WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy transmission applications

  1. Wireless data transmission for high energy physics applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmeier Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The WADAPT group (Wireless Allowing Data and Power Transmission has been formed to study the feasibility of wireless data transmission for future tracking detectors. These proceedings cover current developments focused on communication in the 60 GHz band. This frequency band offers a high bandwidth, a small form factor and an already mature technology. Motivation for wireless data transmission for high energy physics application and the developments towards a demonstrator prototype are summarized. Feasibility studies concerning the construction and operation of a wireless transceiver system have been performed. Data transmission tests with a transceiver prototype operating at even higher frequencies in the 240 GHz band are described. Data transmission at rates up to 10 Gb/s have been obtained successfully using binary phase shift keying.

  2. Wireless energy transmission to supplement energy harvesters in sensor network applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Stuart G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for coupling wireless energy transmission with traditional energy harvesting techniques in order to power sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications. The goal of this study is to develop a system that can be permanently embedded within civil structures without the need for on-board power sources. Wireless energy transmission is included to supplement energy harvesting techniques that rely on ambient or environmental, energy sources. This approach combines several transducer types that harvest ambient energy with wireless transmission sources, providing a robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Experimental results from laboratory and field experiments are presented to address duty cycle limitations of conventional energy harvesting techniques, and the advantages gained by incorporating a wireless energy transmission subsystem. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  3. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  4. Wireless data transmission for high energy physics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Brenner, Richard; Dancila, Dragos; Dehos, Cedric; De Lurgio, Patrick; Djurcic, Zelimir; Drake, Gary; Gonzalez Gimenez, Jose Luis; Gustafsson, Leif; Kim, Do-Won; Locci, Elizabeth; Pfeiffer, Ullrich; Röhrich, Dieter; Rydberg, Anders; Schöning, André; Siligaris, Alexandre; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Ullaland, Kjetil; Vincent, Pierre; Rodriguez Vazquez, Pedro; Wiedner, Dirk; Yang, Shiming

    2017-08-01

    Silicon tracking detectors operated at high luminosity collider experiments pose a challenge for current and future readout systems regarding bandwidth, radiation, space and power constraints. With the latest developments in wireless communications, wireless readout systems might be an attractive alternative to commonly used wired optical and copper based readout architectures. The WADAPT group (Wireless Allowing Data and Power Transmission) has been formed to study the feasibility of wireless data transmission for future tracking detectors. These proceedings cover current developments focused on communication in the 60 GHz band. This frequency band offers a high bandwidth, a small form factor and an already mature technology. Motivation for wireless data transmission for high energy physics application and the developments towards a demonstrator prototype are summarized. Feasibility studies concerning the construction and operation of a wireless transceiver system have been performed. Data transmission tests with a transceiver prototype operating at even higher frequencies in the 240 GHz band are described. Data transmission at rates up to 10 Gb/s have been obtained successfully using binary phase shift keying.

  5. Wireless data transmission for high energy physics applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Brenner, Richard; Dancila, Dragos; Gustafsson, Leif; Rydberg, Anders; Yang, Shiming

    2017-01-01

    Silicon tracking detectors operated at high luminosity collider experiments pose a challenge for current and future readout systems regarding bandwidth, radiation, space and power constraints. With the latest developments in wireless communications, wireless readout systems might be an attractive alternative to commonly used wired optical and copper based readout architectures. The WADAPT group (Wireless Allowing Data and Power Transmission) has been formed to study the feasibility of wire...

  6. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  7. Electron energy loss spectroscopy microanalysis and imaging in the transmission electron microscope: example of biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diociaiuti, Marco

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports original results obtained in our laboratory over the past few years in the application of both electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopy imaging (ESI) to biological samples, performed in two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) equipped with high-resolution electron filters and spectrometers: a Gatan model 607 single magnetic sector double focusing EEL serial spectrometer attached to a Philips 430 TEM and a Zeiss EM902 Energy Filtering TEM. The primary interest was on the possibility offered by the combined application of these spectroscopic techniques with those offered by the TEM. In particular, the electron beam focusing available in a TEM allowed us to perform EELS and ESI on very small sample volumes, where high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction techniques can provide important structural information. I show that ESI was able to improve TEM performance, due to the reduced chromatic aberration and the possibility of avoiding the sample staining procedure. Finally, the analysis of the oscillating extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS) beyond the ionization edges characterizing the EELS spectra allowed me, in a manner very similar to the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the X-ray absorption spectra, to obtain short-range structural information for such light elements of biological interest as O or Fe. The Philips EM430 (250-300 keV) TEM was used to perform EELS microanalysis on Ca, P, O, Fe, Al and Si. The assessment of the detection limits of this method was obtained working with well-characterized samples containing Ca and P, and mimicking the actual cellular matrix. I applied EELS microanalysis to Ca detection in bone tissue during the mineralization process and to P detection in the cellular membrane of erythrocytes treated with an anti-tumoral drug, demonstrating that the cellular membrane is a drug target. I applied EELS microanalysis and selected area electron

  8. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  9. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%, which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  10. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Wong, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications. (paper)

  11. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  12. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors for Superconducting Magnets and Power Transmission Lines in High Energy Physics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081689; Bajko, Marta

    In the framework of the Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL - LHC), a remarkable R&D effort is now ongoing at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in order to develop a new generation of accelerator magnets and superconducting power transmission lines. The magnet technology will be based on Nb$_{3}$Sn enabling to operate in the 11 - 13 T range. In parallel, in order to preserve the power converters from the increasing radiation level, high power transmission lines are foreseen to feed the magnets from free - radiation zones. These will be based on high temperature superconductors cooled down with helium gas in the range 5 - 30 K. The new technologies will require advanced design and fabrication approaches as well as adapted instrumentation for monitoring both the R&D phase and operation. Resistive sensors have been used so far for voltage, temperature and strain monitoring but their integration still suffers from the number of electrical wires and the complex compensat...

  13. Wireless transmission: state of research, applications, trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century Nikola Tesla started his work in the field of wireless energy transmission. More than 100 years after Tesla, the progress in modern semiconductor technology offer developers the possibility to realize highly efficient systems and have led to a revival of wireless energy transmission. The application ranges from the transmission of a few milliwatts in biomedical applications, over a few watts for the charging of mobile phones, to hundreds of kilowatts in the automotive sector. Depending on the used method, the possible transmission distances vary between a few centimeters up to thousands of kilometers. The physical basis of these technologies is the transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves. State-of-the-art systems use wavelengths ranging from radio waves to microwaves, to ultraviolet light. Current research focuses on optimizing transmission efficiency, increasing the possible transmission distance between transmitter and receiver, and improving spatial freedom of movement. This lecture gives an overview of the different approaches of wireless energy transmission and their physical background, the established industrial standards and the current state of research. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods are illustrated by selected commercial and scientific applications. (rössner) [de

  14. Laser Energy Transmission for a Wireless Energy Supply to Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Nobuki; Takeda, Kazuya

    2008-01-01

    We can find a lot of robot applications in construction activities, where it is very difficult or dangerous for a man to access and only robots can work. The time will come soon when the actual use of those robots is extensively realized and the wireless energy transmission technology using laser is a unique means to supply energy to those robots.

  15. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  16. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  17. Numerical method to calculate the quantum transmission, resonance and eigenvalue energies: application to a biased multibarrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    A novel method to calculate the quantum transmission, resonance and eigenvalue energies forming the sub-bands structure of non-symmetrical, non-periodical semiconducting heterostructure potential has been proposed in this paper. The method can be applied on a multilayer system with varying thickness of the layer and effective mass of electrons and holes. Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, Schrödinger equation at each media is solved and then using a confirmed recurrence method, the transmission and reflection coefficients and the energy quantification condition are expressed. They are simple combination of coupled equations. Schrödinger's equation solutions are Airy functions or plane waves, depending on the electrical potential energy slope. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, the N barriers – (N−1) wells structure for N=3, 5, 8, 9, 17 and 35 are studied. All results show very good agreements with previously published results obtained from applying different methods on similar systems.

  18. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  19. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission.

  20. Transmission of Electric Energy Along Long Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of electric energy along long lines is examined and characteristics of the change of capacities at the beginning and at the end of a line are submitted: factor of capacity, efficiency of a transmission line, currents depending on length, parameters of a line and parameters of loading. Influence of losses upon the dynamics of instant values of voltages and currents in the opened and short-circuited long lines is investigated and effects of nonlinearity in such chains are revealed at a power supply from a sinusoidal source of voltage. It is shown, that the method of complex amplitudes is not always applicable for the calculation of modes in long lines.

  1. CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR ENERGY TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  2. Pricing and Capacity Planning Problems in Energy Transmission Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer

    strategy. In the Nordic electricity system a market with zonal prices is adopted. We consider the problem of designing zones in an optimal way explicitly considering uncertainty. Finally, we formulate the integrated problem of pipeline capacity expansion planning and transmission pricing in natural gas...... necessitates a radical change in the way we plan and operate energy systems. Another paradigm change which began in the 1990’s for electricity systems is that of deregulation. This has led to a variety of different market structures implemented across the world. In this thesis we discuss capacity planning...... and transmission pricing problems in energy transmission networks. Although the modelling framework applies to energy networks in general, most of the applications discussed concern the transmission of electricity. A number of the problems presented involves transmission switching, which allows the operator...

  3. Wind energy applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  4. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-08

    A REZ is a geographical area that enables the development of profitable, cost-effective, grid-connected renewable energy (RE). The REZ Transmission Planning Process is a proactive approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure connecting REZs to the power system which helps to increase the share of solar, wind and other RE resources in the power system while maintaining reliability and economics, and focuses on large-scale wind and solar resources that can be developed in sufficient quantities to warrant transmission system expansion and upgrades.

  5. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  6. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  7. Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.

    1996-09-01

    In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

  8. Electricity transmission in the energy community of South East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vailati, Riccardo [CESI RICERCA, Power System Development Department, via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    The paper presents the status of electricity transmission grids in the Energy Community of South East Europe (ECSEE): Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, UNM in Kosovo. It overviews political and legal aspects of transmission, explaining the impact of the Energy Community Treaty and of the acquis communautaire on energy on the transmission sector. It summarizes the status and the capacity of the interconnections among countries and the current level of cross-border electricity trades. It discusses the need and criteria for electricity transmission investments in the ECSEE. (author)

  9. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...

  10. Storage and transmission of secondary energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1979-09-01

    In the area of the total energy flow, possibilities and limits of shifts in time (storage) and in space (transfer) of secondary energy, i.e. electrical, chemical and thermal energy are examined and formulated. These shifts are linked to the qualitative conversions of secondary energy. The multiple technological possibilities, the spectrum of governing factors and the numerous technical and economical parameters show that only a complex optimization is possible. (Auth.)

  11. Adaptive control of the packet transmission period with solar energy harvesting prediction in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kideok; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-04-24

    A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  12. Adaptive Control of the Packet Transmission Period with Solar Energy Harvesting Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kideok Kwon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  13. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... Canada for five years as a power marketer using existing international transmission facilities. GSEMNA...

  14. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  15. Energy-selective neutron transmission imaging at a pulsed source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelmann, W.; Frei, G.; Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Santisteban, J. R.

    2007-08-01

    Energy-selective neutron radiography experiments were carried out at the ISIS pulsed spallation source. This neutron transmission imaging technique combines the hardware used for conventional neutron radiography with the Bragg edge transmission features of time-of-flight methods. The main component of the energy-selective radiography set-up was a gated image-intensified CCD camera that viewed a neutron sensitive scintillation screen via a mirror. Energy resolution was obtained via synchronization of the light-intensifier with the pulse structure of the neutron source. It is demonstrated that contrast enhancement of materials can be straightforwardly achieved, and that microstructural features in metal samples can be directly visualized with high spatial resolution by taking advantage of the Bragg edges in the energy dependent neutron cross sections.

  16. Incorporating energy efficiency into electric power transmission planning: A western United States case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Sanstad, Alan H.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by system reliability goals and the need to integrate significantly increased renewable power generation, long-range, bulk-power transmission planning processes in the United States are undergoing major changes. At the same time, energy efficiency is an increasing share of the electricity resource mix in many regions, and has become a centerpiece of many utility resource plans and state policies as a means of meeting electricity demand, complementing supply-side sources, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the electric power system. The paper describes an innovative project in the western United States to explicitly incorporate end-use efficiency into load forecasts – projections of electricity consumption and demand – that are a critical input into transmission planning and transmission planning studies. Institutional and regulatory background and context are reviewed, along with a detailed discussion of data sources and analytical procedures used to integrate efficiency into load forecasts. The analysis is intended as a practical example to illustrate the kinds of technical and institutional issues that must be addressed in order to incorporate energy efficiency into regional transmission planning activities. - Highlights: • Incorporating energy efficiency into electric power transmission planning is an emergent analytical and policy priority. • A new methodology for this purpose was developed and applied in the western U.S. transmission system. • Efficiency scenarios were created and incorporated into multiple load forecasts. • Aggressive deployment of efficiency policies and programs can significantly reduce projected load. • The approach is broadly applicable in long-range transmission planning

  17. Transmission investment in the Peruvian electricity market: Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Erix; Rosellón, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This research presents an application of the mechanism in (HRV) to promote electricity transmission network expansion in the Peruvian electricity transmission system known as SEIN (Sistema Eléctrico Interconectado Nacional). The HRV mechanism combines the merchant and regulatory approaches to promote investment into transmission grids. This mechanism gives incentives for efficient investment in expansion of the network by rebalancing over time the fixed and variable charges of a two-part tariff in the framework of a wholesale electricity market with locational pricing. The expansion of the network is carried out through the sale of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) for the congested lines. The mechanism is applied for 103 nodes of the SEIN using detailed characteristics of generators, nodes and transmission lines. Under Laspeyres weights and linear cost of expansion of transmission capacity, it is shown that prices converge to lower price levels as a result of increased transmission capacity.

  18. Transmission investment in the Peruvian electricity market: Theory and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Erix; Rosellón, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This research presents an application of the Hogan, Rosellón and Vogelsang (2010) (HRV) mechanism —that promotes electricity transmission network expansion— in the Peruvian electricity transmission system known as SEIN (Sistema Eléctrico Interconectado Nacional). The HRV mechanism combines the merchant and regulatory approaches to promote investment into transmission grids. This mechanism gives incentives for efficient investment in expansion of the network by the rebalancing over time of the...

  19. Highly efficient solutions for smart and bulk power transmission of 'green energy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Wilfried; Retzmann, Dietmar; Uecker, Karl

    2010-09-15

    Environmental constraints, loss minimization and CO2 reduction will play an increasingly more important role in future. Security and sustainability of power supply as well as economic efficiency needs application of advanced technologies. Innovative solutions with HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) have the potential to cope with these challenges. They provide the features which are necessary to avoid technical problems in power systems, they increase the transmission capacity and system stability very efficiently and help prevent cascading outages. Furthermore, they are essential for Grid Access of Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro, Wind and Solar-Energy.

  20. The Cost and Benefit of Bulk Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, John

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for energy storage in power systems. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load; store energy when it is inexpensive and discharge energy when it is expensive; potentially defer transmission and generation expansion; and provide for generation reserve margins. As renewable energy resource penetration increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar may be alleviated by bulk energy storage technologies. The quadratic programming function in MATLAB is used to simulate an economic dispatch that includes energy storage. A program is created that utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona transmission system, part of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The MATLAB program is used first to test the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization out-puts such as the system wide operating costs. Very high levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This research illustrates the use of energy storage which helps minimize the system wide generator operating cost by "shaving" energy off of the peak demand.

  1. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2013-10-29

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  2. Hydrogen energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    For the Energy and Material consumption Scenarios (EMS), by which emission reduction of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases can be calculated, calculations are executed by means of the MARKAL model (MARket ALlocation, a process-oriented dynamic linear programming model to minimize the costs of the energy system) for the Netherlands energy economy in the period 2000-2040, using a variable CO 2 emission limit. The results of these calculations are published in a separate report (ECN-C--92-066). The use of hydrogen can play an important part in the above-mentioned period. An overview of several options to produce or use hydrogen is given and added to the MARKAL model. In this report techno-economical data and estimates were compiled for several H 2 -application options, which subsequently also are added to the MARKAL model. After a brief chapter on hydrogen and the impact on the reduction of CO 2 emission attention is paid to stationary and mobile applications. The stationary options concern the mixing of natural gas with 10% hydrogen, a 100% substitution of natural gas by hydrogen, the use of a direct steam generator (combustion of hydrogen by means of pure oxygen, followed by steam injection to produce steam), and the use of fuel cells. The mobile options concern the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector. In brief, attention is paid to a hydrogen passenger car with an Otto engine, and a hydrogen passenger car with a fuel cell, a hybrid (metal)-hydride car, a hydrogen truck, a truck with a methanol fuel cell, a hydrogen bus, an inland canal boat with a hydrogen fuel cell, and finally a hydrogen airplane. 2 figs., 15 tabs., 1 app., 26 refs

  3. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.; Dowis, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    The original study of transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC), which was completed in September 1975, was updated in June 1978. The present 1983 revision takes cognizance of recent changes in the electric power situation of the PNW with respect to: (1) forecasts of load growth, (2) the feasibility of early use of 1100 kV transmission, and (3) the narrowing opportunities for siting nuclear plants in the region. The purpose of this update is to explore and describe additions to the existing transmission system that would be necessary to accommodate three levels of generation at HNEC. Comparisons with a PNW system having new thermal generating capacity distributed throughout the marketing region are not made as was done in earlier versions

  4. Examination for analysis of minerals by means of dual energy gamma-ray transmission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Iwao; Muto, Toshio; Kitsutaka, Raita.

    1996-01-01

    For application of dual energy gamma-ray transmission techniques to practical mineral grade analysis, some problems including selection of gamma-ray energies, influence of sample thickness and main causes of errors in measurement have been examined. The relationships between the R-values (the ratio of mass attenuation coefficients for low and high energy gamma-rays) and the effective atomic numbers for various samples (e.g., iron ore, coal and coke, limestone, minerals and gem stones) were determined using different energy combinations of gamma-rays from 152 Eu. On the basis of the experimental results, the optimum conditions for analysis of minerals were discussed. (author)

  5. Safety of Transmission in Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of data security in safety - related transmission systems defined within railway process. It is intent on summary of treats and security tools against them within closed and open security systems. In details is analysed possibility of using channel coding techniques and cryptography mechanisms, which are defined according to norms EN 50159. For chosen security mechanisms are deal mathematical apparatus of probability of undetected error determination for channel decoders, relations for determination decipher encoder's complexity and error probability of cryptography code word.

  6. On the Energy Efficiency of Dual Clutch Transmissions and Automated Manual Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vacca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main benefits of dual clutch transmissions (DCTs are: (i a higher energy efficiency than automatic transmission systems with torque converters; and (ii the capability to fill the torque gap during gear shifts to allow seamless longitudinal acceleration profiles. Therefore, DCTs are viable alternatives to automated manual transmissions (AMTs. For vehicles equipped with engines that can generate considerable torque, large clutch-slip energy losses occur during power-on gear shifts and, as a result, DCTs need wet clutches for effective heat dissipation. This requirement substantially reduces DCT efficiency because of the churning and ancillary power dissipations associated with the wet clutch pack. To the knowledge of the authors, this study is the first to analyse the detailed power loss contributions of a DCT with wet clutches, and their relative significance along a set of driving cycles. Based on these results, a novel hybridised AMT (HAMT with a single dry clutch and an electric motor is proposed for the same vehicle. The HAMT architecture combines the high mechanical efficiency typical of AMTs with a single dry clutch, with the torque-fill capability and operational flexibility allowed by the electric motor. The measured efficiency maps of a case study DCT and HAMT are compared. This is then complemented by the analysis of the respective fuel consumption along the driving cycles, which is simulated with an experimentally validated vehicle model. In its internal combustion engine mode, the HAMT reduces fuel consumption by >9% with respect to the DCT.

  7. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  8. Transmission of wave energy through an offshore wind turbine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Johnson, Martin; Sørensen, Ole Rene

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of wave energy passing an offshore wind farm is studied. Three effects that can change the wave field are analysed, which is the A) energy dissipation due to drag resistance, B) wave reflection/diffraction from structures, and C) the effect of a modified wind field inside...... and on the lee side of the wind farm. The drag dissipation, A), is quantified by a quadratic resistance law. The effect of B) is parameterised based on 1st order potential theory. A method to find the amount of reflected and transmitted wave energy is developed based on the panel method WAMIT™ and a radiation...... condition at infinity. From airborne and Satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) a model has been derived for the change of the water surface friction C) inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm. The effects have been implemented in a spectral wind wave model,MIKE21 SW, and a parametric study...

  9. HTGR molten salt sensible energy transmission and storage system design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report, which was prepared for Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates by United Engineers and Constructors under Contract No. GCRA/UE and C 81-203, presents the design and cost for a molten salt Sensible Energy Transmission and Storage (SETS) System. Although the reference system for this study is sized to be compatible with an 1170 MW(t) HTGR Nuclear Heat Source, the results and conclusions should be generally applicable to most large scale molten salt energy transmission system applications. A preliminary conceptual design is presented and alternative configurations are discussed. The sensitivity of system costs to variations in important system parameters are also presented. Costs for a reference case conceptual design are reported in constant 1980 dollars and inflated 1995 dollars

  10. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  11. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  12. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  13. Optofluidics for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Sinton, David; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-10-01

    Since its emergence as a field, optofluidics has developed unique tools and techniques for enabling the simultaneous delivery of light and fluids with microscopic precision. In this Review, we describe the possibilities for applying these same capabilities to the field of energy. We focus in particular on optofluidic opportunities in sunlight-based fuel production in photobioreactors and photocatalytic systems, as well as optofluidically enabled solar energy collection and control. We then provide a series of physical and scaling arguments that demonstrate the potential benefits of incorporating optofluidic elements into energy systems. Throughout the Review we draw attention to the ways in which optofluidics must evolve to enable the up-scaling required to impact the energy field.

  14. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... a power marketer for a two-year term using existing international transmission facilities. DOE...

  15. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process: A Guidebook for Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Achieving clean energy goals may require new investments in transmission, especially if planners anticipate economic growth and increased demand for electricity. The renewable energy zone (REZ) transmission planning process can help policymakers ensure their infrastructure investments achieve national goals in the most economical manner. Policymakers, planners, and system operators around the world have used variations of the REZ process to chart the expansion of their transmission networks and overcome the barriers of traditional transmission planning. This guidebook seeks to help power system planners, key decision makers, and stakeholders understand and use the REZ transmission planning process to integrate transmission expansion planning and renewable energy generation planning.

  16. Research on energy transmission calculation problem on laser detecting submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Li, Yingchao; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Chao; An, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The laser detection and identification is based on the method of using laser as the source of signal to scan the surface of ocean. If the laser detection equipment finds out the target, it will immediately reflect the returning signal, and then through receiving and disposing the returning signal by the receiving system, to realize the function of detection and identification. Two mediums channels should be though in the process of laser detection transmission, which are the atmosphere and the seawater. The energy loss in the process of water transport, mainly considering the surface reflection and scattering attenuation and internal attenuation factors such as seawater. The energy consumption though atmospheric transmission, mainly considering the absorption of atmospheric and the attenuation causing by scattering, the energy consumption though seawater transmission, mainly considering the element such as surface reflection, the attenuation of scattering and internal attenuation of seawater. On the basis of the analysis and research, through the mode of establishment of atmospheric scattering, the model of sea surface reflection and the model of internal attenuation of seawater, determine the power dissipation of emitting lasers system, calculates the signal strength that reaches the receiver. Under certain conditions, the total attenuation of -98.92 dB by calculation, and put forward the related experiment scheme by the use of Atmospheric analog channel, seawater analog channel. In the experiment of the theory, we use the simulation pool of the atmosphere and the sea to replace the real environment where the laser detection system works in this kind of situation. To start with, we need to put the target in the simulating seawater pool of 10 meters large and then control the depth of the target in the sea level. We, putting the laser detection system in position where it is 2 kilometers far from one side, secondly use the equipment to aim at the target in some

  17. Investigations and system design for simultaneous energy and data transmission through inductively coupled resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Lloret Fuentes, E.; Buchholz, M.

    2015-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) with simultaneous data transmission through coupled magnetic resonators is investigated in this paper. The development of this system is dedicated to serve as a basis for applications in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for example tracking vital parameters remotely, charge and control sensors and so on. Due to these different scenarios we consider, it is important to have a system which is reliable under the circumstance of changing positioning of the receiving device. State of the art radio systems would be able to handle this. Nevertheless, energy harvesting from far field sources is not sufficient to power the devices additionally on mid-range distances. For this reason, coupled magnetic resonant circuits are proposed as a promising alternative, although suffering from more complex positioning dependency. Based on measurements on a simple prototype system, an equivalent circuit description is used to model the transmission system dependent on different transmission distances and impedance matching conditions. Additionally, the simulation model is used to extract system parameters such as coupling coefficients, coil resistance and self-capacitance, which cannot be calculated in a simple and reliable way. Furthermore, a mathematical channel model based on the schematic model has been built in MATLAB©. It is used to point out the problems occurring in a transmission system with variable transmission distance, especially the change of the passband's centre frequency and its bandwidth. Existing solutions dealing with this distance dependent behaviour, namely the change of the transmission frequency dependent on distance and the addition of losses to the resonators to increase the bandwidth, are considered as not inventive. First, changing the transmission frequency increases the complexity in the data transmission system and would use a disproportional total bandwidth compared to the actually available bandwidth

  18. High energy neutron transmission analysis of dry cask storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Christopher; Hughes, Christopher; Gao, Yuan; Enqvist, Andreas; Baciak, James

    2017-12-01

    Since the U.S. currently only approves of storing used nuclear fuel in pools or dry casks, the demand for dry cask storage is on the rise due to the continuous operation of currently existing nuclear plants which are reaching or have reached the capacity of their used fuel pools. With the rising demand comes additional pressure to ensure the integrity of dry cask systems. Visual inspection is costly and man-power intensive, so alternative nondestructive testing techniques are desired to insure the continued safe and effective storage of fuel. One such approach being investigated by the University of Florida is neutron based computed tomography. Simulations in MCNP are preformed where D-T energy neutrons are transmitted through the dry cask and measured on the opposite side. If the transmitted signal is clear enough, the interior of the cask can be reconstructed from the measurement of the alterations of neutron signal intensity using standard mathematical techniques developed for medical imaging. Preliminary efforts show a correlation between energy and number of scatters (which is an indication of retention of position information). Work is ongoing to quantify if the correlation is strong enough that an energy discriminator may be used as a filter in future image reconstruction. The calculated transmission probability suggests that an image could be reconstructed with a week of scanning.

  19. Energy Efficient Data Transmission for Sensors with Wireless Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Fang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of maximizing the energy utilization for data transmission in sensors with periodical wireless charging process while taking into account the thermal effect. Two classes of problems are analyzed: one is the case that wireless charging can process for only a limited period of time, and the other is the case that wireless charging can process for a long enough time. Algorithms are proposed to solve the problems and analysis of these algorithms are also provided. For the first problem, three subproblems are studied, and, for the general problem, we give an algorithm that can derive a performance bound of ( 1 − 1 2 m ( O P T − E compared to an optimal solution. In addition, for the second problem, we provide an algorithm with 2 m 2 m − 1 O P T + 1 performance bound for the general problem. Simulations confirm the analysis of the algorithms.

  20. Energy Efficient Data Transmission for Sensors with Wireless Charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaolin; Luo, Junzhou; Wu, Weiwei; Gao, Hong

    2018-02-08

    This paper studies the problem of maximizing the energy utilization for data transmission in sensors with periodical wireless charging process while taking into account the thermal effect. Two classes of problems are analyzed: one is the case that wireless charging can process for only a limited period of time, and the other is the case that wireless charging can process for a long enough time. Algorithms are proposed to solve the problems and analysis of these algorithms are also provided. For the first problem, three subproblems are studied, and, for the general problem, we give an algorithm that can derive a performance bound of ( 1 - 1 2 m ) ( O P T - E ) compared to an optimal solution. In addition, for the second problem, we provide an algorithm with 2 m 2 m - 1 O P T + 1 performance bound for the general problem. Simulations confirm the analysis of the algorithms.

  1. Energy Efficient Data Transmission for Sensors with Wireless Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junzhou; Wu, Weiwei; Gao, Hong

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of maximizing the energy utilization for data transmission in sensors with periodical wireless charging process while taking into account the thermal effect. Two classes of problems are analyzed: one is the case that wireless charging can process for only a limited period of time, and the other is the case that wireless charging can process for a long enough time. Algorithms are proposed to solve the problems and analysis of these algorithms are also provided. For the first problem, three subproblems are studied, and, for the general problem, we give an algorithm that can derive a performance bound of (1−12m)(OPT−E) compared to an optimal solution. In addition, for the second problem, we provide an algorithm with 2m2m−1OPT+1 performance bound for the general problem. Simulations confirm the analysis of the algorithms. PMID:29419770

  2. Analysis of Energy Transmission Modes of Flyback Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Shu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of significance to investigate energy transmission modes of a flyback converter for its optimum design. In this paper, the ETMs of a flyback converter are divided into three modes, which are continuous conduction mode-complete inductor supply mode, continuous conduction mode- incomplete inductor supply mode and discontinuous conduction mode-incomplete inductor supply mode, respectively. A deep analysis of the operation is made, a reduction of the boundary condition between the modes is conducted and a comparison of current stress, transformer AP and output ripple voltage between the modes is performed. A 30W prototype is developed and its experiment is done. The experiment results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis quite well.

  3. The current German regime governing third-party access to power transmission systems and denial of TPA, discussed from the angle of applicable civil law, energy industry law and antitrust law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, G.

    2000-01-01

    The German EnWG (energy industry law) for deregulation of the energy sector and implementation of the Internal Energy Market Directive of the EU contains an obligation to contract and make rules for establishing a legally binding system for access to and use of third parties of transmission and distribution networks in the competitive electricity market. The design of such contracts under private law as well as the grid code for network operation primarily being a matter of the contracting parties, the legal basis and opportunities for governmental supervisory functions are embodied in various laws. The legal analysis of this contribution examines the current situation and asks whether the existing provisions of the German BGB (Civil Code), antitrust law and the EnWG offer practicable means in case of need for governmental supervisory action in order to ensure evolution and adherence to a legal framework that will ensure the objectives of the politically willed deregulation of the energy sector and foster development of an open market serving the public welfare. (CB) [de

  4. Nanoporous materials for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Bryan T.

    Batteries have become ubiquitous in modern society by powering small, consumer electronic devices such as flashlights, cell phones, and laptops. Increasingly, batteries are also being examined as a method to improve energy efficiency (and reduce greenhouse gas emissions) for vehicles and power transmission/distribution applications. For lithium-ion based batteries to meet the demands of these new applications, new electrode materials and morphologies are the key to access high energy and/or power density. In this work, the research efforts include two major thrusts, concentrating on the synthesis and understanding of novel porous materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The nano-sized walls and multidimensional pore structures allow fast solid state and electrolytic transport, while micron-sized particle ensure better interparticulate contact. The first thrust of research focused on the development of new synthetic approaches for porous material fabrication. A novel ionothermal synthetic method has been developed using deep-eutectic solvents, such as choline chloride and N,N-dimethylurea, to form iron, manganese and cobalt phosphates with a zeotype framework. Through this advanced method the successful synthesis of 4 previously undiscovered metal phosphate zeotypes was achieved. A careful control of water content during the ionothermal synthesis elucidated the multistep decomposition of our framework template and its impacts in the resulting zeotype structures. Upon conclusion of the ionothermal work, the focus shifted to the methodology development for mesoporous metal sulfides. An "oxide-to-sulfide" synthetic strategy was developed for the first time, resulting in the first synthesis of ordered porous iron, cobalt and nickel sulfides. More importantly, this is a general synthetic method, relying primarily on volumetric calculations per metal atom, which could be further extend to other metal-containing compounds, such as metal

  5. Efficiency and the public interest: QF transmission and the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act), most Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) deliberations involving transmission services did not occur in transmission rate or service proceedings per se. The Commission conducted a number of general inquiries or studies of the subject, including setting the terms and conditions of transmission services as part of merger proceedings and open-quotes market-basedclose quotes pricing proceedings. With the passage of the Act, the FERC is likely to be asked to confront the advisability of requiring transmission services in a more direct manner. The Act permits open-quotes[a]ny electric utility, Federal power marketing agency, or any other person generating electrical energy for sale for resaleclose quotes to petition the Commission for a wheeling order. The FERC may order wheeling in accordance with section 212 of the Federal Power Act (FPA) and a finding that such wheeling would open-quotes otherwise be in the public interest.close quotes When compounded with the need to find that wheeling is in the public interest, the requirements set forth in section 212 are considerable. This article focuses on an important area of section 212 criteria, namely the interplay between between the public interest and economic efficiency criteria in the case of Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) Qualifying Facilities (QF). Two recent proceedings in which the FERC considered the need to provide power transmission service guarantees for QFs are analyzed from the standpoint of public and private economic welfare. The two proceedings are the merger of Utah Power ampersand Light Company, PacifiCorp, PC/UP ampersand L Merging Corporation (Utah) and the Western Systems Power Pool application (WSPP)

  6. Thermoelectronic laser energy conversion for power transmission in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.; Yuen, C.

    1977-01-01

    Long distance transmission of power in space by means of laser beams is an attractive concept because of the very narrow beam divergence. Such a system requires efficient means to both generate the laser beam and to convert the light energy in the beam into useful electric output at the receiver. A plasma-type device known as a Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) has been studied as a method of converting a 10.6 micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. In the TELEC process, electromagnetic radiation is absorbed directly in the plasma electrons producing a high electron temperature. The energetic electrons diffuse out of the plasma striking two electrodes with different areas. Since more electrons are collected by the larger electrode there is a net transport of current, and an EMF is generated in the external circuit. The smaller electrode functions as an electron emitter to provide continuity of the current. Waste heat is rejected from the large electrode. A design for a TELEC system with an input 1 MW laser beam was developed as part of the study. The calculated performance of the system showed an overall efficiency of about 42%.

  7. Applications of energy loss contrast STIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, G.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F.; Cholewa, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) with energy loss contrast is a quantitative imaging technique. A focussed MeV ion microbeam is scanned over the sample and measured energy losses of residual ions at each beam location are used to provide the contrast in the image. The technique is highly efficient as almost every ion carries useful information from which quantitative data can be obtained. The high efficiency of data collection at present necessitates the use of small beam currents. Therefore small apertures can be used and fine spatial resolution can be achieved. High efficiency also makes it possible to collect large data sets for high definition imaging with a small radiation dose. Owing to the simple relationship between energy loss and areal density, STIM with energy loss contrast can provide a quantitative image that can be used to obtain areal density information on the sample. These areal density maps can be used not only to provide a high resolution image of the sample but also to normalise Particle Induced Xray Emission (PIXE) data. The small radiation dose required to form these areal density maps also allows one to use STIM with energy loss contrast to quantitatively monitor ion beam induced specimen changes caused by higher doses and dose rates used in other microanalytical techniques. STIM with energy loss contrast also provides the possibility of stereo imaging and ion microtomography. STIM has also been used in conjunction with channeling to explore transmission channeling in thin crystals. This paper will discuss these applications of STIM with energy loss contrast and look at further developments from them

  8. Mapping unoccupied electronic states of freestanding graphene by angle-resolved low-energy electron transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wicki Flavio; Longchamp Jean-Nicolas; Latychevskaia Tatiana; Escher Conrad; Fink Hans-Werner

    2016-01-01

    We report angle-resolved electron transmission measurements through freestanding graphene sheets in the energy range of 18 to 30 eV above the Fermi level. The measurements are carried out in a low-energy electron point source microscope, which allows simultaneously probing the transmission for a large angular range. The characteristics of low-energy electron transmission through graphene depend on its electronic structure above the vacuum level. The experimental technique described here allow...

  9. A dual energy gamma-ray transmission technique for gold alloy identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo; Shingu, Hiroyasu; Iwase, Hirotoshi

    1991-01-01

    An application of the dual energy gamma-ray transmission techniques to gold alloy identification is presented. The measurement by dual energy gamma-ray transmission is independent of thickness and density of a sample. Due to this advantage, golden accessories such as necklaces, earrings and rings can be assayed in spite of their various thicknesses and irregular sectional shapes. Choice of a gamma-ray energy pair suitable for the object is important. The authors chose 511 keV and 1275 keV gamma-rays from 22 Na. With this energy pair, R value (a ratio of mass attenuation coefficients for low and high energy gamma-rays) is predominantly related to the weight fraction of gold of the sample. Using a 370 kBq 22 Na small source and a 50 mm dia.x 50 mm thick NaI(Tl) scintillator for 1200 seconds, a resolution of 2% for the R value was obtained. This corresponds to approximately 5% of the weight fraction of gold. A better resolution can be obtained by increasing the source activity or measurement time. (author)

  10. Geothermal energy applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Tang, N.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper updates geothermal energy applications in China. To total energy consumption for electricity is 20.38 MWe, and for direct use is 41,222 TJ/yr, even though the beneficial heat was estimated to be 7,198 TJ/yr. The attached tables are the basic geothermal information mainly the years 1985-1989. Some of the tables are additions to the report or preceeding years

  11. Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Raymond P.; Hedges, Robert O.; Kammerman, Alan B.; Albright, James N.

    1998-01-01

    A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers in the field. In one aspect of the present invention, the chemicals are mixed at a location where an explosion is to occur. For application in a confined environment, the chemicals are mixed in an inflatable container to minimize storage space until it is desired to initiate an explosion. To enable an inflatable container to be used, at least 2.5 wt % DETA is used in the explosive mixture. A barrier is utilized that is formed of a carbon composite material to provide the appropriate barrel geometry and energy transmission to the explosive mixture from the slapper detonator system.

  12. 2nd Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Charles; Lovasz, Erwin-Christian

    2014-01-01

    The Second Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications - MeTrApp 2013 was organised by the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of the Basque Country (Spain) under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines and the Spanish Association of Mechanical Engineering.  The aim of the workshop was to bring together researchers, scientists, industry experts and students to provide, in a friendly and stimulating environment, the opportunity to exchange know-how and promote collaboration in the field of Mechanism and Machine Science.  The topics treated in this volume are mechanism and machine design, biomechanics, mechanical transmissions, mechatronics, computational and experimental methods, dynamics of mechanisms and micromechanisms and microactuators.

  13. Research on Data Reliable Transmission Based on Energy Balance in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian SONG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of energy load uneven distribution of WSN, some nodes will die prematurely due to excessive energy consumption, which lead to interruption of communication links and data packet loss, thus reliable data transmission is affected. On the basis of analyzing the main factors that affect energy consumption and existing energy saving technologies, combined with application of virtual multiple-input multiple-output (Virtual MIMO routing algorithm in isomorphic wireless sensor network, virtual multiple-input multiple-output clustering algorithm (VMMCA which applies to small and medium scale isomorphic WSN is proposed. VMMCA not only can select cluster head randomly, but also can achieve the life cycle optimization of WSN on the premise of assuring nodes communication quality. Virtual MIMO cluster network energy consumption model is established. On the condition of changing for different clusters size, node distribution density, the path loss index and sink nodes, the change of the energy consumption of virtual MIMO network and SISO network is analyzed. In order to balance network energy load and prolong lifetime of WSN, and the network lifetime is taken as the optimization target, the ratio of the clusters head is optimized by genetic algorithm. The experiment and simulation results show that compared with LEACH algorithm, VMMCA can achieve very good balance of energy and prolong network lifetime.

  14. Carbon contamination in scanning transmission electron microscopy and its impact on phase-plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Simon; Dries, Manuel; Hermann, Peter; Obermair, Martin; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Malac, Marek

    2017-05-01

    We analyze electron-beam induced carbon contamination in a transmission electron microscope. The study is performed on thin films potentially suitable as phase plates for phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and phase-plate imaging is utilized to analyze the contamination. The deposited contamination layer is identified as a graphitic carbon layer which is not prone to electrostatic charging whereas a non-conductive underlying substrate charges. Several methods that inhibit contamination are evaluated and the impact of carbon contamination on phase-plate imaging is discussed. The findings are in general interesting for scanning transmission electron microscopy applications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy-autonomous Bi-directional Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) and Energy Harvesting Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    del Petre, Massimo; Costanzo, Alessandra; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Collado, Ana; Masotti, Diego; Popovic, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel 2.45-GHz bi-directional circuit that can operate as both a wireless power transmitter and energy harvester. The circuit is based on a class-F oscillator/rectifier and is energy-autonomous since it does not need an external bias supply for either power transmission or power reception. Bi-directionality is exploited in two steps: the system first operates in rectifying mode with harvested DC voltages for biasing the oscillator; followed by the transmitting mode wh...

  16. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  17. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  18. Opportunities and Challenges of AC/DC Transmission Network Planning Considering High Proportion Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Habib

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The time and space distribution characteristics of future high proportion of renewable energy sources will bring unprecedented challenges to the electric power system’s processing and planning, the basic form of electric power system and operating characteristics will have fundamental changes. Based on the research status quo at home and abroad, this paper expounds the four scientific problems of the transmission network planning with high proportion of renewable energy. Respectively, from the network source collaborative planning, transmission network flexible planning. With the distribution network in conjunction with the transmission network planning, transmission planning program comprehensive evaluation and decision-making methods. This paper puts forward the research ideas and framework of transmission network planning considering the high proportion of renewable energy. At the end, the future high proportion of (renewable energy grid-connected transmission network’s opportunities and challenges are presented.

  19. Bioprocessing research for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Gaden, E.L. Jr.; Humphrey, A.E.; Carta, G.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    The new biotechnology that is emerging could have a major impact on many of the industries important to our country, especially those associated with energy production and conservation. Advances in bioprocessing systems will provide important alternatives for the future utilization of various energy resources and for the control of environmental hazards that can result from energy generation. Although research in the fundamental biological sciences has helped set the scene for a ''new biotechnology,'' the major impediment to rapid commercialization for energy applications is the lack of a firm understanding of the necessary engineering concepts. Engineering research is now the essential ''bridge'' that will allow the development of a wide range of energy-related bioprocessing systems. A workshop entitled ''Bioprocessing Research for Energy Applications'' was held to address this technological area, to define the engineering research needs, and to identify those opportunities which would encourage rapid implementation of advanced bioprocessing concepts.

  20. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  1. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  2. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The major issues examined in the comparison of the DIST and HNEC transmission concepts are: (1) type of transmission to be employed and an assessment of its technical feasibility, (2) availability of rights-of-way, (3) economics, (4) environmental impact, and (5) overall reliability of the transmission system. The type of transmission selected for bulk power transfer from an HNEC for the time period studied is overhead AC, 500 kV double or single circuit, a voltage currently used in the PNW system. This type of system can accommodate growth up to at least 23,000 MW of thermal capacity at an HNEC. Significant additional transmountain capacity needs would require 1100 kV transmission, which should be technologically proved by the end of the 1970s. (auth)

  3. Progress and applications of in situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongming; Liu Jialong; Song Yuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the application of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is briefly reviewed. It is emphasized that the development of advanced in situ TEM techniques makes it possible to investigate the evolution of materials under heat, strain, magnetic field, electric field or chemical reaction environments on the atomic scale. The mechanism of the microstructure evolution under various conditions and the relationship between the atomic structures and their properties can be obtained, which is beneficial for the design of new materials with tailored properties. The clarification of the structure-property relationship will help to develop new materials and solve related basic problems in the field of condensed matter physics. (authors)

  4. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2009-02-02

    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS

  5. A Novel Design of Radio Frequency Energy Relays on Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Tong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the energy problem of monitoring sensors on high-voltage power transmission lines and propose a wireless charging scheme for a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID sensor tag to solve a commercial efficiency problem: the maintenance-caused power outage. Considering the environmental influences on power transmission lines, a self-powered wireless energy relay is designed to meet the energy requirement of the passive RFID sensor tag. The relay can obtain the electric field energy from the transmission lines and wirelessly power the RFID sensor tags around for longer operating distance. A prototype of the energy relay is built and tested on a 110 kv line. The measurement results show that the energy relay can provide stable energy even with the influences of wind, noise and power outage. To our knowledge, it is the first work to power the RFID sensor tags on power transmission lines.

  6. Multi-region optimal deployment of renewable energy considering different interregional transmission scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ge; Zhang, Qi; Mclellan, Benjamin C.; Li, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy is expected to play much more important role in future low-carbon energy system, however, renewable energy has problems with regard to load-following and regional imbalance. This study aims to plan the deployment of intermittent renewable energy in multiple regions considering the impacts of regional natural conditions and generation capacity mix as well as interregional transmission capacity using a multi-region dynamic optimization model. The model was developed to find optimized development paths toward future smart electricity systems with high level penetration of intermittent renewable energy considering regional differences and interregional transmission at national scale. As a case study, the model was applied to plan power generation in nine interconnected regions in Japan out to 2030. Four scenarios were proposed with different supporting policies for the interregional power transmission infrastructures and different nuclear power phase-out scenarios. The analysis results show that (i) the government's support for power transmission infrastructures is vital important to develop more intermittent renewable energy in appropriate regions and utilize renewable energy more efficiently; (ii) nuclear and renewable can complement rather than replace each other if enough interregional transmission capacity is provided. - Highlights: • Plan the optimal deployment of intermittent renewable energy in multiple regions. • A multi-region dynamic optimization model was developed. • The impacts of natural conditions and interregional transmission are studied. • The government's support for transmission is vital important for renewable energy. • Nuclear and renewable can complement rather than replace each other.

  7. A transcutaneous energy transmission system for artificial heart adapting to changing impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Hu, Liang; Ruan, Xiaodong; Fu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a coil-coupling-based transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) for wirelessly powering an implanted artificial heart. Keeping high efficiency is especially important for TETS, which is usually difficult due to transmission impedance changes in practice, which are commonly caused by power requirement variation for different body movements and coil-couple malposition accompanying skin peristalsis. The TETS introduced in this article is designed based on a class-E power amplifier (E-PA), of which efficiency is over 95% when its load is kept in a certain range. A resonance matching and impedance compressing functions coupled network based on parallel-series capacitors is proposed in the design, to enhance the energy transmission efficiency and capacity of the coil-couple through resonating, and meanwhile compress the changing range of the transmission impedance to meet the load requirements of the E-PA and thus keep the high efficiency of TETS. An analytical model of the designed TETS is built to analyze the effect of the network and also provide bases for following parameters determination. Then, according algorithms are provided to determine the optimal parameters required in the TETS for good performance both in resonance matching and impedance compressing. The design is tested by a series of experiments, which validate that the TETS can transmit a wide range of power with a total efficiency of at least 70% and commonly beyond 80%, even when the coil-couple is seriously malpositioned. The design methodology proposed in this article can be applied to any existing TETS based on E-PA to improve their performance in actual applications. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. ICT applications enhancing energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Matani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers, laptops and mobile devices – information technology (IT accounts for 2% of human greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, as evidenced in a study by Global Action Plan, a UK based environmental organization. This figure can be reduced if the green segment, or Green IT, continues to grow. Energy can also be saved through cloud computing, namely the principle of outsourcing the programs and functions of one’s own computer to service providers over the internet. This also means sharing storage capacity with others. This paper highlights the impact of information technology applications towards enhancing energy efficiency of the systems.

  9. Application of an evolutionary algorithm in the reactive compensation of transmission networks of electrical energy planning; Aplicacion de un algoritmo evolutivo en la planificacion de la compensacion reactiva de redes de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio A.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the present work it is considered the mathematical formulation of the problem of the reactive compensation planning, The solution technique based on evolutionary programming is described and the results of compensation in the Northwest subsystem of the Mexican electrical system are shown. A technique of optimization based on the Evolutionary Programming is proposed to solve the problem of the Planning of the Reactive Compensation in transmission of electrical energy networks. The problem consists in determining how much compensation to add and where to locate it in such a way that the investment cost of the compensation equipment is diminished, plus the operation costs associated to the transmission losses, plus a penalty function associated to the violations of the operative limits of voltage. The compensation that is determined must allow that the network operates in normal conditions before any contingency of a pre-established assembly. The problem considered is non-linear and whole compound. Tests made to a representative system of the Northwest area of the Mexican electrical system of 171 nodes and 284 branches are reported. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea la formulacion matematica del problema de planificacion de la compensacion reactiva, se describe la tecnica de solucion basada en programacion evolutiva y se muestra resultados de compensacion en el subsistema Noroeste del sistema electrico mexicano. Se propone una tecnica de optimizacion basada en la Programacion Evolutiva para resolver el problema de la Planificacion de la Compensacion Reactiva en redes de transmision de energia electrica. El problema consiste en determinar cuanta compensacion agregar y donde ubicarla de tal manera que se minimice el costo de inversion del equipo de compensacion, mas los costos de operacion asociados a las perdidas de transmision, mas una funcion de penalizacion asociada a la violaciones de los limites operativos de voltaje. La compensacion que se determine

  10. An Algorithm for Timely Transmission of Solicitation Messages in RPL for Energy-Efficient Node Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihong; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Kim, Kangseok

    2017-04-19

    The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) was proposed for various applications of IPv6 low power wireless networks. While RPL supports various routing metrics and is designed to be suitable for wireless sensor network environments, it does not consider the mobility of nodes. Therefore, there is a need for a method that is energy efficient and that provides stable and reliable data transmission by considering the mobility of nodes in RPL networks. This paper proposes an algorithm to support node mobility in RPL in an energy-efficient manner and describes its operating principle based on different scenarios. The proposed algorithm supports the mobility of nodes by dynamically adjusting the transmission interval of the messages that request the route based on the speed and direction of the motion of mobile nodes, as well as the costs between neighboring nodes. The performance of the proposed algorithm and previous algorithms for supporting node mobility were examined experimentally. From the experiment, it was observed that the proposed algorithm requires fewer messages per unit time for selecting a new parent node following the movement of a mobile node. Since fewer messages are used to select a parent node, the energy consumption is also less than that of previous algorithms.

  11. Microwave power - An energy transmission alternative for the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalos, E.; Sperber, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent technological advances related to the feasibility of efficient RF-dc rectification make it likely that by the year 2000 the transmission of power through space will have become a practical reality. Proposals have been made to power helicopters, aircraft, balloons, and rockets remotely. Other proposals consider the transfer of power from point to point on earth via relay through space or a transmission of power from large power sources in space. Attention has also been given to possibilities regarding the transmission of power between various points in the solar system. An outline is provided of the microwave power transmission system envisaged for the solar power satellite, taking into account the transmitting antenna, the receiver on earth, aspects of beam formation and control, transmitter options, the receiving antenna design, and cost and efficiency considerations.

  12. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Hyperspectral Images for Geosciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Bruno; Pizzolante, Raffaele

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral images are acquired through air-borne or space-borne special cameras (sensors) that collect information coming from the electromagnetic spectrum of the observed terrains. Hyperspectral remote sensing and hyperspectral images are used for a wide range of purposes: originally, they were developed for mining applications and for geology because of the capability of this kind of images to correctly identify various types of underground minerals by analysing the reflected spectrums, but their usage has spread in other application fields, such as ecology, military and surveillance, historical research and even archaeology. The large amount of data obtained by the hyperspectral sensors, the fact that these images are acquired at a high cost by air-borne sensors and that they are generally transmitted to a base, makes it necessary to provide an efficient and secure transmission protocol. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that allows secure and efficient transmission of hyperspectral images, by combining a reversible invisible watermarking scheme, used in conjunction with digital signature techniques, and a state-of-art predictive-based lossless compression algorithm.

  13. Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Transmission Scheduling for Sparse Sensor Networks with Mobile Relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensing devices have been widely used in civilian and military applications over the past decade. In some application scenarios, the sensors are sparsely deployed in the field and are costly or infeasible to have stable communication links for delivering the collected data to the destined server. A possible solution is to utilize the motion of entities that are already present in the environment to provide opportunistic relaying services for sensory data. In this paper, we design and propose a new scheduling scheme that opportunistically schedules data transmissions based on the optimal stopping theory, with a view of minimizing the energy consumption on network probes for data delivery. In fact, by exploiting the stochastic characteristics of the relay motion, we can postpone the communication up to an acceptable time deadline until the best relay is found. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the derived optimal strategy.

  14. 78 FR 28832 - CenterPoint Energy-Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... an original and 7 copies of the protest or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of...

  15. CHANDRA HIGH-ENERGY TRANSMISSION GRATING SPECTRUM OF AE AQUARII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    The nova-like cataclysmic binary AE Aqr, which is currently understood to be a former supersoft X-ray binary and current magnetic propeller, was observed for over two binary orbits (78 ks) in 2005 August with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The long, uninterrupted Chandra observation provides a wealth of details concerning the X-ray emission of AE Aqr, many of which are new and unique to the HETG. First, the X-ray spectrum is that of an optically thin multi-temperature thermal plasma; the X-ray emission lines are broad, with widths that increase with the line energy from σ ∼ 1 eV (510 km s -1 ) for O VIII to σ ∼ 5.5 eV (820 km s -1 ) for Si XIV; the X-ray spectrum is reasonably well fit by a plasma model with a Gaussian emission measure distribution that peaks at log T(K) = 7.16, has a width σ = 0.48, an Fe abundance equal to 0.44 times solar, and other metal (primarily Ne, Mg, and Si) abundances equal to 0.76 times solar; and for a distance d = 100 pc, the total emission measure EM = 8.0 x 10 53 cm -3 and the 0.5-10 keV luminosity L X = 1.1 x 10 31 erg s -1 . Second, based on the f/(i + r) flux ratios of the forbidden (f), intercombination (i), and recombination (r) lines of the Heα triplets of N VI, O VII, and Ne IX measured by Itoh et al. in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum and those of O VII, Ne IX, Mg XI, and Si XIII in the Chandra HETG spectrum, either the electron density of the plasma increases with temperature by over three orders of magnitude, from n e ∼ 6 x 10 10 cm -3 for N VI [log T(K) ∼ 6] to n e ∼ 1 x 10 14 cm -3 for Si XIII [log T(K) ∼ 7], and/or the plasma is significantly affected by photoexcitation. Third, the radial velocity of the X-ray emission lines varies on the white dwarf spin phase, with two oscillations per spin cycle and an amplitude K ∼ 160 km s -1 . These results appear to be inconsistent with the recent models of Itoh et al., Ikhsanov, and

  16. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  17. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. Recent Niobium Developments for High Strength Steel Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansto, Steven G.

    Niobium-containing high strength steel materials have been developed for oil and gas pipelines, offshore platforms, nuclear plants, boilers and alternative energy applications. Recent research and the commercialization of alternative energy applications such as windtower structural supports and power transmission gear components provide enhanced performance. Through the application of these Nb-bearing steels in demanding energy-related applications, the designer and end user experience improved toughness at low temperature, excellent fatigue resistance and fracture toughness and excellent weldability. These enhancements provide structural engineers the opportunity to further improve the structural design and performance. For example, through the adoption of these Nb-containing structural materials, several design-manufacturing companies are initiating new windtower designs operating at higher energy efficiency, lower cost, and improved overall material design performance.

  19. Analysis of retarding field energy analyzer transmission by simulation of ion trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, T. H. M.; de Meijere, C. A.; van der Horst, R. M.; van Kampen, M.; Banine, V. Y.; Beckers, J.

    2018-04-01

    Retarding field energy analyzers (RFEAs) are used routinely for the measurement of ion energy distribution functions. By contrast, their ability to measure ion flux densities has been considered unreliable because of lack of knowledge about the effective transmission of the RFEA grids. In this work, we simulate the ion trajectories through a three-gridded RFEA using the simulation software SIMION. Using idealized test cases, it is shown that at high ion energy (i.e., >100 eV) the transmission is equal to the optical transmission rather than the product of the individual grid transparencies. Below 20 eV, ion trajectories are strongly influenced by the electric fields in between the grids. In this region, grid alignment and ion focusing effects contribute to fluctuations in transmission with ion energy. Subsequently the model has been used to simulate the transmission and energy resolution of an experimental RFEA probe. Grid misalignments reduce the transmission fluctuations at low energy. The model predicts the minimum energy resolution, which has been confirmed experimentally by irradiating the probe with a beam of ions with a small energy bandwidth.

  20. Behaviours, transmissions, generations: why is energy efficiency not enough?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabuau-Moussaoui, Isabelle (Electricite de France, Research and Development (France))

    2009-07-01

    Energy use is nowadays a very important question, in the context of global warming and expensive prices of energy. 'Energy conservation' is a paradox: environmental awareness increases, but also energy demand. Sociological knowledge concerning energy uses and energy savings remains important to understand the possible evolutions of practices and values and thus the possible future energy policies. Can the 'consumer society' become a 'less energy-intensive' society? This paper proposes to innovate with a 'new' way to analyse behaviours and to help policy makers to break the walls of 'the behavioural complexity'. We argue that energy efficiency, energy-using products and activities are socially embedded. More specifically, they depend on the 'social age' of people (children, teenagers, young adults, parents, old age people) and on their generation (events, experiences that people did live). The demonstration is based on the analysis of several qualitative studies carried out in France, showing that the generational and social ages analysis could be very efficient and innovative to understand: How are information, policies and energy-efficient technologies understood and embodied by people according to their age and their 'life story'? What kind of 'energy-related material culture' have people, and how does it evolve during the life? In a context of increasing energy demand, is it possible to change the energy-intensive 'socio-technical' mainstream towards a more sustainable way of life? What are the best moments during life for a behavioural change towards a less energy intensive way of life? Can we count on the new generation, to be more aware and less 'energy-intensive'?

  1. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.V.F.; Gorenstin, B.G.; Alvarenga Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  2. On the applicability of conventional transmission line theory within cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gronwald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether or not conventional transmission line theory needs to be modified if transmission lines are considered that are located in a cavity rather than in free space. Our analysis is based on coupled Pocklington's equations that can be reduced to integral equations for the antenna mode and the transmission line mode. Under the usual assumptions of conventional transmission line theory these modes do approximately decouple within a cavity. As a result, cavity properties will primarily influence the antenna mode but not the transmission line mode.

  3. Research on optimal investment path of transmission corridor under the global energy Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuehui; Li, Pai; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jichun; Gao, Han

    2018-02-01

    Under the background of the global energy Internet, the investment planning of transmission corridor from XinJiang to Germany is studied in this article, which passes through four countries: Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus and Poland. Taking the specific situation of different countries into account, including the length of transmission line, unit construction cost, completion time, transmission price, state tariff, inflation rate and so on, this paper constructed a power transmission investment model. Finally, the dynamic programming method is used to simulate the example, and the optimal strategies under different objective functions are obtained.

  4. Dynamics of the Solar Wind Electromagnetic Energy Transmission Into Magnetosphere during Large Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tamara; Laptukhov, Alexej; Petrov, Valery

    Causes of the geomagnetic activity (GA) in the report are divided into temporal changes of the solar wind parameters and the changes of the geomagnetic moment orientation relative directions of the solar wind electric and magnetic fields. Based on our previous study we concluded that a reconnection based on determining role of mutual orientation of the solar wind electric field and geomagnetic moment taking into account effects of the Earth's orbital and daily motions is the most effective compared with existing mechanisms. At present a reconnection as paradigma that has applications in broad fields of physics needs analysis of experimental facts to be developed. In terms of reconnection it is important not only mutual orientation of vectors describing physics of interaction region but and reconnection rate which depends from rate of energy flux to those regions where the reconnection is permitted. Applied to magnetosphere these regions first of all are dayside magnetopause and polar caps. Influence of rate of the energy flux to the lobe magnetopause (based on calculations of the Poyting electromagnetic flux component controlling the reconnection rate along the solar wind velocity Pv) on planetary GA (Dst, Kp indices) is investigated at different phases of geomagnetic storms. We study also the rate of energy flux to the polar caps during storms (based on calculations of the Poyting flux vector component along the geomagnetic moment Pm) and its influence on magnetic activity in the polar ionosphere: at the auroral zone (AU,AL indices). Results allow to evaluate contributions of high and low latitude sources of electromagnetic energy to the storm development and also to clear mechanism of the electromagnetic energy transmission from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. We evaluate too power of the solar wind electromagnetic energy during well-known large storms and compare result with power of the energy sources of other geophysical processes (atmosphere, ocean

  5. MEMS-based transmission lines for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Fu, Jiahui; Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Huajuan; Lee, Jongchul

    2003-04-01

    This paper mainly presents a briefly review for recent progress in MEMS-based transmission lines for use in microwave and millimeterwave range. MEMS-based transmission lines including different transmission line structure such as membrane-supported microstrip line microstrip line, coplanar microshield transmission line, LIGA micromachined planar transmission line, micromachined waveguides and coplanar waveguide are discussed. MEMS-based transmission lines are characterized by low propagation loss, wide operation frequency band, low dispersion and high quality factor, in addition, the fabrication is compatible with traditional processing of integrated circuits (IC"s). The emergence of MEMS-based transmission lines provided a solution for miniaturizing microwave system and monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  6. Interregional power transmission: a component in planning for renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.; Soerensen, B.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the role played by interregional power transmission on the basis of recent scenario work. In a project dealing with long-term planning for energy efficiency and renewable energy in Europe we modelled a scenario for the present 15 EU countries' energy system in 2050. The basis for the scenario is the concept of 'fair pricing' for energy services, meaning that the price of energy should reflect all externalities, but not otherwise be taxed or subsidized. The project assessed resource availability and expected technology price developments over time for a number of energy-related technologies, both on the supply side, the intermediate conversion chain and on the demand side. Among these, transmission technologies play an important role, both in smoothing out renewable energy supplies within the European Union region, and also allowing substantial import of energy from countries outside the EU having a surplus of renewable energy based power. (orig.)

  7. submitter Superconducting transmission lines – Sustainable electric energy transfer with higher public acceptance?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Heiko; Chervyakov, Alexander; Stückrad, Stefan; Salmieri, Delia; Rubbia, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extensive research and development investments into superconducting science and technology, both at the fundamental and at the applied levels, many benefits of superconducting transmission lines (SCTL) remain unknown to the public and decision makers at large. This paper aims at informing about the progress in this important research field. Superconducting transmission lines have a tremendous size advantage and lower total electrical losses for high capacity transmission plus a number of technological advantages compared to solutions based on standard conductors. This leads to a minimized environmental impact and enables an overall more sustainable transmission of electric energy. One of the direct benefits may be an increased public acceptance due to the low visual impact with a subsequent reduction of approval time. The access of remote renewable energy (RE) sources with high-capacity transmission is rendered possible with superior efficiency. That not only translates into further reducing $CO_2...

  8. Atmospheric Transmission Windows for High Energy Short Pulse Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The US Navy is exploring the feasibility of using a high energy laser weapon as a ship-borne self-defense system against sea-skimming cruise missile...appropriate wavelengths becomes critical for a laser weapon to be effective. A high energy free electron laser (FEL) is suitable for employment in the

  9. Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calibration of the MIKE21BW model against the measured wave height reduction behind a 24 kW/m Wave Dragon (WD) wave energy converter. A numerical model is used to determine the wave transmission through the floating WD in varying wave conditions. The transmission obtained...... from the MIKE21BW model is compared to results from a simpler model, based on the integration of wave energy flux. The conclusion is that the simplified approach provides results similar to the transmission obtained from the numerical model, both for a single WD and a farm of multiple WDs....

  10. Low-energy electron transmission through high aspect ratio Al O nanocapillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milosavljević, A.R.; Jureta, J.; Víkor, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electron transmission through insulating AlO nanocapillaries of different diameters (40 and 270 nm) and 15 μm length has been investigated for low-energy electrons (2-120 V). The total intensity of transmitted current weakly depends on the incident electron energy and tilt angle defined with resp......Electron transmission through insulating AlO nanocapillaries of different diameters (40 and 270 nm) and 15 μm length has been investigated for low-energy electrons (2-120 V). The total intensity of transmitted current weakly depends on the incident electron energy and tilt angle defined...

  11. Experimental observation on asymmetric energy flux within the forbidden frequency band in the LC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Feng; Chen Weizhong; Pan Junting; Xu Wen; Du Sidan

    2012-01-01

    We study the energy flux in a nonlinear electrical transmission line consisting of two coupled segments which are identical in structure and different in parameters. The asymmetry of energy flux caused by nonlinear wave has been observed experimentally in the forbidden band of the line. The experiment shows whether the energy can flow through the transmission line depends on the amplitude of the boundary driving voltages, which can be well explained in the theoretical framework of nonlinear supratransmission. The numerical simulation based on Kirchhoff’s laws further verifies the existence of the asymmetric energy flux in the forbidden band.

  12. Exploration of resource and transmission expansion decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19% of the total delivered cost of renewable energy. - Research highlights: → We describe a new tool to evaluate transmission expansion and renewable resource selection. → We examine a scenario where 33% of the energy in the Western Interconnection comes from renewables. → Wind energy provides the majority of new renewable energy. → For some loads, the decision to procure wind and the required transmission is insensitive to assumptions. → For other loads, assumptions can shift toward more solar, which also changes the needed transmission.

  13. Improving the Energy Market: Algorithms, Market Implications, and Transmission Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Paula Ann

    This dissertation aims to improve ISO operations through a better real-time market solution algorithm that directly considers both real and reactive power, finds a feasible Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow solution, and allows for solving transmission switching problems in an AC setting. Most of the IEEE systems do not contain any thermal limits on lines, and the ones that do are often not binding. Chapter 3 modifies the thermal limits for the IEEE systems to create new, interesting test cases. Algorithms created to better solve the power flow problem often solve the IEEE cases without line limits. However, one of the factors that makes the power flow problem hard is thermal limits on the lines. The transmission networks in practice often have transmission lines that become congested, and it is unrealistic to ignore line limits. Modifying the IEEE test cases makes it possible for other researchers to be able to test their algorithms on a setup that is closer to the actual ISO setup. This thesis also examines how to convert limits given on apparent power---as is in the case in the Polish test systems---to limits on current. The main consideration in setting line limits is temperature, which linearly relates to current. Setting limits on real or apparent power is actually a proxy for using the limits on current. Therefore, Chapter 3 shows how to convert back to the best physical representation of line limits. A sequential linearization of the current-voltage formulation of the Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) problem is used to find an AC-feasible generator dispatch. In this sequential linearization, there are parameters that are set to the previous optimal solution. Additionally, to improve accuracy of the Taylor series approximations that are used, the movement of the voltage is restricted. The movement of the voltage is allowed to be very large at the first iteration and is restricted further on each subsequent iteration, with the restriction

  14. Cross Layer Design for Optimizing Transmission Reliability, Energy Efficiency, and Lifetime in Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Yixuan; Liu, Anfeng

    2017-04-19

    High transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and long lifetime are pivotal issues for wireless body area networks (WBANs. However, these performance metrics are not independent of each other, making it hard to obtain overall improvements through optimizing one single aspect. Therefore, a Cross Layer Design Optimal (CLDO) scheme is proposed to simultaneously optimize transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and lifetime of WBANs from several layers. Firstly, due to the fact that the transmission power of nodes directly influences the reliability of links, the optimized transmission power of different nodes is deduced, which is able to maximize energy efficiency in theory under the premise that requirements on delay and jitter are fulfilled. Secondly, a relay decision algorithm is proposed to choose optimized relay nodes. Using this algorithm, nodes will choose relay nodes that ensure a balance of network energy consumption, provided that all nodes transmit with optimized transmission power and the same packet size. Thirdly, the energy consumption of nodes is still unbalanced even with optimized transmission power because of their different locations in the topology of the network. In addition, packet size also has an impact on final performance metrics. Therefore, a synthesized cross layer method for optimization is proposed. With this method, the transmission power of nodes with more residual energy will be enhanced while suitable packet size is determined for different links in the network, leading to further improvements in the WBAN system. Both our comprehensive theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the performance of our proposed scheme is better than reported in previous studies. Relative to the relay selection and power control game (RSPCG) scheme, the CLDO scheme can enhance transmission reliability by more than 44.6% and prolong the lifetime by as much as 33.2%.

  15. Free electron lasers for transmission of energy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, S. B.; Hiddleston, H. R.; Catella, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    A one-dimensional resonant-particle model of a free electron laser (FEL) is used to calculate laser gain and conversion efficiency of electron energy to photon energy. The optical beam profile for a resonant optical cavity is included in the model as an axial variation of laser intensity. The electron beam profile is matched to the optical beam profile and modeled as an axial variation of current density. Effective energy spread due to beam emittance is included. Accelerators appropriate for a space-based FEL oscillator are reviewed. Constraints on the concentric optical resonator and on systems required for space operation are described. An example is given of a space-based FEL that would produce 1.7 MW of average output power at 0.5 micrometer wavelength with over 50% conversion efficiency of electrical energy to laser energy. It would utilize a 10 m-long amplifier centered in a 200 m-long optical cavity. A 3-amp, 65 meV electrostatic accelerator would provide the electron beam and recover the beam after it passes through the amplifier. Three to five shuttle flights would be needed to place the laser in orbit.

  16. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... application. SUMMARY: Centre Lane Trading Limited (CLT) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy...)). On April 20, 2010, DOE received an application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy... facilities for five years. CLT does not own any electric transmission facilities nor does it hold a...

  17. Expected Transmission Energy Route Metric for Wireless Mesh Senor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanLiang Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesh is a network topology that achieves high throughput and stable intercommunication. With great potential, it is expected to be the key architecture of future networks. Wireless sensor networks are an active research area with numerous workshops and conferences arranged each year. The overall performance of a WSN highly depends on the energy consumption of the network. This paper designs a new routing metric for wireless mesh sensor networks. Results from simulation experiments reveal that the new metric algorithm improves the energy balance of the whole network and extends the lifetime of wireless mesh sensor networks (WMSNs.

  18. A Mixed Transmission Strategy to Achieve Energy Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Tao; Jin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    lifetime, and hence, it has many practical implications for sensor network design and deployment. The traditional hop-by-hop transmission model allows a sensor node to propagate its packets in a hop-by-hop manner toward the sink, resulting in poor energy balancing for the entire network. To address......In this paper, we investigate the problem of energy balanced data collection in wireless sensor networks, aiming to balance energy consumption among all sensor nodes during the data propagation process. Energy balanced data collection can potentially save energy consumption and prolong network...... the problem, we apply a slice-based energy model, and divide the problem into inter-slice and intra-slice energy balancing problems. We then propose a probability-based strategy named inter-slice mixed transmission protocol and an intra-slice forwarding technique to address each of the problems. We propose...

  19. Design, control and application of modular multilevel converters for HVDC transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharifabadi, Kamran; Nee, Hans-Peter; Norrga, Staffan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems is a comprehensive guide to semiconductor technologies applicable for MMC design, component sizing control, modulation, and application of the MMC technology for HVDC transmission. Separated into three distinct parts, the first offers an overview of MMC technology, including information on converter component sizing, Control and Communication, Protection and Fault Management, and Generic Modelling and Simulation. The second covers the applications of MMC in offshore WPP, including planning, technical and economic requirements and optimization options, fault management, dynamic and transient stability. Finally, the third chapter explores the applications of MMC in HVDC transmission and Multi Terminal configurations, including Supergrids.

  20. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  1. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  2. Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifabadi, Kamran; Harnefors, Lennart; Nee, Hans-Peter

    Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems is a comprehensive guide to semiconductor technologies applicable for MMC design, component sizing control, modulation, and application of the MMC technology for HVDC transmission. Separated into three...... distinct parts, the first offers an overview of MMC technology, including information on converter component sizing, Control and Communication, Protection and Fault Management, and Generic Modelling and Simulation. The second covers the applications of MMC in offshore WPP, including planning, technical...

  3. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-09-03

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  4. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  5. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  6. SimWIND: A Geospatial Infrastructure Model for Wind Energy Production and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, R. S.; Phillips, B. R.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Wind is a clean, enduring energy resource with a capacity to satisfy 20% or more of the electricity needs in the United States. A chief obstacle to realizing this potential is the general paucity of electrical transmission lines between promising wind resources and primary load centers. Successful exploitation of this resource will therefore require carefully planned enhancements to the electric grid. To this end, we present the model SimWIND for self-consistent optimization of the geospatial arrangement and cost of wind energy production and transmission infrastructure. Given a set of wind farm sites that satisfy meteorological viability and stakeholder interest, our model simultaneously determines where and how much electricity to produce, where to build new transmission infrastructure and with what capacity, and where to use existing infrastructure in order to minimize the cost for delivering a given amount of electricity to key markets. Costs and routing of transmission line construction take into account geographic and social factors, as well as connection and delivery expenses (transformers, substations, etc.). We apply our model to Texas and consider how findings complement the 2008 Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ) Transmission Optimization Study. Results suggest that integrated optimization of wind energy infrastructure and cost using SimWIND could play a critical role in wind energy planning efforts.

  7. Incident energy and charge deposition dependences of electron transmission through a microsized tapered glass capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramarachchi, S.J. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Ikeda, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Dassanayake, B.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Keerthisinghe, D.; Tanis, J.A. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    An experimental study of electron transmission and guiding through a tapered glass capillary has been performed. Electrons were transmitted for tilt angles up to ∼6.5° and ∼9.5° (laboratory angles) for incident energies of 500 and 1000 eV, respectively. It is found that elastic and inelastic contributions give rise to distinguishable peaks in the transmitted profile. For 500 eV elastic transmission dominates the profile, while for 1000 eV both elastic and inelastic contributions are present. The transmission for both energies was studied as a function of the charge (time) deposition and found to be strongly dependent. Results suggest fundamental differences between 500 and 1000 eV incident electrons. For 500 eV the transmission slowly increases suggesting charge up of the capillary wall, reaching relative stability with infrequent breakdowns for all angles investigated. For 1000 eV for tilt angles near zero degrees the time dependent profile shows oscillations in the transmission, which never reached a stable condition, while for the larger angle investigated the transmission reached near equilibrium. Inelastic processes dominated the transmission for 1000 eV even at very small tilt angles, but was generally elastic (due to Coulomb deflection) for 500 eV even for the largest tilt angle measured.

  8. Regional Transmission Organizations and Wind Energy: A Happy Marriage or Divorce Proceedings?; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, B.; Porter, K.

    2002-05-01

    In 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued Order 888, which required transmission-owning utilities under FERC jurisdiction to provide open access transmission service to eligible wholesale power customers. Among other things, the elements of electric service are unbundled, meaning that wind project developers must not only find a taker for the energy but also potentially make interconnection, ancillary service, and transmission arrangements for their wind projects. In 1999, the FERC issued Order 2000, which required transmission-owning utilities to file an intent with FERC on whether they have joined or plan to join a regional transmission organization (RTO). Order 2000 also required RTOs to meet certain criteria and be approved by FERC in order to begin operations as an RTO. More recently, FERC said it would issue a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in 2002 on certain requirements and services, often termed''standard market design'' (SMD), that must be included in all transmission tariffs filed at FERC. This paper discusses the chronology of open access transmission issues, from Order 888 onward, and reviews some of the important issues raised by FERC's SMD initiative.

  9. Nanoscale applications for information and energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Korkin, Anatoli

    2012-01-01

    This book presents nanotechnology fundamentals and applications in the key research areas of information technology and solar energy: plasmonics, photovoltaics, transparent conducting electrodes, silicon electroplating, and resistive switching.

  10. Applications of orientation mapping by scanning and transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    The potentials of orientation mapping techniques (in the following referred to as OIM) for studies of thermomechanical processes are analysed. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based OIM techniques are considered. Among the thermomechanical processes...

  11. Applications of nuclear energy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts and international frames of generation IV nuclear reactors. A review of use of nuclear energy for non electric applications especially in areas such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, district heating and other industrial applications. (Author)

  12. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  13. Transmission of electrons through insulating PET foils: Dependence on charge deposition, tilt angle and incident energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keerthisinghe, D., E-mail: darshika.keerthisinghe@wmich.edu [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Dassanayake, B.S. [Department of Physics, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wickramarachchi, S.J. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Stolterfoht, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Tanis, J.A. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transmission of electrons through insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocapillaries was observed as a function of charge deposition, angular and energy dependence. Two samples with capillary diameters 100 and 200 nm and pore densities 5 × 10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2} and 5 × 10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, were studied for incident electron energies of 300, 500 and 800 eV. Transmission and steady state of the electrons were attained after a time delay during which only a few electron counts were observed. The transmission through the capillaries depended on the tilt angle with both elastic and inelastic electrons going through. The guiding ability of electrons was found to increase with the incident energy in contrast to previous measurements in our laboratory for a similar PET foil.

  14. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  15. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  16. Effects of channel blocking on information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujiang; Yue, Yuan; Yu, Yuguo; Liu, Liwei; Yu, Lianchun

    2018-04-01

    Action potentials are the information carriers of neural systems. The generation of action potentials involves the cooperative opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels. This process is metabolically expensive because the ions flowing through open channels need to be restored to maintain concentration gradients of these ions. Toxins like tetraethylammonium can block working ion channels, thus affecting the function and energy cost of neurons. In this paper, by computer simulation of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model, we studied the effects of channel blocking with toxins on the information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons. We found that gradually blocking sodium channels will sequentially maximize the information transmission and energy efficiency of the axons, whereas moderate blocking of potassium channels will have little impact on the information transmission and will decrease the energy efficiency. Heavy blocking of potassium channels will cause self-sustained oscillation of membrane potentials. Simultaneously blocking sodium and potassium channels with the same ratio increases both information transmission and energy efficiency. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that information processing capacity and energy efficiency can be maximized by regulating the number of active ion channels, and this indicates a viable avenue for future experimentation.

  17. Thermal energy storage for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1992-04-01

    Cogeneration is playing an increasingly important role in providing energy efficient power generation and thermal energy for space heating and industrial process heat applications. However, the range of applications for cogeneration could be further increased if the generation of electricity could be coupled from the generation of process heat. Thermal energy storage (TES) can decouple power generation from the production of process heat, allowing the production of dispatchable power while fully utilizing the thermal energy available from the prime mover. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the US Department of Energy`s Thermal Energy Storage Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility applications (utility thermal energy storage (UTES)). Several of these technologies can be used in a cogeneration facility. This paper discusses TES concepts relevant to cogeneration and describes the current status of these TES systems.

  18. Atomic resolution elemental mapping using energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy with chromatic aberration correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, F F; Rosenauer, A; Barthel, J; Mayer, J; Urban, K; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Brown, H G; Forbes, B D; Allen, L J

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses a novel approach to atomic resolution elemental mapping, demonstrating a method that produces elemental maps with a similar resolution to the established method of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Dubbed energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM) this mode of imaging is, by the quantum mechanical principle of reciprocity, equivalent to tilting the probe in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) through a cone and incoherently averaging the results. In this paper we present a proof-of-principle EFISTEM experimental study on strontium titanate. The present approach, made possible by chromatic aberration correction, has the advantage that it provides elemental maps which are immune to spatial incoherence in the electron source, coherent aberrations in the probe-forming lens and probe jitter. The veracity of the experiment is supported by quantum mechanical image simulations, which provide an insight into the image-forming process. Elemental maps obtained in EFTEM suffer from the effect known as preservation of elastic contrast, which, for example, can lead to a given atomic species appearing to be in atomic columns where it is not to be found. EFISTEM very substantially reduces the preservation of elastic contrast and yields images which show stability of contrast with changing thickness. The experimental application is demonstrated in a proof-of-principle study on strontium titanate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Economical scale of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is supported by two wheels of radiation and energy applications. When comparing both, they have some different sides, such as numbers of employees and researchers, numbers and scales of works, effect on society, affecting effects and regions of industrial actions, problems on safety, viewpoint on nuclear proliferation protection and safety guarantee, energy security, relationship to environmental problem, efforts on wastes disposal, and so on. Here described on economical scale of radiation application in fields of industry, agriculture, and medicine and medical treatment, and on economical scale of energy application in nuclear power generation and its instruments and apparatus. (G.K.)

  20. Outage Analysis of Cooperative Transmission with Energy Harvesting Relay: Time Switching versus Power Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyao Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the multiuser transmission network with an energy harvesting (EH cooperative relay, where a source transmits independent information to multiple destinations with the help of an energy constrained relay. The relay can harvest energy from the radio frequency (RF signals transmitted from the source, and it helps the multiuser transmission only by consuming the harvested energy. By adopting the time switching and the power splitting relay receiver architectures, we firstly propose two protocols, the time switching cooperative multiuser transmission (TSCMT protocol and the power splitting cooperative multiuser transmission (PSCMT protocol, to enable the simultaneous information processing and EH at the relay for the system. To evaluate the system performance, we theoretically analyze the system outage probability for the two proposed protocols and then derive explicit expressions for each of them, respectively. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the accuracy of our analytical results and reveal that compared with traditional noncooperative scheme our proposed protocols are green solutions to offer reliable communication and lower system outage probability without consuming additional energy. In particular, for the same transmit power at the source, the PSCMT protocol is superior to the TSCMT protocol to obtain lower system outage probability.

  1. Compressor-less Hydrogen Transmission Pipelines Deliver Large-scale Stranded Renewable Energy at Competitive Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W Leighty; J Holloway; R Merer; B Somerday; C San Marchi; G Keith; D White

    2006-01-01

    We assume a transmission-constrained world, where large new wind plants and other renewable energies must pay all transmission costs for delivering their energy to distant markets. We modeled a 1,000 MW (1 GW) (name plate) wind plant in the large wind resource of the North America Great Plains, delivering exclusively hydrogen fuel, via a new gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline, to an urban market at least 300 km distant. All renewable electric energy output would be converted, at the source, to hydrogen, via 100 bar output electrolyzers, directly feeding the GH2 transmission pipeline without costly compressor stations at inlet or at midline. The new GH2 pipeline is an alternative to new electric transmission lines. We investigate whether the pipeline would provide valuable energy storage. We present a simple model by which we estimate the cost of wind-source hydrogen fuel delivered to the distant city gate in year 2010, at GW scale. Ammonia, synthetic hydrocarbons, and other substances may also be attractive renewable-source energy carriers, storage media, and fuels; they are not considered in this paper. (authors)

  2. Loss of strain energy in metal belt for continuously variable transmission (CVT) pulley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wu; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Chuanwei; Kou, Farong [University of Science and Technology, Xi' an (China)

    2015-07-15

    Pulley SENE (Strain energy) losses affect the transmission efficiency of metal belt continuously variable transmissions. The present research focuses on analysis of the SENE power loss. Mechanical and deformation models of the pulley have been developed. The pulley stress, strain and SENE analyses were performed using finite element method software. The results indicate that with an increase in the transmission ratio, the SENE of the driving pulley decreases, while that of the driven pulley increases, and the SENE-induced total power loss increases after initially decreasing; the minimum and maximum pulley SENE total power losses are 43.92 and 240.69 W respectively. The pulley working radius was also found to have a major impact on the stress, strain and SENE. Our conclusion that the SENE power loss is at a minimum when the transmission ratio is 1 is consistent with the real behavior of these pulleys.

  3. Energy Consumption of a Battery Electric Vehicle with Infinitely Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Battery electric vehicles (BEVs represent a possible sustainable solution for personal urban transportation. Presently, the most limiting characteristic of BEVs is their short range, mainly because of battery technology limitations. A proper design and control of the drivetrain, aimed at reducing the power losses and thus increasing BEV range, can contribute to make the electrification of urban transportation a convenient choice. This paper presents a simulation-based comparison of the energy efficiency performance of six drivetrain architectures for BEVs. Although many different drivetrain and transmission architectures have been proposed for BEVs, no literature was found regarding BEVs equipped with infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs. The analyzed drivetrain configurations are: single- (1G and two-speed (2G gear drives, half toroidal (HT and full toroidal (FT continuously variable transmissions (CVTs, and infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs with two different types of internal power flow (IVT-I and IVT-II. An off-line procedure for determining the most efficient control action for each drivetrain configuration is proposed, which allows selecting the optimal speed ratio for each operating condition. The energy consumption of the BEVs is simulated along the UDC (Urban Driving Cycle and Japanese 10-15 driving cycle, with a backward facing approach. In order to achieve the lowest energy consumption, a trade-off between high transmission efficiency and flexibility in terms of allowed speed ratios is required.

  4. Time and Energy Efficient Relay Transmission for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Barrado, José Ramón Ramos; Jeon, Dong-Keun

    2016-06-27

    The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely recognized as one of the most successful enabling technologies for short range low rate wireless communications and it is used in IoT applications. It covers all the details related to the MAC and PHY layers of the IoT protocol stack. Due to the nature of IoT, the wireless sensor networks are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. One of the issues in IoT is the network scalability. To address this issue, it is necessary to support the multi-hop topology. The IEEE 802.15.4 network can support a star, peer-to-peer, or cluster-tree topology. One of the IEEE 802.15.4 topologies suited for the high predictability of performance guarantees and energy efficient behavior is a cluster-tree topology where sensor nodes can switch off their transceivers and go into a sleep state to save energy. However, the IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree topology may not be able to provide sufficient bandwidth for the increased traffic load and the additional information may not be delivered successfully. The common drawback of the existing approaches is that they do not address the poor bandwidth utilization problem in IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree networks, so it is difficult to increase the network performance. Therefore, to solve this problem in this paper we study a relay transmission protocol based on the standard protocol in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In the proposed scheme, the coordinators can relay data frames to their parent devices or their children devices without contention and can provide bandwidth for the increased traffic load or the number of devices. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the reliability, the end-to-end delay, and the energy consumption.

  5. Time and Energy Efficient Relay Transmission for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely recognized as one of the most successful enabling technologies for short range low rate wireless communications and it is used in IoT applications. It covers all the details related to the MAC and PHY layers of the IoT protocol stack. Due to the nature of IoT, the wireless sensor networks are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. One of the issues in IoT is the network scalability. To address this issue, it is necessary to support the multi-hop topology. The IEEE 802.15.4 network can support a star, peer-to-peer, or cluster-tree topology. One of the IEEE 802.15.4 topologies suited for the high predictability of performance guarantees and energy efficient behavior is a cluster-tree topology where sensor nodes can switch off their transceivers and go into a sleep state to save energy. However, the IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree topology may not be able to provide sufficient bandwidth for the increased traffic load and the additional information may not be delivered successfully. The common drawback of the existing approaches is that they do not address the poor bandwidth utilization problem in IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree networks, so it is difficult to increase the network performance. Therefore, to solve this problem in this paper we study a relay transmission protocol based on the standard protocol in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In the proposed scheme, the coordinators can relay data frames to their parent devices or their children devices without contention and can provide bandwidth for the increased traffic load or the number of devices. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the reliability, the end-to-end delay, and the energy consumption.

  6. Thermal energy storage for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1992-04-01

    Cogeneration is playing an increasingly important role in providing energy efficient power generation and thermal energy for space heating and industrial process heat applications. However, the range of applications for cogeneration could be further increased if the generation of electricity could be coupled from the generation of process heat. Thermal energy storage (TES) can decouple power generation from the production of process heat, allowing the production of dispatchable power while fully utilizing the thermal energy available from the prime mover. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the US Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility applications (utility thermal energy storage (UTES)). Several of these technologies can be used in a cogeneration facility. This paper discusses TES concepts relevant to cogeneration and describes the current status of these TES systems.

  7. 78 FR 36177 - Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... 29, 2013, Dominion Transmission, Inc. (DTI), 120 Tredegar Street, Richmond, VA 23219, filed in Docket... Street, Richmond, VA 23219, telephone No. (804) 819-2946, facsimile No. (804) 819-2183 and email: lois.m... this Notice the Commission staff will either: Complete its environmental assessment (EA) and place it...

  8. 78 FR 69405 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... October 28, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable), 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002... Commission staff will either complete its environmental assessment (EA) and place it into the Commission's... complete all federal authorizations within 90 days of the date of issuance of the Commission staff's FEIS...

  9. Grassroots Technological Resistance: The People's Power Project and the Impossible Dream of Wireless Transmission of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Pete

    2017-09-01

    In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla. This self-funded conglomeration of farmers and amateur researchers formed the People's Power Project (PPP) and set about building Tesla's system for the wireless transmission of energy. Using archival documents, this paper recounts this episode and argues that, in this case, the potential for successful grassroots action was derailed by the influence of longstanding myths about Tesla and his devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya

    2016-05-24

    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  11. Terminological dictionary of electrical power industry in range of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernacki, T.; Cegla, S.; Ciszewski, W.

    1990-08-01

    The dictionary contains about 5000 terms about conventional and nuclear power plants, energy sources, transmission lines, automation, power systems, environment protection, statistics etc. Each term is given with definition and its equivalents in English, French, German and Russian. Indexes of Polish, English, French, German and Russian terms are provided at the back of dictionary. (A.S.)

  12. 75 FR 43519 - Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No. 5 Substation and the Palo Verde Hub AGENCY... approximately 1,700 miles of high-voltage transmission lines and the associated substations and switchyards. The... Western's substations in the vicinity of Electrical District No. 5 (ED-5) Substation near Eloy, Arizona...

  13. Solar applications analysis for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, T.

    1980-01-01

    The role of energy storage as it relates to solar energy systems is considered. Storage technologies to support solar energy applications, the status of storage technologies, requirements and specifications for storage technologies, and the adequacy of the current storage research and development program to meet these requirements are among the factors discussed. Emphasis is placed on identification of where the greatest potential exists for energy storage in support of those solar energy systems which could have a significant impact on the U.S. energy mix.

  14. Electrospinning for advanced energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications delivers a state-of-the-art overview of the use of electrospun fibers in energy conversion and storage, as well as in environmental sensing and remediation. Featuring contributions from leading experts in electrospinning and its specific applications, this book: Introduces the electrospinning technique and its origins, outlining achievable one-dimensional (1D) nanoscaled materials and their various applications Discusses the use of electrospun materials in energy devices, including low- and high-temperature fuel cells, hydrogen storage, dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors Explores environmental applications of electrospun fibers, such as the use of electrospinning-issued materials in membranes for water and air purification, as well as in sensors and biosensors for pollution control Beneficial to both academic and industrial audiences, Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications present...

  15. Simulation Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Wei, Zhiqiang; Chi, Haokun; Yin, Bo; Cong, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, more and more implantable medical devices have been used in the medical field. Some of these devices, such as brain pacemakers, require long-term power support. The WPT(wireless power transmission) technology which is more convenient and economical than replacing the battery by surgery, has become the first choice of many patients. In this paper, we design a WPT system that can be used in implantable medical devices, simulate the transmission efficiency of the system in the air and in the head model, and simulate the SAR value when the system working in the head model. The results show that when implantation depth of the secondary coil is 3 mm, the efficiency of the system can reach 45%, and the maximum average SAR value is 2.19 W / kg, slightly higher than the standard of IEEE.

  16. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  17. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA's modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes

  18. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A

  19. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  20. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  1. Research on hybrid transmission mode for HVDC with optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hongfu

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy in Northwest China, curtailment phenomena is becoming more and more serve owing to lack of adjustment ability and enough transmission capacity. Based on the existing HVDC projects, exploring the hybrid transmission mode associated with thermal power and renewable power will be necessary and important. This paper has proposed a method on optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination for HVDC lines, based on multi-scheme comparison. Having established the mathematic model for electric power balance in time series mode, ten different schemes have been picked for figuring out the suitable one by test simulation. By the proposed related discriminated principle, including generation device utilization hours, renewable energy electricity proportion and curtailment level, the recommendation scheme has been found. The result has also validated the efficiency of the method.

  2. Digital imagery manipulation and transmission for emergency deployment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, C.A.; Phillipson, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Digital Imagery Transmission System (DITS) was designed as a replacement for the older slow-scan system. DITS is an interactive microcomputer graphics system capable of digitizing maps or photographs. Digitized images are stored on a local area network file server and can then be distributed to other units on the system or be transmitted over a dial-grade phone line to a remote site where other DITS terminals exist. A DITS terminal consists of an inexpensive microcomputer, an off-the-shelf RGB monitor and an electronic drawing device for entering overlay data. Hardcopy prints can be obtained in minutes

  3. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  4. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  5. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  6. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  7. Addressing preservation of elastic contrast in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H G; D'Alfonso, A J; Forbes, B D; Allen, L J

    2016-01-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images with resolutions of the order of an Ångström can be obtained using modern microscopes corrected for chromatic aberration. However, the delocalized nature of the transition potentials for atomic ionization often confounds direct interpretation of EFTEM images, leading to what is known as "preservation of elastic contrast". In this paper we demonstrate how more interpretable images might be obtained by scanning with a focused coherent probe and incoherently averaging the energy-filtered images over probe position. We dub this new imaging technique energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM). We develop a theoretical framework for EFISTEM and show that it is in fact equivalent to precession EFTEM, where the plane wave illumination is precessed through a range of tilts spanning the same range of angles as the probe forming aperture in EFISTEM. It is demonstrated that EFISTEM delivers similar results to scanning transmission electron microscopy with an electron energy-loss spectrometer but has the advantage that it is immune to coherent aberrations and spatial incoherence of the probe and is also more resilient to scan distortions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. NorthernLights Transmission : bringing competitive cogen energy from the oil sands to west coast markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, M.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    NorthernLights Transmission is an initiative by TransCanada that proposes 2 major high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines to bring low cost, fossil fuelled and renewable generation from the Fort McMurray area to growing electricity markets in the Pacific Northwest, Nevada, Arizona and California. This presentation demonstrated why oil sands cogeneration, shipped via NorthernLights Transmission, is a very attractive resource for these markets. It was shown that the best generation resources are tied to natural resources such as coal, wind, oil sands cogeneration and hydro. Both the Pacific Northwest and California markets prefer low carbon dioxide generation. The proposed HVDC transmission lines would maximize the use of existing energy infrastructure corridors and rights-of-way where possible. This paper presented details of the proposed Celilo Project and the Inland Project, and noted that both are attractive from a technical and economic perspective. The transmission line for the Celilo project would originate in Fort McMurray and connect highly efficient cogeneration and other developing forms of generation to growing loads in the Pacific Northwest and northern California. The cogeneration plants will supply steam and electricity to northern Alberta's oil sands developments along with surplus electricity for export. tabs., figs

  9. A Pilot Directional Protection for HVDC Transmission Line Based on Relative Entropy of Wavelet Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing high-voltage direct current (HVDC transmission system and its fault superimposed circuit, the direction of the fault components of the voltage and the current measured at one end of transmission line is certified to be different for internal faults and external faults. As an estimate of the differences between two signals, relative entropy is an effective parameter for recognizing transient signals in HVDC transmission lines. In this paper, the relative entropy of wavelet energy is applied to distinguish internal fault from external fault. For internal faults, the directions of fault components of voltage and current are opposite at the two ends of the transmission line, indicating a huge difference of wavelet energy relative entropy; for external faults, the directions are identical, indicating a small difference. The simulation results based on PSCAD/EMTDC show that the proposed pilot protection system acts accurately for faults under different conditions, and its performance is not affected by fault type, fault location, fault resistance and noise.

  10. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  11. Neutron applications in materials for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kearley, Gordon J

    2015-01-01

    Neutron Applications in Materials for Energy collects results and conclusions of recent neutron-based investigations of materials that are important in the development of sustainable energy. Chapters are authored by leading scientists with hands-on experience in the field, providing overviews, recent highlights, and case-studies to illustrate the applicability of one or more neutron-based techniques of analysis. The theme follows energy production, storage, and use, but each chapter, or section, can also be read independently, with basic theory and instrumentation for neutron scattering being

  12. Illumination, data transmission, and energy harvesting: the threefold advantage of VLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalidis, Harilaos G; Vavoulas, Alexander; Tsiftsis, Theodoros A; Vaiopoulos, Nicholas

    2017-04-20

    Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology that meets illumination and information transmission requirements in an indoor environment. Because light waves convey energy, a VLC link may exploit that fact for energy harvesting purposes. In this context, a single light emitting diode lamp located at a close distance over a tablet or laptop PC can potentially offer simultaneous lighting, Internet access, and battery recharging without cables. The present study introduces this threefold role of VLC systems by properly adapting some energy harvesting receiver architectures recently launched for usage in RF communications. The rate-energy trade-off for these architectures is revealed in order to maximize the efficiency of simultaneous energy and information reception, by elaborating on indicative numerical results. Furthermore, the performance in terms of the bit-error rate for pulse amplitude modulated signals is investigated. The results obtained offer some useful insights into the effective optical receiver implementation from the aspect of information theory.

  13. Carbon-nanostructured materials for energy generation and storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Linkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed and refined a chemical vapour deposition method to synthesise nanotubes using liquid petroleum gasasthe carbonsource. The nanotubes were thoroughly characterised by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy
    X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The protocol to grow nanotubes was then adapted to deposit nanotubes on the surface of different substrates, which were chosen based upon how
    the substrates could be applied in various hydrogen energyconver-sion systems. Carbon nanotubes area nanostructured material with an extremely wide range of application sinvariousenergy applications. The methods outlined demonstrate the complete
    development of carbon nanotube composite materials with direct applications in hydrogen energy generation, storage and conversion.

  14. Application of Boltzmann equation to electron transmission and seconary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanteri, H.; Bindi, R.; Rostaing, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for numerical treatment of integro-differential equation, based upon finite difference techniques. This method allows to formulate in a satisfactory manner the Boltzmann's equation applied to backscattering, transmission and secondary emission of metallic targets, avoiding must of the restrictive hypothesis, used until now in these models. For aluminium, the calculated energy spectra, angular distribution, transmission and backscattering coefficients, and secondary emission yield, are found to be in good agreement with experiment [fr

  15. eV-TEM: Transmission electron microscopy in a low energy cathode lens instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geelen, Daniël, E-mail: geelen@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Thete, Aniket [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schaff, Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander [SPECS GmbH, Voltastrasse 5, D-13355 Berlin (Germany); Molen, Sense Jan van der [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Tromp, Rudolf [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We are developing a transmission electron microscope that operates at extremely low electron energies, 0–40 eV. We call this technique eV-TEM. Its feasibility is based on the fact that at very low electron energies the number of energy loss pathways decreases. Hence, the electron inelastic mean free path increases dramatically. eV-TEM will enable us to study elastic and inelastic interactions of electrons with thin samples. With the recent development of aberration correction in cathode lens instruments, a spatial resolution of a few nm appears within range, even for these very low electron energies. Such resolution will be highly relevant to study biological samples such as proteins and cell membranes. The low electron energies minimize adverse effects due to radiation damage. - Highlights: • We present a new way of performing low energy transmission electron microscopy in an aberration corrected LEEM/PEEM instrument. • We show a proof of principle where we measure transmitted electrons through a suspended graphene monolayer with a preliminary setup. • We present an improved setup design that provides better control of the incident electron beam.

  16. Extended Delivery Time Analysis for Cognitive Packet Transmission With Application to Secondary Queuing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2015-05-21

    Cognitive radio transceiver can opportunistically access the underutilized spectrum resource of primary systems for new wireless services. With interweave implementation, the secondary transmission may be interrupted by the primary user\\'s transmission. To facilitate the delay analysis of such secondary transmission for fixed-size secondary packets, we study the resulting extended delivery time that includes both transmission time and waiting time. In particular, we derive the exact distribution functions of extended delivery time of secondary transmission for both continuous sensing and periodic sensing cases. Selected numerical and simulation results are presented for illustrating the mathematical formulation. Finally, we consider an M/G/1 queueing set-up at the secondary transmitter and formulate the closed-form expressions for the expected delay with Poisson traffic. The analytical results will greatly facilitate the design of the secondary system for particular target application. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Mapping of valence energy losses via energy-filtered annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Sigle, Wilfried; Koch, Christoph T; Nelayah, Jaysen; Srot, Vesna; van Aken, Peter A

    2009-08-01

    The advent of electron monochromators has opened new perspectives on electron energy-loss spectroscopy at low energy losses, including phenomena such as surface plasmon resonances or electron transitions from the valence to the conduction band. In this paper, we report first results making use of the combination of an energy filter and a post-filter annular dark-field detector. This instrumental design allows us to obtain energy-filtered (i.e. inelastic) annular dark-field images in scanning transmission electron microscopy of the 2-dimensional semiconductor band-gap distribution of a GaN/Al(45)Ga(55)N structure and of surface plasmon resonances of silver nanoprisms. In comparison to other approaches, the technique is less prone to inelastic delocalization and relativistic artefacts. The mixed contribution of elastic and inelastic contrast is discussed.

  18. Cross-Country Electricity Trade, Renewable Energy and European Transmission Infrastructure Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Abrell, Jan; Rausch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a multi-country multi-sector general equilibrium model, integrating high-frequency electricity dispatch and trade decisions, to study the e ects of electricity transmission infrastructure (TI) expansion and re- newable energy (RE) penetration in Europe for gains from trade and carbon dioxide emissions in the power sector. TI can bene t or degrade environ- mental outcomes, depending on RE penetration: it complements emissions abatement by mitigating dispatch problems associ...

  19. Electrospinning of Nanofibers for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiru Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With global concerns about the shortage of fossil fuels and environmental issues, the development of efficient and clean energy storage devices has been drastically accelerated. Nanofibers are used widely for energy storage devices due to their high surface areas and porosities. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for nanofibers. In this review, we mainly focus on the application of electrospun nanofibers on energy storage, such as lithium batteries, fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors. The structure and properties of nanofibers are also summarized systematically. The special morphology of nanofibers prepared by electrospinning is significant to the functional materials for energy storage.

  20. Application of low enthalpy geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancher, B.; Giannone, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the superficial layers of the Earth's crust; it can be exploited in several ways, depending on its temperature. Many systems have been developed to use this clean and renewable energy resource. This paper deals with a particular application of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Latisana (district of Udine NE, Italy). The Latisana's indoor stadium is equipped with geothermal plant that uses low temperature water (29-30 0 ) to provide heating. Economic analysis shows that the cost of its plant is comparable to the cost powered by other kinds of renewable energy resources

  1. Electrospinning of Nanofibers for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guiru; Sun, Liqun; Xie, Haiming; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    With global concerns about the shortage of fossil fuels and environmental issues, the development of efficient and clean energy storage devices has been drastically accelerated. Nanofibers are used widely for energy storage devices due to their high surface areas and porosities. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for nanofibers. In this review, we mainly focus on the application of electrospun nanofibers on energy storage, such as lithium batteries, fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors. The structure and properties of nanofibers are also summarized systematically. The special morphology of nanofibers prepared by electrospinning is significant to the functional materials for energy storage. PMID:28335256

  2. Solar energy applications in telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J.

    The results of a half-decade of a coupled wind-photovoltaic powered, remotely sited telecommunications installation called 'Aerosolec' are reported. A station is examined which was situated at 500 m altitude between Nice and Monaco and comprised a 4 module solar cell plant generating 180 W, a 300 W windpowered generator, and a battery bank. The batteries were linked by a diode, charged by the photovoltaics only when load was met, and provided voltage when the wind/solar cell configuration failed to produce enough power to meet demand. Output of the generators and meteorological parameters were recorded for two years. The station drew a nominal 180W, which was met by the power systems, and involved an actual extra discharge of excess energy. Other, similar stations are outlined, and the use of coupled wind/solar systems for telephone service in remote sites, for optic fiber repeaters, and for telephone relay station are recommended. Cost advantages are seen with the solar/wind systems over liquid hydrocarbon fueled generator systems for low power demand installations.

  3. Facilitating efficient augmentation of transmission networks to connect renewable energy generation: the Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Australia is heavily dependent on coal for electricity generation. The Renewable Energy Target has spurred growth in the utilization of renewable energy sources, with further growth expected into the future. Australia's strongest renewable energy sources are generally distant from the transmission network in resource ‘basins’. Investment is needed to augment the transmission network to enable delivery of electricity from these sources to consumers. Considerable economies of scale flow from anticipating the connection of numerous generators in an area over time and sizing augmentations accordingly. Following a lengthy rulemaking process, the National Electricity Rules were recently amended by a new rule, designed to facilitate the construction of such efficiently sized augmentations. However, the new rule is more conservative than initially envisaged, making little substantive change to the current frameworks for augmentation and connection. This paper outlines these frameworks and the rulemaking process and identifies the key debates surrounding the rule change are identified. This paper then provides a detailed analysis of the new rule, concluding that it is defective in a number of respects and is unlikely to result in the efficient and timely augmentation of the network needed to unlock the potential of Australia's strongest renewable energy resources. - Highlights: ► Remoteness of renewable energy sources is a barrier to greater renewable energy utilization. ► Significant economies of scale flow from efficiently-sized transmission network augmentation. ► Current frameworks in Australia do not incentivise efficiently-sized network augmentations. ► The lack of property rights in an augmentation is particularly problematic. ► The new Scale Efficient Network Extensions rule is not apt to facilitate efficiently-sized network augmentations.

  4. Mode and climatic factors effect on energy losses in transient heat modes of transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigun, A. Ya; Sidorov, O. A.; Osipov, D. S.; Girshin, S. S.; Goryunov, V. N.; Petrova, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    Electrical energy losses increase in modern grids. The losses are connected with an increase in consumption. Existing models of electric power losses estimation considering climatic factors do not allow estimating the cable temperature in real time. Considering weather and mode factors in real time allows to meet effectively and safely the consumer’s needs to minimize energy losses during transmission, to use electric power equipment effectively. These factors increase an interest in the evaluation of the dynamic thermal mode of overhead transmission lines conductors. The article discusses an approximate analytic solution of the heat balance equation in the transient operation mode of overhead lines based on the least squares method. The accuracy of the results obtained is comparable with the results of solving the heat balance equation of transient thermal mode with the Runge-Kutt method. The analysis of mode and climatic factors effect on the cable temperature in a dynamic thermal mode is presented. The calculation of the maximum permissible current for variation of weather conditions is made. The average electric energy losses during the transient process are calculated with the change of wind, air temperature and solar radiation. The parameters having the greatest effect on the transmission capacity are identified.

  5. A portable high-efficiency electromagnetic energy harvesting system using supercapacitors for renewable energy applications in railroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingtian; Zhang, Zutao; Pan, Hongye; Salman, Waleed; Yuan, Yanping; Liu, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study, we develop a portable high-efficiency electromagnetic energy harvesting system with supercapacitors that converts the energy of track vibrations into electricity. The generated electricity is stored in the supercapacitors and used in remote areas for safety facilities or in standby power supplies for rail-side equipment. The proposed system consists of a mechanical transmission and a rectifier. Acting as the energy input and transmission, Gears and a rack amplify the small vibrations of the track, and one-way bearings enhance efficiency by transforming bidirectional motion to unidirectional rotation. Supercapacitors are used in the energy harvesting system for the first time. The supercapacitors permit the storage of energy from rapidly changing transient currents and a steady power supply for external loads. The proposed system is demonstrated through dynamic simulations, which show the rapid response of the system. An efficiency of 55.5% is demonstrated in bench tests, verifying that the proposed electromagnetic energy harvesting system is effective and practical in renewable energy applications for railroads. - Highlights: • A frequently ignored source of energy, railroad track vibrations, is harvested. • A novel conversion mechanism is designed to maximize efficiency. • Supercapacitors are included in the electromagnetic energy harvesting system. • A portable design is proposed for wider application. - Abstract: As the demand for alternative sources of energy has increased, harvesting abundant environmental energy such as vibration energy including track vibrations in railway systems has attracted greater attention. In this study, we develop a portable high-efficiency electromagnetic energy harvesting system with supercapacitors that converts the energy of track vibrations into electricity. The generated electricity is stored in the supercapacitors and used in remote areas for safety facilities or in standby power

  6. An 802.11 n wireless local area network transmission scheme for wireless telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C F; Hung, S I; Chiang, I H

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, an 802.11 n transmission scheme is proposed for wireless telemedicine applications. IEEE 802.11n standards, a power assignment strategy, space-time block coding (STBC), and an object composition Petri net (OCPN) model are adopted. With the proposed wireless system, G.729 audio bit streams, Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG 2000) clinical images, and Moving Picture Experts Group 4 (MPEG-4) video bit streams achieve a transmission bit error rate (BER) of 10-7, 10-4, and 103 simultaneously. The proposed system meets the requirements prescribed for wireless telemedicine applications. An essential feature of this proposed transmission scheme is that clinical information that requires a high quality of service (QoS) is transmitted at a high power transmission rate with significant error protection. For maximizing resource utilization and minimizing the total transmission power, STBC and adaptive modulation techniques are used in the proposed 802.11 n wireless telemedicine system. Further, low power, direct mapping (DM), low-error protection scheme, and high-level modulation are adopted for messages that can tolerate a high BER. With the proposed transmission scheme, the required reliability of communication can be achieved. Our simulation results have shown that the proposed 802.11 n transmission scheme can be used for developing effective wireless telemedicine systems.

  7. 75 FR 40818 - Green Energy Express LLC; 21st Century Transmission Holdings, LLC; Notice of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Energy Express LLC; 21st Century Transmission Holdings, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order July 8, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Green Energy Express LLC and...

  8. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports

  9. Characterizing Energy per Job in Cloud Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thao Nguyen Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a major research focus in sustainable development and is becoming even more critical in information technology (IT with the introduction of new technologies, such as cloud computing and big data, that attract more business users and generate more data to be processed. While many proposals have been presented to optimize power consumption at a system level, the increasing heterogeneity of current workloads requires a finer analysis in the application level to enable adaptive behaviors and in order to reduce the global energy usage. In this work, we focus on batch applications running on virtual machines in the context of data centers. We analyze the application characteristics, model their energy consumption and quantify the energy per job. The analysis focuses on evaluating the efficiency of applications in terms of performance and energy consumed per job, in particular when shared resources are used and the hosts on which the virtual machines are running are heterogeneous in terms of energy profiles, with the aim of identifying the best combinations in the use of resources.

  10. Nanoscale Architectures for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus

    2009-03-01

    In my group, we have developed a number of different potential architecture systems for gaining insights into energy storage and photovoltaics. In one manifestation of our efforts, generating a heterojunction comprising nanotubes and nanocrystals, externally bound and connected, has been significant. The unique, innovative, and important aspect of this particular nanoscale architecture is that it takes advantage of the tunability, in terms of size, shape, and chemistry, of nanotubes and nanocrystals, to create a sharp junction interface, whose properties are inherently manipulable, tailorable, and hence, predictable. For example, the electrical resistance of nanotube-nanoparticle networks is dependent on the nanoscale junctions that exist between these constituent nanomaterials as well as on microscale and macroscale connectivity. Thus, rational design of these nanomaterials is critical to a fundamental understanding of charge transport in single molecules and the determination of their conductance. Results on these systems can therefore be used to increase understanding of intrinsic factors affecting carrier mobility, such as electronic structure, carrier trapping, and delocalization. In a second manifestation, three-dimensional, dendritic micron- scale spheres of alkali metal hydrogen titanate 1D nanostructures (i.e.: nanowires and nanotubes) have been generated using a modified hydrothermal technique in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and an alkali metal hydroxide solution. Sea-urchin-like assemblies of these 1D nanostructures have been transformed into their hydrogen titanate analogues by neutralization as well as into their corresponding semiconducting, anatase titania nanostructured counterparts through a moderate high-temperature annealing dehydration process without destroying the 3D hierarchical structural motif. The as-prepared hollow spheres of titanate and titania 1D nanostructures have overall diameters, ranging from 0.8 μm to 1.2 μm, while the

  11. Chapter 28: Nanomaterials for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Katherine E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Luther, Joseph M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Steven T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-02

    A wide variety of nanomaterials have been applied to energy related applications, including nanofibers, nanocrystalline materials, nanoparticles, and thin film nanocoatings. Solid-state lighting offers significant advantages in energy efficiency compared to traditional lighting technologies. The potential for nanostructured solid-state lighting devices is excellent as it enjoys significant economic drivers in energy efficiency. Fuel cells convert chemical energy to electrical energy through electrochemical reactions at an anode and cathode. The conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals offers great potential to reduce energy dependence on petroleum and reduce green house gas emissions. Batteries involve the production and storage of electrical charge, the transfer of cations and electrical current, each based on electrochemical reactions and chemical reactants. Battery performance relies on the complex processes and factors that affect the transport of charge in the reactants, and across the interface between the chemical phases.

  12. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  13. Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural color filters, which obtain color selection by varying structures, have attracted extensive research interest in recent years due to the advantages of compactness, stability, multifunctions, and so on. In general, the mechanisms of structural colors are based on the interaction between light and structures, including light diffraction, cavity resonance, and surface plasmon resonance. This paper reviews recent progress of various structural color techniques and the integration applications of structural color filters in CMOS image sensors, solar cells, and display.

  14. HVDC transmission power conversion applications in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chan-Ki; Jang, Gil-Soo; Lim, Seong-Joo; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2009-01-01

    HVDC is a critical solution to several major problems encountered when trying to maintain systemic links and quality in large-scale renewable energy environments. HDVC can resolve a number of issues, including voltage stability of AC power networks, reducing fault current, and optimal management of electric power, ensuring the technology will play an increasingly important role in the electric power industry. To address the pressing need for an up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of the subject, Kim, Sood, Jang, Lim and Lee have collaborated to produce this key text and reference.  Combin

  15. A leader-followers model of transmission augmentation for considering strategic behaviours of generating companies in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesamzadeh, M.R.; Hosseinzadeh, N.; Wolfs, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper suggests an integrated mathematical framework developed based on the leader-followers game for augmentation of transmission networks. Transmission Network Service Provider moves first and designs the horizon year transmission system. Generating Companies compete for having the highest share from the energy market and they find their equilibrium point using the Nash equilibrium concept. Finally, Market Management Company receives the planning schedule of transmission system and the energy offer prices and clears the market. In addition to the exact mathematical modelling of the interested players of transmission planning problem, the methodology can design the future transmission system not only for improving the system social welfare but also for encouraging competition among horizon year generating companies. (author)

  16. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  17. Metal chalcogenide nanostructures for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2014-01-01

    This first ever reference book that focuses on metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energy applications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinary research on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures (nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires,  nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more).  The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials is essential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuses on the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growth mechanism, optical, electrical, and other important prop

  18. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPIELMAN, RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999

  19. An energy saving mechanism of EPON networks for real time video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Ping; Wu, Ho-Ting; Chiang, Yun-Ting; Chien, Shieh-Chieh; Ke, Kai-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Modern access networks are constructed widely by passive optical networks (PONs) to meet the growing bandwidth demand. However, higher bandwidth means more energy consumption. To save energy, a few research works propose the dual-mode energy saving mechanism that allows the ONU to operate between active and sleep modes periodically. However, such dual-mode energy saving design may induce unnecessary power consumption or packet delay increase in the case where only downstream data exist for most of the time. In this paper, we propose a new tri-mode energy saving scheme for Ethernet PON (EPON). The new tri-mode energy saving design, combining the dual-mode saving mechanism with the doze mode, allows the ONU to switch among these three modes alternatively. In the doze mode, the ONU may receive downstream data while keeping its transmitter close. Such scenario is often observed for real time video downstream transmission. Furthermore, the low packet delay of high priority upstream data can be attained through the use of early wake-up mechanism employed in both energy saving modes. The energy saving and system efficiency can thus be achieved jointly while maintaining the differentiated QoS for data with various priorities. Performance results via simulation have demonstrated the effectiveness of such mechanism.

  20. Metastable memristive lines for signal transmission and information processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipko, Valeriy A.; Pershin, Yuriy V.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional studies of memristive devices have mainly focused on their applications in nonvolatile information storage and information processing. Here, we demonstrate that the third fundamental component of information technologies—the transfer of information—can also be employed with memristive devices. For this purpose, we introduce a metastable memristive circuit. Combining metastable memristive circuits into a line, one obtains an architecture capable of transferring a signal edge from one space location to another. We emphasize that the suggested metastable memristive lines employ only resistive circuit components. Moreover, their networks (for example, Y-connected lines) have an information processing capability.

  1. Applications of high lateral and energy resolution imaging XPS with a double hemispherical analyser based spectromicroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, M.; Winkler, K.; Renault, O.; Barrett, N.

    2010-01-01

    The design and applications of an instrument for imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are reviewed. The instrument is based on a photoelectron microscope and a double hemispherical analyser whose symmetric configuration avoids the spherical aberration (α 2 -term) inherent for standard analysers. The analyser allows high transmission imaging without sacrificing the lateral and energy resolution of the instrument. The importance of high transmission, especially for highest resolution imaging XPS with monochromated laboratory X-ray sources, is outlined and the close interrelation of energy resolution, lateral resolution and analyser transmission is illustrated. Chemical imaging applications using a monochromatic laboratory Al Kα-source are shown, with a lateral resolution of 610 nm. Examples of measurements made using synchrotron and laboratory ultra-violet light show the broad field of applications from imaging of core level electrons with chemical shift identification, high resolution threshold photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), work function imaging and band structure imaging.

  2. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Samei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN. With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture. This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  3. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Power demand, load center assessment and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Thaik, A.; Pingel, P.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study. The projected power demands and load center locations were reviewed and assessed. Alternative transmission systems were analysed and a conceptual transmission for bulk power transportation is proposed with potential line routes. Environmental impacts of the proposed transmission were also identified

  4. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Power demand, load center assessment and transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.R.; Thaik, A.; Pingel, P.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study. The projected power demands and load center locations were reviewed and assessed. Alternative transmission systems were analysed and a conceptual transmission for bulk power transportation is proposed with potential line routes. Environmental impacts of the proposed transmission were also identified.

  5. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  6. Extraordinary acoustic transmission through annuluses in air and its applications in acoustic beam splitter and concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Yong; Liu, Shu-sen; Yuan, Shou-qi; Xia, Jian-ping; Guan, Yi-jun; Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2016-01-01

    We report an extraordinary acoustic transmission through two layer annuluses made of metal cylinders in air both numerically and experimentally. The effect arises from the enhancement and reconstruction of the incident source induced by different Mie-resonance modes of the annuluses. The proposed system takes advantages of the consistency in the waveform between the input and output waves, the high amplitude amplification of output waves, and the easy adjustment of structure. More interestingly, we investigate the applications of the extraordinary acoustic transmission in the acoustic beam splitter and acoustic concentrator. Our finding should have an impact on ultrasonic applications.

  7. Applications of solar energy in industrial parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaver, V.W.; Farrington, R.B.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    The four phases of ongoing work at SERI that examines many unresolved questions regarding the purpose, solar applicability, economics, and energy modeling of industral parks are presented. The first phase involved site visits to approximately 300 parks in 12 major metropolitan areas of 9 states. Phase 2 entails an analysis of four parks selected from those parks surveyed. Phase 3 narrows the focus to two parks to be examined for detailed technical and engineering analysis. Phase 4 incorporates all of the work of the earlier phases with economic criteria to produce an energy allocation model describing energy delivery and consumption within the park.

  8. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  9. Development and Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems for Wireless ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the variations in the magnetic field distribution and power transmission efficiency, resulting from changes in the relative positions of the transmitting and receiving coils, for electromagnetic induction-type wireless power transmission using an elliptical receive coil. Results of simulations using a high-frequency structure simulator were compared to actual measurement results. The simulations showed that the transmission efficiency could be maintained relatively stable even if the alignment between the transmitting and receiving coils was changed to some extent. When the centre of the receiving coil was perfectly aligned with the centre of the transmitting coil, the transmission efficiency was in the maximum; however, the degree of decrease in the transmission efficiency was small even if the centre of the receiving coil moved by ±10 mm from the centre of the transmitting coil. Therefore, it is expected that the performance of the wireless power transmission system will not be degraded significantly even if perfect alignment is not maintained. Animal experiments confirmed good ECG signals for the simulation conditions. The results suggested a standardized application method of wireless transmission in the utilization of wireless power for implantable sensors.

  10. Information technology applications in improving energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Heine, P. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Power systems, Espoo (Finland)); Koski, P. (Motiva, Helsinki (Finland)), email: pertti.koski@motiva.fi

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the project was to study how the different statistical analysis and optimization methods can be applied in the data obtained from data systems and energy measurement databases, in order to increase the energy efficiency in small and medium size industry, in commercial and public sector and in households. The project had two subtasks: (1) Development of analysis techniques and their applications in kWh-metering databases, combined with data from various other databases, like customer data bases, data bases of building authorities etc. The aim is to identify the key technologies of energy efficiency, and their potential. (2) Development of business models for energy saving activities: How to find motivation for increasing energy efficiency, howto divide benefits, how to divide activities between different parties. (orig.)

  11. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gope

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF and the Bus Sensitivity Factor (BSF. BSF is used for finding the optimal location of WCAES in the system. GSF with a Moth Flame Optimization (MFO algorithm is used for rescheduling the generators to alleviate congestion and to minimize congestion cost by improving security margin. The impact of the WCAES system is tested with a 39 bus system. To validate this approach, the same problem has been solved with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and the obtained results are compared with the ones from the MFO algorithm.

  12. Energy analysis of the basic materials utilized in electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-30

    The energy content per mile of installed underground and overhead power transmission systems has been calculated for the following types of systems: self-contained oil-filled cables; HPOF pipe-type cables; extruded dielectric cables; compressed-gas-insulated systems; overhead lines (ac and dc) and two proposed superconducting systems (ac and dc). The system operating voltages analyzed included 138, 230, 345, 500, 765 and 1,200 kV for ac systems, but all systems were not analyzed at the higher voltages. The dc overhead lines operated at +-200, +-400, +-600 and +-800 kV. Total installed energy content for these systems ranged from 4 x 10/sup 9/ to 1.2 x 10/sup 11/ Btu per mile. Installation energy requirements were generally 10% or less of the inherent system energy content based on the materials used in each system. Most of the energy content in each system can be attributed to the metallic components; plastic and insulating oil also contribute significantly. The energy content of 36 materials and basic products, in terms of Btu per ton, was calculated as part of this study. Substitution of conductor materials (e.g., aluminum for copper) in cable systems resulted in changes in the total system energy content on the order of 15%.

  13. Dual-Hop VLC/RF Transmission System with Energy Harvesting Relay under Delay Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2017-02-09

    In this paper, we introduce a dual-hop visible light communication (VLC) / radio frequency (RF) transmission system to extend the coverage of indoor VLC systems. The relay between the two hops is able to harvest light energy from different artificial light sources and sunlight entering the room. The relay receives data packet over a VLC channel and uses the harvested energy to retransmit it to a mobile terminal over an RF channel. We develop a novel statistical model for the harvested electrical power and analyze the probability of data packet loss. We define a system design parameter (α ∈ [0, 1)) that controls the time dedicated for excess energy harvesting and data packet retransmission. It was found that the parameter has an optimal value which minimizes the packet loss probability. Further more, this optimal value is independent of the RF channel path loss. However, optimal showed inverse dependence on the packet size.

  14. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues

  15. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  16. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  17. Beam transmission in MP equipment. New measurements. Main effects and application to VIVITRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.; Muller, C.; Nadji, A.; Rebmeister, R.

    1989-01-01

    The MP equipment is presented and the vacuum values at different measuring points are indicated. The low energy transmission stage (foil and gas strippers) high energy stage (5, 10, and 15 micro-g/cm 2 foils and gas stripper) are described, as well as the global system. For the Vivitron, in order to reach equilibrium thickness, pression in the stripping channel should be higher than that in the MP channel, and pump power should be planned accordingly [fr

  18. Symmetry-Related Electromagnetic Properties of Resonator-Loaded Transmission Lines and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Naqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress in the analysis and applications of the symmetry-related electromagnetic properties of transmission lines loaded with symmetric configurations of resonant elements. It will be shown that the transmission characteristics of these reactively loaded lines can be controlled by the relative orientation between the line and the resonant elements. Two main types of loaded lines are considered: (i resonance-based structures; and (ii frequency-splitting structures. In resonance-based transmission lines, a line is loaded with a single resonant (and symmetric element. For a perfectly symmetric structure, the line is transparent if the line and resonator exhibit symmetry planes of different electromagnetic nature (electric or magnetic wall, whereas the line exhibits a notch (resonance in the transmission coefficient if the symmetry planes behave as either electric or magnetic walls (symmetric configuration, or if symmetry is broken. In frequency-splitting lines, paired resonators are typically loaded to the transmission line; the structure exhibits a single notch for the symmetric configuration, whereas generally two split notches appear when symmetry is disrupted. Applications of these structures include microwave sensors (e.g., contactless sensors of spatial variables, selective mode suppressors (of application in common-mode suppressed differential lines, for instance and spectral signature barcodes, among others.

  19. Nuclear energy I, Non-energetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue G, J.; Navarrete T, M.; Cabrera M, L.; Arandia, P.A.; Arriola S, H.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear energy is defined as the energy produced or absorbed in the nuclear reactions, therefore, these are divided in endothermic and exothermic. The exothermic nuclear reactions present more interest from the point of view of its applications and they can show in four main forms: radioactivity (from 0 to 4 MeV/reaction; light nucleus fusion ( ∼ 20 MeV/reaction), heavy nucleus fusion (∼ 200 MeV/reaction) and nucleons annihilation ( ∼ 2000 MeV/reaction). Nowadays only the fission has reached the stage of profitable energetic application, finding the other three forms in research and development. The non-energetic applications of the nuclear energy are characterized by they do not require of prior conversion to another form of energy and they are made through the use of radioisotopes as well as through the use of endothermic reaction caused in particle accelerators. In this work are presented some of the non-energetic applications with its theoretical and experimental basis as well as its benefits of each one. (Author)

  20. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  1. A Broad Iron Line in the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of 4U 1705-44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; Méndez, R.M.; Burderi, L.; Lavagetto, G.; Robba, N.R.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a Chandra 30 ks observation of the low-mass X-ray binary and atoll source 4U 1705-44. Here we concentrate on the study of discrete features in the energy spectrum at energies below ~3 keV, as well as on the iron Kalpha line, using the High Energy Transmission Grating

  2. 76 FR 49762 - FirstEnergy Service Co. v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Service Co. v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator...Energy Service Company filed a petition for declaratory order asking that the Commission declare that... System Operator, Inc. (Midwest ISO) in Docket No. ER10-1791 may not, by their own terms, be imposed on...

  3. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently the authors used a MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r b < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. The authors' success with the MITL technology led them to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. They have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30-50-ns FWHM output pulse

  4. Application of Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r ρ < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30--50 ns FWHM output pulse. 10 refs

  5. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  6. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  7. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. (TCPM) has applied to renew its authority... marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international transmission...

  8. A mobility based vibroacoustic energy transmission simulation into an enclosure through a double-wall panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Atanu; Bhattacharya, Partha; Niyogi, Arup Guha; Rose, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Double-wall panels are known for their superior sound insulation properties over single wall panels as a sound barrier. The sound transmission phenomenon through a double-wall structure is a complex process involving vibroacoustic interaction between structural panels, the air-cushion in between, and the secondary acoustic domain. It is in this context a versatile and a fully coupled technique based on the finite-element-boundary element model is developed that enables estimation of sound transfer through a double-wall panel into an adjacent enclosure while satisfying the displacement compatibility across the interface. The contribution of individual components in the transmitted energy is identified through numerical simulations.

  9. Wireless Energy and Information Transmission in FSO and RF-FSO Links

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2017-09-22

    We propose and analyze a wireless energy and information transmission scheme in free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are presented for both quasi-static and fast-fading conditions. We derive closed-form expressions for throughput, outage probability and optimal power allocation optimizing the system throughput/outage probability. Finally, we complement the FSO link with an additional radio frequency (RF) link to create a hybrid RF-FSO system and reduce the system outage probability. The results show that joint implementation of the RF and FSO links leads to considerable performance improvement, compared to the cases with only FSO-based communication.

  10. Application of SSSC to the 330kV Nigerian transmission network for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of SSSC to the 330kV Nigerian transmission network for voltage control. ... Steady state modeling of power system and SSSC modeling produced two sets of non-linear algebraic equations that were solved simultaneously using Newton-Raphson algorithm (NR) method and was implemented using MATLAB.

  11. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  12. Application-level technique for faster transmission of large images on the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Berman, Lewis E.; Neve, Leif; Roy, Gautam; Thoma, George R.

    1995-03-01

    An application-level technique for improving the transmission rate of large files is described in this paper. Such techniques are important in areas such as telemedicine, where near-real-time delivery of large files such as digital images is a goal: end users may include specialist whose time is scarce and expensive, and timely access to the data may be necessary for effective clinical treatment. Faster delivery is also an enabling technology for accessing remote medial archives. In conventional TCP/IP transmission, data to be transmitted is sent down one logical communication channel. Our technique divided the data into segments; each segment is sent down its own channel, and the segments are reassembled into a copy of the original data at the receiving end. This technique has been implemented and tested in a client-server program using Berkeley Unix sockets, multiple independent process for channel control, and interprocess communication techniques to guarantee the receipt and correct reassembly of the transmitted data. Performance measurements have been made on several hundred Internet transmissions (including Arizona-to-Maryland transmissions) of 5-megabyte cervical x- ray images. Transmission time as a function of number of channels has been recorded, and a 3-fold improvement in transmission rate has been observed.

  13. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but that is more than enough to supply all our energy demand.Indonesia is a tropical country and located in the equator line, so it has an abundant potential ofsolar energy. Most of Indonesian area get enough intensity of solar radiation with the average dailyradiation around 4 kWh/m2. Basically, the solar systems use solar collectors and concentrators forcollecting, storing, and using solar radiation to be applied for the benefit of domestics, commercials,and industrials. Common applications for solar thermal energy used in industry are the SWHs, solardryers, space heating, cooling systems and water desalination.

  14. Utilization of superconductivity in energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.T.; Mikkonen, R.; Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    The technical potential of high temperature superconductors has been demonstrated in energy power applications. The magnetisation coils of the constructed 1.5 kW synchronous motor are made of bismuth-based material, the efficiency of the motor being 82 %. The same material is utilised in a 5 kJ magnetic energy storage in order to compensate for a short-term loss of power. Fast activation time and high efficiency are the benefits compared to traditional UPS systems. The operation temperature of 20-30 K enables the usage of mechanical cooling which is one major advantage compared to conventional liquid helium cooled systems. (orig.)

  15. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  16. Energy Conversion and Transmission Characteristics Analysis of Ice Storage Air Conditioning System Driven by Distributed Photovoltaic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the investment and operation cost of distributed PV energy system, ice storage technology was introduced to substitute batteries for solar energy storage. Firstly, the ice storage air conditioning system (ISACS driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES was proposed and the feasibility studies have been investigated in this paper. And then, the theoretical model has been established and experimental work has been done to analyze the energy coupling and transferring characteristics in light-electricity-cold conversion process. In addition, the structure optimization analysis was investigated. Results revealed that energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker with only 17.38% energy utilization efficiency and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES were 5.44% and 67.30%, respectively. So the immersed evaporator and cointegrated exchanger were adopted for higher energy utilization efficiency and better financial rewards in structure optimization. The COP and exergy efficiency of ice maker can be increased to 1.48 and 81.24%, respectively, after optimization and the energy utilization efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES could be improved 2.88 times. Moreover, ISACS has the out-of-the-box function of ordinary air conditioning system. In conclusion, ISACS driven by DPES will have good application prospects in tropical regions without power grid.

  17. Biometric fingerprinting for visa application: device and procedure are risk factors for infection transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jan A; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biometric fingerprint identity verification is currently introduced in visa application and entry screening at border control. The system implies physical contact between the skin and the surface of the fingerprint-capturing and reading devices. To assess the risk of infection transmission through fingerprinting. The medical literature was reviewed for the potential of microorganisms to be carried on the skin of hands in the community, to be transferred from hands to inanimate surfaces, to survive on surfaces, and to be transferred in doses exceeding the infectious dose. The fingerprinting procedures as currently applied were reviewed. Factors that favor transfer of microorganisms are large skin-surface contact between flat fingers (2 x 20 cm(2)) and fingerprint-capturing device, nonporous contact surface, large overlap of contact surface and short turnaround time between successive applicants, high contact pressure, and difficulties to disinfect devices. Transmission risk exists for enteric viruses (rotavirus, norovirus, and hepatitis A virus), respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, etc.), and enteropathogenic bacteria with low infectious doses (Shigella dysenteriae, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, etc.). Using Monte Carlo risk analysis on US data, transmission of human rotavirus is estimated at 191 [95% credible intervals (CI) 0-289] per million fingerprint-capturing procedures. Application of 70% isopropyl hand rub and 85% ethanol hand gel reduces the risk to 77 (95% CI 0-118) and 0.3 (95% CI 0-0.3) transmissions per million procedures, respectively. The fingerprinting procedure as currently used is associated with a risk of infection transmission. Simple hygienic measures can considerably reduce this transmission risk.

  18. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  19. Floating microbial fuel cells as energy harvesters for signal transmission from natural water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Colombo, Alessandra; Grattieri, Matteo; Trasatti, Stefano P.; Liberale, Alessandro; Tremolada, Paolo; Pino, Claudio; Cristiani, Pierangela

    2017-02-01

    A new type of floating microbial fuel cell (fMFC) was developed for power supply of remote environmental sensors and data transmission. Ten operating fMFCs generated a cell potential in the range 100-800 mV depending on the external resistance applied. Power production peaked around 3-3.5 mW (power density of 22-28 mW m-2 cathode) after about 20-30 days of start-up period. The average of daily electrical energy harvested ranged between 10 and 35 mWh/d. Long-term performances were ensured in the presence of dense rice plants (Oryza Sativa). A power management system, based on a step-up DC/DC converter and a low-power data transmission system via SIGFOX™ technology, have been set up for the fMFCs. The tested fMFCs systems allowed to: i) harvest produced energy, ii) supply electronic devices (intermittent LED-light and a buzzer); iii) transmit remote data at low speed (three message of 12 bites each, in 6 s). Several 'floating garden' MFCs were set in the context of demonstrative events at EXPO2015 world exposition held in Milan between May-October 2015. Some of the 'floating garden' MFCs were operating for more than one year.

  20. [Mobile phone-computer wireless interactive graphics transmission technology and its medical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuo; Liu, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Application of clinical digital medical imaging has raised many tough issues to tackle, such as data storage, management, and information sharing. Here we investigated a mobile phone based medical image management system which is capable of achieving personal medical imaging information storage, management and comprehensive health information analysis. The technologies related to the management system spanning the wireless transmission technology, the technical capabilities of phone in mobile health care and management of mobile medical database were discussed. Taking medical infrared images transmission between phone and computer as an example, the working principle of the present system was demonstrated.

  1. Modeling transmission parameters of polymer microstructured fibers for applications in FTTH networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdula, P.; Welikow, K.; Szczepański, P.; Buczyński, R.; Piramidowicz, R.

    2011-10-01

    This paper is focused on selected aspects of designing and modeling of transmission parameters of plastic optical fibers (POFs), considered in the context of their potential applications in optical access networks and, specifically, in Fiber-To- The-Home (FTTH) systems. The survey of state-of-the-art solutions is presented and possibility of improving transmission properties of POFs by microstructurization is discussed on the basis of the first results of numerical modeling. In particular, the microstructured POF was designed supporting propagation of limited number of modes while keeping relatively large mode area and, simultaneously, significantly lowered bending losses.

  2. Transmissive liquid crystal light-valve for near-infrared applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzo, Umberto; Residori, Stefania; Huignard, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    An optical valve is realized by associating a nematic liquid crystal layer with a Cr-doped gallium arsenide as a photoconductive substrate. The light-valve is shown to efficiently operate in transmission at 1.06 μm optical wavelength. The optical phase shift and refractive index change are measured as a function of the incident light intensity and of the voltage applied. Additionally, the light-valve is shown to act as a self-defocusing medium. Combining transmissive properties and nonlinear features, applications for dynamic holography in the near-infrared region of the spectrum can be envisaged.

  3. APPLICATION OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION SPECTRA TO IDENTIFY WINES WITH PROTECTED GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION (IGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Khodasevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation is carried out of physical and chemical characteristics of the unblended varietal young Moldovan wine harvested in 2014 by the projection to latent structures of the transmission spectra in the range of 220–2500 nm. The achieved accuracy of the regression determining the parameters is appropriate for practical application purposes (from 5 % for alcohol strength to 30 % for tartaric acid content in red wines. The possibility is shown of solving the problem of verification of the protected geographical indication of wines (IGP – Indication Géographique Protégée by the multivariate analysis of broadband transmission spectra. 

  4. SOLAR ENERGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN NIGERIA: Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is the energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which requires no medium for its transmission. The earth receives about one – half of one billionth of the total solar output. The sun is largely responsible for almost all of our conventional energy sources. For example, photosynthesis ...

  5. Silicon carbide as platform for energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syväjärvi, Mikael; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Sun, Jianwu

    and solar cells, and further pursue concepts in materials for thermoelectrics, biofuel cells and supercapacitor research proposals. In fact, there are a number of energy applications which can be based on the SiC materials.- Fluorescent SiC for white LED in general lighting - Cubic SiC for a highly...... efficient solar cell- Cubic SiC for water splitting to generate hydrogen.Further on, we have the following concepts that could be explored- Thermoelectric SiC for electricity generation from heat- Biofuels cells based on carbon electrodes on SiC- Supercapacitors based on sintered SiC and carbon materials......Silicon carbide is emerging as a novel material for a range of energy and environmental technologies. Previously, silicon carbide was considered as a material mainly for transistor applications. We have initiated the use of silicon carbide material towards optoelectronics in general lighting...

  6. Accelerator applications in energy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2015-01-01

    As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today's world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator ...

  7. Multiwavelet packet entropy and its application in transmission line fault recognition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qiaoge

    2014-11-01

    Multiwavelets possess better properties than traditional wavelets. Multiwavelet packet transformation has more high-frequency information. Spectral entropy can be applied as an analysis index to the complexity or uncertainty of a signal. This paper tries to define four multiwavelet packet entropies to extract the features of different transmission line faults, and uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to recognize and classify 10 fault types of power transmission lines. First, the preprocessing and postprocessing problems of multiwavelets are presented. Shannon entropy and Tsallis entropy are introduced, and their difference is discussed. Second, multiwavelet packet energy entropy, time entropy, Shannon singular entropy, and Tsallis singular entropy are defined as the feature extraction methods of transmission line fault signals. Third, the plan of transmission line fault recognition using multiwavelet packet entropies and an RBF neural network is proposed. Finally, the experimental results show that the plan with the four multiwavelet packet energy entropies defined in this paper achieves better performance in fault recognition. The performance with SA4 (symmetric antisymmetric) multiwavelet packet Tsallis singular entropy is the best among the combinations of different multiwavelet packets and the four multiwavelet packet entropies.

  8. ENTSOE Role in Transmission Network Planning Following the Provisons of the EU's Third Energy Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medjimorec, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the initial period of its operation the European network of transmission system operators for electricity (ENTSO-E) has prepared and published the first edition of its ten-year network development plan (TYNDP) for period 2010-2020, by which has fulfilled one of the ENTSO-E's tasks according to the new Directive 714/09/EZ on grid accessing conditions for cross-border electricity exchange. In this process, ENTSO-E has carried out a broad public debates, which provided, together with general reactions of a number of major European power industry stakeholders, expectations regarding new editions of this non-binding paper (TYNDP), which followed every two years. Following these experiences, and the experiences of individual transmission system operators as participants of making TYNDP ''pilot'' through ENTSO-E, a plan and a time schedule of activities were adopted until the publication of the next TYNDP in the spring of 2012. Important step in this represents parallel preparation and creation of six regional investment plans (RIP) in order to reduce the scope of activities at the pan-European TYNDP level and to ensure their consistency. Namely among this six regions agreed between transmission system operators, which are members of ENTSO-E, there are certain overlaps in the area which they include (and thus in included projects). One of the three main reasons for launching investment projects in new or reconstructed transmission facilities which are covered with TYNDP or RIP is the integration of electricity market. Therefore is, within the methodology improvement of making TYNDP or RIP, further expanded treatment of input data, especially in terms of market-relevant data and data needed for modeling electricity market and its impact on investment in the transmission system. Also, additional scenarios that are used by all RIP are defined, where the most important scenario is so called 20-20-20 which as the basic input parameters takes National investment plans whose

  9. 77 FR 50486 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-294-B] Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TexMex Energy, LLC (TexMex) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from...

  10. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-388] Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.... SUMMARY: TEC Energy Inc. (TEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United... received an application from TEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...

  11. Nash Equilibrium of an Energy Saving Strategy with Dual Rate Transmission in Wireless Regional Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiang Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless regional area network (WRAN adopts centralized network architecture and is currently one of the most typical cognitive radio networks. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the communication networks with the constraint of spectrum resource utilization, a working sleep mechanism is introduced into the base station (BS, and a novel energy saving strategy with dual rate transmission is proposed. Combining the multiple-vacation queue and priority queue, using the quasi-birth-death process and the matrix-geometric solution method, we assess the average latency and the forced termination probability of secondary user packets, as well as the energy saving ratio and the channel utilization of system. Based on the revenue-expenditure structure, a profit function is built, and then the Nash equilibrium behavior and the socially optimal behavior are investigated. With the help of the particle swarm optimization, an intelligent optimization algorithm to search the socially optimal arrival rate of secondary user packets is presented. In order to unify the arrival rates of secondary user packets with Nash equilibrium and social optimization, a reasonable pricing policy is formulated. In addition, system experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the energy saving strategy and the rationality of the pricing policy.

  12. Nano materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Kannan, A.M.; Kothurkar, N.; Khalil, Y.; Kuravi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano materials enabled technologies have been seamlessly integrated into applications such as aviation and space, chemical industry, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, building/construction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industry. Clean energy and environmental applications often demand the development of novel nano materials that can provide shortest reaction pathways for the enhancement of reaction kinetics. Understanding the physicochemical, structural, microstructural, surface, and interface properties of nano materials is vital for achieving the required efficiency, cycle life, and sustain ability in various technological applications. Nano materials with specific size and shape such as nano tubes, nano fibers/nano wires, nano cones, nano composites, nano rods, nano islands, nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nano shells to provide unique properties can be synthesized by tuning the process conditions.

  13. Laser transmission welding of polylactide to aluminium thin films for applications in the food-packaging industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Nunziante; Campana, Giampaolo; Fiorini, Maurizio; Morelli, Raffaele

    2017-06-01

    Laser transmission welding is a suitable technology to join thin films of similar or dissimilar materials without any addition of chemical solvents or adhesives. This process represents a very important opportunity in the case of packaging applications (for example in food and pharmaceutical sectors) where the realisation of strong welds by avoiding the contact between the thermal source and the processed materials and, furthermore, without using any third material that could contaminate the contents, is reliable and relevant. The aim of this paper is to prove the feasibility of the laser transmission welding of polylactide to aluminium thin films by means of laser transmission welding through the use of a low power pulsed wave fibre laser. Laser joint samples were realised, analysed by optical microscopy to reveal possible defects and to evaluate the weld width and tested to measure the mechanical tensile strength. An accurate relationship between the joint quality and both the welding speed and the k-factor, which represents the delivered energy per unit length and affects the bonding mechanism at the interface, was determined. The achieved feasibility area is extremely narrow and possible only for the higher value of the average power. The joint tensile strength was proven to be in a proportional relationship with the effective bonded area and reached satisfactory values.

  14. Graphene hybridization for energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2018-03-07

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique two-dimensional structure, high electronic mobility, exceptional thermal conductivity, excellent optical transmittance, good mechanical strength, and ultrahigh surface area. To meet the ever increasing demand for portable electronic products, electric vehicles, smart grids, and renewable energy integrations, hybridizing graphene with various functions and components has been demonstrated to be a versatile and powerful strategy to significantly enhance the performance of various energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and beyond, because such hybridization can result in synergistic effects that combine the best merits of involved components and confer new functions and properties, thereby improving the charge/discharge efficiencies and capabilities, energy/power densities, and cycle life of these energy storage systems. This review will focus on diverse graphene hybridization principles and strategies for energy storage applications, and the proposed outline is as follows. First, graphene and its fundamental properties, followed by graphene hybrids and related hybridization motivation, are introduced. Second, the developed hybridization formulas of using graphene for lithium-ion batteries are systematically categorized from the viewpoint of material structure design, bulk electrode construction, and material/electrode collaborative engineering; the latest representative progress on anodes and cathodes of lithium-ion batteries will be reviewed following such classifications. Third, similar hybridization formulas for graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes will be summarized and discussed as well. Fourth, the recently emerging hybridization formulas for other graphene-based energy storage devices will be briefed in combination with typical examples. Finally, future prospects and directions on the exploration of graphene hybridization toward the design and construction of

  15. Signal transmission techniques for large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.; Bible, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The RCE is currently developing a prototypic microwave-based signal transmission system for reprocessing cell applications. This system, being developed for use in the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS), will operate in the 10-GHz frequency range. Provisions are being made for five real-time video channels, three bidirectional data channels at one megabaud data rate each, and two audio channels. The basic utility of the concept has been proven in a laboratory demonstration using gallium arsenide gunn diode transmitter/receivers with horn antennas. Unidirectional transmission of one real-time video channel over a distance of 200 ft was demonstrated. No evidence of multipath interference was detected even when the transmission path was surrounded by metallic reflectors. The microwave signal transmission system for the AIMS application is in final design. Fabrication in the ORNL instrument shops will begin in October 1985, and the system should be operational in the Maintenance Systems Test Area (MSTA) at ORNL in the latter half of 1986

  16. 77 FR 31341 - Application To Export Electric Energy; DC Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year... entities selling the power to DC Energy. The application also indicates that DC Energy is a power marketer...

  17. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  18. Reconstruction of 6 MV photon spectra from measured transmission including maximum energy estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C R; Peck, K K

    1997-11-01

    Photon spectra from a nominally 6 MV beam under standard clinical conditions and at higher and lower beam qualities have been derived from narrow-beam transmission measurements using a previously published three-parameter reconstruction model. Estimates of the maximum photon energy present in each spectrum were derived using a reduced number of model parameters. An estimate of the maximum contribution of background, or room, scatter to transmission measurements has been made for this study and is shown to be negligible in terms of the quality index and percentage depth-dose of the derived spectra. Percentage depth-dose data for standard beam conditions derived from the reconstructed spectrum were found to agree with direct measurements to within approximately 1% for depths of up to 25 cm in water. Quality indices expressed in terms of TPR10(20) for all spectra were found to agree with directly measured values to within 1%. The experimental procedure and reconstruction model are therefore shown to produce photon spectra whose derived quality indices and percentage depth-dose values agree with direct measurement to within expected experimental uncertainty.

  19. Validities of three multislice algorithms for quantitative low-energy transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, W.Q.; Chen, J.H., E-mail: jhchen123@hnu.edu.cn

    2013-11-15

    Three different types of multislice algorithms, namely the conventional multislice (CMS) algorithm, the propagator-corrected multislice (PCMS) algorithm and the fully-corrected multislice (FCMS) algorithm, have been evaluated in comparison with respect to the accelerating voltages in transmission electron microscopy. Detailed numerical calculations have been performed to test their validities. The results show that the three algorithms are equivalent for accelerating voltage above 100 kV. However, below 100 kV, the CMS algorithm will introduce significant errors, not only for higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections but also for zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) reflections. The differences between the PCMS and FCMS algorithms are negligible and mainly appear in HOLZ reflections. Nonetheless, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the PCMS algorithm will also yield results deviating from the FCMS results. The present study demonstrates that the propagation of the electron wave from one slice to the next slice is actually cross-correlated with the crystal potential in a complex manner, such that when the accelerating voltage is lowered to 10 kV, the accuracy of the algorithms is dependent of the scattering power of the specimen. - Highlights: • Three multislice algorithms for low-energy transmission electron microscopy are evaluated. • The propagator-corrected algorithm is a good alternative for voltages down to 20 kV. • Below 20 kV, a fully-corrected algorithm has to be employed for quantitative simulations.

  20. Research on the key technology and application of the packet transmission network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiang; Wang, Zhong

    2009-08-01

    . The application PTN could be convergence of packet service in MAN, such ads DSLAM backhauling, wireless Backhauling and so on. PTN can also take replace the core router in the core network to carry out the high efficient transmission of packet service.

  1. EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ACCUMULATING MECHANISM FOR TRACTOR WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. I. Zhdanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of tractor wheel torque on theoretical tractor motion speed has been used for comparison of tractor operation with electromechanical transmission with installation of energy accumulating mechanism and without its installation. In this case a traction asynchronous electric motor is operating under nominal and limit conditions. The paper also considers dependence diagrams of actual input power for the traction asynchronous electric motor and its losses due to theoretical tractor motion speed. Tractor wheel torque is limited during the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms by the following factors: maximum electric motor torque at the given frequency of supply voltage; maximum value of internal combustion motor output which can be transferred to the traction asynchronous electric motor; grip of the wheels. During the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms there is a possibility for short power consumption without regard to the second limitation because it is possible to use power not only of internal combustion motor but also the power which is stored in the energy accumulating mechanisms. Comparison of characteristics has been made when a tractor is operating at high gear and when it is operating at all gears (that is two gears. Operation of the 5th class tractors has been analyzed for all possible cases (operation with energy accumulating mechanisms and without the mechanisms while being operated at all gears and various types of work: tilling, sowing, cultivation, bulldozing work, transport mode. In this case equipment has been used which is aggregated with the 5th class tractor. 

  2. Transport Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Technology: Transmission Performance and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport of the wireless signals over a predominantly digital optical network in today’s telecommunication infrastructure. Many different approaches have been introduced and demonstrated with digitized RF transport of the wireless signals being the most compatible with the existing optical fiber networks. In this paper, we review our work in the area of digitized RF transport to address the inherent issues related to analog transport in the fiber-wireless links and compare the transmission performance and energy efficiency with the other transport strategies.

  3. Transmission electron microscope interfaced with ion accelerators and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hojou, Kiichi; Furuno, Shigemi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    We have developed the transmission/analytical electron microscope interfaced with two sets of ion accelerators (TEM-Accelerators Facility) at JAERI-Takasaki. The facility is expected to provide quantitative insights into radiation effects, such as damage evolution, irradiation-induced phase transformation and their stability, through in-situ observation and analysis under ion and/or electron irradiation. The TEM-Accelerators Facility and its application to materials research are reviewed. (author)

  4. Application of differential transformation method for solving dengue transmission mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndii, Meksianis Z.; Anggriani, Nursanti; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2018-03-01

    The differential transformation method (DTM) is a semi-analytical numerical technique which depends on Taylor series and has application in many areas including Biomathematics. The aim of this paper is to employ the differential transformation method (DTM) to solve system of non-linear differential equations for dengue transmission mathematical model. Analytical and numerical solutions are determined and the results are compared to that of Runge-Kutta method. We found a good agreement between DTM and Runge-Kutta method.

  5. Neutron Energy Measurements in Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-09-11

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  6. Thermal energy storage for smart grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Khateeb, Siddique; Aljehani, Ahmed; Pintar, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Energy consumption for commercial building cooling accounts for 15% of all commercial building's electricity usage [1]. Electric utility companies charge their customers time of use consumption charges (/kWh) and additionally demand usage charges (/kW) to limit peak energy consumption and offset their high operating costs. Thus, there is an economic incentive to reduce both the electricity consumption charges and demand charges by developing new energy efficient technologies. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using a phase change material (PCM) is one such technology that can reduce demand charges and shift the demand from on-peak to off-peak rates. Ice and chilled water have been used in thermal storage systems for many decades, but they have certain limitations, which include a phase change temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and relatively low thermal conductivity in comparison to other materials, which limit their applications as a storage medium. To overcome these limitations, a novel phase change composite (PCC) TES material was developed that has much higher thermal conductivity that significantly improves the charge / discharge rate and a customizable phase change temperature to allow for better integration with HVAC systems. Compared to ice storage, the PCC TES system is capable of very high heat transfer rate and has lower system and operational costs. Economic analysis was performed to compare the PCC TES system with ice system and favorable economics was proven. A 4.5 kWh PCC TES prototype system was also designed for testing and validation purpose.

  7. JAERI FEL applications in nuclear energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI FEL has first discovered the new FEL lasing of 255fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high efficiency, 1GW high peak power, a few kilowatts average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing and energy-recovery linac technology, we could extend a more powerful and more efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW and 25%, respectively, for nuclear energy industries, and others. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the FEL will cover the application of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to prevent cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear energy and other heavy industries. (author)

  8. Centrifugal Spinning and Its Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors are important electrochemical energy storage systems. LIBs have high specific energy density, long cycle life, good thermal stability, low self-discharge, and no memory effect. However, the low abundance of Li in the Earth's crust and the rising cost of LIBs urge the attempts to develop alternative energy storage systems. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have become an attractive alternative to LIBs due to the high abundance and low cost of Na. Although the specific capacity and energy density of SIBs are not as high as LIBs, SIBs can still be promising power sources for certain applications such as large-scale, stationary grids. Supercapacitors are another important class of energy storage devices. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are one important type of supercapacitors and they exhibit high power density, long cycle life, excellent rate capability and environmental friendliness. The potential applications of supercapacitors include memory protection in electronic circuitry, consumer portable electronic devices, and electrical hybrid vehicles. The electrochemical performance of SIBs and EDLCs is largely dependent on the electrode materials. Therefore, development of superior electrodes is the key to achieve highperformance alternative energy storage systems. Recently, one-dimensional nano-/micro-fiber based electrodes have become promising candidates in energy storage because they possess a variety of desirable properties including large specific surface area, well-guided ionic/electronic transport, and good electrode-electrolyte contact, which contribute to enhanced electrochemical performance. Currently, most nano-/micro-fiber based electrodes are prepared via electrospinning method. However, the low production rate of this approach hinders its practical application in the production of fibrous electrodes. Thus, it is significantly important to employ a rapid, low-cost and scalable nano

  9. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  10. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface......An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resourcestudies. Comparison results from complex....... Spatialtrends in mean wind, energy density, Weibull A and k and uncertainty values are provided for the area of interest. Satellite scatterometer wind observations have a spatial resolution of 25 km by 25 km. These data typically represent a site furtheroffshore, and the tab-file statistics should be used...

  11. Energy harvesting by dielectric elastomer generator and self-priming circuit: verification by radio transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegame, Toru; Takagi, Kentaro; Ito, Takamasa; Kojima, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses energy harvesting and its application using dielectric elastomer and self-priming circuit. With the self-priming circuit attached to the dielectric elastomer, the generated voltage increases exponentially according to the variation of the capacitance caused by applied deformation to the elastomer. Two-stage self-priming circuit is selected for optimal harvesting. The self-priming harvesting technique is able to increase the voltage of the dielectric elastomer from a few volts to kV order, however in this paper the generated voltage is limited up to 1kV in order to avoid the destruction of the dielectric elastomer. The ability of energy harvesting using dielectric elastomer and self-priming circuit is confirmed by both numerical simulation and experiments. In the experiment, the dielectric elastomer is deformed by an electric motor, and the harvested energy is stored to a charging capacitor through Zener diodes. A low-power microcomputer which has a radio transmitter is connected to the charging capacitor for the application example. The experimental results show that the temperature data can be transmitted only by the harvested energy. In addition, the efficiency of the energy harvesting is calculated by comparing the generated power with the charged power.

  12. Piezoelectric Nanowires in Energy Harvesting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the nanogenerators which can convert the mechanical energy into electricity by using piezoelectric one-dimensional nanomaterials have exhibited great potential in microscale power supply and sensor systems. In this paper, we provided a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last eight years concerning the piezoelectric nanogenerators with different structures. The fundamental piezoelectric theory and typical piezoelectric materials are firstly reviewed. After that, the working mechanism, modeling, and structure design of piezoelectric nanogenerators were discussed. Then the recent progress of nanogenerators was reviewed in the structure point of views. Finally, we also discussed the potential application and future development of the piezoelectric nanogenerators.

  13. Application of nanotechnologies in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelucci, R.; Corticelli, F.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Malferraxi, L.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Rizzoli, R.; Summonte, C.

    2003-01-01

    In the past, the progressive reduction of electronics integration scale has allowed high energy physics experiments to build particle detectors with a high number of sensitive channels and high spatial granularity, down to the micron scale. Nowadays, the increasing effort towards nanoelectronics and progresses in various fields of nanotechnologies, suggests that the time for nanodetectors is not far to come. As an example of possible application of nanotechnologies in HEP, we present results on fabrication of nanochannel matrices in anodic porous alumina as a template for preparing an array of carbon nanotubes, which we believe can be a promising building block in developing particle detectors with high spatial resolution

  14. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The International Transmission Company (ITC) is an independent power transmission company that owns, operates and maintains the high voltage transmission system in southeastern Michigan. The company's current focus is on investing in the transmission infrastructure to improve reliability, relieve congestion, improve access to generation and reduce energy costs for consumers. There is a need for investment in power transmission. Trends indicate that power transactions are on the rise while transmission investment is lagging because pricing protocols are inadequate and there is no regional tariff mechanism to allocate the benefits of new investment. The presentation reviewed the applicability of FTRs to transmission owners and the pitfalls of participant funding pricing. It also outlined the regional benefit allocation mechanism (RBAM) with an illustrative example. It was concluded that existing pricing policies must be improved to address the growing need for transmission investment. RBAM is needed to help investors recover costs from project beneficiaries. figs

  15. 75 FR 76962 - Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. (MAG E.S... Gauthier, Director, MAG Energy Solutions, Inc., 1010 Sherbrooke Quest, Suite 800, Montreal, Quebec, Canada...

  16. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...

  17. Transmission calculation by empirical numerical model and Monte Carlo simulation in high energy proton radiography of thick objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Na; Xu, Hai-Bo

    2015-10-01

    An empirical numerical model that includes nuclear absorption, multiple Coulomb scattering and energy loss is presented for the calculation of transmission through thick objects in high energy proton radiography. In this numerical model the angular distributions are treated as Gaussians in the laboratory frame. A Monte Carlo program based on the Geant4 toolkit was developed and used for high energy proton radiography experiment simulations and verification of the empirical numerical model. The two models are used to calculate the transmission fraction of carbon and lead step-wedges in proton radiography at 24 GeV/c, and to calculate radial transmission of the French Test Object in proton radiography at 24 GeV/c with different angular cuts. It is shown that the results of the two models agree with each other, and an analysis of the slight differences is given. Supported by NSAF (11176001) and Science and Technology Developing Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (2012A0202006)

  18. A novel nanoscaled Schottky barrier based transmission gate and its digital circuit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Loan, Sajad A.; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we propose and simulate a compact nanoscaled transmission gate (TG) employing a single Schottky barrier based transistor in the transmission path and a single transistor based Sajad-Sunil-Schottky (SSS) device as an inverter. Therefore, just two transistors are employed to realize a complete transmission gate which normally consumes four transistors in the conventional technology. The transistors used to realize the transmission path and the SSS inverter in the proposed TG are the double gate Schottky barrier devices, employing stacks of two metal silicides, platinum silicide (PtSi) and erbium silicide (ErSi). It has been observed that the realization of the TG gate by the proposed technology has resulted into a compact structure, with reduced component count, junctions, interconnections and regions in comparison to the conventional technology. The further focus of this work is on the application part of the proposed technology. So for the first time, the proposed technology has been used to realize various combinational circuits, like a two input AND gate, a 2:1 multiplexer and a two input XOR circuits. It has been observed that the transistor count has got reduced by half in a TG, two input AND gate, 2:1 multiplexer and in a two input XOR gate. Therefore, a significant reduction in transistor count and area requirement can be achieved by using the proposed technology. The proposed technology can be also used to perform the compact realization of other combinational and sequential circuitry in future.

  19. Low energy CMOS for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Alkalaj, Leon

    1992-01-01

    The current focus of NASA's space flight programs reflects a new thrust towards smaller, less costly, and more frequent space missions, when compared to missions such as Galileo, Magellan, or Cassini. Recently, the concept of a microspacecraft was proposed. In this concept, a small, compact spacecraft that weighs tens of kilograms performs focused scientific objectives such as imaging. Similarly, a Mars Lander micro-rover project is under study that will allow miniature robots weighing less than seven kilograms to explore the Martian surface. To bring the microspacecraft and microrover ideas to fruition, one will have to leverage compact 3D multi-chip module-based multiprocessors (MCM) technologies. Low energy CMOS will become increasingly important because of the thermodynamic considerations in cooling compact 3D MCM implementations and also from considerations of the power budget for space applications. In this paper, we show how the operating voltage is related to the threshold voltage of the CMOS transistors for accomplishing a task in VLSI with minimal energy. We also derive expressions for the noise margins at the optimal operating point. We then look at a low voltage CMOS (LVCMOS) technology developed at Stanford University which improves the power consumption over conventional CMOS by a couple of orders of magnitude and consider the suitability of the technology for space applications by characterizing its SEU immunity.

  20. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  1. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A., E-mail: glaucia.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br, E-mail: vsberga@ipen.br, E-mail: rafaeli.medeiros.moraes@gmail.com, E-mail: maisepastore@hotmail.com, E-mail: fla.kimiyamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  2. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  3. Practical spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A B; Ramasse, Q M; Wen, J G; Bhattacharya, A; Zuo, J M

    2011-08-01

    The resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is limited by delocalization of inelastic electron scattering rather than probe size in an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). In this study, we present an experimental quantification of EELS spatial resolution using chemically modulated 2×(LaMnO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) and 2×(SrVO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) superlattices by measuring the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of integrated Ti M(2,3), Ti L(2,3), V L(2,3), Mn L(2,3), La N(4,5), La N(2,3) La M(4,5) and Sr L(3) edges over the superlattices. The EELS signals recorded using large collection angles are peaked at atomic columns. The FWHM of the EELS profile, obtained by curve-fitting, reveals a systematic trend with the energy loss for the Ti, V, and Mn edges. However, the experimental FWHM of the Sr and La edges deviates significantly from the observed experimental tendency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy of biological samples on highly transparent carbon nanomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinow, Daniel; Bueenfeld, Matthias; Weber, Nils-Eike; Beyer, Andre; Goelzhaeuser, Armin; Kuehlbrandt, Werner; Hampp, Norbert; Turchanin, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Ultrathin carbon nanomembranes (CNM) comprising crosslinked biphenyl precursors have been tested as support films for energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) of biological specimens. Due to their high transparency CNM are ideal substrates for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) of stained and unstained biological samples. Virtually background-free elemental maps of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and ferritin have been obtained from samples supported by ∼1 nm thin CNM. Furthermore, we have tested conductive carbon nanomembranes (cCNM) comprising nanocrystalline graphene, obtained by thermal treatment of CNM, as supports for cryoEM of ice-embedded biological samples. We imaged ice-embedded TMV on cCNM and compared the results with images of ice-embedded TMV on conventional carbon film (CC), thus analyzing the gain in contrast for TMV on cCNM in a quantitative manner. In addition we have developed a method for the preparation of vitrified specimens, suspended over the holes of a conventional holey carbon film, while backed by ultrathin cCNM. -- Research highlights: → We examine ultrathin carbon nanomembranes (CNM) as supports for biological TEM. → CNM comprise crosslinked biphenyl precursors. → CNM supports enable background-free elemental mapping of heavy and light elements. → We perform cryoEM of ice-embedded biological samples on graphene-like conductive CNM.

  5. Superconducting qubit in a nonstationary transmission line cavity: Parametric excitation, periodic pumping, and energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, A.A. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapiro, D.S., E-mail: shapiro.dima@gmail.com [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); V.A. Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Remizov, S.V. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); V.A. Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pogosov, W.V. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lozovik, Yu.E. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142190 Moscow Region, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-12

    We consider a superconducting qubit coupled to the nonstationary transmission line cavity with modulated frequency taking into account energy dissipation. Previously, it was demonstrated that in the case of a single nonadiabatical modulation of a cavity frequency there are two channels of a two-level system excitation which are due to the absorption of Casimir photons and due to the counterrotating wave processes responsible for the dynamical Lamb effect. We show that the parametric periodical modulation of the resonator frequency can increase dramatically the excitation probability. Remarkably, counterrotating wave processes under such a modulation start to play an important role even in the resonant regime. Our predictions can be used to control qubit-resonator quantum states as well as to study experimentally different channels of a parametric qubit excitation. - Highlights: • Coupled qubit-resonator system under the modulation of a resonator frequency is considered. • Counterrotating terms of the Hamiltonian are of importance even in the resonance. • Qubit excited state population is highest if driving frequency matches dressed-state energy.

  6. ENERGY AUDIT ANALYSIS BY BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy audit is one of the first tasks to be performed in the accomplishment of an effective energy cost control program. To obtain the best information for a successful energy audit, the auditor must make some measurements during the audit visit. One of the tools that primarily used in audit visit is the portable Power Quality Analyzers (PQA for measuring single to three-phase lines with a high degree of precision and accuracy. It is utilized for monitoring and recording power supply anomalies. For most survey applications, changing currents makes it mandatory for data to be compiled over a period of time with enormous amount of electricity data. Hence, this paper proposed a Business Intelligence approach that can facilitate the auditor to quickly analyze the PQA data. There are five Key Performance Indicators (KPI to be displayed for analyze in form of dashboard. The method that uses to construct the dashboard is classification and association rules with the help of orange dataminer tools. Classification method is utilized to display the data distributions by frequency on a bar chart. Once we got the frequent sets, they allow us to extract association rules among the item sets, where we make some statement about how likely are two sets of items to co-occur or to conditionally occur. The result of this paper is a dashboard of five scorecards, namely unbalanced voltage, unbalanced currents, voltage harmonic, currents harmonic, and power factor. 

  7. Application of reliability based design concepts to transmission line structure foundations. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGioia, A.M. Jr.; Rojas-Gonzalez, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The application of reliability based design (RBD) methods to transmission line structure foundations has developed somewhat more slowly than that for the other structural components in line systems. In a previous paper, a procedure was proposed for the design of transmission line structures foundations using a probability based load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. This procedure involved the determination of a foundation strength factor, φ F , which was used as a multiplier of the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the LRFD equation. Statistical analyses of results from full-scale load tests were used to obtain φ F values applicable to various nominal design strength equations and for drilled shafts subjected to uplift loads. These results clearly illustrated the significant economic benefits of conducting more detailed subsurface investigations for the design of transmission line structure foundations. A design example was also presented. In this paper the proposed procedure is extended to laterally load drilled shafts

  8. A Cross-Layer Wireless Sensor Network Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Real-Time Monitoring of the Long-Distance Electric Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes has become a critical link that constrains the engineering application of the smart grid due to the fact that the smart grid is characterized by long-distance transmission in a special environment. The paper proposes a linear hierarchical network topological structure specific to WSN energy conservation in environmental monitoring of the long-distance electric transmission lines in the smart grid. Based on the topological structural characteristics and optimization of network layers, the paper also proposes a Topological Structure be Layered Configurations (TSLC routing algorithm to improve the quality of WSN data transmission performance. Coprocessing of the network layer and the media access control (MAC layer is achieved by using the cross-layer design method, accessing the status for the nodes in the network layer and obtaining the status of the network nodes of the MAC layer. It efficiently saves the energy of the whole network, improves the quality of the network service performance, and prolongs the life cycle of the network.

  9. Applications of Nuclear Energy to Oil Sands and Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.

    2011-01-01

    natural gas prices, an unlikely circumstance but one that would undermine the very development of oilsands as surely as high cost and limited availability of natural gas. We examine the applications of nuclear energy to oil sands production, and the concomitant hydrogen production, utilizing realistic reactor designs, modern power and energy market considerations, and environmental constraints on waste and emissions. We cover all aspects of feasibility, specifically technical issues, comparative economics, schedule, regulatory requirements, and other implementation factors. We compare and contrast the claims versus the realities, and also provide the synergistive utilization of co-generation of hydrogen using coupled nuclear and windpower. Among the many non-technological issues expressed by the oil industry are their lack of experience with nuclear technology or nuclear power generation, and with the regulatory framework. The application of any nuclear technology must also consider Government and public support, local and First Nations acceptance, site selection, access to water, oil sands, and transmission, oil industry buy-in on the basis of hard nosed economics, the impacts of oil and gas prices, labour costs and the need for long-term contracts for steam and electricity, together with an experienced nuclear plant owner/operator. (author)

  10. A Transmission Power Optimization with a Minimum Node Degree for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks with Full-Reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments. PMID:23519351

  11. Joint Planning Of Energy Storage and Transmission Considering Wind-Storage Combined System and Demand Side Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, B. Z.; Wang, K. Y.; Ai, X.

    2017-12-01

    In response to the new requirements of the operation mode of wind-storage combined system and demand side response for transmission network planning, this paper presents a joint planning of energy storage and transmission considering wind-storage combined system and demand side response. Firstly, the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of wind farm and demand side response strategy are analysed to achieve the best comprehensive benefits through the coordination of the two. Secondly, in the general transmission network planning model with wind power, both energy storage cost and demand side response cost are added to the objective function. Not only energy storage operation constraints and but also demand side response constraints are introduced into the constraint condition. Based on the classical formulation of TEP, a new formulation is developed considering the simultaneous addition of the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of the wind farm and demand side response strategy, which belongs to a typical mixed integer linear programming model that can be solved by mature optimization software. The case study based on the Garver-6 bus system shows that the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparison with general transmission network planning model. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the joint planning model can gain more economic benefits through setting up different cases.

  12. Improved superconductor for transmission line applications, phase I. Final report, January 1, 1975--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginski, A.I.; Mauser, S.F.; Roland, G.W.; Burghardt, R.R.; Daniel, M.R.; Janocko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of an existing superconducting power transmission cable design indicated that economic benefits in the area of refrigeration can be derived from the substitution of Nb 3 Ge superconductor for the presently planned Nb 3 Sn. However, the cost of Nb 3 Ge must be comparable to that of Nb 3 Sn, which is achievable when preparing Nb 3 Ge by the chemical vapor deposition. Alternatively, technical benefits can be obtained. The most essential and prerequisite requirement is that the Nb 3 Ge critical current density be improved significantly over the present state-of-the art. Other properties of Nb 3 Ge are generally suitable for the transmission line application and/or require only moderate improvements. (auth)

  13. Applications of the renewable energies; Aplicaciones de las energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Rocha, Luis Martin [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The solar energy manifests itself in different forms and its application has been fundamental for the humankind development. These forms are known as renewable energies, since they are energy forms that are renewed or remade with time or that are so abundant on Earth, that they will last for hundreds or thousands of years, either we use them or not. The main advantage of the utilization of the renewable energies in comparison with hydrocarbons is the one of having smaller impact on the environment, which brings about the conservation of nonrenewable resources, and to postpone its exhaustion. They allow the distributed generation, diminishing the power losses in the transmission and distribution systems, which increases the overall efficiency. In addition they can be the drive for regional development and generation of employment, because when having applications in remote zones and being a field still not completely developed in Mexico, the possibility exists of enabling professionals and technicians. From the point of view of the power sector, the renewable energies extend the supply and availability of energy, making more flexible and independent the operation and reliability of the national power system. [Spanish] La energia solar se manifiesta de diversas formas y su aplicacion ha sido fundamental para el desarrollo de la humanidad. A estas formas se les conoce como energias renovables, ya que son formas de energia que se van renovando o rehaciendo con el tiempo o que son tan abundantes en la tierra, que perduraran por cientos o miles de anos, las usemos o no. La principal ventaja del aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en comparacion con los hidrocarburos es la de tener menor impacto al medio ambiente, lo que trae consigo la conservacion de recursos no renovables, y posponer su termino. Permiten la generacion distribuida, disminuyendo las perdidas energeticas en los sistemas de transmision y distribucion, lo que incrementa la eficiencia general. Ademas

  14. Electrospun Fibers for Energy, Electronic, & Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Nicholas M.

    Electrospinning is an established method for creating polymer and bio-polymer fibers of dimensions ranging from ˜10 nanometers to microns. The process typically involves applying a high voltage between a solution source (usually at the end of a capillary or syringe) and a substrate on which the nanofibers are deposited. The high electric field distorts the shape of the liquid droplet, creating a Taylor cone. Additional applied voltage ejects a liquid jet of the polymer solution in the Taylor cone toward the counter electrode. The formation of fibers is generated by the rapid electrostatic elongation and solvent evaporation of this viscoelastic jet, which typically generates an entangled non-woven mesh of fibers with a high surface area to volume ratio. Electrospinning is an attractive alternative to other processes for creating nano-scale fibers and high surface area to volume ratio surfaces due to its low start up cost, overall simplicity, wide range of processable materials, and the ability to generate a moderate amount of fibers in one step. It has also been demonstrated that coaxial electrospinning is possible, wherein the nanofiber has two distinct phases, one being the core and another being the sheath. This method is advantageous because properties of two materials can be combined into one fiber, while maintaining two distinct material phases. Materials that are inherently electrospinable could be made into fibers using this technique as well. The most common applications areas for electrospun fibers are in filtration and biomedical areas, with a comparatively small amount of work done in energy, environmental, and sensor applications. Furthermore, the use of biologically materials in electrospun fibers is an avenue of research that needs more exploration, given the unique properties these materials can exhibit. The research aim of this thesis is to explore the use of electrospun fibers for energy, electrical and environmental applications. For energy

  15. Enabling Energy-Efficient Advertising for Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prochkova, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Advertisements are the main source of revenue for many free mobile applications, however, they increase the energy consumption of the mobile device. In particu- lar, the radio communication used for the advertisement data transfer is energy hungry, so advertisement sponsored applications (free) consume more energy than paid applications.In this thesis, we analyse the effect that advertisements have on the mobile device performance, especially, the energy consumption of transferring and displa...

  16. The peaceful applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    This year the world is celebrating the 200th anniversary of the discovery of uranium and the 50th anniversary of fission. While attention at this symposium was concentrated on the use of fission in power reactors to generate electricity, the author was asked to present a broader introductory picture of peaceful applications of nuclear energy that have resulted from the discovery of fission and has done so. The need was felt, however, to preface this report by noting that a good number of people are probably of the view that there is no cause for celebration, and if they could only do so the author suspects they would dis-invent nuclear science altogether. This attitude, which is most pronounced in relation to nuclear power, is dealt with at the outset. (author)

  17. Application of solar energy in desalting seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Asghar [Darwish Al Gobaisi, Ali M El-Nashar, International Centre for Water and Energy Systems (ICWES), ABU DHABI (United Arab Emirates)

    2008-07-01

    Several regions on the Earth are now in the grip of freshwater scarcity with less than 1000 cu.m. available per year per capita. To overcome this situation, desalting seawater and/or brackish water has become a necessity. In the AGCC countries, almost the entire supply of freshwater depends upon desalting seawater. However, desalination as currently practiced on large scale depends entirely on the combustion of fossil fuels which, in turn, results into pollution of air and affects the global climate adversely. Hence, sustainability of the desalination industry very much depends upon the application of renewable energy such as solar to minimize the environmental impact. This can be applied in several ways. (orig.)

  18. Dual energy CT. Physical models and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlmair, Martin Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) is today a very important non-invasive imaging tool for medical diagnostics. Despite the non-negligible radiation doses of patients and medical personal certain diagnostic questions can only be answered using CT methods. Recent developments adding a second radiation source and a second detector (dual-source CT) allow the imaging the heart beat due to an improved acquisition time. Operation of the X-ray tubes with different voltages (dual-energy) and appropriate data processing methods allow extended information on the tissue composition, pathological structures and improved visualization of lesions. The contribution covers the basic physical background of this technology and is focused on applications, as for instance CT-guided angiography.

  19. Application of nuclear energy in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive isotopes were introduced to medical treatment in Vietnam very early by M. Curie in 1923. A research reactor has been in operation since 1963 serving up to now an effective base for radioisotope production and nuclear analysis. After reunification of the country, the nuclear technique applications are developing faster and getting widespread. The twenty-year period from 1976 to 1995 was relatively limited by activity of R and D institutions. Nowadays, their interaction with companies demonstrates a dynamic commercialization of nuclear techniques in Vietnam. Investment from government as well as from the private sector has been increased significantly for the last ten years to nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The radiographic NDT is getting a familiar technique to industry, particularly, in construction of strategy-important industrial and civil projects. NCS are upgraded in different factories, such as mining, ore processing and cement industries. Tracer techniques have shown benefit in oil offshore exploring and in sedimentation management of rivers and harbours. Isotope techniques are playing a competitive role for environmental monitoring and underground water management in the country. Radiation processing is transferred to a commercial scale emphasizing on sterilization of medical products and food preservation. There are still some problems such as public acceptance of radioactive techniques or a lack of both infrastructure and manpower to meet the national demands. However, the government of Vietnam has recently approved the national strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy, which not only highlights the development of isotope and radiation applications in near future, but also clearly emphasizes the need of nuclear electrical generation by 2017-2020 for the national energy security

  20. Assessment of surge arrester failure rate and application studies in Hellenic high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Fotis, G.P.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The use of transmission line surge arresters to improve the lightning performance of transmission lines is becoming more common. Especially in areas with high soil resistivity and ground flash density, surge arresters constitute the most effective protection mean. In this paper a methodology for assessing the surge arrester failure rate based on the electrogeometrical model is presented. Critical currents that exceed arresters rated energy stress were estimated by the use of a simulation tool. The methodology is applied on operating Hellenic transmission lines of 150 kV. Several case studies are analyzed by installing surge arresters on different intervals, in relation to the region's tower footing resistance and the ground flash density. The obtained results are compared with real records of outage rate showing the effectiveness of the surge arresters in the reduction of the recorded failure rate. The presented methodology can be proved valuable to the studies of electric power systems designers intending in a more effective lightning protection, reducing the operational costs and providing continuity of service. (author)

  1. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  2. Application-Oriented Optimal Shift Schedule Extraction for a Dual-Motor Electric Bus with Automated Manual Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The conventional battery electric buses (BEBs have limited potential to optimize the energy consumption and reach a better dynamic performance. A practical dual-motor equipped with 4-speed Automated Manual Transmission (AMT propulsion system is proposed, which can eliminate the traction interruption in conventional AMT. A discrete model of the dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB is built and used to optimize the gear shift schedule. Dynamic programming (DP algorithm is applied to find the optimal results where the efficiency and shift time of each gear are considered to handle the application problem of global optimization. A rational penalty factor and a proper shift time delay based on bench test results are set to reduce the shift frequency by 82.5% in Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle (C-WTVC. Two perspectives of applicable shift rule extraction methods, i.e., the classification method based on optimal operating points and clustering method based on optimal shifting points, are explored and compared. Eventually, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation results demonstrate that the proposed structure and extracted shift schedule can realize a significant improvement in reducing energy loss by 20.13% compared to traditional empirical strategies.

  3. Outlook and application analysis of energy storage in power system with high renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junshu; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    To realize low-emission and low-carbon energy production and consumption, large-scale development and utilization of renewable energy has been put into practice in China. And it has been recognized that power system of future high renewable energy shares can operate more reliably with the participation of energy storage. Considering the significant role of storage playing in the future power system, this paper focuses on the application of energy storage with high renewable energy penetration. Firstly, two application modes are given, including demand side application mode and centralized renewable energy farm application mode. Afterwards, a high renewable energy penetration scenario of northwest region in China is designed, and its production simulation with application of energy storage in 2050 has been calculated and analysed. Finally, a development path and outlook of energy storage is given.

  4. Return and volatility transmission between gold and stock sectors: Application of portfolio management and hedging effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the first and second orders moment transmission between gold and Indian industrial sectors with an application of portfolio design and hedging effectiveness using generalised VAR-ADCC-BVGARCH model. Our findings indicate unidirectional significant return spillover from gold to stock sectors. The negative values of estimated time varying conditional correlations are mainly observed during periods of market turbulence and crisis indicating the scope of portfolio diversification and hedging during these periods. We also estimate optimal weights, hedge ratios, and hedging effectiveness for the stock-gold portfolios. Our findings suggest that stock-gold portfolio provides better diversification benefits than stock portfolios.

  5. High power free space optical link for rapid energy and data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Design and experimental data for a high power laser diode based free space point-to-point optical power/data link is presented. In time critical power up applications, such as providing power and guidance information to a munition shell just prior to deployment, energy of the order of 100 J needs to be transferred in under 10 s. Current inductive technology is slow and broadcasts a radio-frequency signal which is undesirable for stealth operation. Rapid energy transfer times require high irradiance levels at the surface of the photovoltaic cells, typically, exceeding 1000X suns. Through efficient thermal design of heat sinks, high optical to electrical power conversion efficiencies of 50%, which are usually attainable at low power levels of 1 W, are achievable at higher power levels.

  6. Modeling and application of VSC-HVDC in the European transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Abatte, A.; Fulli, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the potential technical, environmental, and economic impacts of voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) technologies on the European power system, with particular emphasis on enhancing the attainable transmission capacity in specific applications. To this end, an original steady-state model of the VSC-HVDC was presented and tested. A techno-economic analysis of the potential impact of VSC-HVDC on liberalized power systems in Europe was performed to determine the feasibility of such investment compared to building conventional high voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission infrastructures. The land use and environmental impact of HVDC may be lower than HVAC technologies. VSC-HVDC offers several advantages over conventional HVDC, including flexibility and range of power control, compactness and modularity of converter stations, easier expandability for multi-terminal configurations, and greater environmental friendliness. The relative disadvantages of the VSC-HVDC include a greater expense and higher converter losses. When replacing existing HVAC lines, some targeted VSC-HVDC installations were shown to be technologically and economically feasible, particularly when installed on lines between regions with a high electricity price differential, although less profitable than building new HVAC lines. VSC-HVDC can be a more feasible option when socio-political and environmental restraints curtail the extension of the HVAC transmission system. 29 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Electron-beam broadening in amorphous carbon films in low-energy scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, H; Müller, E; Dries, M; Gerthsen, D

    2018-02-01

    Resolution in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is ultimately limited by the diameter of the electron beam. The electron beam diameter is not only determined by the properties of the condenser lens system but also by electron scattering in the specimen which leads to electron-beam broadening and degradation of the resolution with increasing specimen thickness. In this work we introduce a new method to measure electron-beam broadening which is based on STEM imaging with a multi-segmented STEM detector. We focus on STEM at low electron energies between 10 and 30 keV and use an amorphous carbon film with known thickness as test object. The experimental results are compared with calculated beam diameters using different analytical models and Monte-Carlo simulations. We find excellent agreement of the experimental data with the recently published model by Gauvin and Rudinsky [1] for small t/λ el (thickness to elastic mean free path) values which are considered in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission (chemical heat pipe). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakil, H.B.; Flock, J.W.

    1978-02-01

    The work documents the anlaysis of closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission, commonly referred to as the Chemical Heat Pipe (CHP). Among the various chemical reaction systems and sources investigated, the two best systems were determined to be the high temperature methane/steam reforming reaction (HTCHP) coupled to a Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR) and the lower temperature, cyclohexane dehydrogenation reaction (LTCHP) coupled to existing sources such as coal or light water reactors. Solar and other developing technologies can best be coupled to the LTCHP. The preliminary economic and technical analyses show that both systems could transport heat at an incremental cost of approximately $1.50/GJ/160 km (in excess of the primary heat cost of $2.50/GJ), at system efficiencies above 80%. Solar heat can be transported at an incremental cost of $3/GJ/160 km. The use of the mixed feed evaporator concept developed in this work contributes significantly to reducing the transportation cost and increasing the efficiency of the system. The LTCHP shows the most promise of the two systems if the technical feasibility of the cyclic closed loop chemical reaction system can be established. An experimental program for establishing this feasibility is recommended. Since the VHTR is several years away from commercial demonstration and the HTCHP chemical technology is well developed, future HTCHP programs should be aimed at VHTR and interface problems.

  9. Research on the Orientation and Application of Distributed Energy Storage in Energy Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Ran; Zhou, Jingjing; Chen, Tao; Li, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage is indispensable resources to achieve a high proportion of new energy power consumption in electric power system. As an important support to energy Internet, energy storage system can achieve a variety of energy integration operation to ensure maximum energy efficiency. In this paper, firstly, the SWOT analysis method is used to express the internal and external advantages and disadvantages of distributed energy storage participating in the energy Internet. Secondly, the function orientation of distributed energy storage in energy Internet is studied, based on which the application modes of distributed energy storage in virtual power plant, community energy storage and auxiliary services are deeply studied. Finally, this paper puts forward the development strategy of distributed energy storage which is suitable for the development of China’s energy Internet, and summarizes and prospects the application of distributed energy storage system.

  10. Perspective: Dynamic Shadowing Growth and its Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping eZhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The unique features of dynamic shadowing growth (DSG in structural and compositional design of nanomaterials are discussed. Their recent applications in energy storage, fuel cell, and solar energy conversion have been reviewed briefly. Future directions for applying DSG nanostructures in renewable energy applications are presented.

  11. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Christiansen, M.

    2006-11-15

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting wind fields are valuable in offshore wind energy planning as a supplement to on site measurements, which are costly and sparse, and model wind fields, which are not fully validated. Two applications of SAR measurements in offshore wind energy planning are addressed here: the study of wind farm wake effects and the potential of using SAR winds in offshore wind resource assessment. Firstly, wind wakes behind two large offshore wind farms in Denmark Horns Rev and Nysted are identified. A region of reduced wind speed is found downstream of both wind farms from the SAR wind fields. The wake extent and magnitude depends on the wind speed, the atmospheric stability, and the fraction of turbines operating. Wind farm wake effects are detected up to 20 km downwind of the last turbine. This distance is longer than predicted by state-of-the art wake models. Wake losses are typically 10-20% near the wind farms. Secondly, the potential of using SAR wind maps in offshore wind resource assessment is investigated. The resource assessment is made through Weibull fitting to frequency observations of wind speed and requires at least 100 satellite observations per year for a given site of interest. Predictions of the energy density are very sensitive to the wind speed and the highest possible accuracy on SAR wind retrievals is therefore sought. A 1.1 m s{sup -1} deviation on the mean wind speed is found through comparison with mast measurements at Horns Rev. The accuracy on mean wind speeds and energy densities found from satellite measurements varies with different empirical model functions. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the infrequent satellite sampling at fixed times of the day. The accuracy on satellite based wind resource

  12. Two-Stage Design Method for Enhanced Inductive Energy Transmission with Q-Constrained Planar Square Loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaa Agbaeze Eteng

    Full Text Available Q-factor constraints are usually imposed on conductor loops employed as proximity range High Frequency Radio Frequency Identification (HF-RFID reader antennas to ensure adequate data bandwidth. However, pairing such low Q-factor loops in inductive energy transmission links restricts the link transmission performance. The contribution of this paper is to assess the improvement that is reached with a two-stage design method, concerning the transmission performance of a planar square loop relative to an initial design, without compromise to a Q-factor constraint. The first stage of the synthesis flow is analytical in approach, and determines the number and spacing of turns by which coupling between similar paired square loops can be enhanced with low deviation from the Q-factor limit presented by an initial design. The second stage applies full-wave electromagnetic simulations to determine more appropriate turn spacing and widths to match the Q-factor constraint, and achieve improved coupling relative to the initial design. Evaluating the design method in a test scenario yielded a more than 5% increase in link transmission efficiency, as well as an improvement in the link fractional bandwidth by more than 3%, without violating the loop Q-factor limit. These transmission performance enhancements are indicative of a potential for modifying proximity HF-RFID reader antennas for efficient inductive energy transfer and data telemetry links.

  13. Incentives for methane mitigation and energy-efficiency improvements in the case of Ukraine's natural gas transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of anthropogenic methane emissions into the atmosphere in Ukraine. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine's natural gas transmission company, Ukrtransgaz. The company's investments into system upgrades, along with a 34% fall in throughput, resulted in reduction of Ukrtransgaz system's own consumption of natural gas by 68% in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine's transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine's natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of the most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of several factors has created conditions for successful reductions in methane emissions and combustion. These factors include: an eightfold increase in the price of imported natural gas; comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, such as the Laws of Ukraine on Protecting the Natural Environment and on Air Protection; policies aimed at integration with European Union's energy market and accession to the Energy Community Treaty; and the country's participation in international cooperation on environment, such

  14. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  15. Application of Radar Altimetry Methods to Monitoring of Parasitic Disease Transmission: Schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, M.; Ibaraki, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Liang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second-most prevalent tropical disease after malaria affecting two-hundred million people annually world-wide; it shortens lifespan on average by ten years in endemic areas and no vaccine exists. The current control methods of human host chemotherapy and application of molluscicides to the environment do not break the disease transmission cycle. Schistosomiasis transmission in southern China involves an amphibious intermediate host snail for which hydrology is a key factor because the adults need moist vegetation while the juveniles are fully aquatic. Thus, hydrology is a key factor in schistosomiasis transmission and understanding its role can inform control measures. Our objective is to integrate hydrologic, ecologic, and other environmental factors to determine the changes in available snail habitat through space and time. We use radar altimetry measurements to determine water level every 35 days when the Envisat (Environmental Satellite) passes over the lake. The radar altimetry readings have been calibrated to levels from in-situ gauging stations and will support remote analysis of disease transmission potential without the need for gauging station data. A geographic information system was used to combine key factors including water level, topography, and air temperature data to identify areas of available snail habitat. In order to accomplish this, we conducted three steps including: delineating the watershed, specifying potential snail habitat areas through topography and air temperature classification, and calculating the intersection between potential snail habitat and non-flooded areas in the watershed. Statistical analyses of total available habitat area are also conducted. These maps and statistics analyses can be used by public health agencies to monitor snail habitat trends over time. Coupling remote sensing of water levels with a geographic information system model will continue to be important as the hydrology of the lake

  16. A Cognitive Radio-Based Energy-Efficient System for Power Transmission Line Monitoring in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research in industry and academia on smart grids is predominantly focused on the regulation of generated power and management of its consumption. Because transmission of bulk-generated power to the consumer is immensely reliant on secure and efficient transmission grids, comprising huge electrical and mechanical assets spanning a vast geographic area, there is an impending need to focus on the transmission grids as well. Despite the challenges in wireless technologies for SGs, cognitive radio networks are considered promising for provisioning of communications services to SGs. In this paper, first, we present an IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area network cognitive radio-based network model for smart monitoring of transmission lines. Then, for a prolonged lifetime of battery finite monitoring network, we formulate the spectrum resource allocation problem as an energy efficiency maximization problem, which is a nonlinear integer programming problem. To solve this problem in an easier way, we propose an energy-efficient resource-assignment scheme based on the Hungarian method. Performance analysis shows that, compared to a pure opportunistic assignment scheme with a throughput maximization objective and compared to a random scheme, the proposed scheme results in an enhanced lifetime while consuming less battery energy without compromising throughput performance.

  17. epidemix-An interactive multi-model application for teaching and visualizing infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Ulrich; Fournié, Guillaume; Muellner, Petra; Ahlstrom, Christina; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2017-12-11

    Mathematical models of disease transmission are used to improve our understanding of patterns of infection and to identify factors influencing them. During recent public and animal health crises, such as pandemic influenza, Ebola, Zika, foot-and-mouth disease, models have made important contributions in addressing policy questions, especially through the assessment of the trajectory and scale of outbreaks, and the evaluation of control interventions. However, their mathematical formulation means that they may appear as a "black box" to those without the appropriate mathematical background. This may lead to a negative perception of their utility for guiding policy, and generate expectations, which are not in line with what these models can deliver. It is therefore important for policymakers, as well as public health and animal health professionals and researchers who collaborate with modelers and use results generated by these models for policy development or research purpose, to understand the key concepts and assumptions underlying these models. The software application epidemix (http://shinyapps.rvc.ac.uk) presented here aims to make mathematical models of disease transmission accessible to a wider audience of users. By developing a visual interface for a suite of eight models, users can develop an understanding of the impact of various modelling assumptions - especially mixing patterns - on the trajectory of an epidemic and the impact of control interventions, without having to directly deal with the complexity of mathematical equations and programming languages. Models are compartmental or individual-based, deterministic or stochastic, and assume homogeneous or heterogeneous-mixing patterns (with the probability of transmission depending on the underlying structure of contact networks, or the spatial distribution of hosts). This application is intended to be used by scientists teaching mathematical modelling short courses to non-specialists - including policy

  18. Parallel transmission techniques in magnetic resonance imaging: experimental realization, applications and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, P.

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was the first experimental realization of parallel RF transmission for accelerating spatially selective excitation in magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, basic aspects regarding the performance of this technique were investigated, potential risks regarding the specific absorption rate (SAR) were considered and feasibility studies under application-oriented conditions as first steps towards a practical utilisation of this technique were undertaken. At first, based on the RF electronics platform of the Bruker Avance MRI systems, the technical foundations were laid to perform simultaneous transmission of individual RF waveforms on different RF channels. Another essential requirement for the realization of Parallel Excitation (PEX) was the design and construction of suitable RF transmit arrays with elements driven by separate transmit channels. In order to image the PEX results two imaging methods were implemented based on a spin-echo and a gradient-echo sequence, in which a parallel spatially selective pulse was included as an excitation pulse. In the course of this work PEX experiments were successfully performed on three different MRI systems, a 4.7 T and a 9.4 T animal system and a 3 T human scanner, using 5 different RF coil setups in total. In the last part of this work investigations regarding possible applications of Parallel Excitation were performed. A first study comprised experiments of slice-selective B1 inhomogeneity correction by using 3D-selective Parallel Excitation. The investigations were performed in a phantom as well as in a rat fixed in paraformaldehyde solution. In conjunction with these experiments a novel method of calculating RF pulses for spatially selective excitation based on a so-called Direct Calibration approach was developed, which is particularly suitable for this type of experiments. In the context of these experiments it was demonstrated how to combine the advantages of parallel transmission

  19. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  20. Getting to Gender Equality in Energy Infrastructure : Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Maria Beatriz; Janik, Vanessa Lopes; Vaidya, Pranav; Angelou, Nicolina; Zumbyte, Ieva; Adams, Norma

    2018-01-01

    Getting to Gender Equality in Electricity Infrastructure: Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects examines the social and gender footprint of large-scale electricity generation, transmission, and distribution projects to establish a foundation on which further research and replication of good practices can be built. The main impact pathways analyzed are...

  1. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-11-24

    As the world strives to adapt to the increasing demand for electrical power, sustainable energy sources are attracting significant interest. Around 60% of energy utilized in the world is wasted as heat. Different industrial processes, home heating, and exhausts in cars, all generate a huge amount of unused waste heat. With such a huge potential, there is also significant interest in discovering inexpensive technologies for power generation from waste heat. As a result, thermoelectric materials have become important for many renewable energy research programs. While significant advancements have been done in improving the thermoelectric properties of the conventional heavy-element based materials (such as Bi2Te3 and PbTe), high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate athigher temperatures and in harsher environments compared to non-oxide thermoelectrics. Furthermore, oxides are abundant and friendly to the environment. Among oxides, crystalline SrTiO3 and ZnO are promising thermoelectric materials. The main objective of this work is therefore to pursue focused investigations of SrTiO3 and ZnO thin films and superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), with the goal of optimizing their thermoelectric properties by following different strategies. First, the effect of laser fluence on the thermoelectric properties of La doped epitaxial SrTiO3 films is discussed. Films grown at higher laser fluences exhibit better thermoelectric performance. Second, the role of crystal orientation in determining the thermoelectric properties of epitaxial Al doped ZnO (AZO) films is explained. Vertically aligned (c-axis) AZO films have superior thermoelectric properties compared to other films with different crystal orientations. Third

  2. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review is an exposure on the various ways that solar energy can be harnessed for numerous waste treatment processes. Almost all forms of waste treatment require energy which is scarcely available considering the global energy crisis. The objective of this study is to enumerate the solar energy applications in waste ...

  3. Nanoscale Energy-Filtered Scanning Confocal Electron Microscopy Using a Double-Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I.; Nellist, Peter D.; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that a transmission electron microscope fitted with two spherical-aberration correctors can be operated as an energy-filtered scanning confocal electron microscope. A method for establishing this mode is described and initial results showing 3D chemical mapping with nanoscale sensitivity to height and thickness changes in a carbon film are presented. Importantly, uncorrected chromatic aberration does not limit the depth resolution of this technique and moreover performs an energy-filtering role, which is explained in terms of a combined depth and energy-loss response function.

  4. Human Motion Energy Harvesting for AAL Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Becker, P.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Research and development into the topic of ambient assisted living has led to an increasing range of devices that facilitate a person's life. The issue of the power supply of these modern mobile systems however has not been solved satisfactorily yet. In this paper a flat inductive multi-coil harvester for integration into the shoe sole is presented. The device is designed for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications and particularly to power a self-lacing shoe. The harvester exploits the horizontal swing motion of the foot to generate energy. Stacks of opposing magnets move through a number of equally spaced coils to induce a voltage. The requirement of a flat structure which can be integrated into the shoe sole is met by a reduced form factor of the magnet stack. In order to exploit the full width of the shoe sole, supporting structures are used to parallelize the harvester and therefore increase the number of active elements, i.e. magnets and coils. The development and characterization of different harvester variations is presented with the best tested design generating an average power of up to 2.14 mW at a compact device size of 75 × 41.5 × 15 mm3 including housing.

  5. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  6. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed.......This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  7. High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Richard L; Bray, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) capacitors exhibit several promising characteristics for high energy density capacitor applications in extreme environments...

  8. Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.W. [comp.

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

  9. Visualization of phase evolution in model organic photovoltaic structures via energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzing, Andrew A; Ro, Hyun Wook; Soles, Christopher L; DeLongchamp, Dean M

    2013-09-24

    The morphology of the active layer in an organic photovoltaic bulk-heterojunction device is controlled by the extent and nature of phase separation during processing. We have studied the effects of fullerene crystallinity during heat treatment in model structures consisting of a layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) sandwiched between two layers of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Utilizing a combination of focused ion-beam milling and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, we monitored the local changes in phase distribution as a function of annealing time at 140 °C. In both cases, dissolution of PCBM within the surrounding P3HT was directly visualized and quantitatively described. In the absence of crystalline PCBM, the overall phase distribution remained stable after intermediate annealing times up to 60 s, whereas microscale PCBM aggregates were observed after annealing for 300 s. Aggregate growth proceeded vertically from the substrate interface via uptake of PCBM from the surrounding region, resulting in a large PCBM-depleted region in their vicinity. When precrystallized PCBM was present, amorphous PCBM was observed to segregate from the intermediate P3HT layer and ripen the crystalline PCBM underneath, owing to the far lower solubility of crystalline PCBM within P3HT. This process occurred rapidly, with segregation already evident after annealing for 10 s and with uptake of nearly all of the amorphous PCBM by the crystalline layer after 60 s. No microscale aggregates were observed in the precrystallized system, even after annealing for 300 s.

  10. Energy research. Industrial applications from basic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland has the main responsibility for energy policy planning. An important and integral part of this activity is energy research and development. In 1988 the ministry consolidated most of the publicly funded energy research under ten five-year programmes. Formally these programmes will be completed by the end of 1992 and will be fully reported on during 1993, both in Finnish and English. A new set of energy technology programmes has been organized. The second generation energy technology programmes will start in 1993 and continue up to 1998. Within general R and D policy, the government of Finland has decided to establish a national innovation strategy, which aims to support our economic and industrial development objectives. Energy R and D will be an integral part of this national innovation strategy. The primary objectives of energy research have served the development of national energy policy. Finland has a long tradition of promoting efficient energy use, renewable energy sources and environmentally benign energy production technology. In efficient energy use Finland has specialized in e.g. district heating and energy conservation in the pulp and paper industry and in buildings. Our national expertise within energy production includes areas such as the combustion and gasification of solid fuels, biomass energy etc. In future, global market development will plan an increasing role when energy research activities are focused. The global marketplace for energy technology products is undergoing rapid expansion and opening up to new countries and manufacturers. Thus the economic integration and globalization of energy technology have become more and more relevant, and international collaboration in these fields will become an ever higher priority in Finland.

  11. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  12. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Under two separate applications, Noble Energy Marketing... Marketing and Trade Corp., 333 Ludlow Street, Suite 1230, Stamford, CT 06902. A final decision will be made...

  13. Identifying The Most Applicable Renewable Energy Systems Of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Mousavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available These years because of energy crisis all of country try to find a new way to reduce energy consumptions and obtain maximum use of renewable energy. Iran also is not an exception of this progress. Renewable energy is energy that is provided by renewable sources such as the sun or wind. In general renewable energies are not adaptable to every single community. Because of location and special climate conditions of Iran most applicable renewable energy systems in Iran are solar and wind energy. Main purpose of this paper is to review and identify most applicable renewable energy systems of Iran and also review on traditional and current methods that utilized to obtain maximum use of these renewable energies.

  14. 77 FR 10489 - Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... ATC has not compiled with express terms and conditions of the Transmission Owners Agreement and the Midwest ISO Tariff and (2) direct ATC to enter into negotiations with XES and NSPW to develop final terms...

  15. Instruments for radiation measurement in biosciences. Series 3. radioluminography. 11. Application of imaging plate in transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    Properties and application of the imaging plate (IP) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are reviewed. TEM has the resolution level of around 0.2 nm, which enables direct observation of molecules and atoms. In TEM, there are such recording systems as photographic film, TV camera, slow-scan CCD camera and IP. IP, to the electron beam, has the higher sensitivity than the film and has the broad dynamic range. Linearity between the input beam intensity and output signal is good, which makes it possible to record the image even with the small electron dose. Signal/noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency are important factors for precise image analysis. Fading phenomenon is a defect of IP, which weakens the signal output as time passing. For instance of application, IP is used for imaging of AgBr crystal fragile to strong electron beam required for the film. IP is necessary for quantitative analysis of TEM images and for the recently developed energy-filter TEM. (K.H.)

  16. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-01-01

    Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI) can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET) is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly...

  17. Manual to application of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    The National Government of Colombia assigned to INEA (Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Alternative Energies), the paper of promotion, diffusion and utilization of sources of energy not - conventional, the one which includes the wind energy. These studies were accomplished mainly in winding zones as the Department La Guajira, area of the Eastern Plains and some sites of mountain chains of the Andes. Internationally, renewable energies utilization is widely used and is included as an important factor in the energetic strategic planning in some countries, where this renewable energy becomes more than 20% to total energy supply. An introduction to the wind energy in some aspects as: the wind resource, global traffic standards of the wind, calculation of the potential of the wind and methods for the calculation of speed measure of the wind are presented. The methodologies for the evaluation of the wind as an energy source, the wind energy technologies, the equipment to wind energy utilization and the implementation of small systems of energy conversion of wind are described

  18. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  19. Improving the energy performance of wind turbines implemented in the built environment using counter-rotating planetary transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulescu, R.; Neagoe, M.; Jaliu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Most of wind turbine applications for urban areas use electric generators with counter-rotating rotor and stator, able to ensure a better efficiency than the conventional turbines with one wind rotor and generator with fixed stator, and, hence, a higher production of electricity. These types of power systems have two independent wind rotors that require a complex control of the two independent input speeds to obtain the optimal output speed. This paper deals with the use of a 1DOF (Degree Of Freedom) compound planetary transmission with two inputs and two outputs and three sun gears, meant for the implementation in counterrotating wind turbines, which has the properties of summing the input torques and determined transmission of the independent speed. Firstly, the kinematic and static analysis of the proposed planetary transmission, assuming friction of gears, is performed. Afterwards, the mechanism efficiency model is established depending on the ratio of the two input torques. The transmission efficiency is simulated and analysed, with determination and representation of power flows, in the four distinct operating cases according to the k ratio values. The paper results allowed formulating recommendations on the design of these mechanical planetary transmissions used in wind turbines and broadening a database for the conceptual synthesis of wind systems.

  20. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  1. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rubel Basar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  2. Applicability and sensitivity of gamma transmission and radiotracer techniques for mineral scaling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernstad, Tor; Stamatakis, Emanuel

    2006-05-15

    Mineral scaling in petroleum and geothermal production systems creates a substantial problem of flow impairment. It is a priority to develop methods for scale inhibition. To study scaling rates and mechanisms in laboratory flow experiments under simulated reservoir conditions two nuclear methods have been introduced and tested. The first applies the principle of gamma transmission to measure mass increase. Here, we use a 30 MBq source of 133Ba. The other method applies radioactive tracers of one or more of the scaling components. We have used the study of CaC03-precipitation, as an example of the applicability of the method where the main tracer used is 47Ca2+. While the first method must be regarded as an indirect method, the latter is a direct method where the reactions of specific components may be studied. Both methods are on-line, continuous and non-destructive, and capable to study scaling of liquids with saturation ratios as low as SR=1.5 or lower. A lower limit of detection for the transmission method in sand-packed columns with otherwise reasonable experimental parameters is less than 1 mg CaC03 in a 1 cm section of the tube packed with silica sand SiO2. A lower limit of detection for the tracer method with reasonable experimental parameters is less than 1 microgram in the same tube section. (author) (tk)

  3. State and performance of on-stream ash content determination in lignite and black coal using 2-energy transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuemmel, H.W.; Koerner, G.; Leonhardt, J.

    1986-01-01

    The total r.m.s. ash error of the 2-energy transmission on-stream ash gauges KRAS-2 (CIIRR, GDR) and SIROASH (Australia) are 4 weight percentage for raw lignite and 0.5 weight percentage for black coal, respectively. A detailed error analysis shows that this difference is due to the high water content and to strong variations in the ash composition of raw lignite. Both gauges show essentially the same radiometric performance. (author)

  4. 76 FR 30325 - Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...] Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... electric energy that E-T Global proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from... order for E-T Global to begin exports in compliance with the terms of its Master Sale and Purchase...

  5. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (BEM LP) has applied for authority to transmit electric... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities...

  6. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. (BEMI) has applied to renew its authority... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite Blvd...

  7. 77 FR 50487 - Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy Services LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... a power marketer for a five-year term. The current export authority in Order No EA-328 will expire... to RBC Energy. The application also indicates that RBC Energy is a power marketer authorized by the...

  8. 77 FR 20805 - Application to Export Electric Energy; PPL EnergyPlus, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... power marketer for a two-year term. DOE subsequently renewed that authority two additional times in... to PPL EnergyPlus. The application also indicates that PPL EnergyPlus is a power marketer authorized...

  9. Application of solar energy to air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

  10. Review of radio wave for power transmission in medical applications with safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John; Geddis, Demetris; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of biosensors with radio frequency (RF) wireless power transmission devices is becoming popular, but there are challenges for implantable devices in medical applications. Integration and at the same time miniaturization of medical devices in a single embodiment are not trivial. The research reported herein, seeks to review possible effects of RF signals ranging from 900 MHz to 100 GHz on the human tissues and environment. Preliminary evaluation shows that radio waves selected for test have substantial influence on human tissues based on their dielectric properties. In the advancement of RF based biosensors, it is imperative to set up necessary guidelines that specify how to use RF power safely. In this paper, the dielectric properties of various human tissues will be used for estimation of influence within the selected RF frequency ranges.

  11. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2011-01-20

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

  12. The Peak Control Function and its Applications to Transmission Line Effects in Class D Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VUZA, D. T.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Class D amplifiers find new applications in RFID systems, because of their high efficiency. Most textbooks describe the case of a load directly connected to the amplifier. However, in most RFID systems the usage of a transmission line is mandatory and this may introduce some novel effects, in the form of an infinite series of peaks in the system frequency response functions. If not appropriately taken care of, these effects may lead to electromagnetic compatibility problems. The purpose of the paper is to develop the theory of the peak control function, which is conceived as a tool that allows the designer to keep the magnitude of the peaks, and hence their influence on the system, into well defined limits.

  13. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  14. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghasabian, M.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α -particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of α -particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with α -particles.

  15. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.

  16. A Tool to Simulate the Transmission, Reception, and Execution of Interactive TV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carvalho Marques Neto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Interactive Digital Television (iDTV opened a set of technological possibilities that go beyond those offered by conventional TV. Among these opportunities we can highlight interactive contents that run together with linear TV program (television service where the viewer has to watch a scheduled TV program at the particular time it is offered and on the particular channel it is presented on. However, developing interactive contents for this new platform is not as straightforward as, for example, developing Internet applications. One of the options to make this development process easier and safer is to use an iDTV simulator. However, after having investigated some of the existing iDTV simulation environments, we have found a limitation: these simulators mainly present solutions focused on the TV receiver, whose interactive content must be loaded in advance by the programmer to a local repository (e.g., Hard Drive, USB. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a tool, named BiS (Broadcast iDTV content Simulator, which makes possible a broader solution for the simulation of interactive contents. It allows simulating the transmission of interactive content along with the linear TV program (simulating the transmission of content over the air and in broadcast to the receivers. To enable this, we defined a generic and easy-to-customize communication protocol that was implemented in the tool. The proposed environment differs from others because it allows simulating reception of both linear content and interactive content while running Java applications to allow such a content presentation.

  17. Applications of Microwave Antenna Array for Wireless Power Transmission and Radar Imaging in Complex Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ce

    The focus of my research interests lies in the application of microwave antenna array system and array signal processing techniques to problems in wireless power transmission and radar imaging. The two research areas share the same underlying mathematical principle of time reversality of electromagnetic wave propagation. Based on this principle, the array antenna system and the associated signal processing algorithm are further improved to adapt to different scenarios. In my dissertation, the rest part presents an optimal algorithm for wireless power transmission with beamforming array. The optimal weight distribution on antenna array elements is found based on time reversal eigenmode technique. Our method is adaptive to the medium of the channel and can be applied to arbitrarily positioned antenna without degradation of efficiency. This novel method is analytically studied and verified with numerical electromagnetic simulations. The second part presents a new problem called "Hard-Wall Radar Imaging" (HWRI) has been proposed when the electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate the shielding walls (such as metallic walls). The research methodology involves algorithm development combined with experimental results to gain more insights into the real microwave imaging system. First, we implemented the imaging system with the conventional time reversal DORT (Decomposition of Time-Reversal Operator) imaging algorithm and adapted it into a new signal processing technique (multiplicative array technique) to obtain the image in the proposed scenario. Second, after having identified the drawbacks of the rest imaging system, the imaging system is improved to distributed MIMO radar configuration. The new imaging algorithm is also developed based on the techniques of Direction-of-Arrival(DoA) estimation and adaptive nulling. From this algorithm, the experimental results show that the new imaging system can localize two targets correctly. To resolve the problem of spurious clutter

  18. Graphene energy storage and conversion applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-01-01

    Series PrefacePrefaceAuthorsGraphene Overview; Xufeng Zhou, Wei Wang, and Zhaoping LiuSynthesis of Graphene; Wei Wang, Hailiang Cao, Xufeng Zhou, and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in Lithium Ion Batteries; Xufeng Zhou and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in New-Concept Batteries; Xufeng Zhou and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in Supercapacitors; Chao Zheng, Xufeng Zhou, Hailiang Cao, and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in Solar Cells; Fuqiang Huang, Dongyun Wan, Hui Bi, and Tianquan LinApplications of Graphene in Fuel Cells; Xuejun Zhou, Jinli Qiao, and Yuyu LiuIndex.

  19. A Source-level Energy Optimization Framework for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency can have a significant influence on user experience of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Although energy is consumed by hardware, software optimization plays an important role in saving energy, and thus software developers have to participate in the optimization...... process. The source code is the interface between the developer and hardware resources. In this paper, we propose an energy optimization framework guided by a source code energy model that allows developers to be aware of energy usage induced by the code and to apply very targeted source-level refactoring.......2% of the CPU energy consumption in various application scenarios....

  20. The cost - effective solar energy applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines several cost-effective solar energy application in Canada, and estimates the GHG emission reduction potential for each. The applications include: (1) passive solar building design; (2) solar water heating applications; (3) solar photovoltaics for remote power; and (4) solar assisted space heating and cooling in industrial buildings. Each technology is briefly profiled in terms of functionality, cost characteristics, energy production characteristics and potential emission reduction benefits. Real-life examples of each application are also included. Finally, the paper concludes on the potential role of solar energy in the reduction of Canadian GHG emissions. (author)

  1. Metallic bionanocatalysts: potential applications as green catalysts and energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskie, Lynne E; Mikheenko, Iryna P; Omajai, Jacob B; Stephen, Alan J; Wood, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Microbially generated or supported nanocatalysts have potential applications in green chemistry and environmental application. However, precious (and base) metals biorefined from wastes may be useful for making cheap, low-grade catalysts for clean energy production. The concept of bionanomaterials for energy applications is reviewed with respect to potential fuel cell applications, bio-catalytic upgrading of oils and manufacturing 'drop-in fuel' precursors. Cheap, effective biomaterials would facilitate progress towards dual development goals of sustainable consumption and production patterns and help to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Non-conventional energy research and application in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Duc Hien

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents current research and application of non-conventional energy in Vietnam. The main activities in this field are micro hydropower, wind energy, water heating module, solar cell and biogas. The technical data of the apparatus for non-conventional energy is given. (author)

  3. 77 FR 2964 - Liberty Energy (Midstates) Corp.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Energy (Midstates) Corp.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 4, 2012, Liberty Energy (Midstates) Corp. (Liberty Midstates), 2845 Bristol Circle, Oakville... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area \\1\\ ] within which Liberty Midstates...

  4. 77 FR 67639 - Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 25, Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp. (Liberty Georgia), 2845 Bristol Circle, Oakville, Ontario... Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area within which Liberty Georgia may, without...

  5. 75 FR 74703 - Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. CP11-33-000; PF10-15-000] Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application November 23, 2010 Take notice that on November 15, 2010, Leader One Energy, LLC (Leader One), 4643 South Ulster Street, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80237, filed in Docket No. CP11-33...

  6. Advanced nanomaterials and their applications in renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingbo Louise

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Nanomaterials and Their Applications in Renewable Energy presents timely topics related to nanomaterials' feasible synthesis and characterization, and their application in the energy fields. In addition, the book provides insights and scientific discoveries in toxicity study, with information that is easily understood by a wide audience. Advanced energy materials are important in designing materials that have greater physical, electronic, and optical properties. This book emphasizes the fundamental physics and chemistry underlying the techniques used to develop solar and fuel cell

  7. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position ... nuclear fusion, and is of interest in the theory of light ion interactions [1]. Spin–orbit ... neutron modular detector to detect neutron energies. In our last paper [6], ...

  8. Energy Consumption in Location Sharing Protocols for Android Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prihodko, Mihails

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol in geographical location sharing applications using third generation cellular communication (3G). The MQTT protocol is compared in terms of energy efficiency and amount of data generated with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is currently used in typical location sharing applications. In order to compare the communication energy efficiency of both protocols a location sharing...

  9. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic. - Research highlights: → We evaluate the feasibility of global energy supply from wind, water, and solar energy. → WWS energy can be supplied reliably and economically to all energy-use sectors. → The social cost of WWS energy generally is less than the cost of fossil-fuel energy. → Barriers to 100% WWS power worldwide are socio-political, not techno-economic.

  10. 78 FR 58449 - Generator Requirements at the Transmission Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...; Order No. 785] Generator Requirements at the Transmission Interface AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... either by extending applicability of the Reliability Standard to certain generator interconnection facilities, or by clarifying that the existing Reliability Standard is and remains applicable to generator...

  11. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... amended, and are appropriate for open access transmission by third parties. Procedural Matters: Any person... with Allison Cyr, MARK Compliance, Societe Generale Corporate & Investment Banking, 1221 Avenue of the... 20007. A final decision will be made on this application after the environmental impacts have been...

  12. Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

  13. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  14. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  15. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  16. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    . Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with ...

  17. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  18. Neutron Energy Measurements in Radiological Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-04-30

    We present significant results in recent advances in the determination of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but very significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance.

  19. 78 FR 9687 - Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Prineville Energy Storage, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Matthew Shapiro, Chief Executive Officer, Prineville Energy Storage, LLC...

  20. The integration of renewable energies into the German transmission grid—A scenario comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Andreas; Oei, Pao-Yu; Sander, Aram; Hankel, Lisa; Laurisch, Lilian Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative assessment of the need for electricity transmission capacity investments in Germany for 2030. Congestion is analyzed and its possible relief through appropriate grid reinforcements as those described in the Ten Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP) of the European Commission. Congestion is investigated in three scenarios which differ in the location of power resources and the line expansion projects accomplished. Results show that the TYNDP and overlay line projects proposed in 2011 are not sufficient measures to cope with the increasing demand for transmission capacity. The paper also concludes that if power generation resources are moved closer to demand centers grid bottlenecks can be partly relieved by 2030. The introduction of a high-voltage direct current (HVDC) backbone grid does not relieve congestion significantly. - Highlights: • The need for power transmission capacity in Germany for 2030 is assessed. • The TYNDP is insufficient to cope with increasing demand for transmission. • If generation is moved closer to demand grid bottlenecks are partly relieved. • An HVDC backbone grid does not relieve congestion significantly

  1. Effect of condensation on light transmission and energy budget of seven greenhouse cover materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Mohammadkhani; Gert-Jan Swinkels; C. Stanghellini; Piet Sonneveld; M.A. Bruins

    2011-01-01

    Model calculations and the few data that are available show that over 100 L water condense yearly on each square meter of a greenhouse cover. It is known that the presence of condensate reduces light transmission. This effect is suppressed to some extent by adding film-forming (anti-drop) additives

  2. Effect of condensation on light transmission and energy budget of seven greenhouse cover materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Bruins, M.A.; Mohammadkhani, V.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Sonneveld, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Model calculations and the few data that are available show that over 100 L water condense yearly on each square meter of a greenhouse cover. It is known that the presence of condensate reduces light transmission. This effect is suppressed to some extent by adding film-forming (anti-drop) additives

  3. A feasibility study of microgrids for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in an industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment is conducted on the microgrids for an industry application. • The effect of renewable energy on the LCA performances of microgrids is illustrated. • The minimal life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of microgrids are evaluated. • The LCA of different pathways for electricity, heat and hydrogen are presented. - Abstract: Microgrids provide a new energy paradigm with the benefits of higher energy supply reliability, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a higher penetration of renewable sources, higher energy efficiencies through the use of local waste heat and the avoidance of losses in transmission and distribution. This study reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microgrids for an industry application of an ammonia plant in central Inner Mongolia, China. The life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the microgrids are evaluated and compared to the existing fossil fuel-based energy system. The electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel loads of the ammonia plant are all modelled in the study. An optimization model is developed to estimate the minimum life cycle energy use and GHG emissions with the microgrids under three scenarios (natural gas (NG)-based, optimized, and maximum renewable energy microgrids). The results indicate that the use of wind and solar in the NG-based microgrid can only slightly reduce the energy use and GHG emissions. If there are no land area limitations on the deployment of solar and wind power, the maximum renewable energy microgrid offers significant reductions of fossil fuel energy of up to 56.9% and GHG emissions reductions of up to 66.3% compared to the existing energy system.

  4. Biological Applications and Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewyn, Brian G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The research presented and discussed within involves the development of novel biological applications of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) and an investigation of mesoporous material by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mesoporous silica nanoparticles organically functionalized shown to undergo endocytosis in cancer cells and drug release from the pores was controlled intracellularly and intercellularly. Transmission electron microscopy investigations demonstrated the variety of morphologies produced in this field of mesoporous silica nanomaterial synthesis. A series of room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) containing mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials with various particle morphologies, including spheres, ellipsoids, rods, and tubes, were synthesized. By changing the RTIL template, the pore morphology was tuned from the MCM-41 type of hexagonal mesopores to rotational moire type of helical channels, and to wormhole-like porous structures. These materials were used as controlled release delivery nanodevices to deliver antibacterial ionic liquids against Escherichia coli K12. The involvement of a specific organosiloxane function group, covalently attached to the exterior of fluorescein doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FITC-MSN), on the degree and kinetics of endocytosis in cancer and plant cells was investigated. The kinetics of endocystosis of TEG coated FITC-MSN is significantly quicker than FITC-MSN as determined by flow cytometry experiments. The fluorescence confocal microscopy investigation showed the endocytosis of TEG coated-FITC MSN triethylene glycol grafted fluorescein doped MSN (TEG coated-FITC MSN) into both KeLa cells and Tobacco root protoplasts. Once the synthesis of a controlled-release delivery system based on MCM-41-type mesoporous silica nanorods capped by disulfide bonds with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles was completed. The material was characterized by general methods and the dosage and kinetics of the

  5. Derivation and Application of a New Transmission Loss Formula for Power System Economic Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression and calculation of transmission loss (TL play key roles for solving the power system economic dispatch (ED problem. ED including TL must compute the total TL and incremental transmission loss (ITL by executing power flow equations. However, solving the power flow equations is time-consuming and may result in divergence by the iteration procedure. This approach is unsuitable for real-time ED in practical power systems. To avoid solving nonlinear power flow equations, most power companies continue to adopt the TL formula in ED. Traditional loss formulas are composed of network parameters and in terms of the generator’s real power outputs. These formulas are derived by several assumptions, but these basic assumptions sacrifice accuracy. In this study, a new expression for the loss formula is proposed to improve the shortcomings of traditional loss formulas. The coefficients in the new loss formula can be obtained by recording the power losses according to varying real and reactive power outputs without any assumptions. The simultaneous equations of the second-order expansion of the Taylor series are then established. Finally, the corresponding coefficients can be calculated by solving the simultaneous equations. These new coefficients can be used in optimal real and reactive power dispatch problems. The proposed approach is tested by IEEE 14-bus and 30-bus systems, and the results are compared with those obtained from the traditional B coefficient method and the load flow method. The numerical results show that the proposed new loss formula for ED can hold high accuracy for different loading conditions and is very suitable for real-time applications.

  6. The influence of two different curing regimens on light energy transmission through bulk-fill resin composites and Vickers hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed; Santini, Ario

    2016-10-01

    To compare the total light energy transmission (J/cm2) through bulk-fill composite materials (BFMs) and Vickers hardness (VH) using a single-peak light curing unit (LCU) using two curing regimens. Samples (n= 5) of viscous BFMs, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TBF), X-tra fil (XF), and flowable BFMs, SureFil SDR (SDR), and X-tra base (XB) were prepared in 4 mm deep rings. The control was Tetric EvoCeram (TEC), a conventional composite. Using MARC-RC, the irradiance delivered to the top surface of the samples was adjusted to either 800 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds (16 J/cm2) or 1,600 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds (16 J/cm2). Samples were stored post-irradiation at 22 ± 2°C for 24 hours. Top and bottom-surface VH were measured and Bottom/Top (B/T) VH ratios were calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (α= 0.05). Total energy transmission for all materials ranged from 1.0 J/cm2 (6.1%) to 2.7 J/cm2 (16.9%). There was a statistically significant difference for total energy transmission to the bottom surface, more being transmitted at 800 mW/cm2 x 20 (Pcured at 800 mW/cm2 x 20 seconds (P 0.05) with either curing regimen. The degree of cure was material-dependent and increasing curing time may be more important than LCU tip irradiation values. Manufacturer's recommended total energy regimen may not always be adequate for effective curing. Some bulk-fill materials, containing additional photo-sensitivity to lower wave lengths, may be adequately cured using a single-peak LCU.

  7. Transmission Challenges and Best Practices for Cost-Effective Renewable Energy Delivery across State and Provincial Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Qin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-21

    A strategically planned transmission network is an important source of flexibility for the integration of large-scale renewable energy (RE). Such a network can offer access to a broad geographic diversity of resources, which can reduce flexibility needs and facilitate sharing between neighboring balancing areas. This report builds on two previous NREL technical reports - Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Milligan et al. 2015) and 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies (Hurlbut et al. 2015) - which discuss various flexibility options and provide an overview of U.S. market models and grid planning. This report focuses on addressing issues with cross-regional/provincial transmission in China with the aim of integrating renewable resources that are concentrated in remote areas and require inter-regional/provincial power exchange.

  8. The planning of transmission grids. Conditions of the energy policy turnaround; Die Planung der Uebertragungsnetze. Bedingung der Energiewende.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Siegfried de; Durinke, Peter; Kause, Harriet [DE WITT Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book reports on planning processes for the power transmission grid. The design and implementation of a high-voltage line of the transmission system consists of four stages (Part I): (a) National planning of requirements; (b) Planning procedures or federal sector planning; (c) Planning approval procedure; (d) Expropriation proceedings. Part II of this book describes the planning according to the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) and Electricity Grid Expansion Act (EnLAG). The Part III of the book under consideration describes the procedures to be taken out by the NABEG (Act for the Acceleration of Network Expansion) from the scope of paragraph 15 ROG (Regional Planning Act) and paragraph 43 EnWG.

  9. Transmission Challenges and Best Practices for Cost-Effective Renewable Energy Delivery across State and Provincial Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Qin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-22

    A strategically planned transmission network is an important source of flexibility for the integration of large-scale renewable energy (RE). Such a network can offer access to a broad geographic diversity of resources, which can reduce flexibility needs and facilitate sharing between neighboring balancing areas. This report builds on two previous NREL technical reports - Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Milligan et al. 2015) and 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies (Hurlbut et al. 2015) - which discuss various flexibility options and provide an overview of U.S. market models and grid planning. This report focuses on addressing issues with cross-regional/provincial transmission in China with the aim of integrating renewable resources that are concentrated in remote areas and require inter-regional/provincial power exchange.

  10. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams. A multi-centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casar, Bozidar [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen and Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wegener, Sonja [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD{sub 20,10} values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4 x 4 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}. The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10 cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (p < 0.01) for all photon energies except for 18 MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} field and 10 MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6 MV to 0.9578 for 18 MV and 0.9440 for 6 MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10 MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice.

  11. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials. These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples.

  12. Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Point absorber wave energy converter is presented. • Piston pump module captures and converts wave energy. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Fuzzy controller adjusts the displacement of hydraulic motor. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. - Abstract: In this paper, a point absorber wave energy converter combined with offshore wind turbine is proposed. In the system, the wave energy is captured and converted into hydraulic energy by a piston pump module, which is combined with a wind turbine floating platform, and then the hydraulic energy is converted into electricity energy by a variable displacement hydraulic motor and induction generator. In order to smooth and stabilize the captured wave energy, a hydraulic accumulator is applied to store and release the excess energy. In order to meet the demand power a fuzzy controller is designed to adjust the displacement of hydraulic motor and controlled the output power. Simulation under irregular wave condition has been carried out to verify the validity of the mathematical model and the effectiveness of the controller strategy. The results show that the wave energy converter system could deliver the required electricity power precisely as the motor output torque is controlled. The accumulator could damp out all the fluctuations in output power, so the wave energy would become a dispatchable power source.

  13. 10 CFR 1017.27 - Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission. 1017.27 Section 1017.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION.... Encryption algorithms that comply with all applicable Federal laws, regulations, and standards for the...

  14. Heterogeneous catalysis at nanoscale for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Franklin (Feng); Kamat, Prashant V

    2015-01-01

    This book presents both the fundamentals concepts and latest achievements of a field that is growing in importance since it represents a possible solution for global energy problems.  It focuses on an atomic-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis involved in important energy conversion processes. It presents a concise picture for the entire area of heterogeneous catalysis with vision at the atomic- and nano- scales, from synthesis, ex-situ and in-situ characterization, catalytic activity and selectivity, to mechanistic understanding based on experimental exploration and theoretical si

  15. Geothermal energy in Yugoslavia, potentials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreli, F.; Paradjanin, Lj.; Stankovic, Srb.

    2002-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of Geothermal energy (GTE) in Serbia, and argues that while GTE is both a viable and environmentally friendly energy source, as demonstrated elsewhere in the world, there is also a multitude of opportunities in this region, and the local knowledge and capabilities required for implementing the GTE plants. First, a general introduction to GTE in is given. The basis of GTE is the thermal energy accumulated in fluids and rocks masses in the Earth's Crust. The main GTE advantage compared to the traditional energy sources like thermo-electric plants is the absence of environmental deterioration, however GTE also has advantages compared to other NARES, as the GT sources are permanently available and independent of weather conditions. Worldwide energy potential of GTE is huge, as the reduction of Earth Crust temperature for just 0.1 deg. C would give enough Energy to produce Electrical Energy, at the present dissipation level, for the next 15,000 years. An overview of the regions in Yugoslavia which have a high GTE potential is given. There are two distinct regions with higher GTE values in Serbia: the first is a part of the South Panonian basin including Vojvodina, with Macva and Yu-part along Danube and Morava rivers. This is a sedimental part of the Tercier's Panonic Sea 'Parathetis', with partial depression and Backa subsupression, and is well investigated due to oil and gas holeboring. The second region includes Central and Southern part of Serbia, south from the Panonia basin, with pretercier's and tercier's magmatic volcanic intrusions, which produce a very high and stable thermal flux. This Region is rich in GT-warm water springs with stable yields, and includes 217 locations with 970 natural springs with temperature above 20 deg. C. These compare very favorably with international locations where GTE is exploited. GTE can be used for Electric Energy production using corresponding heat pump systems, for house heating and warm water

  16. Climate information for the application of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Gil, S.

    1997-01-01

    In view of population growth, industrialization and urbanization which provoked increasing energy demand there has been an increasing interest in developing new technologies that use various renewable energy sources and have less environmental impact, such as solar, wind, tidal and biomass. Solar energy is one of the energy resources with a wide geographical distribution. Nowadays, its contribution to the world's energy supply is very small, but it is considered an important long term option which will satisfy, together with conventional energy sources, the future energy needs of the world. The main objective of this work is to report the actual uses of the principal types of solar energy systems, based on their climatic, technological and economical context. This is to improve the dissemination of information on the application of climate knowledge and data, especially by national meteorological services, with the purpose to improve the planning, design and operation of solar energy systems, as well as facilitate their more widespread use

  17. Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, W.; Hirata, M.; O'Hashi, K.; Asahi, H.; Benoit, J.; Keith, G.

    2003-01-01

    We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

  18. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy...

  19. Application of Nonparametric Methods in Studying Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer behaviour towards different forms of energy varies over time. The variance can be so large that the quality of the estimation functional relationship between the response variable and its associated explanatory variables is seriously affected. To attenuate this, kernel smoothing a nonparametric regression ...

  20. A Wind Forecasting System for Energy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2010-05-01

    Accurate forecasting of available energy is crucial for the efficient management and use of wind power in the national power grid. With energy output critically dependent upon wind strength there is a need to reduce the errors associated wind forecasting. The objective of this research is to get the best possible wind forecasts for the wind energy industry. To achieve this goal, three methods are being applied. First, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model called WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) is being used to predict wind values over Ireland. Currently, a gird resolution of 10km is used and higher model resolutions are being evaluated to establish whether they are economically viable given the forecast skill improvement they produce. Second, the WRF model is being used in conjunction with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ensemble forecasts to produce a probabilistic weather forecasting product. Due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, a single, deterministic weather forecast can only have limited skill. The ECMWF ensemble methods produce an ensemble of 51 global forecasts, twice a day, by perturbing initial conditions of a 'control' forecast which is the best estimate of the initial state of the atmosphere. This method provides an indication of the reliability of the forecast and a quantitative basis for probabilistic forecasting. The limitation of ensemble forecasting lies in the fact that the perturbed model runs behave differently under different weather patterns and each model run is equally likely to be closest to the observed weather situation. Models have biases, and involve assumptions about physical processes and forcing factors such as underlying topography. Third, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is being applied to the output from the ensemble forecasts in order to statistically post-process the results and achieve a better wind forecasting system. BMA is a promising technique that will offer calibrated

  1. Current Status of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2009-05-01

    IAEA Technical Meeting(I3-TM-37394) on 'Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy' has been successfully held from March 3 to 6 in 2009 at KAERI/INTEC. The 24 experts from 12 countries participated in this meeting and provided 17 presentations and their opinions and comments in desalination, hydrogen production, and heat application sessions. All of the participants from 12 countries agreed that nuclear power should be the potential carbon-free energy source to replace crude oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of non-electric applications such as desalination, hydrogen production, district heating, and industrial processes applications

  2. Geographic information system(GIS) applications to optimize route selection, environmental analysis and power transmission line designs; Aplicaciones en sistemas de informacion geograficos (SIG) para optimizar seleccion de ruta, analisis ambiental y diseno de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadena Suarez, Luis Fernando; Posada Delgado, Fabio Humberto; Alvarez Davila, Esteban; Gomez Colorado, Oscar Alberto [Interconexion Electrica S.A. (ISA), Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: fecadena@isa.com.co

    2001-07-01

    Interconexion Eletrica s.a. (ISA) is a company of the Colombian government for electric energy transportation through the national energy transportation network, it makes part of the companies group with growing environmental conscience. The better route identifications for high voltage transmission lines do not involve just the engineering analyses, but mainly the environmental one.These integrated analysis have been largely powered through the technology applications like Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). These technologies were applied for a total of 300 kilometers between 1992 and 2000 in the largest power transmission lines whose configurations cross different geographic conditions. This current technical contribution describes the application of GIS and RS technologies for the best routes, environmental sensibility analysis and environmental impact evaluations. The applications have resulted in the integration between engineering and environmental processes, optimization of environmental evaluation, formulations of procedures handling and environmental control, as well as transmission line profile characteristics. After the project construction, GIS can be used as a useful tool for environmental monitoring in connection with power transmission lines, maintenance of servitude areas, availability conditions and quality of the high voltage transmission service.

  3. Artificial intelligence—applications in high energy and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, U.

    2003-04-01

    In the parallel sessions at ACAT2002 different artificial intelligence applications in high energy and nuclear physics were presented. I will briefly summarize these presentations. Further details can be found in the relevant section of these proceedings.

  4. Artificial intelligence - applications in high energy and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U. E-mail: mueller@whep.uni-wuppertal.de

    2003-04-21

    In the parallel sessions at ACAT2002 different artificial intelligence applications in high energy and nuclear physics were presented. I will briefly summarize these presentations. Further details can be found in the relevant section of these proceedings.

  5. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  6. Interview in Radio Educacion on the applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective that presides over this interview, is to show before the public the diverse applications that can have the nuclear energy, apart from the warlike aspect and the electric power generation. (Author)

  7. A Dynamic Incentive Mechanism for Transmission Expansion in Electricity Networks – Theory, Modeling and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rosellon, Juan; Weigt, Hannes

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the Hogan-Rosellón-Vogelsang (2007) (HRV) incentive mechanism for transmission expansion, and tests it for different network topologies. This new mechanism is based upon redefining transmission output in terms of point-to-point transactions or financial transmission rights (FTRs) and applies Vogelsang’s (2001) incentive-regulation logic that proposes rebalancing the variable and fixed parts of a two-part tariff to promote efficient, long-term expansion. We anal...

  8. High temperature applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The meeting was organized to review industry/user needs designs, status of technology and the associated economics for high temperature applications. It was attended by approximately 100 participants from nine countries. The participants presented 17 papers. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Military Wastes-to-Energy Applications,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    for the biomass-derived fuel. Szego (Ref. 112) concluded that either a solid fuel or synthetic natural gas from biomass (through anaerobic fermentation ...Wastes Ethanol Fermentation Wood Products Wastes Other Fermentations * Materials Applications Chemical Feedstocks Dispersed Residues Thermochemical...Anaerobic Digestion e Potential production of vile-smelling volatile acids ( butyric and propionic) due to poisoning of bacteria by metals or acid * Potential

  10. Analytics on Transmission Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Hwa; Kim, Geung Ho; Lee, Hwak Ju and others

    1996-06-01

    This book gives descriptions of transmission electron microscopy, which deals with electron microscopy and materials science, history of electron microscopy, application of analytics on transmission electron microscopy, machine requirement of transmission electron microscopy like electron gun and TEM image and function, crystal diffraction, electron diffraction, Kikuchi's diffraction figure, analysis of diffraction figure, contrast of TEM image like absorption contrast, and phase contrast, Fresnel's diffraction and TEM contrast, thickness fringe, column approximation, analysis of diffraction contrast, image simulation, and electron energy loss spectrometry.

  11. Medical applications of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte, Valentin E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, in Mendoza (Argentina) was created in 1986 by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and is supported by the Government of the Mendoza Province, the CNEA, and the National University of Cuyo. The main activities of the school are medical diagnosis using nuclear techniques and the training of physicians and technicians in nuclear medicine. Teletherapy and brachytherapy are also performed. The use of the PET is described in some detail

  12. World-wide termination of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirin, W.

    1991-01-01

    It is easy to require the widely discussed termination of nuclear energy application, but it is hardly possible to realise it, unless one is prepared to accept enormous economic and ecological problems. The article investigates, whether the other energy carriers or energy saving methods, respectively, would be in a position to replace the nuclear energy. Thereby the aspects of securing the supply and its economy are of considerable importance. The author describes furthermore the effects of terminating nuclear energy on the growing world population and the economy of trading countries. Ecological problems that may also be aggravated are dealt with, too. (orig.) [de

  13. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  14. Search for New Superconductors for Energy and Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-21

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0271 (MURI 09) SEARCH FOR NEW SUPERCONDUCTORS FOR ENERGY AND POWER APPLICATIONS Ivan Schuller UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO... Superconductors for Energy and Power Applications Organization/Institution name: University of California, San Diego Grant #: AFOSR MURI # FA9550-09-1...superconductivity, relied mostly on the almost accidental discoveries of new superconductors . The SuperSearch for New Superconductors MURI project departs from this

  15. Progressive significance map and its application to error-resilient image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Pearlman, William A; Li, Xin

    2012-07-01

    Set partition coding (SPC) has shown tremendous success in image compression. Despite its popularity, the lack of error resilience remains a significant challenge to the transmission of images in error-prone environments. In this paper, we propose a novel data representation called the progressive significance map (prog-sig-map) for error-resilient SPC. It structures the significance map (sig-map) into two parts: a high-level summation sig-map and a low-level complementary sig-map (comp-sig-map). Such a structured representation of the sig-map allows us to improve its error-resilient property at the price of only a slight sacrifice in compression efficiency. For example, we have found that a fixed-length coding of the comp-sig-map in the prog-sig-map renders 64% of the coded bitstream insensitive to bit errors, compared with 40% with that of the conventional sig-map. Simulation results have shown that the prog-sig-map can achieve highly competitive rate-distortion performance for binary symmetric channels while maintaining low computational complexity. Moreover, we note that prog-sig-map is complementary to existing independent packetization and channel-coding-based error-resilient approaches and readily lends itself to other source coding applications such as distributed video coding.

  16. Molecular Approaches to Understanding Transmission and Source Attribution in Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Their Application in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Vaughan, Timothy G; French, Nigel P

    2015-11-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a frequent cause of diarrhea around the world, yet in many African countries it is more commonly associated with invasive bacterial disease. Various source attribution models have been developed that utilize microbial subtyping data to assign cases of human NTS infection to different animal populations and foods of animal origin. Advances in molecular microbial subtyping approaches, in particular whole-genome sequencing, provide higher resolution data with which to investigate these sources. In this review, we provide updates on the source attribution models developed for Salmonella, and examine the application of whole-genome sequencing data combined with evolutionary modeling to investigate the putative sources and transmission pathways of NTS, with a focus on the epidemiology of NTS in Africa. This is essential information to decide where, what, and how control strategies might be applied most effectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Balancing of a power-transmission shaft with the application of axial torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Flemming, D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of power transmission shafting for high-speed balancing has shown that when axial torque is applied, the imbalance response is altered. An increase in synchronous excitation always occurs if the axial torque level is altered from the value used during balancing; this was the case even when the shaft was balanced with torque applied. The twisting of the long slender shaft produces a change in the imbalance distribution sufficient to disrupt the balanced state. This paper presents a review of the analytic development of a weighted least squares approach to influence coefficient balancing and a review of experimental results. The analytic approach takes advantage of the fact that the past testing has shown that the influence coefficients are not significantly affected by the application of axial torque. The 3.60-m (12-ft) long aluminum shaft, 7.62 cm (3 in.) in diameter was run through the first flexural critical speed at torque levels ranging from zero-torque to 903.8 N-M (8000 lb-in.) in 112.9 N-M (1000 lb-in.) increments. Good comparison was achieved between predicted and experimental results.

  18. Auralization of vibroacoustic models in engineering using Wave Field Synthesis: Application to plates and transmission loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, A.; Gauthier, P.-A.; Berry, A.

    2017-12-01

    While perceptual evaluation and sound quality testing with jury are now recognized as essential parts of acoustical product development, they are rarely implemented with spatial sound field reproduction. Instead, monophonic, stereophonic or binaural presentations are used. This paper investigates the workability and interest of a method to use complete vibroacoustic engineering models for auralization based on 2.5D Wave Field Synthesis (WFS). This method is proposed in order that spatial characteristics such as directivity patterns and direction-of-arrival are part of the reproduced sound field while preserving the model complete formulation that coherently combines frequency and spatial responses. Modifications to the standard 2.5D WFS operators are proposed for extended primary sources, affecting the reference line definition and compensating for out-of-plane elementary primary sources. Reported simulations and experiments of reproductions of two physically-accurate vibroacoustic models of thin plates show that the proposed method allows for an effective reproduction in the horizontal plane: Spatial and frequency domains features are recreated. Application of the method to the sound rendering of a virtual transmission loss measurement setup shows the potential of the method for use in virtual acoustical prototyping for jury testing.

  19. Big Pylons: Mixed signals for transmission. Spatial planning for energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Heather; Hardy, Maelíosa; Lloyd, M. Greg; McGreal, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The effective delivery of a sustainable energy future raises many challenges in relation to energy distribution where a new understanding of spatial planning is needed in relation to energy production, consumption and storage. Understanding the emergent low carbon energy economy in terms of its production, distribution and consumption characteristics has prompted a deliberate spatial planning interest. This paper examines issues relating to spatial planning, regulation, political legitimacy and accountability in the current and future systems for energy distribution. In particular it examines the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland as a case study in terms of demonstrating the changing state–market–civil relations in an energy transition context with differentiated values and interests. The case study highlights implications for the regulation in the public interest of highly contested spaces, places and development schemes, together with a synopsis of government structure and change that is influencing the future of spatial planning and energy distribution in particular. - Highlights: • We examine links between spatial planning and regulation of energy distribution. • We examine the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland. • We highlight challenges surrounding the development of a resilient energy system. • We highlight links between spatial planning and infrastructural development

  20. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  1. Applications of neural networks in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.; Hoftun, J.S.; Nesic, D.; Sornborger, A.; Johnson, C.R.; Zeller, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Neural network techniques provide promising solutions to pattern recognition problems in high energy physics. We discuss several applications of back propagation networks, and in particular describe the operation of an electron algorithm based on calorimeter energies. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Solar energy applications in transportation facilities : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the literature and other sources to determine the types of application that have been made of solar energy in the transportation field. The use of solar energy for powering automatic traffic counters, v...

  3. Survey of EPA facilities for solar thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. V.; Overly, P. T.; Bell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facility combinations were ranked on the basis of greatest cost effectiveness.

  4. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The Annual report 1974 of the Association EURATOM-ITAL describes the results obtained in 1974 in the following sections: Radiation effects; Genetic studies; Soil-plants studies; Methodology; Practical applications, services, courses. The radiation effects studies are concerned with: primary radiation effects, mutation breeding, preservation of food by means of radiation, radiation genetics of insect pests. In the soil-plant studies, the following topics are dealt with: uptake of specific elements by plants, behavior of specific elements in the soil and water environment, heavy metals in plants and soils. The methodology part of the programme is concerned with: methodology related to dosimetric, other physical and instrumental studies; methodology related to studies on biological material; methodology related to soil-studies. Practical applications, services, courses include: mutation breeding of economically important crops, food preservation by irradiation, services to other institutions mainly in the Netherlands, courses, newsletters. The report also lists publications issued and not yet issued

  5. Perspectives on energy storage wheels for space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Several of the issues of the workshop are addressed from the perspective of a potential Space Station developer and energy wheel user. Systems' considerations are emphasized rather than component technology. The potential of energy storage wheel (ESW) concept is discussed. The current status of the technology base is described. Justification for advanced technology development is also discussed. The study concludes that energy storage in wheels is an attractive concept for immediate technology development and future Space Station application.

  6. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-08-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms-1 and around 25 ms-1. A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  7. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms -1 and around 25 ms -1 . A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  8. High energy transmission of Al2O3 doped with light transition metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Cosima

    2012-01-31

    The transmission of transparent colored ceramics based on Al2O3doped with light transition metals is measured in the visible and infrared range. To clarify the role of the dopands we perform ab initiocalculations. We discuss the electronic structure and present optical spectra obtained in the independent particle approximation. We argue that the gross spectral features of Co- and Ni-doped Al2O3 samples are described by our model, while the validity of the approach is limited for Cr-doped Al2O3.

  9. IMPROVING THE TRANSMISSION PERFORMANCE BASED ON MINIMIZING ENERGY IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundala Swathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Networking is collectively no of mobile nodes allocate users to correctly detect a distant environment. These wireless mobile networks want strong but simple, scalable, energy efficient and also self organize routing algorithms. In Mobile technology small quantity of power electronics and less power radio frequency have permit the expansion of small, comparatively economical and less power nodes, are associated in a wireless mobile networkIn this study we proposed method are: energy effectiveness, energetic occurrence zone and multiple hop TRANSMIT, taking into concern between the energy of transmit nodes and distance from the transmit node to the trusted neighbor node, link weight energy utilization and distance are measured as most important constraint for decide on greatest possible path from Zone Head (ZH to the neighbor node. In this we use the different constraints and lessen the quantity of distribution messages during the Transmit node choice point to decrease the energy utilization of the complete network.

  10. Bridging the Radiative Transfer Models for Meteorology and Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative transfer models are used to compute solar radiation reaching the earth surface and play an important role in both meteorology and solar energy studies. Therefore, they are designed to meet the needs of specialized applications. For instance, radiative transfer models for meteorology seek to provide more accurate cloudy-sky radiation compared to models used in solar energy that are geared towards accuracy in clear-sky conditions associated with the maximum solar resource. However, models for solar energy applications are often computationally faster, as the complex solution of the radiative transfer equation is parameterized by atmospheric properties that can be acquired from surface- or satellite-based observations. This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to combine the advantages of radiative transfer models designed for meteorology and solar energy applictions. A fast all-sky radiation model, FARMS-NIT, was developed to efficiently compute narrowband all-sky irradiances over inclined photovoltaic (PV) panels. This new model utilizes the optical preperties from a solar energy model, SMARTS, to computes surface radiation by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. For cloudy-sky conditions, cloud bidirectional transmittance functions (BTDFs) are provided by a precomputed lookup table (LUT) by LibRadtran. Our initial results indicate that FARMS-NIT has an accuracy that is similar to LibRadtran, a highly accurate multi-stream model, but is significantly more efficient. The development and validation of this model will be presented.

  11. Investigation of Energy and Environmental Potentials of a Renewable Trigeneration System in a Residential Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chul Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro polygeneration utilizing renewable energy is a suitable approach to reduce energy consumption and carbon emission by offering high-efficiency performance, offsetting the need for centrally-generated grid electricity and avoiding transmission/distribution losses associated with it. This paper investigates the energy and environmental potential of a renewable trigeneration system in a residential application under Incheon (Korea and Ottawa (Canada weather conditions. The trigeneration system consists of a ground-to-air heat exchanger (GAHX, photovoltaic thermal (PVT panels and an air-to-water heat pump (AWHP. The study is performed by simulations in TRNSYS (Version 17.02 environment. The performance of the trigeneration system is compared to a reference conventional system that utilizes a boiler for space and domestic hot water heating and a chiller for space cooling. Simulation results showed substantial annual primary energy savings from the renewable trigeneration system in comparison to the reference system—45% for Incheon and 42% for Ottawa. The CO2eq emission reduction from the renewable trigeneration system is also significant, standing at 43% for Incheon and 82% for Ottawa. Furthermore, trigeneration systems’ capability to generate electricity and thermal energy at the point of use is considered as an attractive option for inclusion in the future smart energy network applications.

  12. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  13. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    method cost reduction, numerous solar energy based applications were .... domestic usage. The active multiple effect units are more suitable for large-scale applications. 3.2.2 Solar Pathogenic Organic Destruction. Pathogenic organic destruction otherwise known as ... achieved by filling about 0.3-2.0 litre plastic bottles.

  14. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O' Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  15. Direct solar energy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdani, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. Even solar cells are now on the eve of becoming economically competitive. After a brief account of solar-cell theory, this paper gives the essential details of Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing Technologies, Single Crystal Technology, Fabrication of Wafers, Fabrication of Solar Cell, Photovoltaic Module, Multi Crystalline Silicon, Amorphous Silicon Cell. Semi-conductor based Thin-Film Technology (other than silicon), Copper-Indium Di selenide (IS), Gallium Arsenide, Multi-Junction Devices, as well as Technologies for Improving Conversion Efficiencies, Criteria for high-efficiency Cells and Module Fabrication. It concludes with a section on Direct Utilisation of solar energy, in which a brief description is presented on Solar Thermal Devices, Solar Water Heaters, Calculating hot-water requirements, Solar Stills, Solar Drying, Concentrator Collectors and, finally Measurement of the Solar Resource. At the end, there is a useful Appendix on World-Wide Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Capacity Expansion Profile. (author)

  16. Application of a case–control study design to investigate genotypic signatures of HIV-1 transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Talia M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of HIV-1 transmission strains may inform the design of an effective vaccine. Shorter variable loops with fewer predicted glycosites have been suggested as signatures enriched in envelope sequences derived during acute HIV-1 infection. Specifically, a transmission-linked lack of glycosites within the V1 and V2 loops of gp120 provides greater access to an α4β7 binding motif, which promotes the establishment of infection. Also, a histidine at position 12 in the leader sequence of Env has been described as a transmission signature that is selected against during chronic infection. The purpose of this study is to measure the association of the presence of an α4β7 binding motif, the number of N-linked glycosites, the length of the variable loops, and the prevalence of histidine at position 12 with HIV-1 transmission. A case–control study design was used to measure the prevalence of these variables between subtype B and C transmission sequences and frequency-matched randomly-selected sequences derived from chronically infected controls. Results Subtype B transmission strains had shorter V3 regions than chronic strains (p = 0.031; subtype C transmission strains had shorter V1 loops than chronic strains (p = 0.047; subtype B transmission strains had more V3 loop glycosites (p = 0.024 than chronic strains. Further investigation showed that these statistically significant results were unlikely to be biologically meaningful. Also, there was no difference observed in the prevalence of a histidine at position 12 among transmission strains and controls of either subtype. Conclusions Although a genetic bottleneck is observed after HIV-1 transmission, our results indicate that summary characteristics of Env hypothesised to be important in transmission are not divergent between transmission and chronic strains of either subtype. The success of a transmission strain to initiate infection may be a random

  17. Development of a Laboratory Synchrophasor Network and an Application to Estimate Transmission Line Parameters in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron Bonnin, Rubens Eduardo

    The development of an experimental synchrophasors network and application of synchrophasors for real-time transmission line parameter monitoring are presented in this thesis. In the laboratory setup, a power system is simulated in a RTDS real-time digital simulator, and the simulated voltages and currents are input to hardware phasor measurement units (PMUs) through the analog outputs of the simulator. Time synchronizing signals for the PMU devices are supplied from a common GPS clock. The real time data collected from PMUs are sent to a phasor data concentrator (PDC) through Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. A real-time transmission line parameter monitoring application program that uses the synchrophasor data provided by the PDC is implemented and validated. The experimental synchrophasor network developed in this thesis is expected to be used in research on synchrophasor applications as well as in graduate and undergraduate teaching.

  18. Advanced DC/AC inverters applications in renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2013-01-01

    DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors,

  19. Magnetic-Field Immunity Examination and Evaluation of Transcutaneous Energy-Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET is the most promising noninvasive method for supplying driving energy to a totally implantable artificial heart. Induction-heating (IH cookers generate a magnetic flux, and if a cooker is operated near a transcutaneous transformer, the magnetic flux generated will link with its external and internal coils. This will affect the performance of the TET and the artificial heart system. In this paper, we present the design and development of a coil to be used for a magnetic immunity test, and we detail the investigation of the magnetic immunity of a transcutaneous transformer. The experimental coil, with five turns like a solenoid, was able to generate a uniform magnetic field in the necessary bandwidth. A magnetic-field immunity examination of the TET system was performed using this coil, and the system was confirmed to have sufficient immunity to the magnetic field generated as a result of the conventional operation of induction-heating cooker.

  20. European concerted action on offshore wind energy deployment: inventory and analysis of power transmission barriers in eight member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyte, Achim; Gardner, Paul; Snodin, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The European Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) was carried out by eight sea-bordering European Union member states, with the objective to remove not explicitly technical barriers to offshore wind energy. Within the COD, an inventory of relevant aspects affecting the grid integration of offshore wind energy on a large scale in the eight countries has been made. Collected data items for this inventory are national plans and prospects for offshore wind energy, information about the transmission system, possibilities for grid connection, aspects of the grid codes, balancing, connection and energy pricing. The comprehensive COD reports were published and presented in October 2005 during the Copenhagen Offshore wind conference. This paper provides a short description of the situation for each country. Thereafter, country-specific information is grouped based on geography and membership in a synchronous zone. Additionally, a view is developed on the desirable facilities for the trans-European exchange of power from large wind farms. Finally, we elaborate overall conclusions in order to arrive at generalized observations, recommendations for policy makers and issues that will emerge in the near future. As a general conclusion, many things need to be done on a technical level in order to integrate large amounts of offshore wind power into our power systems. However, none of these measures is technically unknown. Therefore, the feasibility of integrating large amounts of offshore wind power is mainly a question of finance and hence based on political decisions. (Author)

  1. Exotic Forms of Silicon for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. Craig

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades many exotic forms of carbon, such as carbon-60, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have generated novel scientific discoveries and revolutionized many important applications. Similar potentially transformative breakthroughs may be expected with exotic forms of silicon. Such structures include, but are not necessarily limited to, (1) those formed under high pressure that are metastable at ambient pressure, (2) single layers of Si (silicene), (2) clathrate Si, which has been studied for superconducting and thermoelectric properties but not in any detail for semiconductor applications, (3) nanostructured forms of Si (nanodots and nanowires), including those composed of diamond Si, (4) porous Si, and (5) any other structures that differ in their structural, optical or electronic properties from bulk diamond Si. Silicon is an abundant, non-toxic element around which an advanced technology exists for semiconducting devices based on diamond Si. One of these exotic forms of Si could form the basis for the next revolution in electronics or even opto-electronics, since some forms exhibit direct, or nearly direct, band gaps. Recent results toward producing pure and dopable semiconductors out of Si nanodots imbedded in amorphous matrices and in clathrate Si and clathrate Si-Ge alloys will be discussed. The author acknowledges important collaborations with R. T. Collins, C. A. Koh, L. Krishna, M. Lusk, and P. Stradins. DOE SUNSHOT program, under Contract DE-EE0005326 and by the NSF MRSEC program under Grant DMR-0820518.

  2. Dye based photodiodes for solar energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Darkwa, K.; Ocaya, R.; Dere, A.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Soylu, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2017-10-01

    Coumarin (CO) doped methylene blue (MB) organic photo-devices were fabricated. The CO-doped MB (0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1 wt% CO) were coated onto the surface of a p-type Si substrate by drop casting method. Some electrical parameters of the devices have been examined by current-voltage ( I- V), capacitance-voltage ( C- V), and conductance-voltage ( G- V) measurements. The fabricated devices had excellent rectifying properties. The diode exhibits a non-ideal diode behavior due to the series resistance and interface layer. The ideality factor, the barrier height, and the series resistance values of the diode as a function of doping and light illumination have been estimated using modified Cheung-Cheung and Norde's method. The highest I photo/ I dark photosensitivity of 5606 was observed for the diode having 0.01 CO doping at 100 mW/cm2 under -3 V. Furthermore, change of capacitance and conductance measurements with frequency is related to the existence of interface states. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.4% is estimated for the fabricated devices. The results reveal that coumarin-doped methylene blue/ p-Si heterojunction can be used as a photodiode in optoelectronic applications. It is also usable in low-power photovoltaic applications.

  3. Fiber Optic Cables for Transmission of High-Power Laser Pulses in Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. J., Jr.; Ott, M. N.; Chuska, R. F.; Switzer, R. C.; Blair, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Lasers with high peak power pulses are commonly used in spaceflight missions for a wide range of applications, from LIDAR systems to optical communications. Due to the high optical power needed, the laser has to be located on the exterior of the satellite or coupled through a series of free space optics. This presents challenges for thermal management, radiation resistance, and mechanical design. Future applications will require multiple lasers located close together, which further complicates the design. Coupling the laser energy into a fiber optic cable allows the laser to be relocated to a more favorable position on the spacecraft. Typical fiber optic termination procedures are not sufficient for injection of these high-power laser pulses without catastrophic damage to the fiber endface. In the current study, we will review the causes of fiber damage during high-power injection and discuss our new manufacturing procedures that overcome these issues to permit fiber use with high reliability in these applications. We will also discuss the proper methods for launching the laser pulses into the fiber to avoid damage and how this is being implemented for current spaceflight missions.

  4. Fiber optic cables for transmission of high-power laser pulses in spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. J.; Ott, M. N.; Chuska, R. F.; Switzer, R. C.; Blair, D. E.

    2017-11-01

    Lasers with high peak power pulses are commonly used in spaceflight missions for a wide range of applications, from LIDAR systems to optical communications. Due to the high optical power needed, the laser has to be located on the exterior of the satellite or coupled through a series of free space optics. This presents challenges for thermal management, radiation resistance, and mechanical design. Future applications will require multiple lasers located close together, which further complicates the design. Coupling the laser energy into a fiber optic cable allows the laser to be relocated to a more favorable position on the spacecraft. Typical fiber optic termination procedures are not sufficient for injection of these high-power laser pulses without catastrophic damage to the fiber endface. In the current study, we will review the causes of fiber damage during high-power injection and discuss our new manufacturing procedures that overcome these issues to permit fiber use with high reliability in these applications. We will also discuss the proper methods for launching the laser pulses into the fiber to avoid damage and how this is being implemented for current spaceflight missions.

  5. Evaluation of energy saving tasks performed by the energy transmission and distribution companies; Denmark; Evaluering af energiselskabernes energibespareaktiviteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2012-05-15

    The evaluation is described in the Agreement of 20 November 2009 between the Danish Climate and Energy Minister and the distribution companies for electricity, natural gas, district heating and oil about the companies' future energy conservation efforts. The evaluation was conducted to provide recommendations for adjusting the system. The results of the evaluation show that energy companies and utilities meet the overall savings obligation. In 2011, 2,098 GWh savings are recorded, which is more than the obligation. The evaluation shows that the net effect is about 760 GWh (36%). When looking at types of energy companies, then the oil companies' activities generally have a low net effect and additionally is assessed to be low in relation to the district heating companies' renovation of the district heating network. The greatest additionally exists among large savings in the industry. The means that energy companies use to achieve savings obligations are significantly different today than a few years ago. Today there are grants for more than 85% of registered savings. Before 2006 primarily information and advice was used. Thus an estimated 400 million DKK annually is used for grants. Socio-economics is positive for the part of the effort that is aimed at businesses. The socio-economic value of the savings is calculated to be twice as large as the total cost when you only look at the industry. The system can thus be readily seen as a useful instrument to promote energy conservation in industry. For households, it is estimated that the net effect is 20% of the reported savings, while for industry the net effect is estimated to be 45%. Also, for renovations of the heat distribution networks the net effect is estimated to be low. (LN)

  6. Building heating and cooling applications thermal energy storage program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal energy storage technology and development of building heating and cooling applications in the residential and commercial sectors is outlined. Three elements are identified to undergo an applications assessment, technology development, and demonstration. Emphasis is given to utility load management thermal energy system application where the stress is on the 'customer side of the meter'. Thermal storage subsystems for space conditioning and conservation means of increased thermal mass within the building envelope and by means of low-grade waste heat recovery are covered.

  7. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1989-01-01

    Study of muon catalysis of nuclear fusion and phenomena commonly referred to as cold fusion has been central to our effort. Muon catalyzed fusion research concentrated primarily on the identification of energy efficient production of muons, and the understanding and control of the density dependence of auto-poisoning (sticking) of the catalyst. We have also developed the in-flight fusion description of the tμ-d reaction, and work in progress shows promise in explaining the fusion cycle anomalies and smallness of sticking as a consequence of the dominant role of such reactions. Our cold fusion work involved the exploration of numerous environments for cold fusion reactions in materials used in the heavy water electrolysis, with emphasis on reactions consistent with the conventional knowledge of nuclear physics reactions. We then considered the possibility that a previously unobserved ultra-heavy particle X - is a catalyst of dd fusion, explaining the low intensity neutrons observed by Jones et. al. 29 refs

  8. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  9. Analysis and evaluation of the applicability of green energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. J.; Song, Y. K.

    2017-11-01

    With the seriousness of environmental issues and the shortage of resources, the applicability of green energy technology has been paid more and more attention by scholars in different fields. However, the current researches are often single in perspective and simple in method. According to the Theory of Applicable Technology, this paper analyzes and defines the green energy technology and its applicability from the all-around perspectives of symbiosis of economy, society, environment and science & technology etc., and correspondingly constructs the evaluation index system. The paper further applies the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation to the evaluation of its applicability, discusses in depth the evaluation models and methods, and explains in detail with an example. The author holds that the applicability of green energy technology involves many aspects of economy, society, environment and science & technology and can be evaluated comprehensively by an index system composed of a number of independent indexes. The evaluation is multi-object, multi-factor, multi-level and fuzzy comprehensive, which is undoubtedly correct, effective and feasible by the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation. It is of vital theoretical and practical significance to understand and evaluate comprehensively the applicability of green energy technology for the rational development and utilization of green energy technology and for the better promotion of sustainable development of human and nature.

  10. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  11. Energy and angular distribution of electrons after transmission of thick layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, H.

    1975-01-01

    In this work, the behaviour of electrons going through material-layers is studied. For a layer-thickness where the theories of multiple-scattering are no longer valid, a Monte-Carlo-method is presented for the calculation of energy distributions as a function of scattering-angle. Plastic-scintillator-material (NE 102 A produced by Nuclear Enterprises Ltd.) was bombarded by electrons with energies between 0.5 and 2.0 MeV and the energy-distributions of the electrons, scatterd in the layer, were measured as a function of the scattering-angle. With the aid of the Monte-Carlo-method developed in this paper, energy distributions were calculated as a function of scattering-angle for the two absorber materials aluminium (single-element material) and NE 102 A (chemical compound of C, N, H, O). (orig./WL) [de

  12. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The Association EURATOM-ITAL gives, in its annual report 1973, a detailed description of the work carried out during 1973, under the following headings: -radiation effects: primary radiation effects, mutation breeding, preservation of food by means of radiation, radiation genetics of insect pests; genetic studies: related studies on plant material; soil-plant studies: uptake of specific elements by plants, behaviour of specific elements in the soil and water environment, heavy metals in plants and soils; methodology: related to dosimetric, other physical and instrumental studies, related to studies on biological material, related to soil-studies; practical applications, services, courses: mutation breeding of economically important crops, food preservation by irradiation, services to other institutions, mainly in the Netherlands, courses, newsletters; publications in press, internal reports 1973, external reports 1973

  13. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  14. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The conventional approach for energy saving in a process system is to maximize heat recovery without changing any process conditions by using pinch technology. “Self-heat recuperation technology” was developed to achieve further energy saving in the process system by eliminating the necessity for any external heat input, such as firing or imported steam. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry introduces the concept of self-heat recuperation and the application of such technology to a wide range of processes from heavy chemical complexes to other processes such as drying and gas separation processes, which require heating and cooling during operation.   Conventional energy saving items in a utility system are applied and implemented based on a single site approach, however, when looking at heavy chemical complexes, it was apparent that the low-grade heat discharged as waste from a refinery could also be used in an adjacent petrochemical plant. There could therefore be a large energy savin...

  15. Gas Regional Initiative. North West Regional Energy Market. Transmission Transparency Project. First Implementation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to comment on the implementation of the TSO Transmission Transparency Project. In December 2007 sixteen TSOs presented a project plan which committed them to publishing information on capacity availability and gas flows at crossborder interconnection points in the North-West gas region. The data types to be published were agreed between TSOs and network users. It was agreed that TSOs would release new information on capacity and actual gas flows at crossborder interconnection points. The TSOs have committed to publishing the agreed information by three project milestones May, September or December 2008. At the end of May 2008 the TSOs submitted initial data to Ofgem (Office of the Gas and Electricity Markets) on implementation. This report presents the data submitted by the TSOs, provides comment on implementation progress and explains the next steps. This report does not approve or guarantee the accuracy of the data submitted by TSOs

  16. Application of a transmission model to estimate performance objectives for Salmonella in the broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Tromp, S; Rijgersberg, H; van Asselt, E D

    2008-11-30

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate how Performance Objectives (POs) for Salmonella at various points in the broiler supply chain can be estimated, starting from pre-set levels of the PO in finished products. The estimations were performed using an analytical transmission model, based on prevalence data collected throughout the chain in The Netherlands. In the baseline (current) situation, the end PO was set at 2.5% of the finished products (at end of processing) being contaminated with Salmonella. Scenario analyses were performed by reducing this baseline end PO to 1.5% and 0.5%. The results showed the end PO could be reduced by spreading the POs over the various stages of the broiler supply chain. Sensitivity analyses were performed by changing the values of the model parameters. Results indicated that, in general, decreasing Salmonella contamination between points in the chain is more effective in reducing the baseline PO than increasing the reduction of the pathogen, implying contamination should be prevented rather than treated. Application of both approaches at the same time showed to be most effective in reducing the end PO, especially at the abattoir and during processing. The modelling approach of this study proved to be useful to estimate the implications for preceding stages of the chain by setting a PO at the end of the chain as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of potential interventions in reducing the end PO. The model estimations may support policy-makers in their decision-making process with regard to microbiological food safety.

  17. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon; Miley, George H.

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D- 3 He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E- 3 He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  18. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Miley, George H. [Fusion Studies Laboratory, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D-{sup 3}He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E-{sup 3}He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  19. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  20. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  1. Rare-earth magnet applications in energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in the field of development and variety of new applications of rare-earth and rare-earth transition metal magnets. High energy content Nd-Fe-B magnet system which competes with superconducting magnets is very promising for the use in energy conversion machines, levitation systems, magnetic resonance investigation and other magnetic applications. Energy conversion machines such as motors and generators are of interest in this context. Motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials as its components. Electric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic material. In both cases symmetry and symmetry breaking play an important role. Symmetry exists above curie temperature, as temperature is lowered symmetry is broken due to spontaneous magnetisation. Author and coworkers developed some new and highest efficiency, permanent magnet based, electronically controlled, dynamically synchronised pulsed dc linear and rotational motors which are briefly described here. Based on such experience and considering field interactions inside material under dynamical conditions and special geometrical situations, order-disorder processes, symmetry breaking and energy transfer on the basis of manifold aspects as a cooperative many body interaction, thermal fluctuations, zero-point energy, dissipation of energy, entropy exchange are discussed in context of conversion of environmental heat into electricity as suggested by Tripathi earlier. (orig.)

  2. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January.

  3. Aramid Nanofiber Composites for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Siu on

    Lithium ion batteries and non-aqueous redox flow batteries represent two of the most important energy storage technologies to efficient electric vehicles and power grid, which are essential to decreasing U.S. dependence on fossil fuels and sustainable economic growth. Many of the developmental roadblocks for these batteries are related to the separator, an electrically insulating layer between the cathode and anode. Lithium dendrite growth has limited the performance and threatened the safety of lithium ion batteries by piercing the separator and causing internal shorts. In non-aqueous redox flow batteries, active material crossover through microporous separators and the general lack of a suitable ion conducting membrane has led to low operating efficiencies and rapid capacity fade. Developing new separators for these batteries involve the combination of different and sometimes seemingly contradictory properties, such as high ionic conductivity, mechanical stability, thermal stability, chemical stability, and selective permeability. In this dissertation, I present work on composites made from Kevlar-drived aramid nanofibers (ANF) through rational design and fabrication techniques. For lithium ion batteries, a dendrite suppressing layer-by-layer composite of ANF and polyethylene oxide is present with goals of high ionic conductivity, improved safety and thermal stability. For non-aqueous redox flow batteries, a nanoporous ANF separator with surface polyelectrolyte modification is used to achieve high coulombic efficiencies and cycle life in practical flow cells. Finally, manufacturability of ANF based separators is addressed through a prototype machine for continuous ANF separator production and a novel separator coated on anode assembly. In combination, these studies serve as a foundation for addressing the challenges in separator engineering for lithium ion batteries and redox flow batteries.

  4. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  5. Extending nuclear energy to non-electrical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.; Houghton, Z.; Bromm, R.; Desportes, C.; McKellar, M.; Boardman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these nontraditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers. (author)

  6. Enhanced extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through arrays of bridged nanohole pairs and their sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through arrays of gold nanoholes was studied with light across the visible to the near-infrared spectrum. The EOT effect was found to be improved by bridging pairs of nanoholes due to the concentration of the electromagnetic field in the slit between the holes. The geometrical shape and separation of the holes in these pairs of nanoholes affected the intensity of the transmission and the wavelength of resonance. Changing the geometrical shapes of these nanohole pairs from triangles to circles to squares leads to increased transmission intensity as well as red-shifting resonance wavelengths. The performance of bridged nanohole pairs as a plasmonic sensor was investigated. The bridged nanohole pairs were able to distinguish methanol, olive oil and microscope immersion oil for the different surface plasmon resonance in transmission spectra. Numerical simulation results were in agreement with experimental observations. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  7. Complex Hollow Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Hu, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-04-01

    Hollow nanostructures offer promising potential for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. In the past decade, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design and synthesis of hollow nanostructures with high complexity by manipulating their geometric morphology, chemical composition, and building block and interior architecture to boost their electrochemical performance, fulfilling the increasing global demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex hollow nanostructures. After a brief classification, the design and synthesis of complex hollow nanostructures are described in detail, which include hierarchical hollow spheres, hierarchical tubular structures, hollow polyhedra, and multi-shelled hollow structures, as well as their hybrids with nanocarbon materials. Thereafter, we discuss their niche applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors, sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries, and electrocatalysts for oxygen- and hydrogen-involving energy conversion reactions. The potential superiorities of complex hollow nanostructures for these applications are particularly highlighted. Finally, we conclude this Review with urgent challenges and further research directions of complex hollow nanostructures for energy-related applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Transmission diffraction-tomography system using a high-energy X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, D J; Jenneson, P M; Crook, R; Vincent, S M

    2010-01-01

    A high-energy bench-top energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) system for 3-dimensional mapping of the crystalline structure and phase transformations in steel is described, for which preliminary data and system development are presented here. The use of precision tungsten slit screens with up to 225 keV X-rays allows for diffraction through samples of 304 L austenitic stainless steel of thickness 3-10 mm, while sample positioning is carried out with a precision goniometer and translation stage system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. (DEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  10. A transparency model and its applications for simulation of reflector arrays and sound transmission (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a new method for simulating the frequency-dependent reflection and transmission of reflector arrays, and the frequency-dependent airborne sound insulation between rooms by means of a room acoustic computer model. The method makes use of a transparency method in the ray...... of the partition, and this is useful for the auralization of sound transmission through different building constructions. The acoustic properties like volume, reverberation time, and the area of the transmitting surfaces are included in the simulation....

  11. Brazilian production development of class 2 polymeric surge arresters for transmission line application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellallibera, Adriano A. [Industria Eletromecanica Balestro, Mogi Mirim, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: adrianoad@balestro.com; Andrade, Antonio Donizetti de; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Guara; Duarte, Jose Vicente Pereira; Gois, Paulo Marcio Batista; Markiewicz, Rubens Leopoldo [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], Emails: andonize@cemig.com.br, anacris@cemig.com.br, vicente@cemig.com.br, pgois@cemig.com.br, rlmark@cemig.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper shows the steeps of Brazilian class 2 ZnO lightning surge arrester development and production, aiming to attend the goal of CEMIG transmission lines performance improvement against lightning discharges action. The description of CEMIG transmission lines performance, before and after the ZnO lightning arresters installation, the necessity of use of ZnO lightning surge arrester, the prototypes manufacture, tests, problems and solutions are presented. (author)

  12. Possible Lead Free Nanocomposite Dielectrics for High Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kurpati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand to improve the energy density of dielectric capacitors for satisfying the next generation material systems. One effective approach is to embed high dielectric constant inclusions such as lead zirconia titanate in polymer matrix. However, with the increasing concerns on environmental safety and biocompatibility, the need to expel lead (Pb from modern electronics has been receiving more attention. Using high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires could lead to further enhancement of energy density. Therefore, the present brief review work focuses on the feasibility of development of a lead-free nanowire reinforced polymer matrix capacitor for energy storage application. It is expected that Lead-free sodium Niobate nanowires (NaNbO3 and Boron nitride will be a future candidate to be synthesized using simple hydrothermal method, followed by mixing them with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/ divinyl tetramethyl disiloxanebis (benzocyclobutene matrix using a solution-casting method for Nanocomposites fabrication. The energy density of NaNbO3 and BN based composites are also be compared with that of lead-containing (PbTiO3/PVDF Nano composites to show the feasibility of replacing lead-containing materials from high-energy density dielectric capacitors. Further, this paper explores the feasibility of these materials for space applications because of high energy storage capacity, more flexibility and high operating temperatures. This paper is very much useful researchers who would like to work on polymer nanocomposites for high energy storage applications.

  13. Application of nuclear energy in chemistry and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, H.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy offers some types of secondary energy for application in material production industries today and in the next decades. In the first period nuclear energy stimulates the increasing application of electrical energy for substitution of expensive imported energy carriers. The application of hot water (up to 200 0 C) and of steam (250 0 C) from nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors is in preparation. In this connection the heat transfer techniques over long distances have to be improved. In the future sodium cooled breeder reactors can supply the industry with process steam of 400 to 540 0 C. These types of nuclear generated energy could meet the requirements of energy to a great part. For the production of high-temperature process heat (up to 950 0 C) on a nuclear base more expenses and longer period are required both for the development of a high-temperature reactor and for the modification of material production technologies for their connection to an HTR. (author)

  14. The US market for high-temperature superconducting wire in transmission cable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, D

    1996-04-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 utility engineers concerning the future prospects for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. All have direct responsibility for transmission in their utility, most of them in a management capacity. The engineers represented their utilities as members of the Electric Power Research Institute`s Underground Transmission Task Force (which has since been disbanded). In that capacity, they followed the superconducting transmission cable program and are aware of the cryogenic implications. Nineteen of the 23 engineers stated the market for underground transmission would grow during the next decade. Twelve of those specified an annual growth rate; the average of these responses was 5.6%. Adjusting that figure downward to incorporate the remaining responses, this study assumes an average growth rate of 3.4%. Factors driving the growth rate include the difficulty in securing rights-of-way for overhead lines, new construction techniques that reduce the costs of underground transmission, deregulation, and the possibility that public utility commissions will allow utilities to include overhead costs in their rate base. Utilities have few plans to replace existing cable as preventive maintenance, even though much of the existing cable has exceeded its 40-year lifetime. Ten of the respondents said the availability of a superconducting cable with the same life-cycle costs as a conventional cable and twice the ampacity would induce them to consider retrofits. The respondents said a cable with those characteristics would capture 73% of their cable retrofits.

  15. A Calculation Method of Electric Distance and Subarea Division Application Based on Transmission Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. J.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    The widely used method of calculating electric distances is sensitivity method. The sensitivity matrix is the result of linearization and based on the hypothesis that the active power and reactive power are decoupled, so it is inaccurate. In addition, it calculates the ratio of two partial derivatives as the relationship of two dependent variables, so there is no physical meaning. This paper presents a new method for calculating electrical distance, namely transmission impedance method. It forms power supply paths based on power flow tracing, then establishes generalized branches to calculate transmission impedances. In this paper, the target of power flow tracing is S instead of Q. Q itself has no direction and the grid delivers complex power so that S contains more electrical information than Q. By describing the power transmission relationship of the branch and drawing block diagrams in both forward and reverse directions, it can be found that the numerators of feedback parts of two block diagrams are all the transmission impedances. To ensure the distance is scalar, the absolute value of transmission impedance is defined as electrical distance. Dividing network according to the electric distances and comparing with the results of sensitivity method, it proves that the transmission impedance method can adapt to the dynamic change of system better and reach a reasonable subarea division scheme.

  16. Understanding energy consumption of sensor enabled applications on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crk, Igor; Albinali, Fahd; Gniady, Chris; Hartman, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in ubiquitous and mobile computing uses mobile phones and wearable accelerometers to monitor individuals' physical activities for personalized and proactive health care. The goal of this project is to measure and reduce the energy demand placed on mobile phones that monitor individuals' physical activities for extended periods of time with limited access to battery recharging and mobile phone reception. Many issues must be addressed before mobile phones become a viable platform for remote health monitoring, including: security, reliability, privacy, and, most importantly, energy. Mobile phones are battery-operated, making energy a critical resource that must be carefully managed to ensure the longest running time before the battery is depleted. In a sense, all other issues are secondary, since the mobile phone will simply not function without energy. In this project, we therefore focus on understanding the energy consumption of a mobile phone that runs MIT wockets, physical activity monitoring applications, and consider ways to reduce its energy consumption.

  17. The Application of Quantum Energy Saver on Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce diesel fuel consumption, this paper conducts the research in view of a new type of quantum energy saving device, and then produce the sample and applied on automobile engine, Detect fuel use of an automobile by automobile fuel saving technology as-sessment methods from the department of transportation. Compare the changes of fuel use be-fore and after installation of quantum energy saving device on the same car, and give the feed-back of energy saving capability. The result shows, after installed quantum energy saver, both fuel consumption and the smoke of tail gas has decreased. The analysis and application of this paper carry out the conclusion that the quantum energy saver can play an important role in en-ergy saving and emission reduction, and provide a reference for other related research.

  18. Energy efficient image/video data transmission on commercial multi-core processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungju; Kim, Heegon; Chung, Yongwha; Park, Daihee

    2012-11-01

    In transmitting image/video data over Video Sensor Networks (VSNs), energy consumption must be minimized while maintaining high image/video quality. Although image/video compression is well known for its efficiency and usefulness in VSNs, the excessive costs associated with encoding computation and complexity still hinder its adoption for practical use. However, it is anticipated that high-performance handheld multi-core devices will be used as VSN processing nodes in the near future. In this paper, we propose a way to improve the energy efficiency of image and video compression with multi-core processors while maintaining the image/video quality. We improve the compression efficiency at the algorithmic level or derive the optimal parameters for the combination of a machine and compression based on the tradeoff between the energy consumption and the image/video quality. Based on experimental results, we confirm that the proposed approach can improve the energy efficiency of the straightforward approach by a factor of 2~5 without compromising image/video quality.

  19. Electronic structure analyses of BN network materials using high energy-resolution spectroscopy methods based on transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, M

    2006-07-01

    Electronic structures of boron-nitride (BN) nanotubes and a BN cone-structure material were studied by using a high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) microscope. A trial of the whole electronic structure study of hexagonal BN (h-BN), which consists of flat BN honeycomb layers, was conducted by a combination of EELS and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (TEM-EELS/XES). The pi and pi+sigma plasmon energies of BN nanotubes (BNT) were smaller than those of h-BN. The pi+sigma energy was explained by the surface plasmon excitation. The spectrum of a two-wall BNT of 2.7 nm in diameter showed a new spectral onset at 4 eV. The valence electron excitation spectra obtained from the tip region of the BN cone with an apex angle of 20 degrees showed similar intensity distribution with those of BNTs. The B K-shell electron excitation spectra obtained from the bottom edge region of the BN cone showed additional peak intensity when compared with those of h-BN and BNT. The B K-shell electron excitation spectra and B K-emission spectra of h-BN were compared with a result of a LDA band calculation. It showed that high symmetry points in the band diagram appear as peak and/or shoulder structures in the EELS and XES spectra. Interband transitions appeared in the imaginary part of the dielectric function of h-BN experimentally obtained were assigned in the band diagram. The analysis also presented that the LDA calculation estimated the bandgap energy smaller than the real material by an amount of 2 eV. Those results of TEM-EELS/XES analysis presented that high energy-resolution spectroscopy methods combined with TEM is a promising method to analyze whole electronic structures of nanometer scale materials. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  1. Active photonic sensor communication cable for field application of optical data and power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthau, Eike; Rieske, Ralf; Zerna, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Omitting electrically conducting wires for sensor communication and power supply promises protection for sensor systems and monitored structures against lightning or high voltages, prevention of explosion hazards, and reduction of susceptibility to tampering. The ability to photonically power remote systems opens up the full range of electrical sensors. Power-over-fiber is an attractive option in electromagnetically sensitive environments, particularly for longterm, maintenance-free applications. It can deliver uninterrupted power sufficient for elaborate sensors, data processing or even actuators alongside continuous high speed data communication for remote sensor application. This paper proposes an active photonic sensor communication system, which combines the advantages of optical data links in terms of immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), high bandwidth, hardiness against tampering or eavesdropping, and low cable weight with the robustness one has come to expect from industrial or military electrical connectors. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented that implements a closed-loop regulation of the sensor power supply to guarantee continuous, reliable data communications while maintaining a highly efficient, adaptive sensor supply scheme. It is demonstrated that the resulting novel photonic sensor communication cable can handle sensors and actuators differing orders of magnitude with respect to power consumption. The miniaturization of the electro-optical converters and driving electronics is as important to the presented development as the energy efficiency of the detached, optically powered sensor node. For this reason, a novel photonic packaging technology based on wafer-level assembly of the laser power converters by means of passive alignment will be disclosed in this paper.

  2. Forensic application of phylogenetic analyses - Exploration of suspected HIV-1 transmission case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljic, Marina; Salemovic, Dubravka; Cirkovic, Valentina; Pesic-Pavlovic, Ivana; Ranin, Jovan; Todorovic, Marija; Nikolic, Slobodan; Jevtovic, Djordje; Stanojevic, Maja

    2017-03-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man. Phylogenetic methods included relevant neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic trees reconstruction and hypothesis testing, that has been shown to be the most sensitive for the reconstruction of epidemiological links mostly from sexually infected individuals. End-point limiting-dilution PCR (EPLD-PCR) assay, generating the minimum of 10 sequences per genetic region per subject, was performed to assess HIV quasispecies distribution and to explore the direction of HIV transmission between three subjects. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viral sequences from the three subjects were more genetically related to each other than to other strains circulating in the same area with the similar epidemiological profile, forming strongly supported transmission chain, which could be in favour of a priori hypothesis of one of the women infecting the man. However, in the EPLD based phylogenetic trees for both pol and env genetic region, viral sequences of one subject (man) were paraphyletic to those of two other subjects (women), implying the direction of transmission opposite to the a priori assumption. The dated tree in our analysis confirmed the clustering pattern of query sequences. Still, in the context of unsampled sequences and

  3. Electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroth, D.P.; Podnieks, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Past work during the Apollo Program and current efforts to determine extraterrestrial mining technology requirements have led to the exploration of various methods applicable to lunar or planetary resource mining and processing. The use of electromagnetic energy sources is explored and demonstrated using laboratory methods to establish a proof of concept for application to lunar mining, construction, and resource extraction. Experimental results of using laser, microwave, and solar energy to fragment or melt terrestrial basal under atmospheric and vacuum conditions are presented. Successful thermal stress fragmentation of dense igneous rock was demonstrated by all three electromagnetic energy sources. The results show that a vacuum environment has no adverse effects on fragmentation by induced thermal stresses. The vacuum environment has a positive effect for rock disintegration by melting, cutting, or penetration applications due to release of volatiles that assist in melt ejection. Consolidation and melting of basaltic fines are also demonstrated by these methods

  4. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, T. S.; Biancardi, F. R.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrial applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times.-

  5. Validities of three multislice algorithms for quantitative low-energy transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, W Q; Chen, J H

    2013-11-01

    Three different types of multislice algorithms, namely the conventional multislice (CMS) algorithm, the propagator-corrected multislice (PCMS) algorithm and the fully-corrected multislice (FCMS) algorithm, have been evaluated in comparison with respect to the accelerating voltages in transmission electron microscopy. Detailed numerical calculations have been performed to test their validities. The results show that the three algorithms are equivalent for accelerating voltage above 100kV. However, below 100 kV, the CMS algorithm will introduce significant errors, not only for higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections but also for zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) reflections. The differences between the PCMS and FCMS algorithms are negligible and mainly appear in HOLZ reflections. Nonetheless, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the PCMS algorithm will also yield results deviating from the FCMS results. The present study demonstrates that the propagation of the electron wave from one slice to the next slice is actually cross-correlated with the crystal potential in a complex manner, such that when the accelerating voltage is lowered to 10 kV, the accuracy of the algorithms is dependent of the scattering power of the specimen. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High speed optical wireless data transmission system for particle sensors in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, W.; Corsini, R.; Ciaramella, E.; Dell'Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.

    2015-08-01

    High speed optical fiber or copper wire communication systems are frequently deployed for readout data links used in particle physics detectors. Future detector upgrades will need more bandwidth for data transfer, but routing requirements for new cables or optical fiber will be challenging due to space limitations. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can provide high bandwidth connectivity with an advantage of reduced material budget and complexity of cable installation and management. In a collaborative effort, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna and INFN Pisa are pursuing the development of a free-space optical link that could be installed in a future particle physics detector or upgrade. We describe initial studies of an OWC link using the inner tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector as a reference architecture. The results of two experiments are described: the first to verify that the laser source transmission wavelength of 1550 nm will not introduce fake signals in silicon strip sensors while the second was to study the source beam diameter and its tolerance to misalignment. For data rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s over a 10 cm working distance it was observed that a tolerance limit of ±0.25 mm to ±0.8 mm can be obtained for misaligned systems with source beam diameters of 0.38 mm to 3.5 mm, respectively.

  7. Organization of Electricity Transmission in View of Long Term Energy Policy Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2011-01-01

    European electricity transmission industry is facing both organizational reform due to the 3 r d Package implementation, and more structural challenges related to electricity system greenification. Relying on literature, I will first analyze the contemporary TSO repositioning, avoiding dogmatic attitudes which have been prevailing in public debates over the last several years, to conclude that: (a) there is not a way to actually prove that either of the three organizational forms from the 3 r d Package has clear advantages over any of the others, and thus (b) the debate should be ended pragmatically in a political arena following a decision on what the goal really is (or, what kind of interests should be pursued). After analyzing the organizational issues I will turn to what I believe is the most important challenge in front of TSOs: gradual greenification of the electricity supply industry, with technical and economic difficulties related to it. I will stress the importance of sound and accountable policy making and enforcement. (author)

  8. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  9. Reconsidering the European regulation of merchant transmission investment in light of the third energy package: The role of dominant generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauteclocque, Adrien de; Rious, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of merchant transmission investment (MTI) has become an important issue in the EU electricity sector, subsequent to the granting of authorizations by European authorities to five merchant projects: BritNed, Estlink, the East West Cables, NorGer and recently a merchant line connecting Italy and Austria. The creation of a new Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) at the EU level, which has decision-making powers on MTI, therefore presents a unique opportunity to question and re-design the current European policy. This paper shows that the recent decisions concerning MTI may suffer a strong bias against dominant electricity generators while incumbent Transmission System Operators (TSOs) or new entrant TSOs are generally favored by national regulators and the European Commission (EC). This strategy is misguided as it fails to recognize both the new incentives of generators to develop MTI and the conflict of interest between the regulated and non-regulated activities of incumbent TSOs. Letting dominant generators undertake MTI is indeed generally beneficial as long as potential abuses of dominance are mitigated. To deter possible anti-competitive effects, we propose a new and feasible allocation of regulatory powers based on a clear demarcation between the market monitoring powers of ACER and the antitrust powers of the EC. - Highlights: → We compare TSOs and generators as merchant transmission investors in Europe. → We find a bias among regulators against the involvement of generators. → The conflict of interest with the regulated activities of TSOs is under-estimated. → Investment by generators is preferable provided market manipulation is deterred. → We propose a new allocation of regulatory powers to make it possible.

  10. Direct application of geothermal energy in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin

    1995-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy for balneology purposes has a history of many centuries. There is also a more than 30 years tradition for heating greenhouses. So called energy crisis of 70-ties and 80-ties provoked geology investigations in order to find possible energy sources, and development of systems for application of low-temperature geothermal water. Tere are a list of projects with direct application of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses, drying agricultural products. heating of public buildings and industrial projects, swimming pools , sanitary warm water preparation, industrial uses, etc. The essential energetic characteristics of different projects are presented in the paper. For the main projects a technical description of characteristics of the heating systems is given, and good technical solutions are underlined. Also the mistakes presented in some projects are listed. (Original)

  11. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska-Vasilevska, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  12. Supercritical fluid technology for energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anikeev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources - including renewable materials - using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine...

  13. Review for the military application of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the broad technology of nuclear energy, we have explored how our present knowledge of nuclear energy has been developed, and how some of this knowledge is applied. Techniques learned from nuclear physics are used the build fearsome weapons of mass destruction, whose proliferation is a constant threat to our future. To develop military applications of nuclear technology systematically, high level human resources and creative brains should be sufficiently trained and secured

  14. Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the global economy and population, the demand for energy is increasing sharply. The development of environmentally a benign and reliable energy supply is very important and urgent. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, which have a horn-shaped tip at the top of single-walled nanotube, have emerged as exceptionally promising nanomaterials due to their unique physical and chemical properties since 1999. The high purity and thermal stability, combined with microporosity and mesoporosity, high surface area, internal pore accessibility, and multiform functionalization make SWCNHs promising candidates in many applications, such as environment restoration, gas storage, catalyst support or catalyst, electrochemical biosensors, drug carrier systems, magnetic resonance analysis and so on. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of SWCNHs in energy applications, including energy conversion and storage. The commonly adopted method to access SWCNHs, their structural modifications, and their basic properties are included, and the emphasis is on their application in different devices such as fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, biofuel cells and so forth. Finally, a perspective on SWCNHs’ application in energy is presented.

  15. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2017-12-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  16. Energy Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenn Toft, Jakob; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based accelerators are very suitable to implement application-specific processors using uncommon operations or number systems. In this work, we design FPGA-based accelerators for two financial computations with different characteristics and we compare...... the accelerator performance and energy consumption to a software execution of the application. The experimental results show that significant speed-up and energy savings, can be obtained for large data sets by using the accelerator at expenses of a longer development time....

  17. A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, Mohammed M.; Khudhair, Amar M.; Razack, Siddique Ali K.; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  18. Issues arising with the application of optical fiber transmission in class 1E systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1994-01-01

    The application of fiber optic links and networks in safety-critical systems in the next generation of nuclear power plants, as well as in some digital upgrades in present-day plants, will mean that these links must be highly reliable and able to withstand the effect of environmental stressors present at the installation location. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related mechanisms of fiber optic transmission components and identifies environmental stressors that could adversely affect their reliability over the long term. Some of the standards that could be used in their qualification for safety-critical applications are also discussed briefly

  19. Issues arising with the application of optical fiber transmission in class 1E systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The application of fiber optic links and networks in safety-critical systems in the next generation of nuclear power plants, as well as in some digital upgrades in present-day plants, will mean that these links must be highly reliable and able to withstand the effect of environmental stressors present at the installation location. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related mechanisms of fiber optic transmission components and identifies environmental stressors that could adversely affect their reliability over the long term. Some of the standards that could be used in their qualification for safety-critical applications are also discussed briefly

  20. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of Al x Ga 1-x As, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.