Cu2ZnSnS4/n-type GaN heterojunction (HJ) diodes with a CZTS interlayer. The electrical characteristics were examined by current-voltage-temperature, turn-on voltage-temperature and series resistance-temperature in the high-temperature range of 300-420 K. It is observed that an exponential decrease in the series resistance ( R S) and increase in the ideality factor ( n) and barrier height ( ϕ b) with increase in temperature. The thermal coefficient ( K j) is determined to be - 1.3 mV K-1 at ≥ 300 K. The effective ϕ b is determined to be 1.21 eV. This obtained barrier height is consistent with the theoretical one. The characteristic temperature ( T 0) resulting from the Cheung's functions [d V/d(ln I) vs. I and H( I) vs. I], is seen that there is good agreement between the T 0 values from both Cheung's functions. The relevant carrier transport mechanisms of Au/p-CZTS/n-type GaN HJ are explained based on the thermally decreased energy band gap of n-type GaN layers, thermally activated deep donors and increased further activated shallow donors.

  4. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang@semi.ac.cn; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua [Engineering Research Center for Semiconductor Integrated Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  5. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua

    2014-03-01

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  6. Characteristics of Effective Collaboration in Response to Diversified Transportation Planning Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of decentralized transportation planning responsibilities may include reduced project delivery cost, the integration of comprehensive long-range planning with regional land use, and greater accountability regarding local concerns. Yet disadvantages may include a tendency for operations to dominate longer-term planning, inconsistent operational standards, and difficulty in achieving network benefits, since some transportation links may provide benefits to the entire system but not to the immediate area where the link is located. To surmount these challenges in a decentralized environment, agencies need to cooperate effectively. Characteristics of effective collaboration include (1 experienced personnel, (2 credibility of the deciding entity, (3 transparency of decision-making processes, (4 an authority with sufficient power and/or funding to encourage implementation of key initiatives, (5 clear incentives for cooperation, and, of special importance given limited resources, and (6 an ability to evaluate tradeoffs. An access management case study demonstrates how agencies may use these characteristics to advance challenging projects in a decentralized environment.

  7. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    and sustainable development goals. Essential, uncertain and limited interactions are mapped out as a result, their overview indicates that a full reconciliation between these policies and sustainability goals is not always attainable. The careful alignment and contextual examination of interactions between...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development.......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  8. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  9. Energy transport, polar amplification, and ITCZ shifts in the GeoMIP G1 ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Russotto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar amplification of warming and the ability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ to shift to the north or south are two very important problems in climate science. Examining these behaviors in global climate models (GCMs running solar geoengineering experiments is helpful not only for predicting the effects of solar geoengineering but also for understanding how these processes work under increased carbon dioxide (CO2. Both polar amplification and ITCZ shifts are closely related to the meridional transport of moist static energy (MSE by the atmosphere. This study examines changes in MSE transport in 10 fully coupled GCMs in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP, in which the solar constant is reduced to compensate for the radiative forcing from abruptly quadrupled CO2 concentrations. In G1, poleward MSE transport decreases relative to preindustrial conditions in all models, in contrast to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 abrupt4xCO2 experiment, in which poleward MSE transport increases. We show that since poleward energy transport decreases rather than increases, and local feedbacks cannot change the sign of an initial temperature change, the residual polar amplification in the G1 experiment must be due to the net positive forcing in the polar regions and net negative forcing in the tropics, which arise from the different spatial patterns of the simultaneously imposed solar and CO2 forcings. However, the reduction in poleward energy transport likely plays a role in limiting the polar warming in G1. An attribution study with a moist energy balance model shows that cloud feedbacks are the largest source of uncertainty regarding changes in poleward energy transport in midlatitudes in G1, as well as for changes in cross-equatorial energy transport, which are anticorrelated with ITCZ shifts.

  10. US Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Division (TMD) is responsible for managing its various programs via a diverse combination of Government-Owned/Contractor-Operated facilities. TMD is seeking to update it automation capabilities in capturing and processing DOE transportation information. TMD's Transportation Information Network (TIN) is an attempt to bring together transportation management, shipment tracking, research activities and software products in various stages of development. The TMD's Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) proposes to assist the DOE and its contractors in performing their daily transportation management activities and to assist the DOE Environmental Management Division in its waste management responsibilities throughout the DOE complex. The ATMS system will center about the storage, handling and documentation involved in the environmental clean-up of DOE sites. Waste shipments will be moved to approved Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) facilities and/or nuclear material repositories. An additional investment in shipping samples to analytical laboratories also involves packaging and documentation according to all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) or International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations. The most immediate goal of effectively managing DOE transportation management functions during the 1990's is an increase in automation capabilities of the DOE and its contractors. Subject-matter experts from various DOE site locations will be brought together to develop and refine these capabilities through the maximum use of computer applications. A major part of this effort will be the identification of the most economical modes of transportation and enhanced management reporting capabilities for transportation analysis. The ATMS system will also provide for increased strategic and shipment analysis during the 1990's and beyond in support of the DOE environmental mission

  11. A Summary of Research on Energy Saving and Emission Reduction of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dongxiang; Wu, Lufen

    2017-12-01

    Road transport is an important part of transportation, and road in the field of energy-saving emission reduction is a very important industry. According to the existing problems of road energy saving and emission reduction, this paper elaborates the domestic and international research on energy saving and emission reduction from three aspects: road network optimization, pavement material and pavement maintenance. Road network optimization may be overlooked, and the research content is still relatively preliminary; pavement materials mainly from the asphalt pavement temperature mixed asphalt technology research; pavement maintenance technology development is relatively comprehensive.

  12. Renewable energy and characteristics of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During studying sustainable development, my sixth-form pupils have to devise and carry out experiments to show connection between some characteristics of the Earth and renewable energy. Thus, helping by a list of equipment, they can show, using simples' experiments, causal link. For example, they show that the layout in latitude of solar energy received on the ground, creates ocean and atmospheric currents. These currents are useful to product renewable energy. These researches allow me to show them new jobs link with renewable energy and sustainable development on the Earth. They can have more information thanks to other teachers working on the professional training centre including my secondary school.

  13. A time series analysis of transportation energy use per dollar of gross domestic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Transportation energy use relative to gross domestic product (GDP) has been declining within the past decade. However, the total transportation energy consumed (see figure 1) shows only a more recent decline. To see clearly the long-term decline, the...

  14. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  15. The psychosocial and behavioral characteristics related to energy misreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jaclyn; Taren, Douglas L; Teixeira, Pedro J; Thomson, Cynthia A; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B

    2006-02-01

    Energy underreporting occurs in 2% to 85% and overreporting in 1% to 39% of various populations. Efforts are needed to understand the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics associated with misreporting to help improve the accuracy of dietary self-reporting. Past research suggests that higher social desirability and greater eating restraint are key factors influencing misreporting, while a history of dieting and being overweight are more moderately associated. Eating disinhibition, body image, depression, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation may be related to energy misreporting, but evidence is insufficient. This review will provide a detailed discussion of the published associations among psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and energy misreporting.

  16. Characteristics of Sissi beams in the transport lines of Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiem, P.; Payet, J.; Tkatchenko, A.

    1994-01-01

    This study is the following of the Sissi primary beam characteristics definition. Its aim is to determine the performances in resolution and in transmission of transport lines which guide the secondary beams until the experimentation rooms. The first part concerns the study of the secondary order characteristics with the help of BETA matrix code for the nominal case. The second part is the same study but but of superior orders carried out with the Zgoubi program. The third part consists to search new regulating to minimise the losses of particles due to the effect of non-linearity. (O.L.). 3 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs

  17. POWER MANAGEMENT SAFETY IN EU AND THE ENERGY POLICY IN TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EU countries face a serious problem of being too much dependent on the crude oil import. Transportation sector is especially dependent on import of fuels. Therefore The White Paper of 2011 outlines the need for more effective energy supplies management as one of the main European transportation policy objectives. Technical innovations, featuring a wider use of alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, liquefied natural gas (LNG and biofuels play a great role in the process of ensuring energy safety.

  18. Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption Impacts of Private Capital Investment in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducing private capital into the public transport system for its sustainable development has been increasing around the world. However, previous research ignores emissions and energy consumption impacts, which are important for private capital investment policy-making. To address this problem, the system dynamic (SD approach was used to quantitatively analyze the cumulative effects of different private capital investment models in public transport from the environmental perspective. The SD model validity was verified in the case study of Jinan public traffic. Simulation results show that the fuel consumption and emission reductions are obvious when the private capital considering passenger value invests in public transport compared with the no private capital investment and traditional investment models. There are obvious cumulative reductions for fuel consumption, CO2, CO, SO2, and PM10 emissions for 100 months compared with no private capital investment. This research verifies the superiority of the passenger value investment model in public transport from the environmental point of view, and supplies a theoretical tool for administrators to evaluate the private capital investment effects systematically.

  19. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Libo; Huo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  20. Longitudinal transport measurements in an energy recovery accelerator with triple bend achromat arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal properties of electron bunches (energy spread and bunch length and their manipulation are of importance in free electron lasers (FELs, where magnetic bunch length compression is a common feature of beam transport. Recirculating accelerators and energy recovery linac accelerators (ERLs have been used as FEL drivers for several decades and control of longitudinal beam transport is particularly important in their magnet lattices. We report on measurements of longitudinal transport properties in an ERL-FEL, the ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers in Combined Experiments accelerator at Daresbury Laboratory. ALICE is an energy recovery research accelerator that drives an infrared free electron laser. By measuring the time of arrival of electron bunches, the canonical longitudinal transport quantities were measured in the beam transport and bunch compression sections of the lattice. ALICE includes a four-dipole bunch compression chicane providing fixed longitudinal transport, and triple bend achromat arcs including sextupole magnets where the first and second order longitudinal transport can be adjusted. The longitudinal transport properties in these lattice sections were measured and compared with the theoretical model of the lattice. A reasonable level of agreement has been found. The effect of sextupoles in second order, as well as first order, longitudinal correction is considered, with the measurements indicating the level of alignment of the beam to the center of the sextupole.

  1. Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.

    1994-04-01

    The low frequency E x B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models

  2. Full-counting statistics of energy transport of molecular junctions in the polaronic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Gaomin; Yu, Zhizhou; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the full-counting statistics (FCS) of energy transport carried by electrons in molecular junctions for the Anderson–Holstein model in the polaronic regime. Using the two-time quantum measurement scheme, the generating function (GF) for the energy transport is derived and expressed as a Fredholm determinant in terms of Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function in the time domain. Dressed tunneling approximation is used in decoupling the phonon cloud operator in the polaronic regime. This formalism enables us to analyze the time evolution of energy transport dynamics after a sudden switch-on of the coupling between the dot and the leads towards the stationary state. The steady state energy current cumulant GF in the long time limit is obtained in the energy domain as well. Universal relations for steady state energy current FCS are derived under a finite temperature gradient with zero bias and this enabled us to express the equilibrium energy current cumulant by a linear combination of lower order cumulants. The behaviors of energy current cumulants in steady state under temperature gradient and external bias are numerically studied and explained. The transient dynamics of energy current cumulants is numerically calculated and analyzed. Universal scaling of normalized transient energy cumulants is found under both temperature gradient and external bias. (paper)

  3. Transport energy supply. An outlook with a European perspective; Transportsektorns energifoersoerjning. En utblick med ett europeiskt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt; Jonsson, Daniel K.

    2009-03-15

    Climate change, energy security and competitiveness are prime priorities within EU energy policy. Energy supply is today dominated by fossil fuels and renewable energy only contributes with a limited amount. This situation is even more accentuated within the transport sector. In the climate and energy package, decided in December 2008, there are several parts that will affect transport energy supply. Existing business-as-usual scenarios indicate an increased energy use within the EU transport sector during the next decades. The fraction of transportation energy used for aviation is expected to increase. In the scenarios, biofuels are expected to increase to 7-10% of total energy demand within the transportation sector. In policy scenarios, assuming actions to reduce emissions and increase the use of renewable energy this fraction will increase to 10-20% of total transportation fuel use. Petroleum products will in most of the studied scenarios continue to dominate transport energy supply until 2030. Alternative transportation fuels will not dominate transport fuel before 2050. Four development paths for transport energy supply are discussed in this report (fossil fuels, biofuels, hydrogen and electricity). Similarities exist especially between systems based on liquid fossil fuels and systems based on biofuels, and between systems based on hydrogen and electricity. Biofuels and fossil can utilise existing vehicle technologies and systems for fuel distribution. The use of fossil fuels is restricted due to its impact on climate change whereas there are limitations in the natural resources available for biofuel production. Hydrogen and electricity could be produced from a variety of energy resources and used with low or even negative CO{sub 2} emissions seen over the total life-cycle. Heavy and costly storage of the fuels is, however, a negative aspect for these fuels compared to liquid fossil fuels and biofuels. Even though the hydrogen and electricity systems have

  4. ON THE MAGNETIC AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF RECURRENT HOMOLOGOUS JETS FROM AN EMERGING FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Chen, Jun; Liu, Kai; Liu, Lijuan; Pan, Zonghao [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Center (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); McIntosh, Scott W., E-mail: ljj128@ustc.edu.cn [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    In this paper, we present the detailed analysis of recurrent homologous jets originating from an emerging negative magnetic flux at the edge of an active region. The observed jets show multithermal features. Their evolution shows high consistence with the characteristic parameters of the emerging flux, suggesting that with more free magnetic energy, the eruptions tend to be more violent, frequent, and blowout-like. The average temperature, average electron number density, and axial speed are found to be similar for different jets, indicating that they should have been formed by plasmas from similar origins. Statistical analysis of the jets and their footpoint region conditions reveals a strong positive relationship between the footpoint region total 131 Å intensity enhancement and jets’ length/width. Stronger linearly positive relationships also exist between the total intensity enhancement/thermal energy of the footpoint regions and jets’ mass/kinetic/thermal energy, with higher cross-correlation coefficients. All the above results together confirm the direct relationship between the magnetic reconnection and the jets and validate the important role of magnetic reconnection in transporting large amounts of free magnetic energy into jets. It is also suggested that there should be more free energy released during the magnetic reconnection of blowout than of standard jet events.

  5. Poleward energy transport: is the standard definition physically relevant at all time scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minyi; Czaja, Arnaud; Graversen, Rune; Tailleux, Remi

    2018-03-01

    Poleward energy transport in the atmosphere and oceans constitutes an important branch of the global energy budget, and its role in the climate system has been the subject of many studies. In the atmosphere, the transport is affected by "eddies" and large scale meridional cells, both with zero net mass transport across latitude circles, but also partly by processes associated with a net transport of mass across latitude circles. The latter must cease to operate in steady state, but they may be significant when time variability of the heat budget is considered. Indeed, examination of reanalysis data on short (daily to monthly) timescales shows that mass variations on these timescales result in surprisingly large fluctuations (in excess of 10^{15} W = 1 PW) in the poleward heat transport. These fluctuations are referred to as "extensive", for they primarily alter the mass integrated energy of the region considered, but not its averaged value. It is suggested that extensive fluctuations mask more meaningful climate signals present in the heat transport variability on monthly and interannual timescales, and a new formulation is proposed to isolate the latter. This new formulation is applied successfully to reanalysis data and climate model simulations.

  6. Applications of the Los Alamos High Energy Transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.; Gavron, A.; Prael, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation codes reliable through a large range of energies are essential to analyze the environment of vehicles and habitats proposed for space exploration. The LAHET monte carlo code has recently been expanded to track high energy hadrons with FLUKA, while retaining the original Los Alamos version of HETC at lower energies. Electrons and photons are transported with EGS4, and an interface to the MCNP monte carlo code is provided to analyze neutrons with kinetic energies less than 20 MeV. These codes are benchmarked by comparison of LAHET/MCNP calculations to data from the Brookhaven experiment E814 participant calorimeter

  7. Future of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of Finnish road freight transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, H.

    2013-05-15

    The targets to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate climate change are as much applicable to the road freight transport sector as they are to all other sectors of society. The aim of this research is to support the initiatives of the Finnish government for improving the energy efficiency and reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions of road freight transport. This is done by forecasting the future development and giving the policy makers guidance on effective measures for promoting road freight energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} reduction. In the study a new method was introduced for connecting the fuel consumption data and goods transport data gathered from the official Finnish road statistics. This method enabled a detailed analysis of the interrelations between the economy, road freight transport, energy consumption and emissions. This analysis was conducted for the years 1995-2010 and the results were used as background information in the Delphi panel of experts. The experts estimated the development of the Finnish road freight sector to the year 2030. Furthermore, a web-based survey was conducted among Finnish road freight hauliers and shippers in order to explore the attitudes and measures related to the energy efficiency. Expert panel workshops were also organised to identify obstacles for the development of the energy efficiency of road freight transport as well as a wide selection of measures to overcome them. The results indicate that the economic development of different branches has a great effect on the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of road freight transport. Reaching the carbon emission target for the year 2030 is possible in the light of the scenarios which were formed based on expert forecasts. However, the target can be achieved with very different development paths, e.g. the structure of the national economy and the volume of transport seem to vary widely in the different scenarios. In the proposed recommendations on the measures

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CARGO INSURANCE CONTRACT IN CASE OF INTERNATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Ștefan MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cargo international transport is an engine for the development of the economic relations between states involving cross-border movement of goods through the crossing of at least one border of a state (international transport or by crossing at least two border crossing points, in which case we are in the presence of an international cargo transit. During the transit the goods transported may be subject to an insurance. The object of the cargo insurance is, thus, represented by the goods, the items expressly listed in the insurance policy, within the territorial limits specified in the insurance policy, both during the transport and during the storage, in the latter case, at the express request of the insured and with the acceptance of the insurer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the cargo insurance aiming to present the theoretical and practical aspects of interest with regard to the cargo insurance concluded in case of an international land freight transport.

  9. Electromagnetic energy transport in nanoparticle chains via dark plasmon modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, David; Willingham, Britain; Nauert, Scott L; Slaughter, Liane S; Olson, Jana; Swanglap, Pattanawit; Paul, Aniruddha; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2012-03-14

    Using light to exchange information offers large bandwidths and high speeds, but the miniaturization of optical components is limited by diffraction. Converting light into electron waves in metals allows one to overcome this problem. However, metals are lossy at optical frequencies and large-area fabrication of nanometer-sized structures by conventional top-down methods can be cost-prohibitive. We show electromagnetic energy transport with gold nanoparticles that were assembled into close-packed linear chains. The small interparticle distances enabled strong electromagnetic coupling causing the formation of low-loss subradiant plasmons, which facilitated energy propagation over many micrometers. Electrodynamic calculations confirmed the dark nature of the propagating mode and showed that disorder in the nanoparticle arrangement enhances energy transport, demonstrating the viability of using bottom-up nanoparticle assemblies for ultracompact opto-electronic devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. United States Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) 80 transportation facilities, each contractor's transportation management operation has different internal and site specific procedures, and reports to a DOE regional Field Office Traffic Manager (FOTM). The DOE Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the responsibility to manage a transportation program for safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The TMP develops and administers transportation/traffic operations management policies and programs for materials; including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous wastes, pursuant to applicable federal regulations, such as the Code of Federal Register, Sections 40 and 49. Transportation management has become an increasingly critical primarily because of transportation issues regarding the shipment of radioactive materials and hazardous wastes that are frequently the focus of public concerns. A large shipments and requiring millions of business transactions necessitates the establishment of automated systems, programs, procedures, and controls to ensure that the transportation management process in being handled in a safe, efficient, and economical manner. As the mission of many DOE facilities changes from production of special nuclear materials for defense purposes to environmental restoration and waste management, the role of transportation management will become even more important to the safe and efficient movement of waste materials to prescribed locations. In support of this role, the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) was conceived to assist the DOE and its contractors in the performance of their day-to-day transportation management activities. The ATMS utilizes the latest in technology and will supply state-of-the-art automated transportation management for current and future DOE transportation requirements

  11. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-11-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  12. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  13. Investigation of the energy transport mechanism in the TCA tokamak by studying the plasma dynamical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudok de Wit, Th.; Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Lister, J.B.; Moret, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The energy transport mechanisms that govern the electron temperature behaviour of a tokamak remain very badly understood and up to now no proper model has been proposed that can explain experimental observations such as profile consistency or the influence of the density profile. One approach to this problem, extensively used on TCA, is to study the dynamical response of the plasma due to externally imposed modifications of parameters which have an influence on the plasma energy content. The temporal evolution of the electron temperature will closely depend on the type and the characteristics of the implied mechanisms. Thus a detailed measurement of the dynamical response would reveal experimentally the dominant properties that would have to be taken into account in the elaboration of a model of the transport processes. Most of the results presented here were obtained by analysing the electron temperature response inferred from soft X-ray emissivity during modification of the plasma density due to either gas puffing, laser impurity ablation or alfven wave heating on TCA (a = 0.18 m, R = 0.61 m, B Φ = 1.52 T). 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. Studies of energy transport in Jet H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilhacker, M.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.; Gottardi, N.; Muir, D.; Thomsen, K.; Watkins, M.

    1989-01-01

    The local heat transport properties in the interior of ohmic, L- and H-phases of 2MA discharges, are determined. Time dependent energy balance code, TRANSP, and timeslice code, QFLUX are used. The global confinement properties of higher current discharges (≤ 3.8MA) are analyzed. The results indicate that during the L-phase of JET single null X-point discharges, the total heat transport coefficient in the plasma decreases to a level close to the ohmic value. Moreover, confinement during the H-phase continues to improve with current (up to 3.8MA), but degrades with increasing neutral beam power

  15. 3D edge energy transport in stellarator configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTaggart, N.; Zagorski, R.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, T.; Rognlien, T.; Umansky, M.

    2005-01-01

    The finite difference discretization method is used to solve the electron energy transport equation in complex 3D edge geometries using an unstructured grid. This grid is generated by field-line tracing to separate the radial and parallel fluxes and minimize the numerical diffusion connected with the strong anisotropy of the system. The influence of ergodicity on the edge plasma transport in the W7-X stellarator is investigated in this paper. Results show that the combined effect of ergodicity and the radial plasma diffusion leads to the efficient smoothing of the temperature profiles in the finite-β case

  16. Implications of transportation policies on energy and environment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimates and analyzes the historical and future trends of energy demand and environmental emissions from passenger transportation of the Kathmandu Valley covering CO 2 , CO, HC, NO x , SO 2 , total suspended particles (TSP) and lead (Pb). It uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System framework for constructing future scenarios up to year 2020 and analyzing their implications; these scenarios mainly deal with the traffic improvement measures, promotion of public transportation and electric vehicles. The results estimate over a four-fold increase in energy demand in 1988-2000. TSP increase of 4.5 times in this period is the major concern since high particulate concentration is already above World Health Organization guidelines. Under the non-intervention scenario, energy demand in 2020 is estimated to be 2.7 times that in the year 2000. Similarly, 2.5 times increase of TSP in 2020 from the year 2000 is estimated that would further increase the TSP concentrations. The scenario analyses suggest that increasing vehicle speed, promoting public transportation and promoting electric vehicles could reduce energy demand by 28%, 28% and 18%, respectively, while promoting a reasonably comfortable condition on overcrowded public transportation could increase energy demand by 10% from non-intervention scenario. For TSP, any future measures would not be enough unless the attention is not paid to in-use vehicle stock. A mix of all the policies mentioned above has potentials to cut down CO 2 emissions to over 60% from the non-intervention case in 2020

  17. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed

  18. Current and future energy and exergy efficiencies in the Iran’s transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarifi, F.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Motasemi, F.; Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the sector were calculated. • The overall efficiencies were compared to other countries. • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies have been predicted by scenario approach. • A summary of recommendations to improve the sector is provided. - Abstract: Transportation is the second largest energy consumer sector in Iran which accounts for 24% of total energy consumption in 2009. This large percentage (almost a quarter) of energy consumption necessitates the determination of energy and exergy flows and their respective losses, which will enable the reduction of both energy growth and its consequent environmental impacts in the near future. This paper attempts to analyze and investigate the energy and exergy utilization of the transportation sector in Iran for the period of 1998–2009. Additionally, the total energy consumption in each subsector and the overall energy and exergy efficiencies are predicted via scenario approach. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Iran with six other countries is also presented. The results show that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of transportation sector in Iran is higher than China and Norway, while it is lower than Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Turkey, and Malaysia for the year 2000. Road appears to be the most efficient subsector. The overall energy efficiency is determined to be in the range of 22.02% in 1998, to 21.49% in 2009, while the overall exergy efficiency is determine to be in the range of 21.47% in 1998, to 21.19% in 2009. The energy consumption in each subsector is predicted from 2010 to 2035. It was discovered that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies possesses an upward trend during this time period. Finally, some recommendations vis-à-vis the improvement of the energy and exergy efficiencies in Iranian transportation sector in the future was provided and duly discussed

  19. Alternating access mechanisms of LeuT-fold transporters: trailblazing towards the promised energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmier, Kelli; Claxton, Derek P; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2017-08-01

    Secondary active transporters couple the uphill translocation of substrates to electrochemical ion gradients. Transporter conformational motion, generically referred to as alternating access, enables a central ligand binding site to change its orientation relative to the membrane. Here we review themes of alternating access and the transduction of ion gradient energy to power this process in the LeuT-fold class of transporters where crystallographic, computational and spectroscopic approaches have converged to yield detailed models of transport cycles. Specifically, we compare findings for the Na + -coupled amino acid transporter LeuT and the Na + -coupled hydantoin transporter Mhp1. Although these studies have illuminated multiple aspects of transporter structures and dynamics, a number of questions remain unresolved that so far hinder understanding transport mechanisms in an energy landscape perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D [London Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    This paper considers the types and scale of the contributions that public transport can make to sustainable personal mobility. It recognises that public transport actions must be part of a wider concerted effort if real progress is to be made in promoting sustainable mobility. Parallel actions will be needed in the areas of land use patterns, technology and activity patterns as well as other elements of transport planning and management. The energy efficiency, environmental impacts, space effects and mobility characteristics of the main forms of public transport are examined and related, where appropriate, to those of cars. (author) 1 fig., 11 tabs., refs.

  1. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    Considering the externalities of freight transport activity (energy use, accidents, congestion, its related GHG emissions, and lost oil revenues) this article reviews trends from 1990-2005 in truck freight fuel intensity (energy use per tonne-km moved), on road truck fuel economy (L/ 100 km driven......). We review changes in decoupling truck freight activity from GDP. We examine separately five manufacturing sectors using data from Statistics Denmark on vehicle performance for 1980-2006. Our four major findings are: (1) truck freight energy intensity (mj/tonne-km) continues to grow as well as CO2...... emissions; (2) decoupling has not been large enough to reduce overall energy use of truck; (3) because of the absence of fuel economy regulations, a low average vehicle load, increased hauling distance, overall energy use of truck freight will continue to expand; (4) results show that standard freight...

  2. The dependence of the tunneling characteristic on the electronic energy bands and the carrier’s states of Graphene superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. H.; Shen, G. Z.; Ao, Z. M.; Xu, Y. W.

    2016-09-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, the carrier tunneling properties in graphene superlattice generated by the Thue-Morse sequence and Kolakoski sequence are investigated. The positions and strength of the transmission can be modulated by the barrier structures, the incident energy and angle, the height and width of the potential. These carriers tunneling characteristic can be understood from the energy band structures in the corresponding superlattice systems and the carrier’s states in well/barriers. The transmission peaks above the critical incident angle rely on the carrier’s resonance in the well regions. The structural diversity can modulate the electronic and transport properties, thus expanding its applications.

  3. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  4. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  5. Discrete energy formulation of neutron transport theory applied to solving the discrete ordinates equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, J.; Oblow, E.M.; Goldstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    An algebraic equivalence between the point-energy and multigroup forms of the Boltzmann transport equation is demonstrated that allows the development of a discrete energy, discrete ordinates method for the solution of radiation transport problems. In the discrete energy method, the group averaging required in the cross-section processing for multigroup calculations is replaced by a faster numerical quadrature scheme capable of generating transfer cross sections describing all the physical processes of interest on a fine point-energy grid. Test calculations in which the discrete energy method is compared with the multigroup method show that, for the same energy grid, the discrete energy method is much faster, although somewhat less accurate, than the multigroup method. However, the accuracy of the discrete energy method increases rapidly as the spacing between energy grid points is decreased, approaching that of multigroup calculations. For problems requiring great detail in the energy spectrum, the discrete energy method is therefore expected to be far more economical than the multigroup technique for equivalent accuracy solutions. This advantage of the point method is demonstrated by application to the study of neutron transport in a thick iron slab

  6. Survey report on energy transportation systems which use hydrogen-occluding alloys; Suiso kyuzo gokin wo riyoshita energy yuso system chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-18

    Surveyed are systems which use hydrogen-occluding alloys for, e.g., storing and transporting hydrogen. This project is aimed at development of, and extraction of technical problems involved in, the concept of hydrogen energy transportation cycles for producing hydrogen in overseas countries by electrolysis using clean energy of hydraulic energy which are relatively cheap there; transporting hydrogen stored in a hydrogen-occluding alloy by sea to Japan; and converting it into electrical power to be delivered and used there. The surveyed items include current state of development/utilization of hydraulic power resources in overseas countries; pigeonholing the technical issues involved in the hydrogen transportation cycles, detailed studies thereon, and selection of the transportation cycles; current state of research, development and application of hydrogen-occluding alloys for various purposes; extraction of the elementary techniques for the techniques and systems for the hydrogen transportation systems which use hydrogen-occluding alloys; research themes of the future hydrogen-occluding alloys and the application techniques therefor, and research and development thereof; and legislative measures and safety. (NEDO)

  7. Dose characteristics of high-energy electrons, muons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Krupnyj, G.I.; Peleshko, V.N.; Rastsvetalov, Ya.N.

    1980-01-01

    Differential distribution of energy release at different depth of tissue-equivalent phantoms (plexiglas, polystyrene, polyethylene) at the energy of incident electrons, muons of 0.2-40 GeV and photons with the mean energy of 3.6 GeV are measured. The error of experimental results does not exceed 7%. On the basis of the data obtained dose characteristics of electrons, muons and photons for standard geometry are estimated. For all types of irradiation the maximum value of specific equivalent dose, nremxcm 2 /part. is presented. It is shown that published values of specific equivalent dose of electron radiation are higher in all the investigated energy range from 0.2 to 40 GeV, and for muon radiation a good agreement with the present experiment is observed. The highly precise results obtained which cover the wide dynamic range according to the energy of incident particles can serve as the basis for reconsidering the existing recommendations for dose characteristics of electron radiation [ru

  8. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    Energy demand of a transport sector has constantly been increasing in the recent years, consuming one third of the total final energy demand in the European Union (EU) over the last decade. A transition of this sector towards sustainable one is facing many challenges in terms of suitable technolo...

  9. Solar-energy heats a transportation test center--Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Petroleum-base, thermal energy transport fluid circulating through 583 square feet of flat-plate solar collectors accumulates majority of energy for space heating and domestic hot-water of large Test Center. Report describes operation, maintenance, and performance of system which is suitable for warehouses and similar buildings. For test period from February 1979 to January 1980, solar-heating fraction was 31 percent, solar hot-water fraction 79 percent.

  10. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    The widespread of transport is recognized as a major contributor to an extensive range of undesirable side effects, covering all stages, from production to use and disposal. The transport sector is one of the major consumers of energy mainly fossil fuels and therefore contributes adverse emissions with local direct health effects as well as a significant share of 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs), which play a crucial role in determining the earth's climate. Moreover, the transportation sector is implicated in causing some social problems such as intensive use of public space. Present growth in vehicle ownership and use in urban areas, is unsustainable. Petroleum fuels, which are the main energy source for the transport sector, are essentially non-renewable. In short, the transportation system is unsustainable and is becoming more unsustainable. Measures need to be taken at a number of levels to mitigate the negative effects of transport and to reduce the increasing dependence on the fossil fuels as a main transportation energy soruce. The main objectives of this study are: (a) analyzing the transportation's role in the energy markets and its related environmental problems and defining the sustainable transport in urban areas, (b) analyzing alternative urban planning philosophies, (c) presenting a suggested procedure for sustainable develop ment of urban transport and energy consumption, (d) identifying the potential impacts of this procedure by being applied to Alexandria city, as a case study. The identification is based on evaluating four different scenarios for the year 2015 which are compared to each other, as well as with a business-as usual scenario (Do-Nothing Solution). These scenarios are based on the proposed sustainable transport and energy systems started from (Do-Minimum Solution) until (Do-Maximum Solution). To facilitate the calculations, an interactive computer program called 'TraEnergy' is developed in the framework of this

  11. Interpreting the implied meridional oceanic energy transport in AMIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, D.A.; Gleckler, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) was outlined in Paper No. CLIM VAR 2.3 (entitled open-quote The validation of ocean surface heat fluxes in AMIP') of these proceedings. Preliminary results of AMIP subproject No. 5 were also summarized. In particular, zonally averaged ocean surface heat fluxes resulting from various AMIP simulations were intercompared, and to the extent possible they were validated with uncertainties in observationally-based estimates of surface heat fluxes. The intercomparison is continued in this paper by examining the Oceanic Meridional Energy Transport (OMET) implied by the net surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes, the perspective here will be very cursory. The annual mean implied ocean heat transport can be estimated by integrating the zonally averaged net ocean surface heat flux, N sfc , from one pole to the other. In AGCM simulations (and perhaps reality), the global mean N sfc is typically not in exact balance when averaged over one or more years. Because of this, an important assumption must be made about changes in the distribution of energy in the oceans. Otherwise, the integration will yield a non-zero transport at the endpoint of integration (pole) which is not physically realistic. Here the authors will only look at 10-year means of the AMIP runs, and for simplicity they assume that any long term imbalance in the global averaged N sfc will be sequestered (or released) over the global ocean. Tests have demonstrated that the treatment of how the global average energy imbalance is assumed to be distributed is important, especially when the long term imbalances are in excess of 10 W m -2 . However, this has not had a substantial impact on the qualitative features of the implied heat transport of the AMIP simulations examined thus far

  12. US Department of Energy automated transportation management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.M.; Frost, D.M.; Lopez, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 80 facilities throughout the United States that specialize in either scientific research, engineering, technology, production, and/or waste management activities. These facilities can best be described as Government Owned, Contractor Operated (GOCO) sites, and vary in size from very small laboratories to large industrial plant type facilities. Each of these GOCO's have varying needs for transportation of materials into and/or out of their facility. Therefore, Traffic Management operations will differ from site to site due to size and the internal or site specific mission. The DOE Transportation Management Division (TMD) has the corporate responsibility to provide a well managed transportation management program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of all DOE-owned materials. To achieve this mission, TMD provides oversight, and when necessary, resources to assist in ensuring regulatory compliance in the packaging and shipment of DOE-owned materials. A large part of TMD's responsibility is to develop, administer, and provide policies and guidance concerning department-wide transportation and packaging operations. This responsibility includes overall Transportation Management policies and programs for the packaging and movement of all DOE materials, including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials/substances, and hazardous wastes. TMD formulates policies and guidance that assist the DOE Field Elements and GOCO's in meeting TMD's goal for safe, efficient and economical transportation. Considering there are at least 80 shipping and receiving sites, the challenge encountered by TMD has been the difficulty in managing such a diverse transportation community

  13. Low energy electron transport in furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Ana I.; Krupa, Kateryna; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Blanco, Francisco; Muñoz, Antonio; Jones, Darryl B.; Brunger, Michael J.; García, Gustavo

    2017-09-01

    We report on an initial investigation into the transport of electrons through a gas cell containing 1 mTorr of gaseous furfural. Results from our Monte Carlo simulation are implicitly checked against those from a corresponding electron transmission measurement. To enable this simulation a self-consistent cross section data base was constructed. This data base is benchmarked through new total cross section measurements which are also described here. In addition, again to facilitate the simulation, our preferred energy loss distribution function is presented and discussed.

  14. Geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Research plan: subsurface transport program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobber, F.J.

    1985-09-01

    Because natural processes associated with the release and the transport of organic compounds, trace metals, and radionuclides are incompletely understood, research in this area is critical if the long term scientific uncertainties about contaminant transport are to be resolved. The processes that control mobilization and attenuation of energy residuals in soils and geological strata, their hydrological transport to and within ground water regimes, and their accumulation in biological systems require research attention. A summary of DOE's core research program is described. It is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical hydrological, and biophysical mechanics that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in natural systems can be understood

  15. Direct energy rebound effect for road passenger transport in China: A dynamic panel quantile regression approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Hua-Rong; Liu, Zhao; Tan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector appears a main energy consumer in China and plays a significant role in energy conservation. Improving energy efficiency proves an effective way to reduce energy consumption in transport sector, whereas its effectiveness may be affected by the rebound effect. This paper proposes a dynamic panel quantile regression model to estimate the direct energy rebound effect for road passenger transport in the whole country, eastern, central and western China, respectively, based on the data of 30 provinces from 2003 to 2012. The empirical results reveal that, first of all, the direct rebound effect does exist for road passenger transport and on the whole country, the short-term and long-term direct rebound effects are 25.53% and 26.56% on average, respectively. Second, the direct rebound effect for road passenger transport in central and eastern China tends to decrease, increase and then decrease again, whereas that in western China decreases and then increases, with the increasing passenger kilometers. Finally, when implementing energy efficiency policy in road passenger transport sector, the effectiveness of energy conservation in western China proves much better than that in central China overall, while the effectiveness in central China is relatively better than that in eastern China. - Highlights: • The direct rebound effect (RE) for road passenger transport in China is estimated. • The direct RE in the whole country, eastern, central, and western China is analyzed. • The short and long-term direct REs are 25.53% and 26.56% within the sample period. • Western China has better energy-saving performance than central and eastern China.

  16. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Qi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  17. Study of the charge transport characteristics of dendrimer molecular thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.C., E-mail: jcli@mail.neu.edu.cn; Han, N.; Wang, S.S.; Ba, D.C.

    2011-05-31

    In this work, we systematically studied the electrical characteristics of two types of dendritic arylamine thin film devices. We observed that, for devices with different interfacial structures, their charge injection barriers and transport properties are obviously different. The smallest charge injection barrier is observed in dendrimer devices without charge-transfer interfacial layers. The Richardson-Schottky thermionic emission model can be well used to fit the experimental current-voltage characteristics at a lower voltage region. The charge injection barrier increases about 0.4 eV and 0.5 eV when a 1-decanethiol self-assembly layer and -CN terminated dendrimer thin films are inserted as the interfacial layer, respectively. It is shown that the molecule/electrode charge-transfer interfaces can largely affect the device charge injection/transport process and consequently change the device performance. In this case, the space charge limited conduction theory is more applicable to simulate the device conduction mechanism. Owing to its ultra-thin thickness, the self-assembly monolayer technique is proved to be an efficient approach in engineering the interfacial electronic structures of dendrimer thin film devices.

  18. Study of the charge transport characteristics of dendrimer molecular thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.C.; Han, N.; Wang, S.S.; Ba, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we systematically studied the electrical characteristics of two types of dendritic arylamine thin film devices. We observed that, for devices with different interfacial structures, their charge injection barriers and transport properties are obviously different. The smallest charge injection barrier is observed in dendrimer devices without charge-transfer interfacial layers. The Richardson-Schottky thermionic emission model can be well used to fit the experimental current-voltage characteristics at a lower voltage region. The charge injection barrier increases about 0.4 eV and 0.5 eV when a 1-decanethiol self-assembly layer and -CN terminated dendrimer thin films are inserted as the interfacial layer, respectively. It is shown that the molecule/electrode charge-transfer interfaces can largely affect the device charge injection/transport process and consequently change the device performance. In this case, the space charge limited conduction theory is more applicable to simulate the device conduction mechanism. Owing to its ultra-thin thickness, the self-assembly monolayer technique is proved to be an efficient approach in engineering the interfacial electronic structures of dendrimer thin film devices.

  19. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  20. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  1. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  2. A low-frequency wave motion mechanism enables efficient energy transport in carbon nanotubes at high heat fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-07-11

    The great majority of investigations of thermal transport in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the open literature focus on low heat fluxes, that is, in the regime of validity of the Fourier heat conduction law. In this paper, by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we investigated thermal transport in a single-walled CNT bridging two Si slabs under constant high heat flux. An anomalous wave-like kinetic energy profile was observed, and a previously unexplored, wave-dominated energy transport mechanism is identified for high heat fluxes in CNTs, originated from excited low frequency transverse acoustic waves. The transported energy, in terms of a one-dimensional low frequency mechanical wave, is quantified as a function of the total heat flux applied and is compared to the energy transported by traditional Fourier heat conduction. The results show that the low frequency wave actually overtakes traditional Fourier heat conduction and efficiently transports the energy at high heat flux. Our findings reveal an important new mechanism for high heat flux energy transport in low-dimensional nanostructures, such as one-dimensional (1-D) nanotubes and nanowires, which could be very relevant to high heat flux dissipation such as in micro/nanoelectronics applications.

  3. Prediction of energy absorption characteristics of aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidt, D; Figiel, Ł; Buggy, M

    2012-01-01

    This research aims ultimately at improving the impact performance of laminates by applying a coating of epoxy containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Here, 2D and 3D computational modelling was carried out to predict energy absorption characteristics of aligned CNT/epoxy nanocomposites subjected to macroscopic compression under different strain rates (quasi-static and impact rates). The influence of the rate-dependent matrix behaviour, CNT aspect ratio and CNT volume fraction on the energy absorption characteristics of the nanocomposites was evaluated. A strong correlation between those parameters was found, which provides an insight into a rate-dependent behaviour of the nanocomposites, and can help to tune their energy absorption characteristics.

  4. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  5. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  6. US Department of Energy, Westinghouse Hanford Company ARECO cesium transportation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to the safe, efficient, and cost-effective transportation of all materials that support its various programs and activities. DOE strives to ensure that hazardous materials (particularly radioactive),hazardous substances, and hazardous mixed waste are handled and transported in compliance with all applicable federal, state,tribal, and local rules and regulations. This plan outlines the activities and responsibilities of DOE and other agencies that will be followed to conclude a significant movement of radioactive cesium (Cs) chloride capsules in a safe and uneventful manner. DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) has directed that Cs capsules manufactured at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) be returned to WESF, located at DOE`s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Currently, there are 25 Cs capsules at the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO)facility utilized for the polymerization of wood products in Lynchburg, Virginia, that requires removal as part of the overall Cs capsule return effort. This plan has been prepared in cooperation with member states of the Western Governors` Association (WGA) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB);the Council of State Governments Midwestern Office; and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservations, through whose jurisdictions these shipments will pass, and is an example of DOE-HQ`s commitment to early coordination and substantive involvement in its decision-making processes. This transportation plan identifies responsibilities, requirements,and procedures to ensure the success of the capsule return program. The plan summarizes transportation activities,organizational responsibilities, emergency preparedness guidelines, and other methods for achieving safe transport.

  7. Water characteristics and transport of the Antarctic circumpolar current in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Mathew, B.

    Geostrophic velocities are computed across meridians 37 degrees E and 105 degrees E using hydrographic data. The estimated mass transport is represented on a temperature - salinity diagram. The characteristics of the water within the Antarctic...

  8. Characteristics of the Romanian energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stet, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper highlights the main characteristics of the energy market in Romania. Starting from the mode of organization and operation of the electricity market, there are revealed prices and tariffs for electricity for different categories of customers and their evolution in time. There are pointed also ways of setting electricity prices and tariffs, taking into account the expenditures actually recorded by economic operators.

  9. Trends of energy efficiency in Finnish road freight transport 1995-2009 and forecast to 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Poellaenen, Markus [Department of Business Information Management and Logistics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    A framework for modeling and analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport is presented in this paper. This framework is tested by using the data from the Finnish Goods Transport by Road statistics. The data was enhanced by calculating the fuel consumption for each trip in the data. To calculate this, weight-fuel consumption functions were estimated for each Euro-class vehicles and road type. This is a new method for analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport and it could be applied also in other countries gathering freight transport data with continuous company surveys. The analysis show that the energy efficiency of road freight transport in Finland improved during 1995-2002, but has declined since. The major drivers in the development have been the changes in the level of empty running and vehicle fuel efficiency. Extrapolating current statistical trends of factors that influence the energy efficiency show that the target set by the Finnish government for improving energy efficiency by 9% until 2016 will not be achieved. However, the target is possible to be achieved by a combination of small changes to some determinants. (author)

  10. Trends of energy efficiency in Finnish road freight transport 1995-2009 and forecast to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Poellaenen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A framework for modeling and analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport is presented in this paper. This framework is tested by using the data from the Finnish Goods Transport by Road statistics. The data was enhanced by calculating the fuel consumption for each trip in the data. To calculate this, weight-fuel consumption functions were estimated for each Euro-class vehicles and road type. This is a new method for analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport and it could be applied also in other countries gathering freight transport data with continuous company surveys. The analysis show that the energy efficiency of road freight transport in Finland improved during 1995-2002, but has declined since. The major drivers in the development have been the changes in the level of empty running and vehicle fuel efficiency. Extrapolating current statistical trends of factors that influence the energy efficiency show that the target set by the Finnish government for improving energy efficiency by 9% until 2016 will not be achieved. However, the target is possible to be achieved by a combination of small changes to some determinants. - Research highlights: →A new method for analyzing energy efficiency by adding fuel data to national freight statistics. →Energy efficiency improved in Finland from 1995 to 2002 but has declined since. →Energy efficiency in Finland is still on a good level internationally. →Target of the Finnish energy efficiency agreement was quantified for the first time in this study. →The target will not be achieved if the past trends continue.

  11. Energy transition and transport networks, the Danish example. Breakfast-debate of 4 April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucly, Philippe; Dorte Riggelsen, Anne; Lambert, Francois-Michel; Brabo, Torben; Bornard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This document contains contributions presented by the GRTgaz general manager, the Danish ambassador, an expert in circular economy, the vice-chairman of the Danish gas and electricity utility, and a high representative of RTE about the role of energy transport networks in energy transition. It appears that energy transition raises several issues for energy transport operators: technical challenges due to the growth of renewable energies (notably in terms of grid steering and of production and consumption peak management), the introduction of flexibility and development of energy storage means, mechanisms of solidarity between regions and countries, political and economic dimensions with exchanges on good practices

  12. The long-term development of the energy input in transportation, 1970-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiren, P B [E.F.C.E.E., Mechelen (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    This paper is a - modest - statistical and economic analysis of the energy input in the transportation sector over the past twenty-five years (1970 - 1995) and an attempt at looking ahead over the next twenty-five years (1995 - 2020). After World War II passenger cars and trucks became the means of transportation par excellence and are still the main vehicle for moving around, both men and freight. Energy input statistics were born. Let us see what they teach us. (EG)

  13. Long term energy and emission implications of a global shift to electricity-based public rail transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Kim, Son H.

    2015-01-01

    With high reliance on light-duty vehicles in the present, the future of global transportation system is also geared towards private modes, which has significant energy and emission implications. Public transportation has been argued as an alternative strategy for meeting the rising transportation demands of the growing world, especially the poor, in a sustainable and energy efficient way. The present study analyzes an important yet under-researched question – what are the long-term energy and emission implications of an electric rail based passenger transportation system for meeting both long and short distance passenter transportation needs? We analyze a suite of electric rail share scenarios with and without climate policy. In the reference scenario, the transportation system will evolve towards dominance of fossil based light-duty vehicles. We find that an electric rail policy is more successful than an economy wide climate policy in reducing transport sector energy demand and emissions. Economy wide emissions however can only be reduced through a broader climate policy, the cost of which can be reduced by hundreds of billions of dollars across the century when implemented in combination with the transport sector focused electric rail policy. Moreover, higher share of electric rail enhances energy security for oil importing nations and reduces vehicular congestion and road infrastructure requirement as well. -- Highlights: •Economy wide carbon price policy will have little impact on transportation emissions. •Focused energy and emission mitigation policies required for transportation sector. •Large global shift towards electric rail based public transport is one possible option. •Transport sector focused policy will have marginal impact on total global emissions. •A combined transport sector and economy wide policy can reduce costs significantly

  14. 48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. 970.5223-6 Section 970.5223-6... FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY, AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT (OCT 2010) Since this contract involves... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating...

  15. Energy-filtered cold electron transport at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadrachalam, Pradeep; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Ray, Vishva; Ma, Liang-Chieh; Wang, Weichao; Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Kyeongjae; Koh, Seong Jin

    2014-09-10

    Fermi-Dirac electron thermal excitation is an intrinsic phenomenon that limits functionality of various electron systems. Efforts to manipulate electron thermal excitation have been successful when the entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures, typically distribution corresponds to an effective electron temperature of ~45 K, can be transported throughout device components without external cooling. This is accomplished using a discrete level of a quantum well, which filters out thermally excited electrons and permits only energy-suppressed electrons to participate in electron transport. The quantum well (~2 nm of Cr2O3) is formed between source (Cr) and tunnelling barrier (SiO2) in a double-barrier-tunnelling-junction structure having a quantum dot as the central island. Cold electron transport is detected from extremely narrow differential conductance peaks in electron tunnelling through CdSe quantum dots, with full widths at half maximum of only ~15 mV at room temperature.

  16. Environmental friendly energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally, acceptable working fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA rising vegetable oils as base stocks and as innovative additive packages. While much of the research has been made in the field of alternative environmentally, friendly energy, transport media, the thermal stability of vegetable based stock is still a challenging area. This work concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. Oven and oil bath test methods were employed in this study. This paper tabled mineral and vegetable oil physical test results and presents thermal stability of oil blends. (Author)

  17. Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy production and heat transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy production, and heat transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is heating the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.

  18. Transport properties of high-temperature superconductors: Surface vs bulk effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlachkov, L.; Koshelev, A.E.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate surface-related transport properties of high-temperature superconductors. We find the mean vortex velocity under applied transport current determined by the activation energies for vortex penetration and exit through the Bean-Livingston barrier. We determine the current distribution between the surfaces of superconductor and the field and current dependencies of the transport activation energies. For a three-dimensional superconductor the transport activation energy, U s 3D , is found to decrease with the external field, H, and transport current, J, as U s 3D ∝H -1/2 and U s 3D ∝J -1/2 , respectively. In the quasi-two-dimensional compounds, U s 2D decays logarithmically with field and current. The interplay between the surface and the bulk contributions to the transport properties, such as current-voltage characteristics, is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Impacts of urbanization on national transport and road energy use: Evidence from low, middle and high income countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumanyvong, Phetkeo; Kaneko, Shinji; Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2012-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to investigate quantitatively and systematically the impact of urbanization on transport energy use for countries of different stages of economic development. This paper examines the influence of urbanization on national transport and road energy use for low, middle and high income countries during 1975–2005, using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model. After controlling for population size, income per capita and the share of services in the economy, the main results suggest that urbanization influences national transport and road energy use positively. However, the magnitude of its influence varies among the three income groups. Changes in urbanization appear to have a greater impact on transport and road energy use in the high income group than in the other groups. Surprisingly, the urbanization elasticities of transport and road energy use in the middle income group are smaller than those of the low income group. This study not only sheds further light on the existing literature, but also provides policy makers with insightful information on the link between urbanization and transport energy use at the three different stages of development. - Highlights: ► Overall, urbanization increases national transport and road energy use. ► Urbanization elasticities of transport energy use differ across development stages. ► Urbanization elasticities in high-income group are higher than in other groups.

  20. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  1. Numerical model for two-dimensional hydrodynamics and energy transport. [VECTRA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, D.S.

    1973-06-01

    The theoretical basis and computational procedure of the VECTRA computer program are presented. VECTRA (Vorticity-Energy Code for TRansport Analysis) is designed for applying numerical simulation to a broad range of intake/discharge flows in conjunction with power plant hydrological evaluation. The code computational procedure is based on finite-difference approximation of the vorticity-stream function partial differential equations which govern steady flow momentum transport of two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous fluids in conjunction with the transport of heat and other constituents.

  2. Energy consumption characteristics of transports using the prop-fan concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving and economic potentials of the prop-fan high-speed propeller concept were evaluated for twin-engine commercial transport airplanes designed for 3333.6 km range, 180 passengers, and Mach 0.8 cruise. A fuel saving of 9.7% at the design range was estimated for a prop-fan airplane having wing-mounted engines, while a 5.8% saving was estimated for a design having the engines mounted on the aft body. The fuel savings and cost were found to be sensitive to the propeller noise level and to aerodynamic drag effects due to wing-slipstream interaction. Uncertainties in these effects could change the fuel savings as much as + or - 50%. A modest improvement in direct operating cost (DOC) was estimated for the wing-mounted prop-fan at current fuel prices. This improvement could become substantial in the event of further relative increases in the price of oil. The improvement in DOC requires the achievement of the nominal fuel saving and reductions in propeller and gearbox maintenance costs relative to current experience.

  3. Florida long-distance travel characteristics and their potential impacts on the transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The overall goal of this project is to enhance the fundamental understanding of Florida long-distance travel characteristics, and to provide policy implications for long-distance transportation planning in the future. To achieve the research goal, th...

  4. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  5. Transport characteristics of guanidino compounds at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: relevance to neural disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachikawa Masanori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Guanidino compounds (GCs, such as creatine, phosphocreatine, guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine, methylguanidine, guanidinosuccinic acid, γ-guanidinobutyric acid, β-guanidinopropionic acid, guanidinoethane sulfonic acid and α-guanidinoglutaric acid, are present in the mammalian brain. Although creatine and phosphocreatine play important roles in energy homeostasis in the brain, accumulation of GCs may induce epileptic discharges and convulsions. This review focuses on how physiologically important and/or neurotoxic GCs are distributed in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions. Transporters for GCs at the blood-brain barrier (BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier (BCSFB have emerged as substantial contributors to GCs distribution in the brain. Creatine transporter (CRT/solute carrier (SLC 6A8 expressed at the BBB regulates creatine concentration in the brain, and represents a major pathway for supply of creatine from the circulating blood to the brain. CRT may be a key factor facilitating blood-to-brain guanidinoacetate transport in patients deficient in S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, the creatine biosynthetic enzyme, resulting in cerebral accumulation of guanidinoacetate. CRT, taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A6 and organic cation transporter (OCT3/SLC22A3 expressed at the BCSFB are involved in guanidinoacetic acid or creatinine efflux transport from CSF. Interestingly, BBB efflux transport of GCs, including guanidinoacetate and creatinine, is negligible, though the BBB has a variety of efflux transport systems for synthetic precursors of GCs, such as amino acids and neurotransmitters. Instead, the BCSFB functions as a major cerebral clearance system for GCs. In conclusion, transport of GCs at the BBB and BCSFB appears to be the key determinant of the cerebral levels of GCs, and changes in the transport characteristics may cause the abnormal distribution of GCs in the brain seen

  6. Calculation of transportation energy for biomass collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, G.; Takekura, K.; Kato, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study at a rice straw facility in Japan that produces bioethanol. Simulation modeling and calculations methods were used to examine the characteristics of field-to-facility transportation. Fuel consumption was found to be influenced by the conversion rate from straw to ethanol, the quantity of straw collected, and the ratio of the field area to that around the facility. Standard conditions were assumed based on reported data and actual observations for 15 ML/yr ethanol production, 0.3 kL output of ethanol from 1 t dry straw, 53.6 day/yr working days, 2.7 t truck load capacity, and 0.128 as the ratio of field to the area around the facility. According to calculations, a quantity of 50 kt dry straw requires 2.78 L of fuel to transport 1 t of dry straw, 109.5 trucks, and a 19.1 km collection area radius. The fuel consumption for transportation was found to be proportional to the quantity of straw to the 0.5 power, but inversely proportional to the ratio of field to the 0.5 power. The rate of increase in the number of trucks needed to collect straw increases with the decrease in the ratio of the field to area surface around the facility.

  7. Peritoneal Water Transport Characteristics of Diabetic Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Ribera-Sanchez, Roi; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; López-Iglesias, Antía; Leite-Costa, Natacha; Pérez Fontán, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Volume overload is frequent in diabetics undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), and may play a significant role in the excess mortality observed in these patients. The characteristics of peritoneal water transport in this population have not been studied sufficiently. Following a prospective, single-center design we made cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of peritoneal water transport in 2 relatively large samples of diabetic and nondiabetic PD patients. We used 3.86/4.25% glucose-based peritoneal equilibration tests (PET) with complete drainage at 60 min, for these purposes. We scrutinized 59 diabetic and 120 nondiabetic PD patients. Both samples showed relatively similar characteristics, although diabetics were significantly more overhydrated than nondiabetics. The baseline PET disclosed lower ultrafiltration (mean 439 mL diabetics vs. 532 mL nondiabetics, p = 0.033) and sodium removal (41 vs. 53 mM, p = 0.014) rates in diabetics. One hundred and nine patients (36 diabetics) underwent a second PET after 12 months, and 45 (14 diabetics) underwent a third one after 24 months. Longitudinal analyses disclosed an essential stability of water transport in both groups, although nondiabetic patients showed a trend where an increase in free water transport (p = 0.033) was observed, which was not the case in diabetics. Diabetic patients undergoing PD present lower capacities of ultrafiltration and sodium removal than their nondiabetic counterparts. Longitudinal analyses disclose an essential stability of water transport capacities, both in diabetics and nondiabetics. The clinical significance of these differences deserves further analysis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Modeling the impact of transport energy consumption on CO2 emission in Pakistan: Evidence from ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish; Baloch, Muhammad Awais; Suad, Shah

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between transport energy consumption, economic growth, and carbon dioxide emission (CO 2 ) from transport sector incorporating foreign direct investment and urbanization. This study is carried out in Pakistan by applying autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) and vector error correction model (VECM) over 1990-2015. The empirical results indicate a strong significant impact of transport energy consumption on CO 2 emissions from the transportation sector. Furthermore, foreign direct investment also contributes to CO 2 emission. Interestingly, the impact of economic growth and urbanization on transport CO 2 emission is statistically insignificant. Overall, transport energy consumption and foreign direct investment are not environmentally friendly. The new empirical evidence from this study provides a complete picture of the determinants of emissions from the transport sector and these novel findings not only help to advance the existing literature but also can be of special interest to the country's policymakers. So, we urge that government needs to focus on promoting the energy efficient means of transportation to improve environmental quality with less adverse influence on economic growth.

  9. Characteristics of Ampel bamboo as a biomass energy source potential in Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipta, M.; Putra Negara, D. N. K.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.; Surata, I. W.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, non-renewable fossil energy dominates utilization of the world energy need for many applications. Efforts has been developed to find alternative renewable energy sources, due to fossil energy availability is diminishing. And one of renewable energy source is from biomass. The aim of this research is to determine characteristics of the Ampel bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as an energy potential of biomass. The Ampel bamboo’s characteristics possessed are evaluated based on its chemical composition; moisture, volatile, ash, and fixed carbon through proximate analysis; and also carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content through ultimate analysis. From the Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that Ampel bamboo contains of about 18.10% hemicelluloses, 47.75% cellulose and 18.86% lignin. While from the ultimate analysis results in the content of carbon, hydrogen, and Nitrogen of Ampel bamboo are 39.75%, 5.75% and 0% respectively. With such characteristics, it indicates that Ampel bamboo has an attractive potential as a renewable energy source.

  10. Drop Weight Device Fabrication and Tests for a Dynamic Material Property of Shock-Absorbing Material and Structure in Transportation Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Jeon, Jea Eon; Han, Sang Hyeok; Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seok

    2009-01-01

    A radioactive material transportation package consists of canister and impact limiters. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1 recommends a drop test to evaluate the structural integrity of a transportation package under a hypothetical accident condition. The free drop test of a transportation package from 9 m height simulates one of accident conditions. The transportation package has a potential energy corresponding to 9 m drop height, and this energy changes to a kinetic energy when it impacts on the target. The energy is absorbed by a deformation of shock-absorbing material so that the minimum energy is transferred to canister. Accordingly, the shock-absorbing material is a very important part in transportation package design. Since the data for shock-absorbing material characteristics is acquired by a static test in general, it is quite different to that of dynamic characteristics. And the dynamic characteristics data is hardly found in literature. In this study, a drop weight facility was designed and fabricated which produces an impact speed like that of free drop of 9 m height. Several materials considered for an impact limiter and impact limiter structures were tested by a drop weight facility to acquire a dynamic material characteristics data

  11. Drop Weight Device Fabrication and Tests for a Dynamic Material Property of Shock-Absorbing Material and Structure in Transportation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Jeon, Jea Eon; Han, Sang Hyeok; Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A radioactive material transportation package consists of canister and impact limiters. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1 recommends a drop test to evaluate the structural integrity of a transportation package under a hypothetical accident condition. The free drop test of a transportation package from 9 m height simulates one of accident conditions. The transportation package has a potential energy corresponding to 9 m drop height, and this energy changes to a kinetic energy when it impacts on the target. The energy is absorbed by a deformation of shock-absorbing material so that the minimum energy is transferred to canister. Accordingly, the shock-absorbing material is a very important part in transportation package design. Since the data for shock-absorbing material characteristics is acquired by a static test in general, it is quite different to that of dynamic characteristics. And the dynamic characteristics data is hardly found in literature. In this study, a drop weight facility was designed and fabricated which produces an impact speed like that of free drop of 9 m height. Several materials considered for an impact limiter and impact limiter structures were tested by a drop weight facility to acquire a dynamic material characteristics data.

  12. Comprehensive energy transport scalings derived from DIII-D similarity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baity, F.W.

    1998-12-01

    The dependences of heat transport on the dimensionless plasma physics parameters has been measured for both L-mode and H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak. Heat transport in L-mode plasmas has a gyroradius scaling that is gyro-Bohm-like for electrons and worse than Bohm-like for ions, with no measurable beta or collisionality dependence; this corresponds to having an energy confinement time that scales like τ E ∝ n 0.5 P -0.5 . H-mode plasmas have gyro-Bohm-like scaling of heat transport for both electrons and ions, weak beta scaling, and moderate collisionality scaling. In addition, H-mode plasmas have a strong safety factor scaling (χ ∼ q 2 ) at all radii. Combining these four dimensionless parameter scalings together gives an energy confinement time scaling for H-mode plasmas like τ E ∝ B -1 ρ -3.15 β 0.03 v -0.42 q 95 -1.43 ∝ I 0.84 B 0.39 n 0.18 P -0.41 L 2.0 , which is similar to empirical scalings derived from global confinement databases

  13. Comprehensive energy transport scalings derived from DIII-D similarity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baity, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    The dependences of heat transport on the dimensionless plasma physics parameters has been measured for both L-mode and H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak. Heat transport in L-mode plasmas has a gyroradius scaling that is gyro-Bohm-like for electrons and worse than Bohm-like for ions, with no measurable beta or collisionality dependence; this corresponds to having an energy confinement time that scales like τ E ∝ n 0.5 P -0.5 . H-mode plasmas have gyro-Bohm-like scaling of heat transport for both electrons and ions, weak beta scaling, and moderate collisionality scaling. In addition, H-mode plasmas have a strong safety factor scaling (χ ∼ q 2 ) at all radii. Combining these four dimensionless parameter scalings together gives an energy confinement time scaling for H-mode plasmas like τ E ∝ B -1 ρ -3.15 β 0.03 ν -0.42 q 95 -1.43 ∝ I 0.84 B 0.39 n 0.18 P -0.41 L 2.0 , which is similar to empirical scalings derived from global confinement databases. (author)

  14. Comprehensive energy transport scalings derived from DIII-D similarity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baker, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The dependences of heat transport on the dimensionless plasma physics parameters has been measured for both L-mode and H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak. Heat transport in L-mode plasmas has a gyroradius scaling that is gyro-Bohm-like for electrons and worse than Bohm-like for ions, with no measurable beta or collisionality dependence; this corresponds to having an energy confinement time that scales like τ E ∝n 0.5 P -0.5 . H-mode plasmas have gyro-Bohm-like scaling of heat transport for both electrons and ions, weak beta scaling, and moderate collisionality scaling. In addition, H-mode plasmas have a strong safety factor scaling (χ∼q 2 ) at all radii. Combining these four dimensionless parameter scalings together gives an energy confinement time scaling for H-mode plasmas like τ E ∝ B -1 ρ -3.15 β 0.03 ν -0.42 q 95 -1.43 ∝ I 0.84 B 0.39 n 0.18 P -0.41 L 2.0 , which is similar to empirical scalings derived from global confinement databases. (author)

  15. Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid growth of road vehicles, private vehicles in particular, has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand and imports, which has been widely accepted as a major factor effecting future oil availability and prices, and a major contributor to China's GHG emission increase. This paper is intended to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector and to assess the effectiveness of possible reduction measures. A detailed model has been developed to derive a reliable historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector between 2000 and 2005 and to project future trends. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of China's road transport sector. The 'Business as Usual' scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of road transport energy demand. The 'Best Case' scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as private vehicle control, fuel economy regulation, promoting diesel and gas vehicles, fuel tax and biofuel promotion, are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector up to 2030 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the 'Best Case' scenario and the relative reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated

  16. Integrated simulation of ELM energy loss determined by pedestal MHD and SOL transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Takizuka, T.; Ozeki, T.; Aiba, N.; Oyama, N.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated simulation code TOPICS-IB based on a transport code with a stability code for the peeling-ballooning modes and a scrape-off-layer (SOL) model has been developed to clarify self-consistent effects of edge localized modes (ELMs) and the SOL on the plasma performance. Experimentally observed collisionality dependence of the ELM energy loss is found to be caused by both the edge bootstrap current and the SOL transport. The bootstrap current decreases with an increase in collisionality and intensifies the magnetic shear at the pedestal region. The increase in the magnetic shear reduces the width of eigenfunctions of unstable modes, which results in the reduction of both the area of the ELM enhanced transport and the ELM enhanced transport near the separatrix. On the other hand, when an ELM crash occurs, the energy flows into the SOL and the SOL temperature rapidly increases. The increase in the SOL temperature lowers the ELM energy loss due to the flattening of the radial edge gradient. The parallel electron heat conduction determines how the SOL temperature increases. For higher collisionality, the conduction becomes lower and the SOL electron temperature increases more. By the above two mechanisms, the ELM energy loss decreases with increasing collisionality

  17. Energy and transport in comparison: Immaterialisation, dematerialisation and decarbonisation in the EU15 between 1970 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapio, P.; Luukkanen, J.; Vehmas, J.; Banister, D.; Willamo, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the development of transport and energy use with a focus on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the EU15 countries between 1960 and 2000, and separately by each individual EU country between 1970 and 2000. Based on a review on the literature, immaterialisation can be defined as the reduction of energy intensity and transport intensity; dematerialisation can be defined as the reduction in carbon intensity of energy production and the carbon intensity of transport; decarbonisation can be defined as the reduction in (total and transport) carbon intensity of the whole economy. Although there is a clear pattern of reduction in energy intensity of the economy and carbon intensity of energy production, a similar patter cannot be found in transport. Neither the transport intensity of the economy nor the carbon intensity of transport has been reduced. In particular, freight transport intensity has grown between 1985 and 2000. Data presented by country have shown even more variation. The EU15 countries were aggregated into six groups by cluster analysis to establish the different patterns on each of the three measures. It is concluded that the EU15 countries will have problems in achieving the EU White Paper target of decoupling transport growth from economic growth and the Kyoto target of reducing total CO 2 emissions by 8% from the 1990 level between 2008 and 2012. However, there are some weak signals suggesting a more sustainable passenger transport system. (author)

  18. Energy and transport in comparison: Immaterialisation, dematerialisation and decarbonisation in the EU15 between 1970 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapio, Petri; Banister, David; Luukkanen, Jyrki; Vehmas, Jarmo; Willamo, Risto

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the development of transport and energy use with a focus on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the EU15 countries between 1960 and 2000, and separately by each individual EU country between 1970 and 2000. Based on a review on the literature, immaterialisation can be defined as the reduction of energy intensity and transport intensity; dematerialisation can be defined as the reduction in carbon intensity of energy production and the carbon intensity of transport; decarbonisation can be defined as the reduction in (total and transport) carbon intensity of the whole economy. Although there is a clear pattern of reduction in energy intensity of the economy and carbon intensity of energy production, a similar pattern cannot be found in transport. Neither the transport intensity of the economy nor the carbon intensity of transport has been reduced. In particular, freight transport intensity has grown between 1985 and 2000. Data presented by country have shown even more variation. The EU15 countries were aggregated into six groups by cluster analysis to establish the different patterns on each of the three measures. It is concluded that the EU15 countries will have problems in achieving the EU White Paper target of decoupling transport growth from economic growth and the Kyoto target of reducing total CO 2 emissions by 8% from the 1990 level between 2008 and 2012. However, there are some weak signals suggesting a more sustainable passenger transport system

  19. Highly-resolved modeling of personal transportation energy consumption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratori, Matteo; Moran, Michael J.; Serra, Emmanuele; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    This paper centers on the estimation of the total primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States, to include gasoline and/or electricity consumption, depending on vehicle type. The bottom-up sector-based estimation method introduced here contributes to a computational tool under development at The Ohio State University for assisting decision making in energy policy, pricing, and investment. In order to simulate highly-resolved consumption profiles three main modeling steps are needed: modeling the behavior of drivers, generating realistic driving profiles, and simulating energy consumption of different kinds of vehicles. The modeling proposed allows for evaluating the impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level. It can serve as a tool to compare different vehicle types and assist policy-makers in estimating their impact on primary energy consumption and the role transportation can play to reduce oil dependency. - Highlights: • Modeling primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States. • Behavior of drivers has been simulated in order to establish when driving events occur and the length of each event. • Realistic driving profiles for each driving event are generated using a stochastic model. • The model allows for comparing the initial cost of different vehicles and their expected energy-use operating cost. • Evaluation of the impact of PEVs on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level – can be performed

  20. Working group report on energy, transportation and recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.

    1991-01-01

    A working group was held to discuss the sensitivities of ecosystems and socio-economic activities relating to energy and recreation to climate change and variability, and the state and deficiencies of knowledge concerning these topics. It was concluded that the ecological integrity of national parks is at risk. Aggregate yields of fish in the Great Plains should improve with rising temperature, however extinction in southerly rivers is likely. Net reduction in hydro power generation appears probable due to decreased runoff and more frequent and severe drought. Total energy demand will be impacted by increased space cooling demands, up to 30% reduction in space heating demands, changing demands in agriculture for irrigation, water management and crop cultivation, and changing energy demands for road transport. Alternative strategies for displacement of fossil fuel use include low head hydro development, nuclear, wind energy, photovoltaics, ethanol from wood fibre, and hydrogen generated from surplus hydro power

  1. Resolving Rapid Variation in Energy for Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haut, Terry Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Ahrens, Cory Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Jonko, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Till, Andrew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division

    2016-08-23

    Resolving the rapid variation in energy in neutron and thermal radiation transport is needed for the predictive simulation capability in high-energy density physics applications. Energy variation is difficult to resolve due to rapid variations in cross sections and opacities caused by quantized energy levels in the nuclei and electron clouds. In recent work, we have developed a new technique to simultaneously capture slow and rapid variations in the opacities and the solution using homogenization theory, which is similar to multiband (MB) and to the finite-element with discontiguous support (FEDS) method, but does not require closure information. We demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the method for a variety of problems. We are researching how to extend the method to problems with multiple materials and the same material but with different temperatures and densities. In this highlight, we briefly describe homogenization theory and some results.

  2. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  3. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  4. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.

    2013-08-05

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  5. Technical characteristic analysis of wind energy conversion systems for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BoroumandJazi, G.; Rismanchi, B.; Saidur, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identifying the required technical characteristics of sustainable wind power system. ► Observing Weibull probability function and artificial neural networks for reliability. ► Daily/monthly generation data are used to investigate the system’s availability. - Abstract: Wind energy as a clean, environmentally friendly and cost effective renewable energy resource, is taken into consideration by many developed and developing countries as a promising means to provide electrical energy. In feasibility study stage of the wind energy systems, the sustainability analysis is one of the main issues that can assure the investors and stockholders to invest in this renewable energy. Since a system can be truly sustainable by achieving the energetic, ecological and economic sustainability, the present study will focus on the technical characteristics and performance analysis of the wind energy systems. The relations between reliability, availability, energy and exergy efficiency, risk management and the environmental impact of the wind energy systems are investigated in the context of this study. It is concluded that the wind characteristics data and the wind speed are the main effective parameters on its reliability and availability. It is also revealed that considering the system loss, exergy efficiency results of the wind energy systems are more reliable than the energy efficiencies. Due to avoid future failure of the systems, the causes of the failure are investigated and it was concluded that the structural failures caused by storms and strong winds are known as the most prevalent failures

  6. Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution: Transportation Means Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report serves as a background report for the project "Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution". It contains a systematic overview of physical characteristics of the typical technologies, including energy and environmental effects....

  7. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengming, Luo; Chengjun, Gou; Laub, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary charged particles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method we can not only accurately calculate the transport behavior of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transport behavior and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than the Monte Carlo method's. The theory can be directly applied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modeled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinical applications for radiation therapy

  8. A Review of Study on Thermal Energy Transport System by Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiusheng; Yabe, Akira; Kajiyama, Shiro; Fukuda, Katsuya

    The study on thermal energy transport system by synthesis and decomposition reactions of methanol was reviewed. To promote energy conservation and global environment protection, a two-step liquid-phase methanol synthesis process, which starts with carbonylation of methanol to methyl formate, then followed by the hydrogenolysis of the formate, was studied to recover wasted or unused discharged heat from industrial sources for the thermal energy demands of residential and commercial areas by chemical reactions. The research and development of the system were focused on the following three points. (1) Development of low-temperature decomposition and synthetic catalysts, (2) Development of liquid phase reactor (heat exchanger accompanying chemical reaction), (3) Simulation of the energy transport efficiency of entire system which contains heat recovery and supply sections. As the result of the development of catalyst, promising catalysts which agree with the development purposes for the methyl formate decomposition reaction and the synthetic reaction are being developed though some studies remain for the methanol decomposition and synthetic reactions. In the fundamental development of liquid phase reactor, the solubilities of CO and H2 gases in methanol and methyl formate were measured by the method of total pressure decrease due to absorption under pressures up to 1500kPa and temperatures up to 140°C. The diffusivity of CO gas in methanol was determined by measuring the diameter and solution time of single CO bubbles in methanol. The chemical reaction rate of methanol synthesis by hydrogenolysis of methyl formate was measured using a plate-type of Raney copper catalyst in a reactor with rectangular channel and in an autoclave reactor. The reaction characteristics were investigated by carrying out the experiments at various temperatures, flow rates and at various catalyst development conditions. We focused on the effect of Raney copper catalyst thickness on the liquid

  9. Effect of Transportation and Low Voltage Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality Characteristics of Omani Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam T. Kadim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of road transportation during the hot season (36 oC and low voltage electrical stimulation on meat quality characteristics of Omani sheep. Twenty intact male sheep (1-year old were divided into two equal groups: 3 hrs transported or non-transported. The transported group was transferred to the slaughterhouse the day of slaughter in an open truck covering a distance of approximately 300 km. The non-transported group was kept in a lairage of a commercial slaughterhouse with ad libitum feed and water for 3 days prior to slaughter. Blood samples were collected from the animals before loading and prior to slaughter in order to assess their physiological response to stress in terms of hormonal levels. Fifty percent of the carcasses from each group were randomly assigned to low voltage (90 V at 20 min postmortem. Muscle ultimate pH, expressed juice, cooking loss percentage, WB-shear force value, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and colour L*, a*, b* were measured on samples from Longissimus dorsi muscles collected 24 hrs postmortem at 2-4 oC. The transported sheep had significantly (P<0.05 higher cortisol adrenaline, nor-adrenaline, and dopamine levels than the non-transported group. Muscles from electrically-stimulated carcasses had significantly (P<0.05 lower pH values, longer sarcomere length, lower shear force value, higher expressed juice, myofibrillar fragmentation index and L* values than those from non-stimulated ones. Transportation significantly influenced meat quality characteristics of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. Muscle ultimate pH and shear force values were significantly higher, while CIE L*, a*, b*, expressed juice and cooking loss were lower in transported than non-transported sheep. This study indicated that pre-slaughter transportation at high ambient temperatures can cause noticeable changes in muscle physiology in sheep. Nevertheless, meat quality of transported

  10. Overview of development and design of MPACT: Michigan parallel characteristics transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochunas, B.; Collins, B.; Jabaay, D.; Downar, T. J.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    MPACT (Michigan Parallel Characteristics Transport Code) is a new reactor analysis tool. It is being developed by students and research staff at the University of Michigan to be used for an advanced pin-resolved transport capability within VERA (Virtual Environment for Reactor Analysis). VERA is the end-user reactor simulation tool being produced by the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The MPACT development project is itself unique for the way it is changing how students do research to achieve the instructional and research goals of an academic institution, while providing immediate value to industry. The MPACT code makes use of modern lean/agile software processes and extensive testing to maintain a level of productivity and quality required by CASL. MPACT's design relies heavily on object-oriented programming concepts and design patterns and is programmed in Fortran 2003. These designs are explained and illustrated as to how they can be readily extended to incorporate new capabilities and research ideas in support of academic research objectives. The transport methods currently implemented in MPACT include the 2-D and 3-D method of characteristics (MOC) and 2-D and 3-D method of collision direction probabilities (CDP). For the cross section resonance treatment, presently the subgroup method and the new embedded self-shielding method (ESSM) are implemented within MPACT. (authors)

  11. Verification & Validation of High-Order Short-Characteristics-Based Deterministic Transport Methodology on Unstructured Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Yousry; Wang, Yaqi

    2013-01-01

    The research team has developed a practical, high-order, discrete-ordinates, short characteristics neutron transport code for three-dimensional configurations represented on unstructured tetrahedral grids that can be used for realistic reactor physics applications at both the assembly and core levels. This project will perform a comprehensive verification and validation of this new computational tool against both a continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. MCNP) and experimentally measured data, an essential prerequisite for its deployment in reactor core modeling. Verification is divided into three phases. The team will first conduct spatial mesh and expansion order refinement studies to monitor convergence of the numerical solution to reference solutions. This is quantified by convergence rates that are based on integral error norms computed from the cell-by-cell difference between the code's numerical solution and its reference counterpart. The latter is either analytic or very fine- mesh numerical solutions from independent computational tools. For the second phase, the team will create a suite of code-independent benchmark configurations to enable testing the theoretical order of accuracy of any particular discretization of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. For each tested case (i.e. mesh and spatial approximation order), researchers will execute the code and compare the resulting numerical solution to the exact solution on a per cell basis to determine the distribution of the numerical error. The final activity comprises a comparison to continuous-energy Monte Carlo solutions for zero-power critical configuration measurements at Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Results of this comparison will allow the investigators to distinguish between modeling errors and the above-listed discretization errors introduced by the deterministic method, and to separate the sources of uncertainty.

  12. Development Characteristics of Velocity Transports in An Isothermal Heated Drag-Reducing Surfactant Solution Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Dezhong; Chen, Hanping; Wang, Yanping

    2007-06-01

    The development characteristics, turbulence transports for stresses and kinetic energy of a cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactant solution for a two-dimensional channel flow have been experimentally investigated. Time mean velocity and fluctuating velocity are measured using a Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) at the Reynolds number 1.78×104 and isothermal heated temperature 31°C. Although mean velocity profiles at three cross sections show that the fluid is almost fully developed, the peak location of fluctuating intensity for the CTAC solution is slightly away from the wall downstream from the fluid and the peak location of fluctuating intensity is observed at far away from the wall than that of water. The location where the velocity gradient has its maximum, the fluctuating intensity does not get the high value. The elastic shear stress contribution to the total shear stress is 15 percents to 36 percents and it gets to the maximum near to the wall. The surfactant elastic shear stress is almost a liner function of the height of the channel, which means that the elastic stress contribution of the different cross locations is approximately the same. The fluctuating surfactant stress work is negative and the fluctuating elastic shear stresses produce rather than dissipate kinetic energy.

  13. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Daijiro, E-mail: daijiro.nozaki@gmail.com, E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Kunstmann, Jens [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zörgiebel, Felix [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Cuniberti, Gianaurelio [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science (DCCMS), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  14. Energy and particle core transport in tokamaks and stellarators compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, Marc; Angioni, Clemente; Beidler, Craig; Dinklage, Andreas; Fuchert, Golo; Hirsch, Matthias; Puetterich, Thomas; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald/Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses expectations for core transport in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) and presents a comparison to tokamaks. In tokamaks, the neoclassical trapped-particle-driven losses are small and turbulence dominates the energy and particle transport. At reactor relevant low collisionality, the heat transport is limited by ion temperature gradient limited turbulence, clamping the temperature gradient. The particle transport is set by an anomalous inward pinch, yielding peaked profiles. A strong edge pedestal adds to the good confinement properties. In traditional stellarators the 3D geometry cause increased trapped orbit losses. At reactor relevant low collisionality and high temperatures, these neoclassical losses would be well above the turbulent transport losses. The W7-X design minimizes neoclassical losses and turbulent transport can become dominant. Moreover, the separation of regions of bad curvature and that of trapped particle orbits in W7-X may have favourable implications on the turbulent electron heat transport. The neoclassical particle thermodiffusion is outward. Without core particle sources the density profile is flat or even hollow. The presence of a turbulence driven inward anomalous particle pinch in W7-X (like in tokamaks) is an open topic of research.

  15. Technical advances and energy substitutions in the transportation sector; Progres techniques et substitutions energetiques dans le secteur des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromenschlager-Philippe, F.

    2002-11-01

    Alternative motorization technologies have been proposed in order to achieve energy diversification and a reduction in pollutant emissions. Fuel cell vehicles are, among others, at the centre of research carried out by car manufacturers and oil companies. The use of fuel cell vehicles could contribute, first to a less stringent long-term energy dependence of oil importing countries and, second, to pollutant reduction in the transport sector. First of all, we propose the definition of 'innovation' and its treatment in the frame of mainstream economic theories. Then we proceed to a retrospective analysis of diesel motorization of the car market. In the second part of our work, we conduct a survey among French households aiming to obtain up-to-date information about their degree of acceptance of fuel cell technology. We are concerned about highlighting the determining factors of fuel cell vehicle adoption by consumers. For this, we set up a discrete choice model linking the individual decision to the whole group of technical or socio-economical factors and characteristics. Finally, we develop patterns of fuel cell equipment of passenger cars which differ according to type of vehicle and possible purchase assistance. These patterns lead us to the analysis of long-term fuel cell vehicle development on the French car market. (authors)

  16. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  17. Continuous energy Neutron Transport Monte Carlo Simulator Project: Decomposition of the neutron energy spectrum by target nuclei tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos, Luiz Felipe F.C.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T.M.B., E-mail: luizfelipe.fcb@gmail.com, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos Nucleares; Leite, Sergio Q. Bogado, E-mail: sbogado@ibest.com.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work a Monte Carlo simulator with continuous energy is used. This simulator distinguishes itself by using the sum of three probability distributions to represent the neutron spectrum. Two distributions have known shape, but have varying population of neutrons in time, and these are the fission neutron spectrum (for high energy neutrons) and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (for thermal neutrons). The third distribution has an a priori unknown and possibly variable shape with time and is determined from parametrizations of Monte Carlo simulation. It is common practice in neutron transport calculations, e.g. multi-group transport, to consider that the neutrons only lose energy with each scattering reaction and then to use a thermal group with a Maxwellian distribution. Such an approximation is valid due to the fact that for fast neutrons up-scattering occurrence is irrelevant, being only appreciable at low energies, i.e. in the thermal energy region, in which it can be regarded as a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for thermal equilibrium. In this work the possible neutron-matter interactions are simulated with exception of the up-scattering of neutrons. In order to preserve the thermal spectrum, neutrons are selected stochastically as being part of the thermal population and have an energy attributed to them taken from a Maxwellian distribution. It is then shown how this procedure can emulate the up-scattering effect by the increase in the neutron population kinetic energy. Since the simulator uses tags to identify the reactions it is possible not only to plot the distributions by neutron energy, but also by the type of interaction with matter and with the identification of the target nuclei involved in the process. This work contains some preliminary results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulator for neutron transport that is being developed at Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. (author)

  18. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.

    2014-01-01

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10 −10  A) and rectification of more than 10 6 . We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69 eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83 eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Güttler

  19. Transport characteristics of a silicene nanoribbon on Ag(110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the transport characteristics of individual silicene nanoribbons (SiNRs grown on Ag(110. By lifting up a single SiNR with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope tip, a nanojunction consisting of tip, SiNR and Ag is fabricated. In the differential conductance spectra of the nanojunctions fabricated by this methodology, a peak appears at the Fermi level which is not observed in the spectra measured either for the SiNRs before being lifted up or the clean Ag substrate. We discuss the origin of the peak as it relates to the SiNR.

  20. Characteristics of Aerosol Transport from Asia to the West Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C. A.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lack, D. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Meinardi, S.; Nowak, J. B.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Trainer, M.; Trytko, J.; Warneke, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the CalNex field program of May and June 2010, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observed several layers of enhanced trace gas mixing ratios and aerosol concentrations at altitudes ranging from 1 to 4 km over southern and central California. The submicron aerosol composition within these layers was dominated by partially neutralized sulfate, while nitrate, organic matter and black carbon were only minor constituents. The particle layers were associated with trace gases, such as benzene and sulfur dioxide, consistent with anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions, and were not associated with enhancements of the biomass burning tracer acetonitrile. The particle size distribution was dominated by a single accumulation mode that is characteristic of a well aged aerosol. Transport modeling indicates an Asian source for these layers of pollution. Dew point temperatures within the layers were less than -15 degrees Celsius, indicating desiccation by precipitation during transport. Taken together, these observations are consistent with those from earlier studies in which was diagnosed the removal of primary and organic particles by precipitation scavenging during uplift from the polluted Asian boundary layer into the free troposphere. Oxidation of residual sulfur dioxide that remained following transport through the cloud system may have resulted in the observed sulfate-rich aerosol. The repeated observation of such layers suggests that wet scavenging frequently modifies the chemical and optical characteristics of aerosols emitted in urban regions in Asia and transported in the free troposphere across the Pacific.

  1. Transport Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Technology: Transmission Performance and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport of the wireless signals over a predominantly digital optical network in today’s telecommunication infrastructure. Many different approaches have been introduced and demonstrated with digitized RF transport of the wireless signals being the most compatible with the existing optical fiber networks. In this paper, we review our work in the area of digitized RF transport to address the inherent issues related to analog transport in the fiber-wireless links and compare the transmission performance and energy efficiency with the other transport strategies.

  2. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: 2. Speed and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects Inc and Supersonic Tubevehicle LLC, 200 Violet St, Suite 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The central concept of a new idea in high-speed transport is that operation of a vehicle in a hydrogen atmosphere, because of the low density of hydrogen, would increase sonic speed by a factor of 3.8 and decrease drag by 15 relative to air. A hydrogen atmosphere requires that the vehicle operate within a hydrogen-filled tube or pipeline, which serves as a phase separator. The supersonic tube vehicle (STV) can be supersonic with respect to air outside the tube while remaining subsonic inside. It breathes hydrogen fuel for its propulsion fuel cells from the tube itself. This paper, second in a series on the scientific foundations of the supersonic tube vehicle, tests the hypothesis that the STV will be simultaneously fast and energy efficient by comparing its predicted speed and energy consumption with that of four long-haul passenger transport modes: road, rail, maglev, and air. The study establishes the speed ranking STV >> airplane > maglev > train > coach (intercity bus) and the normalized energy consumption ranking Airplane >> coach > maglev > train > STV. Consistent with the hypothesis, the concept vehicle is both the fastest and lowest energy consuming mode. In theory, the vehicle can cruise at Mach 2.8 while consuming less than half the energy per passenger of a Boeing 747 at a cruise speed of Mach 0.81. (author)

  3. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: Energy and Transportation, Grade 3. Draft Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    This publication is part of a series of instructional units produced by NSTA's Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum. This unit presents the variety of transportation modes and tries to assist students in understanding the effects of transportation on their world. The main concern of the unit is with fossil fuel consumption. The seven…

  4. The importance of anisotropic scattering in high energy neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prillinger, G.; Mattes, M.

    1984-01-01

    To describe the highly anisotropic scattering of very fast neutrons adequately the transport code ANISN has been improved. Fokker-Planck terms have been introduced into the transport equation which accurately describe the small changes in energy and angle. The new code has been tested for a d(50)-Be neutron source in a deep penetration iron problem. The influence of the forward peaked elastic scattering on the fast neutron spectrum is shown to be significant and can be handled efficiently in the new ANISN version. Since common cross-section libraries are limited by Legendre expansion, or by their upper energy boundary, or exclude elastic scattering above 20 MeV a special library has been created. (Auth.)

  5. Transport of radioactive material in the United States: results of a survey to determine the magnitude and characteristics of domestic, unclassified shipments of radioactive materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javitz, H.S.; Lyman, T.R.; Maxwell, C.; Myers, E.L.; Thompson, C.R.

    1985-04-01

    SRI International has completed a project for the Sandia National Laboratories designed to create a statistical data base identifying the volume and characteristics of shipments of unclassified radioactive materials (RAM)* in the continental United States. Agencies providing resources for this project have included: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Department of Transportation (DOT) Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Technical management of the project was the responsibility of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) of Sandia National Laboratories. This report is intended only as a brief summary of a project having as its primary product the Radioactive Materials Transportation (RAMT) survey data base provided by SRI to TTC. The data in the RAMT data base comes from two principal sources - a survey of NRC and Agreement State licensees (referred to as the Licensee survey) and a survey of DOE contractors (referred to as the DOE survey). This report provides summary information on: project background; objectives; approach; survey response; basic tables and discussion of shipment characteristics; and technical appendices. 21 figs., 15 tabs

  6. US Department of Energy transportation programs: computerized techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently sponsoring the development of four specialized computer-based transportation programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The programs function as research tools that provide unique computerized techniques for planning the safe shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials. Major achievements include the development of interactive rail and highway routing models, an emergency response assistance program, a data base focusing on legislative requirements, and a resource file identifying key state and local contacts. A discussion of the programs and data bases is presented, and several examples reflecting each project's applications to the overall DOE transportation program are provided. The interface of these programs offers a dynamic resource of data for use during preshipment planning stages. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector-A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi [Economics Department, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Sadeghi@isu.ac.ir; Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mirshojaeian@ut.ac.ir

    2008-02-15

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of 'Reference Energy System (RES)' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon.

  8. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector - A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi [Economics Department, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran (Iran); Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-02-15

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of ''Reference Energy System (RES)'' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon. (author)

  9. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector-A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of 'Reference Energy System (RES)' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon

  10. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  11. Design features and operational characteristics of the PEP beam-transport and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Brown, K.L.; Truher, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    The PEP beam-transport system was designed to transmit 4-to-15 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac within a +- 0.8% momentum band, to have flexible tuning of the betatron and off-momentum functions for matching into the PEP storage ring, and to have convenient operating characteristics. The transport lines were brought into operation quickly and have operated well. Electron injection has been consistent and efficient and relatively easy to accomplish. Positron injection also has been satisfactory but is variable and more sensitive to ring conditions

  12. A Hierarchy of Transport Approximations for High Energy Heavy (HZE) Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Hamidullah, Farhat; Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of high energy heavy (HZE) ions through bulk materials is studied neglecting energy dependence of the nuclear cross sections. A three term perturbation expansion appears to be adequate for most practical applications for which penetration depths are less than 30 g per sq cm of material. The differential energy flux is found for monoenergetic beams and for realistic ion beam spectral distributions. An approximate formalism is given to estimate higher-order terms.

  13. Texas transportation planning for future renewable energy projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    There will be a significant increase in the number of renewable energy production facilities in Texas. The : construction of wind farms requires the transport of wind turbine components that create increased loads on : rural roads and bridges. These ...

  14. Analysis of the ion energy transport in ohmic discharges in the ASDEX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmet, E.E.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Herrmann, W.; Stroth, U.

    1996-10-01

    An analysis of the local ion energy transport is performed for more than one hundred well documented ohmic ASDEX discharges. These are characterized by three different confinement regimes: the linear ohmic confinement (LOC), the saturated ohmic confinement (SOC) and the improved ohmic confinement (IOC). All three are covered by this study. To identify the most important local transport mechanism of the ion heat, the ion power balance equation is analyzed. Two methods are used: straightforward calculation with experimental data only, and a comparison of measured and calculated profiles of the ion temperature and the ion heat conductivity, respectively. A discussion of the power balance shows that conductive losses dominate the ion energy transport in all ohmic discharges of ASDEX. Only inside the q=1-surface losses due to sawtooth activity play a role, while at the edge convective fluxes and CX-losses influence the ion energy transport. Both methods lead to the result that both the ion temperature and the ion heat conductivity are consistent with predictions of the neoclassical theory. Enhanced heat losses as suggested by theories eg. on the basis of η i modes can be excluded. (orig.)

  15. The energy distribution structure and dynamic characteristics of energy release in electrostatic discharge process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingming; Shao, Huige; Zhang, Yunming

    2015-01-01

    The detail structure of energy output and the dynamic characteristics of electric spark discharge process have been studied to calculate the energy of electric spark induced plasma under different discharge condition accurately. A series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor stored energy in the range of 10J 100J and 1000J respectively. And the resistance of wire, switch and plasma between electrodes were evaluated by different methods. An optimized method ...

  16. Transport Gap and exciton binding energy determination in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Stefan; Schoell, Achim; Reinert, Friedrich; Umbach, Eberhard [University of Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimental Physics II; Casu, Benedetta [Inst. f. Physik. u. Theor. Chemie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The transport gap of an organic semiconductor is defined as the energy difference between the HOMO and LUMO levels in the presence of a hole or electron, respectively, after relaxation has occurred. Its knowledge is mandatory for the optimisation of electronic devices based on these materials. UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES) are routinely applied to measure these molecular levels. However, the precise determination of the transport gap on the basis of the respective data is not an easy task. It involves fundamental questions about the properties of organic molecules and their condensates, about their reaction on the experimental probe, and on the evaluation of the spectroscopic data. In particular electronic relaxation processes, which occur on the time scale of the photo excitation, have to be considered adequately. We determined the transport gap for the organic semiconductors PTCDA, Alq3, DIP, CuPc, and PBI-H4. After careful data analysis and comparison to the respective values for the optical gap we obtain values for the exciton binding energies between 0.1-0.5 eV. This is considerably smaller than commonly believed and indicates a significant delocalisation of the excitonic charge over various molecular units.

  17. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  18. Laser field effects on the transport phenomena: Energy loss and stopping power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Silva, H.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    The energy loss method has been applied to a large variety of transport problems in optics, solid-state and fusion research. In these papers, however, the transport equations were linearized, so there are no multiphoton interaction. On the other hand, Bivona et al. (1982) [2] have shown that, for a one-component plasma, the strong field effects would be only of academic interest. On the basis of the center of mass approach [3], a generalization of the energy loss rate which is in accordance with the recent results of Arista et al. (1989) [4] is obtained. (Author)

  19. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  20. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  1. Zero energy reactor RB technical characteristics and experimental possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, S; Takac, S; Raisic, N; Lolic, B; Markovic, H [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1963-04-15

    The zero energy reactor RB was constructed in 1958 in accordance with the nuclear reactor development programme of the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences. The reactor was in operation until the middle of 1959 when the heavy water, serving as the moderator, was transported to the high flux reactor RA, built at the same time at the Boris Kidric Institute. Owing to the fact that the purchase of new quantities of heavy water was planned for 1961 it was decided to reconstruct the RB reactor in order to improve the safety of the system and to obtain better flexibility in performing the experiments. New control, safety and radiation monitoring systems were constructed. Some changes were also made on the reactor tank, water circulation system and the water level monitoring equipment. The reconstruction was completed in 1961. and the heavy water was delivered early in 1962. The reconstructed reactor was critical for the first time in summer 1962, and from that time was in continuous operation. This report presents an outline of the design and construction characteristics of the reactor. The main intention is to inform potential users of the reactor about experimental possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of such a critical facility.

  2. Zero energy reactor RB technical characteristics and experimental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Takac, S.; Raisic, N.; Lolic, B.; Markovic, H.

    1963-04-01

    The zero energy reactor RB was constructed in 1958 in accordance with the nuclear reactor development programme of the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences. The reactor was in operation until the middle of 1959 when the heavy water, serving as the moderator, was transported to the high flux reactor RA, built at the same time at the Boris Kidric Institute. Owing to the fact that the purchase of new quantities of heavy water was planned for 1961 it was decided to reconstruct the RB reactor in order to improve the safety of the system and to obtain better flexibility in performing the experiments. New control, safety and radiation monitoring systems were constructed. Some changes were also made on the reactor tank, water circulation system and the water level monitoring equipment. The reconstruction was completed in 1961. and the heavy water was delivered early in 1962. The reconstructed reactor was critical for the first time in summer 1962, and from that time was in continuous operation. This report presents an outline of the design and construction characteristics of the reactor. The main intention is to inform potential users of the reactor about experimental possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of such a critical facility

  3. Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaojun; Chang, Shiyan; Li, Jingjie; Qin, Yining [Institute of Energy and Environmental Economics, Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the initiatives launched in energy supply and consumption and the challenges encountered in sustainable road transportation development in China. It analyzes the main energy challenges related to road transportation development arising in the context of economic development, rapid urbanization, and improvement in living standards. It also discusses technological- and policy initiatives needed to deal with these challenges, drawing comparisons with foreign experience: promoting the development and dissemination of alternative fuels and clean vehicles such as: LPG, CNG, EV, HEV, FCV, ethanol, methanol, DME, bio-diesel, and CTL, strengthening regulations relating to vehicle fuel economy and emission, improving traffic efficiency and facilitating public transport development, and strengthening management of the soaring motor vehicle population. If the current pattern continues, by the year 2030, the vehicle population in China will be 400 million and fuel demand will be 350 million tons. The potential energy saving capacity being 60%, the actual oil demand by 2030 from on-road vehicles might technically be kept at the current level by improving fuel economy, propagating use of HEV and diesel vehicles, improving supply of alternative fuels, and developing public transport. Several uncertainties are identified that could greatly influence the effect of the technical proposals: traffic efficiency, central government's resolve, and consumers' choice. (author)

  4. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delferriere, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-01-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D + extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D + ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H + beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements

  5. Evaluation of Losses Of Cold Energy of Cryogen Products in The Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglanov, Dmitry; Sarmin, Dmitry; Tsapkova, Alexandra; Burdina, Yana

    2017-12-01

    At present, there are problems of energy saving in various areas of human life and in power complexes of industrial plants. One possible solution to the problem of increasing energy efficiency is the use of liquefied natural gas and its cold energy. Pipelines for fuel or gas supply in cryogen supply systems have different length depending on the mutual position of storage and cryogen consumption devices relatively to a start construction. Cryogen supply and transport systems include a lot of fittings of different assortment. Reservoirs can be installed on different elevation points. To reduce heat inleak and decrease cold energy of cryogen product different kinds of thermal insulation are used. Cryogen pipelines provide required operation conditions of storage and gasifying systems. The aim of the thermal calculation of cryogen transport and supply systems is to define the value of cryogen heat. In this paper it is shown values of cryogen temperature rise due to heat inleaks at cryogen’s transfer along transport systems for ethane, methane, oxygen and nitrogen were calculated. Heat inleaks also due to hydraulic losses were calculated. Specific losses of cold energy of cryogen product for laminar and turbulent flow were calculated. Correspondences of temperature rise, critical pipeline’s length and Reynolds number were defined for nitrogen, argon, methane and oxygen.

  6. Identification of zonal flows and their characteristics on transport barrier in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.; Ohshima, S.; Iguchi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Minami, T.; Itoh, K.; Isobe, M.; Suzuki, C.; Nishimura, S.; Akiyama, T.; Nagaoka, K.; Takahashi, C.; Ida, K.; Toi, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Diamond, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Relation between turbulence and electric field has been one of the central issues related to the transport physics of toroidal plasmas. Recently, zonal flow, axi-symmetric band-like structure (m=n=0) with a finite radial wavelength, has just come up the third element responsible for the plasma transport. Theories and simulations have expected that the zonal flow should be a mechanism to control the saturation level of turbulence and the resultant transport. In CHS, dual heavy ion beam probes (HIBP) succeeded to prove the presence of the zonal flow and to show the dynamics and structure of the zonal flows. The experiment shows a long-distance correlation between radial electric field (or plasma flow) in low frequency range (< ∼1 kHz), together with radial structure of the zonal flow; characteristic radial length of ∼1.5 cm and life time of ∼1.5 ms. Different characteristics of the zonal flow and turbulence was found in states with and without a transport barrier; the zonal flow activity shrinks with an increase in turbulence level after the barrier breaks down. The recent HIBP experiments have just provided further insight into the system of zonal flow and turbulence. A wavelet analysis is performed on the fluctuation on the barrier position in the state with the transport barrier. The analysis reveals a causal relationship between the zonal flow evolution and turbulence level; the zonal flow is found to increase toward the mean flow direction as turbulence level decreases in the frequency range of 100-150kHz. The observation shows the presence of a nonlinear interaction between zonal flow and the turbulence, or a process of the zonal flow to affect the turbulence level. This paper presents surveys on zonal flow, particularly the recent experiments to demonstrate a causal relationship between zonal flow component and turbulence. Besides, other results obtained with a wavelet analysis are presented on the transport barrier; e.g., density and potential

  7. Creating prospective value chains for renewable road transport energy sources up to 2050 in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessberg, Nina; Leinonen, Anna; Tuominen, Anu

    2013-01-01

    If the Nordic energy and transport sectors are to meet the 2050 energy and climate policy targets, major systemic changes are necessary. Along with new technologies, changes are required also in other societal functions such as business models and consumer habits. The transition requires...... cooperation between public and private actors. This paper discusses the paradigm change towards 2050 Nordic road transport system based on renewable energy. More precisely, it proposes an approach for creation and analysis of prospective value networks up to the year 2050. The value networks arise from three...... application with a set of practical tools to support development of implementation strategies and policy programmes in the fields of energy and transport....

  8. THE CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY RECOVERY ELECTRIFIED URBAN TRANSPORT DURING THE INSTALLATION DRIVE FOR TRACTION SUBSTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sulim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a great attention is paid to increasing of energy efficiency at operated electrified urban transport. Perspective direction for increasing energy efficiency at that type of transport is the application of regenerative braking. For additional increasing of energy efficiency there were suggested the use of capacitive drive on tires of traction substation. One of the main task is the analysis of energy recovery application  with drive and without it.These analysis demonstrated that the calculation algorithms don’t allow in the full volume to carry out calculations of amount and cost of energy recovery without drive and with it. That is why we see the current interest to this topic. The purpose of work is to create methods of algorithms calculation for definite amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport due to definite regime of motion on wayside. There is algorithm developed, which allow to calculate amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport on wayside during the installation capacitive drive at traction substation. On the basis of developed algorithm for the definite regime of wagon motion of subway there were fulfilled the example of energy recovery amount and its cost calculation, among them with limited energy intensity drive, when there are 4 trains on wayside simultaneously.

  9. Evaluation of alternatives for a second-generation transportation system for Department of Energy transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) waste storage sites will ship their contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning FY 1989. The CH-TRU waste will be shipped in the Transuranic Package Transported (TRUPACT-I), a new packaging being developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque/Transportation Technology Center. Some of the DOE TRU waste, however, might be unsuitable for shipment in TRUPACT-I, and is designated special-shipped (SS) TRU waste. The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the quantity and characteristics of SS-TRU waste stored and generated at DOE facilities; (2) identify alternatives for managing the SS-TRU waste; and (3) make overall recommendations for managing the SS-TRU waste. Data on quantity and characteristics were gathered through coordinating visits to the sites and extracting information from each site's records. Representatives of DOE organizations and contractors set objectives for managing the SS-TRU waste. Alternative shipping systems were then identified for CH SS-TRU waste and RH SS-TRU waste. Evaluations of these alternatives considered how well they would satisfy each objective, and associated potential problems. The study recommends delaying the decision on how best to transport the CH SS-TRU waste to WIPP until the amount of SS-TRU processed waste in heavy drums is known. These conditions and choices are presented: a relatively small number of processed, heavy drums could be shipped most economically via TRUPACT-I, mixed with lighter drums of unprocessed waste. If a large number of heavy drums is to be shipped, a shorter and narrower version of TRUPACT-I would be preferred alternative. The Defense High-Level Waste cask is the recommended alternative system for shipping RH SS-TRU waste. 12 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  10. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  11. An investigation of fission models for high-energy radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.W.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Neef, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    An investigation of high-energy fission models for use in the HETC code has been made. The validation work has been directed checking the accuracy of the high-energy radiation transport computer code HETC to investigate the appropriate model for routine calculations, particularly for spallation neutron source applications. Model calculations are given in terms of neutron production, fission fragment energy release, and residual nuclei production for high-energy protons incident on thin uranium targets. The effect of the fission models on neutron production from thick uranium targets is also shown. (orig.)

  12. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  13. Energy budgets and resistances to energy transport in sparsely vegetated rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning available energy between plants and bare soil in sparsely vegetated rangelands will allow hydrologists and others to gain a greater understanding of water use by native vegetation, especially phreatophytes. Standard methods of conducting energy budget studies result in measurements of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the plant canopy which therefore include the energy fluxes from both the canopy and the soil. One-dimensional theoretical numerical models have been proposed recently for the partitioning of energy in sparse crops. Bowen ratio and other micrometeorological data collected over phreatophytes growing in areas of shallow ground water in central Nevada were used to evaluate the feasibility of using these models, which are based on surface and within-canopy aerodynamic resistances, to determine heat and water vapor transport in sparsely vegetated rangelands. The models appear to provide reasonably good estimates of sensible heat flux from the soil and latent heat flux from the canopy. Estimates of latent heat flux from the soil were less satisfactory. Sensible heat flux from the canopy was not well predicted by the present resistance formulations. Also, estimates of total above-canopy fluxes were not satisfactory when using a single value for above-canopy bulk aerodynamic resistance. ?? 1992.

  14. Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrgott, Matthias [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science; Naujoks, Boris [Login GmbH, Schwelm (Germany).; Stewart, Theodor J. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Statistical Sciences; Wallenius, Jyrki (eds.) [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Dept. of Business Technology

    2010-07-01

    In the twenty-first century the sustainability of energy and transportation systems is on the top of the political agenda in many countries around the world and governments are establishing policies towards a sustainable, low emissions energy future. Environmental impacts of human economic activity necessitate the consideration of conflicting goals in decision making processes to develop sustainable systems. Any sustainable development has to reconcile conflicting economic and environmental objectives and criteria. The science of multiple criteria decision making has a lot to offer in addressing this need. Decision making with multiple (conflicting) criteria is the topic of research that is at the heart of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making. This book is based on selected papers presented at the societies 19th International Conference, held at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 7th to 12th January 2008 under the theme ''MCDM for Sustainable Energy and Transportation Systems''. (orig.)