WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy system design

  1. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  2. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  3. Design and installation of earth energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, S; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2002-07-01

    This first edition of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard C448 Series, replaces CSA Standards CAN/CSA-C445-M92 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Residential and Other Small Buildings, as well as C447-94 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings. This standard document consists of three parts: (C448.1) Design and installation of earth energy systems for commercial and institutional buildings; (C448.2) Design and installation of earth energy systems for residential and small buildings; and, (C448.3) Design and installation of underground thermal energy storage systems for commercial and institutional buildings. In C448.1, the requirements applicable to any system falling within the scope of the C448 series were included. Alternative requirements for houses and small buildings were added in C448.2. It was noted that either standard may be implemented. The standards applicable to the intentional storage of energy in the earth for later use were presented in C448.3. This latter section includes a brief introduction on underground thermal energy storage (UTES). tabs.

  4. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  5. Energy-aware design of digital systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruian, F.

    2000-02-01

    Power and energy consumption are important issues in many digital applications, for reasons such as packaging cost and battery life-span. With the development of portable computing and communication, an increasing number of research groups are addressing power and energy related issues at various stages during the design process. Most of the work done in this area focuses on lower abstraction levels, such as gate or transistor level. Ideally, a power and energy-efficient design flow should consider the power and energy issues at every stage in the design process. Therefore, power and energy aware methods, applicable early in the design process are required. In this trend, the thesis presents two high-level design methods addressing power and energy consumption minimization. The first of the two approaches we describe, targets power consumption minimization during behavioral synthesis. This is carried out by minimizing the switching activity, while taking the correlations between signals into account. The second approach performs energy consumption minimization during system-level design, by choosing the most energy-efficient schedule and configuration of resources. Both methods make use of the constraint programming paradigm to model the problems in an elegant manner. The experimental results presented in this thesis show the impact of addressing the power and energy related issues early in the design process.

  6. Design for Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhou, Dao; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2017-01-01

    Power electronics are widely used in renewable energy systems to achieve lower cost of energy, higher efficiency and high power density. At the same time, the high reliability of the power electronics products is demanded, in order to reduce the failure rates and ensure cost-effective operation...... of the renewable energy systems. This paper thus describes the basic concepts used in reliability engineering, and presents the status and future trends of Design for Reliability (DfR) in power electronics, which is currently undergoing a paradigm shift to a physics-of-failure approach. Two case studies of a 2 MW...

  7. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  8. Analysis and design of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Marston, C.H.; Tstsaronis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The 1980s saw growing public awareness of environmental issues. Events such as an unusually hot and dry summer in parts of the world, contamination of community drinking water supplies by leakage from abandoned waste disposal sites, and the discovery of a hole in the ozone layer in the upper stratosphere over Antarctica made headlines in the popular press. The long-range impact of these events on the environment or on human health is still being debated by the scientific and technical communities. In the interim, however, it is prudent to mitigate any possible environmental problems by continuing to develop high-efficiency energy utilization systems that are also cost effective and environmentally sound. High-efficiency fossil energy systems have a number of environmental benefits: carbon dioxide production is reduced and this, in turn, reduces the potential environmental insult which may occur during resource extraction or shipping. Thermodynamic analysis coupled with economic analysis is a useful tool to identify practical, high-efficiency systems. The Symposium on the Analysis and Design of Energy Systems is intended to provide a forum to present both advances in analytical techniques for this type of system and case studies applying these techniques

  9. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li, Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach. (author)

  10. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  11. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pei [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N., E-mail: e.pistikopoulos@imperial.ac.u [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  12. Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user's transmission power and media access frame

  13. Electric grid stability and the design of sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  14. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  15. Design of atomic energy information network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, H. C.; Chang, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    As the 21 st century is expected to induce a Knowledge based society, responding to this kind of change on our own initiative could be achieved by establishing networks among atomic energy agencies with the Atomic Energy Portal Site in a pivotal role. Thus, enabling the knowledge information from each agency to be easily shared and utilized. Furthermore, it can contribute to further researches by providing accumulated knowledge in the atomic energy, such as research output and past achievements, and by avoiding the repetition of researches on the same subjects. It could also provide remote educational data to researchers and industrial experts in atomic energy, as well as atomic energy information for general public consistently, so that we can promote our confidence in atomic energy

  16. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emilio, Maurizio Di Paolo

    2017-01-01

    .... Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control...

  17. Environomic design of vehicle energy systems for optimal mobility service

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina Kirilova; Maréchal, François

    2014-01-01

    The main design criteria for the modern sustainable development of vehicle powertrains are the high energy efficiency of the conversion system, the competitive cost and the lowest possible environmental impacts. An innovative decision making methodology, using multi-objective optimization technics is currently under development. The idea is to obtain a population of possible design solutions corresponding to the most efficient energy system definition. These solutions meet technical, economic...

  18. Analysis and design of nuclear energy information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanes Dwi Anggoro; Sriyana; Arief Tris Yuliyanto; Wiku Lulus Widodo

    2015-01-01

    Management of research reports and activities of the Center for Nuclear Energy System Assessment (PKSEN), either in the form of documents and the results of other activities, are important part of the series of activities PKSEN mission achievement. Management of good documents will facilitate the provision of improved inputs or use the maximum results. But over the past few years, there are still some problem in the management of research reports and activities performed by PKSEN. The purpose of this study is to analyze and design flow layout of the Nuclear Energy Information System to facilitate the implementation of the Nuclear Energy Information System. In addition to be used as a research management system and PKSEN activities, it can also be used as information media for the community. Nuclear Energy Information System package is expected to be ''one gate systems for PKSEN information. The research methodology used are: (i) analysis of organizational systems, (ii) the analysis and design of information systems; (iii) the analysis and design of software systems; (iv) the analysis and design of database systems. The results of this study are: had identified and resources throughout the organization PKSEN activation, had analyzed the application of SIEN using SWOT analysis, had identified several types of devices required, had been compiled hierarchy of SIEN, had determined that the database system used is a centralized database system and had elections MySQL as DBMS. The result is a basic design of the Nuclear Energy Information System) which will used as a research and activities management system of PKSEN and also can be used as a medium of information for the community. (author)

  19. Design of Graphic Aggregation Model for Evaluation of Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sang Ha; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Won Joon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2006-01-01

    Korea is meeting the growing electric power needs by mix of nuclear, fossil, hydro energy and so on. But we can not depend on fossil energy forever, and the people's concern about environment has been changed. So it is time to plan future energy mix considering multiple parameters such as economics, environment, social, energy security, etc. A multiple aggregation model has been used for decision making process in which multiple variables should be considered like energy mix. In this context, we designed Graphic Aggregation Model for Evaluation of energy systems (GAME) for the dynamic analysis of decision on the energy systems. It can support Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis based on Graphic User Interface

  20. Design and management of energy-efficient hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    This book covers system-level design optimization and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems. The author introduces various techniques to improve the performance of hybrid energy storage systems, in the context of design optimization and automation. Various energy storage techniques are discussed, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, offering viable, hybrid approaches to building a high performance, low cost energy storage system. Novel design optimization techniques and energy-efficient operation schemes are introduced. The author also describes the technical details of an act

  1. Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.

    1980-05-01

    The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

  2. Energy-Based Controller Design of Stochastic Magnetic Levitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the control problem of magnetic levitation system, in which velocity feedback signal is influenced by stochastic disturbance. Firstly, single-degree-freedom magnetic levitation is regarded as an energy-transform action device. From the view of energy-balance relation, the magnetic levitation system is transformed into port-controlled Hamiltonian system model. Next, based on the Hamiltonian structure, the control law of magnetic levitation system is designed by applying Lyapunov theory. Finally, the simulation verifies the correctness of the proposed results.

  3. Designing and visualizing the water-energy-food nexus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A.; Kumazawa, T.; Yamada, M.; Kato, T.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to design and visualize a water-energy-food nexus system to identify the interrelationships between water-energy-food (WEF) resources and to understand the subsequent complexity of WEF nexus systems holistically, taking an interdisciplinary approach. Object-oriented concepts and ontology engineering methods were applied according to the hypothesis that the chains of changes in linkages between water, energy, and food resources holistically affect the water-energy-food nexus system, including natural and social systems, both temporally and spatially. The water-energy-food nexus system that is developed is significant because it allows us to: 1) visualize linkages between water, energy, and food resources in social and natural systems; 2) identify tradeoffs between these resources; 3) find a way of using resources efficiently or enhancing the synergy between the utilization of different resources; and 4) aid scenario planning using economic tools. The paper also discusses future challenges for applying the developed water-energy-food nexus system in other areas.

  4. Design and Control of Full Scale Wave Energy Simulator System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2012-01-01

    For wave energy to become feasible it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the power take-off (PTO) systems are significantly improved. The cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea are however very high, and the focus of the current paper is therefore on the design...... of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The main challenge is here to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system. The paper includes a description of the developed system, located at Aalborg University......, and the considerations behind the design. Based on the description a model of the system is presented, which, along with a description of the wave theory applied, makes the foundation for the control strategy. The objective of the control strategy is to emulate not only the wave behavior, but also the dynamic wave...

  5. Optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1979-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) power systems are currently being considered by various electric utilities for load-leveling applications. Models of CAES systems which employ natural underground aquifer formations, and present an optimal design methodology which demonstrates their economic viability are developed. This approach is based upon a decomposition of the CAES plant and utility grid system into three partially-decoupled subsystems. Numerical results are given for a plant employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer formation.

  6. Design and Realization of Online Monitoring System of Distributed New Energy and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanfen; Zhou, Tao; Li, Mengwen; Zheng, Guotai; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Aimed at difficult centralized monitoring and management of current distributed new energy and renewable energy generation projects due to great varieties, different communication protocols and large-scale difference, this paper designs a online monitoring system of new energy and renewable energy characterized by distributed deployment, tailorable functions, extendible applications and fault self-healing performance. This system is designed based on international general standard for grid information data model, formulates unified data acquisition and transmission standard for different types of new energy and renewable energy generation projects, and can realize unified data acquisition and real-time monitoring of new energy and renewable energy generation projects, such as solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, etc. within its jurisdiction. This system has applied in Beijing. At present, 576 projects are connected to the system. Good effect is achieved and stability and reliability of the system have been validated.

  7. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  8. Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

    The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component

  9. Design and Implementation of a Microgrid Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kyu Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A microgrid is characterized by the integration of distributed energy resources and controllable loads in a power distribution network. Such integration introduces new, unique challenges to microgrid management that have never been exposed to traditional power systems. To accommodate these challenges, it is necessary to redesign a conventional Energy Management System (EMS so that it can cope with intrinsic characteristics of microgrids. While many projects have shown excellent research outcomes, they have either tackled portions of the characteristics or validated their EMSs only via simulations. This paper proposes a Microgrid Platform (MP, an advanced EMS for efficient microgrid operations. We design the MP by taking into consideration (i all the functional requirements of a microgrid EMS (i.e., optimization, forecast, human–machine interface, and data analysis and (ii engineering challenges (i.e., interoperability, extensibility, and flexibility. Moreover, a prototype system is developed and deployed in two smart grid testbeds: UCLA Smart Grid Energy Research Center and Korea Institute of Energy Research. We then conduct experiments to verify the feasibility of the MP design in real-world settings. Our testbeds and experiments demonstrate that the MP is able to communicate with various energy devices and to perform an energy management task efficiently.

  10. Designing Energy Conversion Systems for the Next Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan N. Vukosavić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable growth in energy consumption requires transition to clean and green energy sources and energy systems. Environment friendly and renewable energy systems deal with electrical energy and rely on efficient electrical power converters. High power electronics is the key technology to deal with the next generation of electrical energy systems. The door to future breakthroughs in high power electronics is opened by major improvement in semiconductor power devices and their packaging technologies. New materials allow for much higher junction temperatures and higher operating voltages. Most importantly, advanced power semiconductor devices and novel converter topology open the possibility to increase the energy efficiency of power conversion and reduce the amount of heat. Although the waste heat created by high power converters can be put to use by adding on to heating systems, this option is not always available and the conversion losses are mostly wasted. At the same time, wasted heat is a form of pollution that threatens the environment. Another task for high power converters is efficient harvesting of renewable energy sources, such as the wind energy and the sun. Intermittent in nature, they pose a difficult task to power converter topology and controls. Eventually, high power converters are entering power distribution and transmission networks. With their quick reaction, with fast communication between the grid nodes and with advanced controllability of high power converters, a number of innovations can be introduced, facilitating the power system control and allowing for optimizations and loss reduction. Coined smart grid, this solution comprises two key elements, and these are intelligent controls and large static power converters. At virtually no cost, smart grids allow for a better utilization of available resources and it enlarges the stable operating range of the transmission systems. Therefore, it is of interest to review the

  11. Design and Implementation of Enhanced Smart Energy Metering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oday A.L.A Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the design and implementation of a smart energy metering system has been developed. This system consists of two parts: billing center and a set of distributed smart energy meters. The function of smart energy meter is measuring and calculating the cost of consumed energy according to a multi-tariff scheme. This can be effectively solving the problem of stressing the electrical grid and rising consumer awareness. Moreover, smart energy meter decreases technical losses by improving power factor. The function of the billing center is to issue a consumer bill and contributes in locating the irregularities on the electrical grid (non-technical losses. Moreover, it sends the switch off command in case of the consumer bill is not paid. For implementation of smart energy meter, the microcontroller (PIC 18F45K22 is used. For communication between billing center and smart energy meters, ZigBee technology is adopted. The necessary program for smart energy meter is written in MicroC PRO, while the program for billing center is written in visual C#.

  12. Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2016-10-06

    We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user\\'s transmission power and media access frame length to minimize the EPG metric. We protect the primary user transmission via an outage probability constraint. The non-convex targeted problem is optimized by utilizing the generalized convexity theory and verifying the strictly pseudo-convex structure of the problem. Analytical results of the optimal power and frame length are derived. We also used these results in proposing an algorithm, which guarantees the existence of a global optimal solution. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared to other systems. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. Application of fuzzy control in cooling systems save energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Liang, H.Y. [Chienkuo Technology Univ., Changhua, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A fuzzy logic programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to control the cooling systems of frigorific equipment. Frigorific equipment is used to move unwanted heat outside of building in order to control indoor temperatures. The aim of the fuzzy logic PLC was to improve the energy efficiency of the cooling system. Control of the cooling pump and cooling tower in the system was based on the water temperature of the condenser during frigorific system operation. A human computer design for the cooling system control was used to set speeds and to automate and adjust the motor according to the fuzzy logic controller. It was concluded that if fuzzy logic controllers are used with all components of frigorific equipment, energy efficiency will be significantly increased. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  15. Design of a photovoltaic-hydrogen-fuel cell energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P A; Chamberlin, C E [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (US). Dept. of Environmental Resources Engineering

    1991-01-01

    The design of a stand-alone renewable energy system using hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the energy storage medium and a fuel cell as the regeneration technology is reported. The system being installed at the Humboldt State University Telonicher Marine Laboratory consists of a 9.2 kW photovoltaic (PV) array coupled to a high pressure, bipolar alkaline electrolyser. The array powers the Laboratory's air compressor system whenever possible; excess power is shunted to the electrolyser for hydrogen and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. When the array cannot provide sufficient power, stored hydrogen and oxygen are furnished to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell which, smoothly and without interruption, supplies the load. In reporting the design, details of component selection, sizing, and integration, control system logic and implementation, and safety considerations are discussed. Plans for a monitoring network to chronicle system performance are presented, questions that will be addressed through the monitoring program are included, and the present status of the project is reported. (Author).

  16. Design, modeling, simulation and evaluation of a distributed energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultura, Ambrosio B., II

    This dissertation presents the design, modeling, simulation and evaluation of distributed energy resources (DER) consisting of photovoltaics (PV), wind turbines, batteries, a PEM fuel cell and supercapacitors. The distributed energy resources installed at UMass Lowell consist of the following: 2.5kW PV, 44kWhr lead acid batteries and 1500W, 500W & 300W wind turbines, which were installed before year 2000. Recently added to that are the following: 10.56 kW PV array, 2.4 kW wind turbine, 29 kWhr Lead acid batteries, a 1.2 kW PEM fuel cell and 4-140F supercapacitors. Each newly added energy resource has been designed, modeled, simulated and evaluated before its integration into the existing PV/Wind grid-connected system. The Mathematical and Simulink model of each system was derived and validated by comparing the simulated and experimental results. The Simulated results of energy generated from a 10.56kW PV system are in good agreement with the experimental results. A detailed electrical model of a 2.4kW wind turbine system equipped with a permanent magnet generator, diode rectifier, boost converter and inverter is presented. The analysis of the results demonstrates the effectiveness of the constructed simulink model, and can be used to predict the performance of the wind turbine. It was observed that a PEM fuel cell has a very fast response to load changes. Moreover, the model has validated the actual operation of the PEM fuel cell, showing that the simulated results in Matlab Simulink are consistent with the experimental results. The equivalent mathematical equation, derived from an electrical model of the supercapacitor, is used to simulate its voltage response. The model is completely capable of simulating its voltage behavior, and can predict the charge time and discharge time of voltages on the supercapacitor. The bi-directional dc-dc converter was designed in order to connect the 48V battery bank storage to the 24V battery bank storage. This connection was

  17. Energy harvesting autonomous sensor systems design, analysis, and practical implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yen Kheng

    2013-01-01

    This book is the considered the first to describe sensor-oriented energy harvesting issues. Its content is derived from the author's research on the development of a truly self-autonomous and sustainable energy harvesting wireless sensor network (EH-WSN). This network harvests energy from a variety of ambient energy sources and converts it into electrical energy to power batteries. The book discusses various types of energy harvesting (EH) systems and their respective main components.

  18. Multicriteria approach for the improvement of energy systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannantoni, C.; Lazzaretto, A.; Macor, A.; Mirandola, A.; Stoppato, A.; Tonon, S.; Ulgiati, S.

    2005-01-01

    An iterative procedure is suggested to evaluate and improve the energy system design. The procedure considers the information deriving from complementary evaluation approaches, each applied within its appropriate time-space window of interest: (a) Process-related, local-scale methods (Energy, Exergy and Thermoeconomic analyses); (b) Environmental assessment methods (Impact Assessment, Emergy Synthesis); (c) Economic methods (Micro- and Macro-Economic and Externality Evaluations). Process-related methods are applied first, in order to provide local-scale performance indicators able to suggest optimization procedures from a user-side point of view. Environmental evaluation approaches are then used to judge the overall environmental quality of the design, in the largest regional and biosphere scales. Finally, micro- and macro-economic evaluation approaches are applied in order to ascertain the soundness of the proposed solution as far as the economic return on the investment as well as global benefits to the Society are concerned. New choices for the design configuration and parameters may be suggested by implementing the iterative procedure. A cogeneration system working in a town of Northern Italy is used as a case study: starting from the present configuration of the plant, modifications are suggested and evaluated, thus identifying the way for improving the performance under various viewpoints. A proposal for plant transformation from Steam Cycle to Combined Cycle is suggested, capable of increasing the plant electric power from 136 to 332 MWe, increasing the energy efficiency from 60 to 63%, increasing the exergy efficiency from 37 to 49%, and decreasing the overall demand for environmental support (transformity) from 1.84x10 5 to 1.27x10 5 seJ/J. The paper points out several benefits and bottlenecks of the existing plant and of the proposed solutions

  19. Design and Implementation of the Battery Energy Storage System in DC Micro-Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chih Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the battery energy storage system in DC micro-grid systems is demonstrated in this paper. The battery energy storage system (BESS is an important part of a DC micro-grid because renewable energy generation sources are fluctuating. The BESS can provide energy while the renewable energy is absent in the DC micro-grid. The circuit topology of the proposed BESS will be introduced. The design of the voltage controller and the current controller for the battery charger/discharger are also illustrated. Finally, experimental results are provided to validate the performance of the BESS.

  20. Energy-aware system design algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min

    2011-01-01

    Power consumption becomes the most important design goal in a wide range of electronic systems. There are two driving forces towards this trend: continuing device scaling and ever increasing demand of higher computing power. First, device scaling continues to satisfy Moore’s law via a conventional way of scaling (More Moore) and a new way of exploiting the vertical integration (More than Moore). Second, mobile and IT convergence requires more computing power on the silicon chip than ever. Cell phones are now evolving towards mobile PC. PCs and data centers are becoming commodities in house and a must in industry. Both supply enabled by device scaling and demand triggered by the convergence trend realize more computation on chip (via multi-core, integration of diverse functionalities on mobile SoCs, etc.) and finally more power consumption incurring power-related issues and constraints. Energy-Aware System Design: Algorithms and Architectures provides state-of-the-art ideas for low power design methods from ...

  1. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  2. Essays on Infrastructure Design and Planning for Clean Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Ayse Selin

    The International Energy Agency estimates that the number of people who do not have access to electricity is nearly 1.3 billion and a billion more have only unreliable and intermittent supply. Moreover, current supply for electricity generation mostly relies on fossil fuels, which are finite and one of the greatest threats to the environment. Rising population growth rates, depleting fuel sources, environmental issues and economic developments have increased the need for mathematical optimization to provide a formal framework that enables systematic and clear decision-making in energy operations. This thesis through its methodologies and algorithms enable tools for energy generation, transmission and distribution system design and help policy makers make cost assessments in energy infrastructure planning rapidly and accurately. In Chapter 2, we focus on local-level power distribution systems planning for rural electrification using techniques from combinatorial optimization. We describe a heuristic algorithm that provides a quick solution for the partial electrification problem where the distribution network can only connect a pre-specified number of households with low voltage lines. The algorithm demonstrates the effect of household settlement patterns on the electrification cost. We also describe the first heuristic algorithm that selects the locations and service areas of transformers without requiring candidate solutions and simultaneously builds a two-level grid network in a green-field setting. The algorithms are applied to real world rural settings in Africa, where household locations digitized from satellite imagery are prescribed. In Chapter 3 and 4, we focus on power generation and transmission using clean energy sources. Here, we imagine a country in the future where hydro and solar are the dominant sources and fossil fuels are only available in minimal form. We discuss the problem of modeling hydro and solar energy production and allocation, including

  3. The Design of Distributed Micro Grid Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ya-feng; Wang, Yan-ping

    2018-03-01

    Distributed micro-grid runs in island mode, the energy storage system is the core to maintain the micro-grid stable operation. For the problems that it is poor to adjust at work and easy to cause the volatility of micro-grid caused by the existing energy storage structure of fixed connection. In this paper, an array type energy storage structure is proposed, and the array type energy storage system structure and working principle are analyzed. Finally, the array type energy storage structure model is established based on MATLAB, the simulation results show that the array type energy storage system has great flexibility, which can maximize the utilization of energy storage system, guarantee the reliable operation of distributed micro-grid and achieve the function of peak clipping and valley filling.

  4. Design for Reliability of Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics is the enabling technology for maximizing the power captured from renewable electrical generation, e.g., the wind and solar technology, and also for an efficient integration into the grid. Therefore, it is important that the power electronics are reliable and do not have too many...... failures during operation which otherwise will increase cost for operation, maintenance and reputation. Typically, power electronics in renewable electrical generation has to be designed for 20–30 years of operation, and in order to do that, it is crucial to know about the mission profile of the power...... electronics technology as well as to know how the power electronics technology is loaded in terms of temperature and other stressors relevant, to reliability. Hence, this chapter will show the basics of power electronics technology for renewable energy systems, describe the mission profile of the technology...

  5. Systemic design methodologies for electrical energy systems analysis, synthesis and management

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular analysis and system management, modeling and sizing tools. It includes 8 chapters: after an introduction to the systemic approach (history, basics & fundamental issues, index terms) for designing energy systems, this book presents two different graphical formalisms especially dedicated to multidisciplinary devices modeling, synthesis and analysis: Bond Graph and COG/EMR. Other systemic analysis approaches for quality and stability of systems, as well as for safety and robustness analysis tools are also proposed. One chapter is dedicated to energy management and another is focused on Monte Carlo algorithms for electrical systems and networks sizing. The aim of this book is to summarize design methodologies based in particular on a systemic viewpoint, by considering the system as a whole. These methods and tools are proposed by the most important French research laboratories, which have many scientific partn...

  6. Towards the observation of Territorial Energy Systems - a geographical design approach for energy territorialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flety, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Having an effect on a system calls for a thorough knowledge of it. The main goal of this research is to provide a general framework for the interpretation of geographic information, as well as a methodological framework to understand the interrelations between territory and energy in the context of a territorial observatory. A literature review of energy planning on the one hand and spatial planning on the other reveals similar developments in the two fields, in particular in terms of decentralisation and environmental concerns. The change of geographical scale chosen for the analysis brings new possibilities for public intervention. In this context, therefore, local authorities have a key role to play in implementing energy policy goals in their planning practices. They need analysis and prospective studies, as well as basic knowledge to carry out territorial energy planning. Indeed, the socio-spatial functions (living, travelling, working, etc.) are themselves at the root of spatial layout, urban forms and settlement structures. Those functions cannot be disassociated from questions of land use and energy. So, to understand energy which is vital, ubiquitous, and responsible for the organisation of territory, a systemic approach is proposed: the Territorial Energy System. It illustrates the importance of the interactions between a territory and its energy system, and more precisely, the interdependence between energy processes and territorial ones. We propose a design approach in the context of an observatory, and more precisely conceptual models, to analyse the territory-energy interrelations, especially with a focus on semantic dimensions. This approach combines three elements: a meta-model, a light and pre-consensus domain ontology, and individual conceptual data models for each indicator. An original indicator is then used for a first ontology population: the territorial energy label. Characterising the interrelations between territory and energy is non

  7. Design of multi-energy Helds coupling testing system of vertical axis wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    The conversion efficiency of wind energy is the focus of researches and concerns as one of the renewable energy. The present methods of enhancing the conversion efficiency are mostly improving the wind rotor structure, optimizing the generator parameters and energy storage controller and so on. Because the conversion process involves in energy conversion of multi-energy fields such as wind energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy, the coupling effect between them will influence the overall conversion efficiency. In this paper, using system integration analysis technology, a testing system based on multi-energy field coupling (MEFC) of vertical axis wind power system is proposed. When the maximum efficiency of wind rotor is satisfied, it can match to the generator function parameters according to the output performance of wind rotor. The voltage controller can transform the unstable electric power to the battery on the basis of optimizing the parameters such as charging times, charging voltage. Through the communication connection and regulation of the upper computer system (UCS), it can make the coupling parameters configure to an optimal state, and it improves the overall conversion efficiency. This method can test the whole wind turbine (WT) performance systematically and evaluate the design parameters effectively. It not only provides a testing method for system structure design and parameter optimization of wind rotor, generator and voltage controller, but also provides a new testing method for the whole performance optimization of vertical axis wind energy conversion system (WECS).

  8. Design of energy efficient ventilation and air-conditioning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Seppänen, Olli; Bertilsson, Thore; Maripuu, Mari-Liis; Lamy, Hervé; Vanden Borre, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook covers numerous system components of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and shows how they can be improved by applying the latest technology products. Special attention is paid to details, which are often overlooked in the daily design practice, resulting in poor performance of high quality products once they are installed in the building system.

  9. Rectenna System Design. [energy conversion solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, G. R.; Andryczyk, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental processes involved in the operation of the rectenna system designed for the solar power satellite system are described. The basic design choices are presented based on the desired microwave rf field concentration prior to rectification and based on the ground clearance requirements for the rectenna structure. A nonconcentrating inclined planar panel with a 2 meter minimum clearance configuration is selected as a representative of the typical rectenna.

  10. Deployment, Design, and Commercialization of Carbon-Negative Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel Lucio

    Climate change mitigation requires gigaton-scale carbon dioxide removal technologies, yet few examples exist beyond niche markets. This dissertation informs large-scale implementation of bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS), a carbon-negative energy technology. It builds on existing literature with a novel focus on deployment, design, commercialization, and communication of BECCS. BECCS, combined with aggressive renewable deployment and fossil emission reductions, can enable a carbon-negative power system in Western North America by 2050, with up to 145% emissions reduction from 1990 levels. BECCS complements other sources of renewable energy, and can be deployed in a manner consistent with regional policies and design considerations. The amount of biomass resource available limits the level of fossil CO2 emissions that can still satisfy carbon emissions caps. Offsets produced by BECCS are more valuable to the power system than the electricity it provides. Implied costs of carbon for BECCS are relatively low ( 75/ton CO2 at scale) for a capital-intensive technology. Optimal scales for BECCS are an order of magnitude larger than proposed scales found in existing literature. Deviations from optimal scaled size have little effect on overall systems costs - suggesting that other factors, including regulatory, political, or logistical considerations, may ultimately have a greater influence on plant size than the techno-economic factors considered. The flexibility of thermochemical conversion enables a viable transition pathway for firms, utilities and governments to achieve net-negative CO 2 emissions in production of electricity and fuels given increasingly stringent climate policy. Primary research, development (R&D), and deployment needs are in large-scale biomass logistics, gasification, gas cleaning, and geological CO2 storage. R&D programs, subsidies, and policy that recognize co-conversion processes can support this pathway to commercialization

  11. Designing Sustainable Energy for All : Sustainable Product-Service System Design Applied to Distributed Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzoli, C; Ceschin, F; Osanjo, L; M'Rithaa, MK; Moalosi, R; Nakazibwe, V.; Diehl, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    This open access book addresses the issue of diffusing sustainable energy access in low- and middle-income contexts.

    Access to energy is one of the greatest challenges for many people living in low-
    income and developing contexts, as around 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity.

  12. Applications of Systems Engineering to the Research, Design, and Development of Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Meadows, R.; Felker, F.; Graf, P.; Hand, M.; Lunacek, M.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Musial, W.; Veers, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper surveys the landscape of systems engineering methods and current wind modeling capabilities to assess the potential for development of a systems engineering to wind energy research, design, and development. Wind energy has evolved from a small industry in a few countries to a large international industry involving major organizations in the manufacturing, development, and utility sectors. Along with this growth, significant technology innovation has led to larger turbines with lower associated costs of energy and ever more complex designs for all major subsystems - from the rotor, hub, and tower to the drivetrain, electronics, and controls. However, as large-scale deployment of the technology continues and its contribution to electricity generation becomes more prominent, so have the expectations of the technology in terms of performance and cost. For the industry to become a sustainable source of electricity, innovation in wind energy technology must continue to improve performance and lower the cost of energy while supporting seamless integration of wind generation into the electric grid without significant negative impacts on local communities and environments. At the same time, issues associated with wind energy research, design, and development are noticeably increasing in complexity. The industry would benefit from an integrated approach that simultaneously addresses turbine design, plant design and development, grid interaction and operation, and mitigation of adverse community and environmental impacts. These activities must be integrated in order to meet this diverse set of goals while recognizing trade-offs that exist between them. While potential exists today to integrate across different domains within the wind energy system design process, organizational barriers such as different institutional objectives and the importance of proprietary information have previously limited a system level approach to wind energy research, design, and

  13. The clean energy design tool : design your own local renewable energy system as a community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; D’Souza, Austin

    2015-01-01

    During the opening of the Hanze Energy Transition Centre or EnTranCe (2015-10-13) posters were on display for the King and for the public. During the opening these posters where accompanied by the researchers to explain their research in more detail if questions did arise.

  14. The clean energy design tool: design your own local renewable energy system as a community

    OpenAIRE

    Pierie, Frank; D’Souza, Austin

    2015-01-01

    During the opening of the Hanze Energy Transition Centre or EnTranCe (2015-10-13) posters were on display for the King and for the public. During the opening these posters where accompanied by the researchers to explain their research in more detail if questions did arise.

  15. Integrated building energy systems design considering storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)). e-mail: MStadler@lbl.gov; Siddiqui, Afzal (Dept. of Statistical Science at Univ. College London (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g. PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO{sub 2} emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g. nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Dept. of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO{sub 2} minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  16. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site

  17. A smart monitoring infrastructure design for distributed renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalci, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A smart grid model for renewable energy sources is proposed in this study. • The renewable energy conversion system is constituted with solar plants and full bridge inverter. • The power line communication is performed with QPSK modulation. • The transmission line that has 25 km length is modelled with real-time parameters. • The efficiency of system is analysed by comparing transmitted and received data. - Abstract: The automatic meter reading is essentially required in renewable grids as in conventional grids. It is intended to propose a reliable measurement system that is validated in a photovoltaic power system to meet the requirement of a renewable grid. In the presented study, the photovoltaic plants are controlled by using a widely known maximum power point tracking algorithm that is named as “Perturb and Observe”. The distribution line at the output of inverter is modelled according to realistic parameters of 25 km line. Besides carrying the generated line voltage, the grid is used as a transmission medium for the generated power measurements of photovoltaic plants and power consumptions of load plants separately. The modem constituting the power line communication manages the dual-channel transfer and transmits the consumed energy ratios of the load plants. One of the modems is located at the output of voltage source inverter and the other one of the load plants. The power consumption values of each load plants are individually measured and successfully transmitted to monitoring section in the modelled system. The obtained data that is only used for monitoring in this application can also be evaluated for automatic meter reading applications

  18. Integration of renewable and conventional energies. How to design future energy systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellinger, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increasing energy demand, especially in the economically emerging countries, and the climate change are a major challenge for the energy supply. One of the most severe challenges is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions which can also be seen in the planned investment for energy systems. At the same time, energy systems worldwide are in transition, driven by market and technology trends. As a consequence of these trends, the complexity of future energy systems will extremely increase. The paper outlines a new approach for sustainable, reliable and affordable energy systems of the future, based on technologies, available and under development, which combine different forms of energy.

  19. Integration of renewable and conventional energies. How to design future energy systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellinger, Rolf [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). CT RTC PET

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide increasing energy demand, especially in the economically emerging countries, and the climate change are a major challenge for the energy supply. One of the most severe challenges is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions which can also be seen in the planned investment for energy systems. At the same time, energy systems worldwide are in transition, driven by market and technology trends. As a consequence of these trends, the complexity of future energy systems will extremely increase. The paper outlines a new approach for sustainable, reliable and affordable energy systems of the future, based on technologies, available and under development, which combine different forms of energy.

  20. Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxiang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermittent power of wave energy converters. Hardware systems have been constructed to control the linear wave energy converter and the composite energy storage system. The performance of the composite energy storage system has been verified in experiments by using electronics-based wave energy emulators.

  1. Electrical design for ocean wave and tidal energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Alcorn, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Provides an electrical engineering perspective on offshore power stations and their integration to the grid. With contributions from a panel of leading international experts, this book is essential reading for those working in ocean energy development and renewable energy.

  2. Design strategy for improving the energy efficiency in series hydraulic/electric synergy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Hiremath, Somashekhar S.; Singaperumal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Battery is a vital subsystem in an electric vehicle with regenerative braking system. The energy efficiency of an electric vehicle is improved by storing the regenerated energy in an electric battery, during braking, and reusing it during subsequent acceleration. Battery possesses a relatively poor power density and slow charging of regenerated energy, when compared to hydro-pneumatic accumulators. A series hydraulic/electric synergy system – an energy efficient mechatronics system is proposed to overcome the drawbacks in the conventional electric vehicle with regenerative braking. Even though, electric battery provides higher energy density than the accumulator system, optimal sizing of the hydro-pneumatic accumulator and other process parameters in the system to provide better energy density and efficiency. However, a trade-off prevails between the system energy delivered and energy consumed. This gives rise to a multiple objective problem. The proposed multi-objective design optimization procedure based on an evolutionary strategy algorithm maximizes the energy efficiency of the system. The system simulation results after optimization show that, the optimal system parameters increase the energy efficiency by 3% and hydraulic regeneration efficiency by 17.3%. The suggested design methodology provides a basis for the design of a series hydraulic/electric synergy system as energy efficient and zero emission system. - Highlights: • Dynamic analysis of SHESS to investigate energy efficiency. • Optimization of system parameters based on multi-objective design strategy. • Evaluation of improvements in system energy efficiency and hydraulic regeneration energy. • Identification of conditions at which hydraulic regenerative efficiency is maximized for minimum energy consumption. • Results confirm advantages of using SHESS

  3. Designing renewable energy systems a life cycle assessment approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Leda

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses a multi-objective optimization approach in LCA that allows the flexible construction of comprehensive Pareto fronts to help understand the weightings and relative importance of its elements. The methodology is applied to the pertinent topics of thermochemical wood conversion, deep geothermal energy, and regional energy planning.

  4. The design of Smart Energy Systems for 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    , heating and transport sectors, and on using the flexibility in demands and various short term and longer term storage in the different sectors. Such a redesign also entails that the Smart Energy System is comprised of a number of smart grid infrastructures for different sectors in the energy system, i...

  5. Design and Management of Networked Energy and Logistics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Key to a sustainable future is the transformative human use of energy and transportation--from a fossil-fuel dominant to a renewables-mixed portfolio of energy production, from a supply-follow-demand to a demand-responsive pattern of power consumption, and from capacity-oriented to usage-based allocation of logistics mobility. Motivated by these trends, my dissertation presents three essays to address the challenges that governments and businesses worldwide face in, respectively, 1) planning ...

  6. Optimal design of distributed energy resource systems based on two-stage stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Shijie; Xiao, Yunhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage stochastic programming model is built to design DER systems under uncertainties. • Uncertain energy demands have a significant effect on the optimal design. • Uncertain energy prices and renewable energy intensity have little effect on the optimal design. • The economy is overestimated if the system is designed without considering the uncertainties. • The uncertainty in energy prices has the significant and greatest effect on the economy. - Abstract: Multiple uncertainties exist in the optimal design of distributed energy resource (DER) systems. The expected energy, economic, and environmental benefits may not be achieved and a deficit in energy supply may occur if the uncertainties are not handled properly. This study focuses on the optimal design of DER systems with consideration of the uncertainties. A two-stage stochastic programming model is built in consideration of the discreteness of equipment capacities, equipment partial load operation and output bounds as well as of the influence of ambient temperature on gas turbine performance. The stochastic model is then transformed into its deterministic equivalent and solved. For an illustrative example, the model is applied to a hospital in Lianyungang, China. Comparative studies are performed to evaluate the effect of the uncertainties in load demands, energy prices, and renewable energy intensity separately and simultaneously on the system’s economy and optimal design. Results show that the uncertainties in load demands have a significant effect on the optimal system design, whereas the uncertainties in energy prices and renewable energy intensity have almost no effect. Results regarding economy show that it is obviously overestimated if the system is designed without considering the uncertainties.

  7. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  8. A two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng; Georgiadis, Michael C.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimal design of distributed energy systems under uncertainty is studied. ► A stochastic model is developed using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method. ► The proposed system possesses inherent robustness under uncertainty. ► The inherent robustness is due to energy storage facilities and grid connection. -- Abstract: A distributed energy system is a multi-input and multi-output energy system with substantial energy, economic and environmental benefits. The optimal design of such a complex system under energy demand and supply uncertainty poses significant challenges in terms of both modelling and corresponding solution strategies. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems. A two-stage decomposition based solution strategy is used to solve the optimization problem with genetic algorithm performing the search on the first stage variables and a Monte Carlo method dealing with uncertainty in the second stage. The model is applied to the planning of a distributed energy system in a hotel. Detailed computational results are presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. The impacts of demand and supply uncertainty on the optimal design of distributed energy systems are systematically investigated using proposed modelling framework and solution approach.

  9. Systems-design and energy-balance considerations for impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Areas of concern and potential problems for impact fusion are qualitatively considered within an overall systems context. A parametric and qualitative description of the general energy balance and systems considerations for an Impact Fusion Reactor (IFR) design is discussed. Reactor systems design considerations for an IFR are presented. An attempt to assess the IFR viability is made based on highly simplified but limiting projectile-target energy balances and thermonuclear burn models

  10. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  11. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  12. Optimal design of energy storage systems for hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Hoekstra, D.; Druten, van R.M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Current hybrid powertrain simulation packages arebased on discrete (existing) system components and predefinedsystem structures. Optimization of the performance of the hybridpowertrain is then based on finding the most efficient controlstrategy of the primary and secondary power source and

  13. Design of energy conscious antenna system for WLAN frequency band

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bembe, MJ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available . The modification can be achieved by loading the antenna elements with lumped circuits and a matching network system. This will be done by using the genetic algorithm optimisation technique....

  14. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 em...

  15. Optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fulin

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests the method of optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures. This method is based on dynamic analysis, shaking table tests for a 1/4 scale model, and a great number of low cycle fatigue failure tests for energy dissipating elements. A set of calculation formulas for optimal design of structures with base isolation and energy dissipation system were introduced, which are able to be used in engineering design for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures or other kinds of structures. (author)

  16. Design a Smart Control Strategy to Implement an Intelligent Energy Safety and Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Min Wang; Ming-Ta Yang

    2014-01-01

    The energy saving and electricity safety are today a cause for increasing concern for homes and buildings. Integrating the radio frequency identification (RFID) and ZigBee wireless sensor network (WSN) mature technologies, the paper designs a smart control strategy to implement an intelligent energy safety and management system (IESMS) which performs energy measuring, controlling, monitoring, and saving of the power outlet system. The presented RFID and billing module is used to identify user...

  17. Extended exergy concept to facilitate designing and optimization of frequency-dependent direct energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijewardane, S.; Goswami, Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proved exergy method is not adequate to optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion. • Exergy concept is modified to facilitate the thermoeconomic optimization of photocell. • The exergy of arbitrary radiation is used for a practical purpose. • The utility of the concept is illustrated using pragmatic examples. - Abstract: Providing the radiation within the acceptable (responsive) frequency range(s) is a common method to increase the efficiency of the frequency-dependent energy conversion systems, such as photovoltaic and nano-scale rectenna. Appropriately designed auxiliary items such as spectrally selective thermal emitters, optical filters, and lenses are used for this purpose. However any energy conversion method that utilizes auxiliary components to increase the efficiency of a system has to justify the potential cost incurred by those auxiliary components through the economic gain emerging from the increased system efficiency. Therefore much effort should be devoted to design innovative systems, effectively integrating the auxiliary items and to optimize the system with economic considerations. Exergy is the widely used method to design and optimize conventional energy conversion systems. Although the exergy concept is used to analyze photovoltaic systems, it has not been used effectively to design and optimize such systems. In this manuscript, we present a modified exergy method in order to effectively design and economically optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion systems. Also, we illustrate the utility of this concept using examples of thermophotovoltaic, Photovoltaic/Thermal and concentrated solar photovoltaic

  18. Calibrating a combined energy systems analysis and controller design method with empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Gavin Bruce; Counsell, John; Allison, John; Brindley, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The drive towards low carbon constructions has seen buildings increasingly utilise many different energy systems simultaneously to control the human comfort of the indoor environment; such as ventilation with heat recovery, various heating solutions and applications of renewable energy. This paper describes a dynamic modelling and simulation method (IDEAS – Inverse Dynamics based Energy Assessment and Simulation) for analysing the energy utilisation of a building and its complex servicing systems. The IDEAS case study presented in this paper is based upon small perturbation theory and can be used for the analysis of the performance of complex energy systems and also for the design of smart control systems. This paper presents a process of how any dynamic model can be calibrated against a more empirical based data model, in this case the UK Government's SAP (Standard Assessment Procedure). The research targets of this work are building simulation experts for analysing the energy use of a building and also control engineers to assist in the design of smart control systems for dwellings. The calibration process presented is transferable and has applications for simulation experts to assist in calibrating any dynamic building simulation method with an empirical based method. - Highlights: • Presentation of an energy systems analysis method for assessing the energy utilisation of buildings and their complex servicing systems. • An inverse dynamics based controller design method is detailed. • Method of how a dynamic model can be calibrated with an empirical based model

  19. Conceptual design of a municipal energy and environmental system as an efficient basis for advanced energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostevšek, Anja; Petek, Janez; Čuček, Lidija; Pivec, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Effectively implementing various energy and environmental policies contributes to the acceleration of energy performance, a reduction in negative environmental impacts, and increased deployment of renewable resources. The MEEMS (municipal energy and environmental management system) performs the almost inconceivable role of accomplishing prerequisite targets at the national level and, consequently, the European and World levels also. Therefore, a proper infrastructure for MEEMS needs to be effectively applied in order to implement policy initiatives. A novel organisational framework of MEEMS is proposed and is constituted upon three pillars: integration of the municipal metabolism approach, the KBS (knowledge-based system), and the MTIS (municipal technology innovation system). By properly addressing the dynamics of the MEES (municipal energy and environmental system), and the new conceptual organisation of MEEMS, a need for the inclusion of innovative elements can be defined regarding support mechanisms. Integration of the end-user approach defines the fundamental orientation of modern MEEMS. This new concept paves a pathway towards an intelligent energy and environmental system. This paper describes an implementation of the new conceptual design of MEEMS within the urban municipality energy system of Ptuj, Slovenia. - Highlights: • Combination of energy and environmental management system (MEEMS) within municipalities is proposed. • Novel MEEMS structure to accomplish more effective functioning of the system. • Accelerated energy policy implementation process is enabled with proposed MEEMS. • Key ingredients to transform present energy systems to more innovative ones are discussed

  20. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for a Hybrid Energy System Using the Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To secure a stable energy supply and bring renewable energy to buildings within a reasonable cost range, a hybrid energy system (HES that integrates both fossil fuel energy systems (FFESs and new and renewable energy systems (NRESs needs to be designed and applied. This paper presents a methodology to optimize a HES consisting of three types of NRESs and six types of FFESs while simultaneously minimizing life cycle cost (LCC, maximizing penetration of renewable energy and minimizing annual greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is utilized for multi-objective optimization. As an example, we have designed the optimal configuration and sizing for a HES in an elementary school. The evolution of Pareto-optimal solutions according to the variation in the economic, technical and environmental objective functions through generations is discussed. The pair wise trade-offs among the three objectives are also examined.

  1. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  2. Simulation to support passive and low energy cooling system design in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the passive and low energy cooling technologies in the Czech Republic. The role of computer simulation in low energy building design and optimization is discussed. The work includes buildings and systems analysis as well as climate analysis in order to estimate the potential of

  3. Energy-aware memory management for embedded multimedia systems a computer-aided design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balasa, Florin

    2011-01-01

    Energy-Aware Memory Management for Embedded Multimedia Systems: A Computer-Aided Design Approach presents recent computer-aided design (CAD) ideas that address memory management tasks, particularly the optimization of energy consumption in the memory subsystem. It explains how to efficiently implement CAD solutions, including theoretical methods and novel algorithms. The book covers various energy-aware design techniques, including data-dependence analysis techniques, memory size estimation methods, extensions of mapping approaches, and memory banking approaches. It shows how these techniques

  4. Technical and economic design of photovoltaic and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of grid connected photovoltaic system integrating battery energy storage system. • A model to manage the energy flows and assess the system profitability is presented. • The model evaluates the effective PV power rate and battery energy system capacity. • An application and multi-scenario analysis based on an Italian context is discussed. • Results show the system technical feasibility and an energy cost save of 52 €/MW h. - Abstract: In the last years, the technological development and the increasing market competitiveness of renewable energy systems, like solar and wind energy power plants, create favorable conditions to the switch of the electricity generation from large centralized facilities to small decentralized energy systems. The distributed electricity generation is a suitable option for a sustainable development thanks to the environmental impact reduction, the load management benefits and the opportunity to provide electricity to remote areas. Despite the current cut off of the national supporting policies to the renewables, the photovoltaic (PV) systems still find profitable conditions for the grid connected users when the produced energy is self-consumed. Due to the intermittent and random nature of the solar source, PV plants require the adoption of an energy storage system to compensate fluctuations and to meet the energy demand during the night hours. This paper presents a technical and economic model for the design of a grid connected PV plant with battery energy storage (BES) system, in which the electricity demand is satisfied through the PV–BES system and the national grid, as the backup source. The aim is to present the PV–BES system design and management strategy and to discuss the analytical model to determine the PV system rated power and the BES system capacity able to minimize the Levelized Cost of the Electricity (LCOE). The proposed model considers the hourly energy demand profile for a reference

  5. Theory and design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Ballou, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    The basic concept of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) - an integrated system for supplying space heating, hot water, and air conditioning to a building - and the theory underlying its design and operation are described. Practical procedures for designing an ACES for a single-family residence, together with recommended guidelines for the construction and installation of system components, are presented. Methods are discussed for estimating the life-cycle cost, component sizes, and annual energy consumption of the system for residential applications in different climatic regions of the US.

  6. A knowledge-based approach to the design of integrated renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakumar, R.; Abouzahr, I. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Engineering Energy Lab.); Ashenayi, K. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) utilize two or more renewable energy resources and end-use technologies to supply a variety of energy needs, often in a stand-alone mode. A knowledge-based design approach that minimizes the total capital cost at a pre-selected reliability level is presented. The reliability level is quantified by the loss of power supply probability (LPSP). The procedure includes some resource-need matching based on economics, the quality of energy needed, and the characteristics of the resource. A detailed example is presented in this paper and discussed to illustrate the usefullness of the design approach.

  7. Design, modeling and utilization of thermoelectrical materials and devices in energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    Thermoelectric generators can convert waste heat that abounds in modern societies into electricity in an environmentally-friendly and reliable manner, and many applications of thermoelectric devices can be envisaged. The research of this PhD dissertation focuses thermoelectric generator modeling...... at a device level as well as its applications in energy systems. The purpose is to introduce the use of thermoelectric generator into energy systems, and to indicate the impact of implementing thermoelectric generator on the design and operation of energy systems. For this purpose, this dissertation produces...... numerical models as versatile simulation tools to identify speci c optimum design criteria for thermoelectric generators used in various associated thermal and electrical systems, so that the generation performance can be improved due to the optimum system design....

  8. Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lanahan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1 energy storage is most effective when diurnal and seasonal storage are used in conjunction; (2 no established link exists between BTES computational fluid dynamics (CFD models integrated with whole building energy analysis tools, rather than parameter-fit component models; (3 BTES has less geographical limitations than Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES and lower installation cost scale than hot water tanks and (4 BTES is more often used for heating than for cooling applications.

  9. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: Description and design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Chapman, P. D.; Lewison, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  10. The energy policy turnaround. Designing the new system; Die Energiewende. Das neue System gestalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stephan; Matsoukas, Stella [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Diermann, Ralph [Redaktionsbuero fuer Energie und Cleantech, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The contribution under consideration describes the German energy system in the year 2050 as climatic friendly, secure and economic. The German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) sketches the development to this target.

  11. Design and control strategy for a hybrid green energy system for mobile telecommunication sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-07-01

    The rising energy costs and carbon footprint of operating mobile telecommunication sites in the emerging world have increased research interests in green technology. The intermittent nature of most green energy sources creates the problem of designing the optimum configuration for a given location. This study presents the design analysis and control strategy for a cost effective and reliable operation of the hybrid green energy system (HGES) for GSM base transceiver station (BTS) sites in isolated regions. The design constrains the generation and distribution of power to reliably satisfy the energy demand while ensuring safe operation of the system. The overall process control applies the genetic algorithm-based technique for optimal techno-economic sizing of system's components. The process simulation utilized meteorological data for 3 locations (Abuja, Benin City and Sokoto) with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Simulation results presented for green GSM BTS sites are discussed and compared with existing approaches.

  12. Review of the Optimal Design on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuan-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid renewable energy systems, combining various kinds of technologies, have shown relatively high capabilities to solve reliability problems and have reduced cost challenges. The use of hybrid electricity generation/storage technologies is reasonable to overcome related shortcomings. While the hybrid renewable energy system is attractive, its design, specifically the determination of the size of PV, wind, and diesel power generators and the size of energy storage system in each power station, is very challenging. Therefore, this paper will focus on the system planning and operation of hybrid generation systems, and several corresponding topics and papers by using intelligent computing methods will be reviewed. They include typical case studies, modeling and system simulation, control and management, reliability and economic studies, and optimal design on a reliable hybrid generation system.

  13. School Retrofit Design Analysis System. A Microcomputer Model for School Energy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen Lee

    The School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) developed in this study provides a non-technical method for the school administrator to use in evaluating alternative energy saving retrofit and new construction design possibilities. By providing a high degree of flexibility, SRDAS is applicable to a wide range of school building and retrofit…

  14. A design study of superconducting energy storage system for a tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    A design study of a superconducting inductive energy storage system (SC-IES) has been carried out in commission with JAERI. The SC-IES is to be applied to the power supply system for a tokamak experimental fusion reactor. The study was initiated with the definition of the requirement for the SC-IES and selection of the coil shape. The design of the coil and the cryostat has been followed. The design parameters are: stored energy 10 GJ, B max 8 T, conductor Nb-Ti, overall size 18 m (diameter) x 10 m (height). Technical problems and usefullness of SC-IES are discussed also. (author)

  15. Design and analysis of Helium Brayton cycle for energy conversion system of RGTT200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatius Djoko Irianto

    2016-01-01

    The helium Brayton cycle for the design of cogeneration energy conversion system for RGTT200K have been analyzed to obtain the higher thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor. The aim of this research is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycle to be implemented in the design of cogeneration energy conversion system of RGTT200K. Three configuration models of cogeneration energy conversion systems have been investigated. In the first configuration model, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is installed in series with the gas turbine, while in the second configuration model, IHX and gas turbines are installed in parallel. The third configuration model is similar to the first configuration, but with two compressors. Performance analysis of Brayton cycle used for cogeneration energy conversion system of RGTT200K has been done by simulating and calculating using CHEMCAD code. The simulation result shows that the three configuration models of cogeneration energy conversion system give the temperature of thermal energy in the secondary side of IHX more than 800 °C at the reactor coolant mass flow rate of 145 kg/s. Nevertheless, the performance parameters, which include thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor (EUF), are different for each configuration model. By comparing the performance parameter in the three configurations of helium Brayton cycle for cogeneration energy conversion systems RGTT200K, it is found that the energy conversion system with a first configuration has the highest thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor (EUF). Thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor for the first configuration of the reactor coolant mass flow rate of 145 kg/s are 35.82 % and 80.63 %. (author)

  16. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  17. Thermal energy storage technologies for sustainability systems design, assessment and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaiselvam, S

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage Technologies for Sustainability is a broad-based overview describing the state-of-the-art in latent, sensible, and thermo-chemical energy storage systems and their applications across industries. Beginning with a discussion of the efficiency and conservation advantages of balancing energy demand with production, the book goes on to describe current state-of-the art technologies. Not stopping with description, the authors also discuss design, modeling, and simulation of representative systems, and end with several case studies of systems in use.Describes how thermal energ

  18. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuprak, Greg [West Chester Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2016-11-02

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution’s carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems is changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE’s efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  19. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, James [West Chester Univ., West Chester (PA)

    2016-08-05

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems are changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  20. Passive designs and renewable energy systems optimization of a net zero energy building in Embrun/France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkouss, F.; Biwole, P. H.; Fardoun, F.

    2018-05-01

    Buildings’ optimization is a smart method to inspect the available design choices starting from passive strategies, to energy efficient systems and finally towards the adequate renewable energy system to be implemented. This paper outlines the methodology and the cost-effectiveness potential for optimizing the design of net-zero energy building in a French city; Embrun. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is chosen in order to minimize thermal, electrical demands and life cycle cost while reaching the net zero energy balance; and thus getting the Pareto-front. Elimination and Choice Expressing the Reality decision making method is applied to the Pareto-front so as to obtain one optimal solution. A wide range of energy efficiency measures are investigated, besides solar energy systems are employed to produce required electricity and hot water for domestic purposes. The results indicate that the appropriate selection of the passive parameters is very important and critical in reducing the building energy consumption. The optimum design parameters yield to a decrease of building’s thermal loads and life cycle cost by 32.96% and 14.47% respectively.

  1. Impacts on the Electrical System Economics from Critical Design Factors of Wave Energy Converters and Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Fergus; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    It is expected that ultimately, like offshore wind farms, electrical systems will make up to a quarter of the overall Capex of wave farms. This is a significant element of cost and consideration must be taken in the design of both individual wave energy converters (WECs) and arrays of WECs to ensure that these costs can be minimised. In a worst case scenario design decisions could increase the cost of the electrical system by several orders and ultimately make the technology uncompetitive. ...

  2. Design, analysis, operation, and advanced control of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Zachary S.

    Because using non-renewable energy systems (e.g., coal-powered co-generation power plants) to generate electricity is an unsustainable, environmentally hazardous practice, it is important to develop cost-effective and reliable renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaics (PVs), wind turbines (WTs), and fuel cells (FCs). Non-renewable energy systems, however, are currently less expensive than individual renewable energy systems (IRESs). Furthermore, IRESs based on intermittent natural resources (e.g., solar irradiance and wind) are incapable of meeting continuous energy demands. Such shortcomings can be mitigated by judiciously combining two or more complementary IRESs to form a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES). Although previous research efforts focused on the design, operation, and control of HRESs has proven useful, no prior HRES research endeavor has taken a systematic and comprehensive approach towards establishing guidelines by which HRESs should be designed, operated, and controlled. The overall goal of this dissertation, therefore, is to establish the principles governing the design, operation, and control of HRESs resulting in cost-effective and reliable energy solutions for stationary and mobile applications. To achieve this goal, we developed and demonstrated four separate HRES principles. Rational selection of HRES type: HRES components and their sizes should be rationally selected using knowledge of component costs, availability of renewable energy resources, and expected power demands of the application. HRES design: by default, the components of a HRES should be arranged in parallel for increased efficiency and reliability. However, a series HRES design may be preferred depending on the operational considerations of the HRES components. HRES control strategy selection: the choice of HRES control strategy depends on the dynamics of HRES components, their operational considerations, and the practical limitations of the HRES end-use. HRES data

  3. HTGR molten salt sensible energy transmission and storage system design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report, which was prepared for Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates by United Engineers and Constructors under Contract No. GCRA/UE and C 81-203, presents the design and cost for a molten salt Sensible Energy Transmission and Storage (SETS) System. Although the reference system for this study is sized to be compatible with an 1170 MW(t) HTGR Nuclear Heat Source, the results and conclusions should be generally applicable to most large scale molten salt energy transmission system applications. A preliminary conceptual design is presented and alternative configurations are discussed. The sensitivity of system costs to variations in important system parameters are also presented. Costs for a reference case conceptual design are reported in constant 1980 dollars and inflated 1995 dollars

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Power system development. Preliminary design report, final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The preliminary design of the 10 MWe OTEC power module and the 200 kWe test articles is given in detail. System operation and performance; power system cost estimates; 10 MWe heat exchangers; 200 kWe heat exchanger articles; biofouling control;ammonia leak detection, and leak repair; rotating machinery; support subsystem; instrumentation and control; electrical subsystem; installation approach; net energy and resource analysis; and operability, maintainability, and safety are discussed. The conceptual design of the 40 MWe electrical power system includes four or five 10 MWe modules as designed for the 10 MWe pilot plant. (WHK)

  5. DC Distributed Power Systems. Analysis, Design and Control for a Renewable Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Per

    2002-12-01

    Renewable energy systems are likely to become wide spread in the future due to environmental demands. As a consequence of the dispersed nature of renewable energy systems, this implies that there will be a distributed generation of electric power. Since most of the distributed electrical energy sources do not provide their electric power at line frequency and voltage, a DC bus is a useful common connection for several such sources. Due to the differences in output voltage among the sources, depending on both the type of source and their actual operating point, the sources are connected to the DC power system via power electronic converters. The intention behind the presented work is not to replace the existing AC power system, but to include local DC power systems. The AC and DC power systems are connected at some points in the network. The renewable energy sources are weak compared to the present hydro power and nuclear power plants, resulting in a need of power conditioning before the renewable energy is fed to the transmission lines. The benefit of such an approach is that power conditioning is applied on a central level, i.e. at the interface between the AC and DC power systems. The thesis starts with an overview of related work. Present DC transmission systems are discussed and investigated in simulations. Then, different methods for load sharing and voltage control are discussed. Especially, the voltage droop control scheme is examined thoroughly. Since the droop control method does not require any high-speed communication between sources and loads, this is considered the most suitable for DC distributed power systems. The voltage feed back design of the controller also results in a specification of the DC bus capacitors (equivalents to DC link capacitors of single converters) needed for filtering. If the converters in the DC distribution system are equipped with capacitors selected from this design criterion and if the DC bus impedance is neglected, the

  6. Innovations in greenhouse systems - Energy conservation by system design, sensors and decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Balendonck, J.; Dieleman, J.A.; Gelder, De A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Visser, De P.H.B.; Zwart, De H.F.

    2017-01-01

    The targets for energy saving in Dutch horticulture are high. Research follows the two lines: total energy reduction and sustainability. The principles for that are: maximum use of natural sunlight (free energy input to greenhouse, free light for crop growth and production); maximum insulation

  7. Design of Waste Gasification Energy Systems with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence, and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents a new sustainable trigeneration system (power, heat and cool) based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system integrated with an absorption chiller for special applications such as hotels, resorts, hospitals, etc....... with a focus on plant design and performance. The proposal system is based on the idea of gasifying the municipal waste, producing syngas serving as fuel for the trigeneration system. Such advanced system when improved is thus self-sustainable without dependency on net grid, district heating and district...

  8. Design of the energy storage system for the High Energy Gas Laser Facility at LASL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, K.B.; Kircher, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Antares laser is being built in the High Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) at Los Alamos to continue laser fusion experiments at very high power. The laser medium will be pumped by an electrical discharge, which requires an energy input of about 5 MJ in a few microseconds at about 500 kV. The energy storage system which will provide the pulsed power will be a bank of high-voltage pulse-forming networks. Tradeoff studies have been performed comparing the performance of multi-mesh networks with single-mesh networks. The single-mesh network requires about 20% more energy than a two-mesh network, but will tolerate three times the inductance of a two-mesh network. Analysis also shows that amplifier gain is not sensitive to impedance mismatch among the pulse-forming network, the transmission cables, and the gas discharge. A prototype pulse-forming network is being built to test components and trigger performance. It is a Marx generator storing 300 kJ at 1.2 MV open circuit, with 3 μH internal inductance

  9. DSTATCOM with Flywheel Energy Storage System for wind energy applications: Control design and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvire, G.O.; Mercado, P.E. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, the use of a Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (DSTATCOM) coupled with a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) is proposed to mitigate problems introduced by wind generation in the electric system. A dynamic model of the DSTATCOM/FESS device is introduced and a multi-level control technique is proposed. This control technique presents one control mode for active power and two control modes for reactive power, power factor correction, and voltage control. Tests of dynamic response of the device are conducted, and performance characteristics are studied taking into consideration variations of power references. Moreover, the behaviour of the device is analyzed when combined with wind generation in the electric system. The results obtained demonstrate a good performance of the model developed and of the control technique proposed as well as a high effectiveness of the device to mitigate problems introduced by wind generation. (author)

  10. Design and control of mobile traction energy storage system; Auslegung und Steuerung mobiler Traktionsenergiespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Martin; Klausner, Sven [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verkehrs- und Infrastruktursysteme IVI, Dresden (Germany). Abt. fuer Fahrzeug- und Verkehrssystemtechnik

    2009-07-01

    Energy storage systems in trams may contribute to a noticeable reduction of energy consumption. Whether this or another operating purpose is to be pursued by the use of an energy store, major importance must in any case be attached to the type of storage technology to be selected, the design of the storage system and the kind of storage control strategy to be used. The latter has an influence on the efficiency of the store usage. It is especially predicative control strategies that offer a high potential to this effect. (orig.)

  11. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Rogers, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility dirunal load leveling; however, such a device will function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. The study has explored several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. The study examines aspects of the coil design; superconductor supported off of the dewar shell; the dewar shell, its configuration and stresses; the underground excavation and related construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar; the helium refrigeration system; the electrical converter system; the vacuum system; the guard coil; and the costs. The report is a condensation of the more comprehensive study which is in the process of being printed

  12. Design Optimization of a Small-Scale Polygeneration Energy System in Different Climate Zones in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ghaem Sigarchian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Design and performance of polygeneration energy systems are highly influenced by several variables, including the climate zone, which can affect the load profile as well as the availability of renewable energy sources. To investigate the effects, in this study, the design of a polygeneration system for identical residential buildings that are located in three different climate zones in Iran has been investigated. To perform the study, a model has previously developed by the author is used. The performance of the polygeneration system in terms of energy, economy and environment were compared to each other. The results show significant energetic and environmental benefits of the implementation of polygeneration systems in Iran, especially in the building that is located in a hot climate, with a high cooling demand and a low heating demand. Optimal polygeneration system for an identical building has achieved a 27% carbon dioxide emission reduction in the cold climate, while this value is around 41% in the hot climate. However, when considering the price of electricity and gas in the current energy market in Iran, none of the systems are feasible and financial support mechanisms or other incentives are required to promote the application of decentralized polygeneration energy systems.

  13. Enhancing the design of a superconducting coil for magnetic energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indira, Gomathinayagam; UmaMaheswaraRao, Theru; Chandramohan, Sankaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High magnetic flux density of SMES coil to reduce the size. • YBCO Tapes for the construction of HTS magnets. • Relation between energy storage and length of the coil wound by various materials. • Design with a certain length of second-generation HTS. - Abstract: Study and analysis of a coil for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system is presented in this paper. Generally, high magnetic flux density is adapted in the design of superconducting coil of SMES to reduce the size of the coil and to increase its energy density. With high magnetic flux density, critical current density of the coil is degraded and so the coil is wound with High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) made of different materials. A comparative study is made to emphasize the relationship between the energy storage and length of the coil wound by Bi2223, SF12100, SCS12100 and YBCO tapes. Recently for the construction of HTS magnets, YBCO tapes have been used. Simulation models for various designs have been developed to analyze the magnetic field distribution for the optimum design of energy storage. The design which gives the maximum stored energy in the coil has been used with a certain length of second-generation HTS. The performance analysis and the results of comparative study are done

  14. Enhancing the design of a superconducting coil for magnetic energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira, Gomathinayagam, E-mail: gindu80@gmail.com [EEE Department, Prince Shri Venkateshwara Padmavathy Engineering College, Chennai (India); UmaMaheswaraRao, Theru, E-mail: umesh.theru@gmail.com [Divison of Power Engineering and Management, Anna University, Chennai (India); Chandramohan, Sankaralingam, E-mail: cdramo@gmail.com [Divison of Power Engineering and Management, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • High magnetic flux density of SMES coil to reduce the size. • YBCO Tapes for the construction of HTS magnets. • Relation between energy storage and length of the coil wound by various materials. • Design with a certain length of second-generation HTS. - Abstract: Study and analysis of a coil for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system is presented in this paper. Generally, high magnetic flux density is adapted in the design of superconducting coil of SMES to reduce the size of the coil and to increase its energy density. With high magnetic flux density, critical current density of the coil is degraded and so the coil is wound with High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) made of different materials. A comparative study is made to emphasize the relationship between the energy storage and length of the coil wound by Bi2223, SF12100, SCS12100 and YBCO tapes. Recently for the construction of HTS magnets, YBCO tapes have been used. Simulation models for various designs have been developed to analyze the magnetic field distribution for the optimum design of energy storage. The design which gives the maximum stored energy in the coil has been used with a certain length of second-generation HTS. The performance analysis and the results of comparative study are done.

  15. Optimal Design of Dual-Hop VLC/RF Communication System With Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-07-28

    In this letter, we consider a dual-hop heterogeneous visible light communication (VLC)/radio frequency (RF) communication system to extend the coverage of VLC systems. Besides detecting the information over VLC link, the relay is able to harvest energy from the first-hop VLC link, by extracting the direct current component of the received optical signal, and uses the harvested energy to retransmit the data to a mobile terminal over the second-hop RF link. We investigate the optimal design of the hybrid system in terms of data rate maximization.

  16. Feasibility and Optimal Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for the Orphanage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to electricity can have a positive psychological impact through a lessening of the sense of exclusion, and vulnerability often felt by the orphanages. This paper presented the simulation and optimization study of a stand-alone photovoltaic power system that produced the desired power needs of an orphanage. Solar resources for the design of the system were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy website at a location of 6°51′N latitude and 7°35′E longitude, with annual average solar radiation of 4.92 kWh/m2/d. This study is based on modeling, simulation, and optimization of energy system in the orphanage. The patterns of load consumption within the orphanage were studied and suitably modeled for optimization. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER software was used to analyze and design the proposed stand-alone photovoltaic power system model. The model was designed to provide an optimal system configuration based on an hour-by-hour data for energy availability and demands. A detailed design, description, and expected performance of the system were presented in this paper.

  17. Design and Construction of 10 kWh Class Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Han, Y. H.; Park, B. J.; Bae, Y. C.; Lee, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    A superconductor flywheel energy storage system (SFES) is an electro-mechanical battery which transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy for storage, and vice versa. A 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system (FESS) has been developed to evaluate the feasibility of a 35 kWh class SFES with a flywheel Ip/If ratio larger than 1. The 10 kWh class FESS is composed of a main frame, a composite flywheel, active magnetic dampers (AMDs), a permanent magnet bearing, and a motor/generator. The flywheel of the FESS rotates at a very high speed to store energy, while being levitated by a permanent magnetic bearing and a pair of thrust AMDs. The 10 kWh class flywheel is mainly composed of a composite rotor assembly, where most of the energy is stored, two radial and two thrust AMD rotors, which dissipate vibration at critical speeds, a permanent magnet rotor, which supports most of the flywheel weight, a motor rotor, which spins the flywheel, and a central hollow shaft, where the parts are assembled and aligned to. The stators of each of the main components are assembled on to housings, which are assembled and aligned to the main frame. Many factors have been considered while designing each part of the flywheel, stator and frame. In this study, a 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system has been designed and constructed for test operation.

  18. On thermoeconomics of energy systems at variable load conditions: Integrated optimization of plant design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thermoeconomics has been assuming a growing role among the disciplines oriented to the analysis of energy systems, its different methodologies allowing solution of problems in the fields of cost accounting, plant design optimisation and diagnostic of malfunctions. However, the thermoeconomic methodologies as such are particularly appropriate to analyse large industrial systems at steady or quasi-steady operation, but they can be hardly applied to small to medium scale units operating in unsteady conditions to cover a variable energy demand. In this paper, the fundamentals of thermoeconomics for systems operated at variable load are discussed, examining the cost formation process and, separately, the cost fractions related to capital depreciation (which require additional distinctions with respect to plants in steady operation) and to exergy consumption. The relevant effects of the efficiency penalty due to off design operation on the exergetic cost of internal flows are also examined. An original algorithm is proposed for the integrated optimization of plant design and operation based on an analytical solution by the Lagrange multipliers method and on a multi-objective decision function, expressed either in terms of net cash flow or primary energy saving. The method is suitable for application in complex energy systems, such as 'facilities of components of a same product' connected to external networks for power or heat distribution. For demonstrative purposes, the proposed thermoeconomically aided optimization is performed for a grid connected trigeneration system to be installed in a large hotel

  19. Complex Systems Engineering : Designing in sociotechnical systems for the energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moncada Escudero, J.A.; Nava Guerrero, G.D.C.; Park Lee, H.; Okur, Ö.; Chakraborty, S.T.; Lukszo, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The EU has set ambitious targets for an energy transition. While research often focuses on technology, institutions or actors, a transition requires complex coordination and comprehensive analysis and design. We propose a framework accounting for technology, institutions and actors' perspective

  20. Optimal Design and Operation Management of Battery-Based Energy Storage Systems (BESS) in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dulout, Jeremy; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    of energy storage units requires certain performance measures and constraints, which has to be well considered in design phase and embedded in control and management strategies. This chapter mainly focuses on these aspects and provides a general framework for optimal design and operation management......-scale integration of renewables into the grid environment. Energy storage options can also be used for economic operation of energy systems to cut down system’s operating cost. By utilizing ESSs, it is very possible to store energy in off-peak hours with lower cost and energize the grid during peak load intervals...... at supply/demand side which is helpful for load levelling or peak shaving purposes. Last but not least, ESSs can provide frequency regulation services in offgrid locations where there is a strong need to meet the power balance in different operating conditions. Each of the abovementioned applications...

  1. Energy efficiency design strategies for buildings with grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimprayoon, Chanikarn

    The building sector in the United States represents more than 40% of the nation's energy consumption. Energy efficiency design strategies and renewable energy are keys to reduce building energy demand. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on buildings have been the fastest growing market in the PV industry. This growth poses challenges for buildings qualified to serve in this market sector. Electricity produced from solar energy is intermittent. Matching building electricity demand with PV output can increase PV system efficiency. Through experimental methods and case studies, computer simulations were used to investigate the priorities of energy efficiency design strategies that decreased electricity demand while producing load profiles matching with unique output profiles from PV. Three building types (residential, commercial, and industrial) of varying sizes and use patterns located in 16 climate zones were modeled according to ASHRAE 90.1 requirements. Buildings were analyzed individually and as a group. Complying with ASHRAE energy standards can reduce annual electricity consumption at least 13%. With energy efficiency design strategies, the reduction could reach up to 65%, making it possible for PV systems to meet reduced demands in residential and industrial buildings. The peak electricity demand reduction could be up to 71% with integration of strategies and PV. Reducing lighting power density was the best single strategy with high overall performances. Combined strategies such as zero energy building are also recommended. Electricity consumption reductions are the sum of the reductions from strategies and PV output. However, peak electricity reductions were less than their sum because they reduced peak at different times. The potential of grid stress reduction is significant. Investment incentives from government and utilities are necessary. The PV system sizes on net metering interconnection should not be limited by legislation existing in

  2. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses

  3. Rectifier Design Challenges for RF Wireless Power Transfer and Energy Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Collado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of wireless power transfer (WPT and energy harvesting (EH solutions poses different challenges towards achieving maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency in these systems. This paper covers several selected challenges when developing WPT and electromagnetic EH solutions, such as the design of multiband and broadband rectifiers, the minimization of the effect that load and input power variations may have on the system performance and finally the most optimum power combining mechanisms that can be used when dealing with multi-element rectifiers.

  4. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence.

  5. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration. (paper)

  6. Design and experimental investigation of a Multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Zeshao; Hu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system was proposed. • A prototype of this new concentrator was developed for experimental investigation. • Experimental investigation results showed a good concentrating uniformity. - Abstract: Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energies and meaningful for the sustainable development of energy source. A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) solar power system was proposed in this paper, the design principle of the multi-segment plate concentrator of this solar power system was given, which could provide uniform solar radiation flux density distribution on solar cells. A prototype of this multi-segment plate CPV solar power system was developed for the experimental study, aiming at the investigations of solar radiation flux density distribution and PV performances under this concentrator design. The experimental results showed that the solar radiation flux density distribution provided by the multi-segment plate concentrator had a good uniformity, and the number and temperature of solar cells both influence the photoelectric transformation efficiency of the CPV solar power system.

  7. A Design Study Of A Wireless Power Transfer System For Use To Transfer Energy From A Vibration Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabham, N. J.; Harden, C.; Vincent, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A wirelessly powered remote sensor node is presented along with its design process. The purpose of the node is the further expansion of the sensing capabilities of the commercial Perpetuum system used for condition monitoring on trains and rolling stock which operates using vibration energy harvesting. Surplus harvested vibration energy is transferred wirelessly to a remote satellite sensor to allow measurements over a wider area to be made. This additional data is to be used for long term condition monitoring. Performance measurements made on the prototype remote sensor node are reported and advantages and disadvantages of using the same RF frequency for power and data transfer are identified.

  8. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    consumption. In addition the finding was that there are tools and technologies that can be assembled and deployed in the short term - the next 3-5 years - that can be used to significantly reduce the cost and time effective delivery of moderate energy savings in the U.S. building stock. Simulation tools, which are a core strength of current DOE computational research programs, provide only a part of the answer by providing a basis for simulation enabled design. New investments will be required within a broad dynamics and control research agenda which must focus on dynamics, control, optimization and simulation of multi-scale energy systems during design and operation. U.S. investments in high performance and high productivity computing (HP2C) should be leveraged and coupled with advances in dynamics and control to impact both the existing building stock through retrofits and also new construction. The essential R&D areas requiring investment are: (1) Characterizing the Dynamics of Multi-scale Energy Systems; (2) Control and Optimization Methodologies of Multi-scale Energy Systems Under Uncertainty; and (3) Multiscale Modeling and Simulation Enabled Design and Operation. The concept of using design and control specific computational tools is a new idea for the building industry. The potential payoffs in terms of accelerated design cycle times, performance optimization and optimal supervisory control to obtain and maintain energy savings are huge. Recent advances in computational power, computer science, and mathematical algorithms offer the foundations to address the control problems presented by the complex dynamics of whole building systems. The key areas for focus and associated metrics with targets for establishing competitiveness in energy efficient building design and operation are: (1) Scalability - Current methodology and tools can provide design guidance for very low energy buildings in weeks to months; what is needed is hours to days. A 50X improvement is needed. (2

  9. Sensitivity of the dispatch strategy in designing grid integrated hybrid energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Amarasinghage Tharindu Dasun; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Nik, Vahid M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating renewable energy technologies based on solar PV (SPV) and wind energy in the energy system is challenging due to time dependence of the energy potential for these energy sources. Grid integrated hybrid energy systems combining SPV panels, wind turbines, battery bank and internal combustion generators (ICG) can be used in this regard specially for distributed generation. Energy-economic dispatch strategy plays a vital role in managing the energy flow of the system. However, it is d...

  10. Design and system developments of pulping and paper making equipment for reduction of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, A.

    1980-03-15

    Due to unprecedented price rise of energy, acute shortages and uncertainties in securing new and reliable energy sources, continuous technological developments have been taking place in equipment and system design in the field of pulp and paper industry. The possibility of energy reduction in areas of pulping, bleaching and cleaning of pulp, black liquor evaporation, approach flow system and drying of paper are analyzed. Specific energy consumption in terms of both heat and electricity can be considerably reduced by adopting continuous pulping methods, incorporating new concepts of counter-current impregnation, cooking high heat diffusion washing and displacement bleaching. Use of cleaners based on improved design can reduce electric energy use considerably by cleaning pulp at higher consistency and at reduced reject rates without impairing cleaning efficiency. Pre-evaporation of spent liquor in vapor recompression evaporators and use of falling film evaporation for scale forming black liquors can reduce steam demand in evaporation. Specific steam demand in paper drying can be reduced by 6 to 10% using thermo-rings or by modifications of dryer inner surface. Effects of energy consumption by integration of pulp and paper mills and by implementation of effluent treatment program are indicated.

  11. Energy design for architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, A. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  12. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1999-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1998-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhs, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a systems-level design and analysis of a new approach for improving the energy efficiency and affordability of solar energy in buildings, namely, hybrid solar lighting and full-spectrum solar energy systems. By using different portions of the solar spectrum simultaneously for multiple end-use applications in buildings, the proposed system offers unique advantages over other alternatives for using sunlight to displace electricity (conventional topside daylighting and solar technologies). Our preliminary work indicates that hybrid solar lighting, a method of collecting and distributing direct sunlight for lighting purposes, will alleviate many of the problems with passive daylighting systems of today, such as spatial and temporal variability, glare, excess illumination, cost, and energy efficiency. Similarly, our work suggests that the most appropriate use of the visible portion of direct, nondiffuse sunlight from an energy-savings perspective is to displace electric light rather than generate electricity. Early estimates detailed in this paper suggest an anticipated system cost of well under$2.0/Wp and 5-11(cents)/kWh for displaced and generated electricity in single-story commercial building applications. Based on a number of factors discussed in the paper, including sunlight availability, building use scenarios, time-of-day electric utility rates, cost, and efficacy of the displaced electric lights, the simple payback of this approach in many applications could eventually be well under 5 years

  15. Design of different types of indirect cooling systems in supermarkets - Comparison of energy use and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline

    2007-08-15

    A case study has been performed comparing 11 different cases of indirect cooling systems in supermarkets. The influence of the selection of cooling-coil/heat exchanger design, display cabinets, type of secondary refrigerant, types of valves, types of pumps and type of system design has been investigated. The cases have been selected to be representative for a large number of supermarkets in Sweden. However, some of the cases are only hypothetical and do no not exist in reality so far. The results show that savings of both energy and money can be significant, by the selection of efficient components and system design. An iterative procedure, for finding the optimal operating point (liquid inlet temperature and liquid flow rate) is suggested. This procedure has been evaluated with good results

  16. Relationship between energy systems and landscapes. Guidelines and tools for design and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ginelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes undergoing conservation, valorisation, management and reconstruction policies, become a fundamental factor for the local/global development of natural, cultural, human and social potentials of territories. With the contribution of technological design culture, the research, having a strong multidisciplinary character, focuses on managing the relationship between energy systems and landscapes with the general aim of subverting and transforming apparent conflicts in synergies, in order to overcome a sectorial and segmented approach barely based on energy performances. Through the introduction of a complex multidimensional methodology of analysis and evaluation the goal of this work, is to develop standards of acceptability, meta-design criteria and guidelines for design, intro- ducing a methodology for multidimen- sional complex analysis and evaluation, to support Public Authorities.

  17. Design and Analysis of the Power Control System of the Fast Zero Energy Reactor FR-0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuh, N J.H.

    1966-12-15

    This report describes the power control by means of the fine-control rod and the design of the control system of the fast zero energy reactor FR-0 located in Studsvik, Sweden. System requirements and some operational conditions were used as design criteria. Manual and automatic control is possible. Variable electronic end-stops for the control rod have been designed, because of the special construction of the reactor and control rod. Noise in the control system caused by the reactor, detector and electronics caused disturbances of the control system at the lower power levels. The noise power-spectrum was measured. Statistical design methods, using the measured noise power spectrum, were used to design filters, which will reduce the influence of the noise at the lower power levels. Root Loci sketches and Bode diagrams were used for stability analyses. The system was simulated on an analogue computer, taking into account even nonlinearities of the control system and noise. Typical cases of reactor operation were simulated and stability analysis performed.

  18. Design and Analysis of the Power Control System of the Fast Zero Energy Reactor FR-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, N.J.H.

    1966-12-01

    This report describes the power control by means of the fine-control rod and the design of the control system of the fast zero energy reactor FR-0 located in Studsvik, Sweden. System requirements and some operational conditions were used as design criteria. Manual and automatic control is possible. Variable electronic end-stops for the control rod have been designed, because of the special construction of the reactor and control rod. Noise in the control system caused by the reactor, detector and electronics caused disturbances of the control system at the lower power levels. The noise power-spectrum was measured. Statistical design methods, using the measured noise power spectrum, were used to design filters, which will reduce the influence of the noise at the lower power levels. Root Loci sketches and Bode diagrams were used for stability analyses. The system was simulated on an analogue computer, taking into account even nonlinearities of the control system and noise. Typical cases of reactor operation were simulated and stability analysis performed

  19. Energy Demand Analysis and Design of a Hybrid Power System in Bawean Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantoro Ridho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70 000 000 people in Indonesia have no access to electricity. This study was carried out in Bawean Islands which are located in the Java Sea about 150 km North of Surabaya, the headquarters of East Java. The study to determine the energy services available in the Bawean Island was done through interviewing a random sample of 72 households in two villages namely Komalasa and Lebak. Based on the average monthly electricity consumption of the sampled households connected to the grid, a hybrid renewable energy based electrical supply system was designed for Gili Timur Island, one of the satellite islands around Bawean Island. The system was designed with the aid of a time step simulation software used to design and analyze hybrid power systems. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out on the optimum system to study the effects of variation in some of the system variables. HOMER suggests that for the expected peak load of 131 kW, an optimum system will consist of 150 kW from PV array, two wind turbines each rated 10 kW, a 75 kW diesel generator and batteries for storage.

  20. Design of a compressed air energy storage system for hydrostatic wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar E. Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES system with a wind turbine is critical in optimally harvesting wind energy given the fluctuating nature of power demands. Here we consider the design of a CAES for a wind turbine with hydrostatic powertrain. The design parameters of the CAES are determined based on simulation of the integrated system model for a combination of these parameter values, namely the compression ratios of the air compressors and the expanders and the air tank size. The results of the simulations were used to choose the best design parameters, which would produce the best stable performance through increased energy output of the integrated CAES and wind turbine based on the intermittent wind profile. Simulation results for a 600 kW rated power wind turbine with integrated CAES indicate that increasing the tank size and compression ratio will improve the overall power quality through increased energy output up to a limit beyond which the power quality exhibits only marginal improvement.

  1. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  2. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M; Stanculescu, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Paver, N [University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-06-15

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems.

  3. The design of the high energy physics massive data migration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jingyan; Zang Dongsong; Cheng Yaodong

    2010-01-01

    High energy physics is the typical data massive computing application due to its huge experiment data. For example, the amount of BESⅢ experiment data reaches to 4PB. Hierarchical storage system is adapted for the application in which disk array and tape library are used. It is quite important to migrate massive data from disk array to tape library. The article introduces the design and realization for the high performance data migration system between disk array and tape library. Besides, the system provides web page as the friendly user interface. (authors)

  4. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Stanculescu, A.; Paver, N.

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems

  5. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  6. Integrated design and evaluation of biomass energy system taking into consideration demand side characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Hongbo; Zhou, Weisheng; Nakagami, Ken'ichi; Gao, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a linear programming model has been developed for the design and evaluation of biomass energy system, while taking into consideration demand side characteristics. The objective function to be minimized is the total annual cost of the energy system for a given customer equipped with a biomass combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) plant, as well as a backup boiler fueled by city gas. The results obtained from the implementation of the model demonstrate the optimal system capacities that customers could employ given their electrical and thermal demands. As an illustrative example, an investigation addresses the optimal biomass CCHP system for a residential area located in Kitakyushu Science and Research Park, Japan. In addition, sensitivity analyses have been elaborated in order to show how the optimal solutions would vary due to changes of some key parameters including electricity and city gas tariffs, biogas price, electricity buy-back price, as well as carbon tax rate. (author)

  7. Design for reliability in power electronics in renewable energy systems – status and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible interconnection of renewable sources, loads and electric grids. While targets concerning efficiency of power converters are within reach, recent research endeavors to predict and improve their reliability to ensure high availability, low...... maintenance costs, and herefore, low Levelized-Cost-of-Energy (LCOE) of renewable energy systems. This paper presents the prior-art Design for Reliability (DFR) process for power converters and addresses the paradigm shift to Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile based analysis. Moreover...

  8. Model based design of efficient power take-off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Take-Off (PTO) is the core of a Wave Energy Converter (WECs), being the technology converting wave induced oscillations from mechanical energy to electricity. The induced oscillations are characterized by being slow with varying frequency and amplitude. Resultantly, fluid power is often...... an essential part of the PTO, being the only technology having the required force densities. The focus of this paper is to show the achievable efficiency of a PTO system based on a conventional hydro-static transmission topology. The design is performed using a model based approach. Generic component models...

  9. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    electricity market and diminish the business cases for these technologies by increasing the costs of their electricity consumption. With the present tariff structure, only a very small part of the flexibility potential is deployed or operated flexible. In this paper we compare two different grid tariff...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  10. Design of energy saving monitoring system on isothermal oilless lubricated air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. N.; Liu, Q.; Xu, B. L.; Liu, Y.; Hu, F.

    2017-10-01

    This design introduces a kind of STM32F051C8T6 circuit monitoring system which is based on the ARM core. According to the operating principle of air compressor, the reduction of temperature and current is converted to save electricity and directly displayed, save electricity information stored at the same time, to achieve real-time monitoring air compressor energy saving effect in the process of operation.

  11. Academic Design Of Canada's Energy Systems And Nuclear Science Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznai, G.; Perera, S.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) is at the forefront of alternative energy and nuclear research that focuses on the energy challenges that are faced by the province of Ontario, the industrial heartland of Canada. While the university was established as recently as 2002 and opened its doors to its first students in 2003, it has already developed a comprehensive set of undergraduate and graduate programs, and a reputation for research intensiveness. UOIT offers dedicated programs in nuclear engineering and energy systems engineering to ensure a continued supply of trained employees in these fields. The ability to provide talented and skilled personnel to the energy sector has emerged as a critical requirement of ensuring Ontario's energy future, and to meet this need UOIT requires additional teaching and research space in order to offer its energy related programs. The Governments of Canada and of the Province of Ontario recognized UOIT's achievements and contributions to post-secondary education in the field of clean energy in general and nuclear power in particular, and as part of the economic stimuli funded by both levels of government, approved $45 M CAD for the construction of a 10,000 m 2 'Energy Systems and Nuclear Science Research Centre' at UOIT. The building is scheduled to be ready for occupancy in the summer of 2011. The paper presents the key considerations that lead to the design of the building, and gives details of the education and research programs that were the key in determining the design and layout of the research centre. (authors)

  12. Design and optimization of superconducting magnet system for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    In view of developing superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) technology that will mitigate voltage sag/dip in the utility line, VEC centre has taken up a leading role in the country. In the first phase a solenoid-type 0.6 MJ SMES system using cryo-stable NbTi superconductor has been designed, developed and tested successfully with resistive load to mitigate power line voltage dips. The cryogenic test results of 0.6 MJ SMES coil will be highlighted. Further, effort is underway to develop a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system with toroidal coil configuration. The lecture will also cover the superconducting coil development for SMES application with special emphasis on design aspects and the optimization issue of the toroidal system using NbTi based Rutherford-type cable. (author)

  13. Design, development and characterization of tetrode type electron gun system for generation of low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deore, A.V.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Dhole, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    A tetrode type electron gun system for the generation of low energy electrons was designed, developed and characterized. An electron gun having four electrodes namely cathode, focusing electrode, control electrode and anode has been designed for the irradiation experiments. This electron gun is capable to provide electrons of energy over the range of 1 keV to 20 keV, with current maximum upto 100 μA. The electron gun and a faraday cup are mounted in the evacuated cylindrical chamber. The samples are fixed on the faraday cup and irradiated with low energy electrons at a pressure around 10 -6 mbar. In this electron gun system, at any electron energy over the entire range, the electron beam diameter can be varied from 5 to 120 mm on the Faraday cup mounted at a distance of 200 mm from the anode in the chamber. Also, the circular shape of the beam spot was maintained, even though the beam current and beam diameter are varied. The uniformity of the electron beam over the entire beam area was measured with a multi electrode assembly and found to be well within 15%. This system is being used for the synthesis and diffusion of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles in polymeric materials. (author)

  14. Computer aided analysis and design of industrial energy systems; Rechnergestuetzte Analyse und Konzeption industrieller Energiesysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, Eckardt Marc Guenter

    2009-03-02

    In this dissertation the concept and implementation of a software system supporting the analysis and the design of industrial energy systems is presented. As a basis, a software framework was designed supplying a domain specific object model allowing the description of energy systems as well as the energy auditing projects performed with the software. Moreover, a set of graphical and textual editors needed to model the examined systems is part of the framework. On the other hand, the professional methods for analysis, assessment and optimization of energy systems are implemented in modules integrated into the system via a plug-in interface. The object model whose definition was based on a meta model approach allows the description of network like structures typical to energy systems. In order to keep track of the different work steps performed during an analysis project, these steps are reflected in the object model as ''method applications'' using a tree as the basic structure of a project. In order to allow the compatibility of information a set of conventions for the evaluation of energy flows and system balances was introduced. Moreover, all data elements used in modules or model components are derived from a central database guaranteeing a consistent usage of terms, descriptions, validity ranges and data types. The single professional modules like simulators or optimization methods access the object model via an appropriate software interface. Moreover, they make use of the framework's user interface engine by delivering a generic description of dialog screens and result reports. As all modules share the same set of objects modelling the components of the energy system surveyed, the flow of information from module to module can be designed virtually seamless. Compared to a number of stand-alone solutions, this integrated design approach has the advantage that by combining a set of specialized methods an overall solution for complex

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) power system development (PDS) II. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    This report documents the results and conclusions of the PDS II, Phase I, preliminary design of a 10 MWe OTEC power system, using enhanced plate type heat exchangers, and of representative 0.2 MWe test articles. It further provides the documentation (specifications, drawings, trade studies, etc.) resulting from the design activities. The data and discussions of the technical concepts are organized to respond to the PDS II, Phase II proposal evaluation criteria. This volume, which specifically addresses the three evaluation categories (heat exchangers, rotating machinery, and power system configuration and performance) is an integral part of the Phase II plans (proposal) which describe the technical approach to delivering test articles to OTEC-1. In addition, there is a section which addresses power system cost and net energy analysis and another which discusses the results of stainless steel feasibility studies. Supporting documentation is contained in two appendix volumes.

  16. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Arthur, Rob [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Heath, Richard [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Rono, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  17. A New Approach to Design Autonomous Wireless Sensor Node Based on RF Energy Harvesting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouapi, Alex; Hakem, Nadir

    2018-01-05

    Energy Harvesting techniques are increasingly seen as the solution for freeing the wireless sensor nodes from their battery dependency. However, it remains evident that network performance features, such as network size, packet length, and duty cycle, are influenced by the sum of recovered energy. This paper proposes a new approach to defining the specifications of a stand-alone wireless node based on a Radio-frequency Energy Harvesting System (REHS). To achieve adequate performance regarding the range of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), techniques for minimizing the energy consumed by the sensor node are combined with methods for optimizing the performance of the REHS. For more rigor in the design of the autonomous node, a comprehensive energy model of the node in a wireless network is established. For an equitable distribution of network charges between the different nodes that compose it, the Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) protocol is used for this purpose. The model considers five energy-consumption sources, most of which are ignored in recently used models. By using the hardware parameters of commercial off-the-shelf components (Mica2 Motes and CC2520 of Texas Instruments), the energy requirement of a sensor node is quantified. A miniature REHS based on a judicious choice of rectifying diodes is then designed and developed to achieve optimal performance in the Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band centralized at 2.45 GHz . Due to the mismatch between the REHS and the antenna, a band pass filter is designed to reduce reflection losses. A gradient method search is used to optimize the output characteristics of the adapted REHS. At 1 mW of input RF power, the REHS provides an output DC power of 0.57 mW and a comparison with the energy requirement of the node allows the Base Station (BS) to be located at 310 m from the wireless nodes when the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has 100 nodes evenly spread over an area of 300 × 300 m 2 and

  18. A New Approach to Design Autonomous Wireless Sensor Node Based on RF Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mouapi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy Harvesting techniques are increasingly seen as the solution for freeing the wireless sensor nodes from their battery dependency. However, it remains evident that network performance features, such as network size, packet length, and duty cycle, are influenced by the sum of recovered energy. This paper proposes a new approach to defining the specifications of a stand-alone wireless node based on a Radio-frequency Energy Harvesting System (REHS. To achieve adequate performance regarding the range of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, techniques for minimizing the energy consumed by the sensor node are combined with methods for optimizing the performance of the REHS. For more rigor in the design of the autonomous node, a comprehensive energy model of the node in a wireless network is established. For an equitable distribution of network charges between the different nodes that compose it, the Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol is used for this purpose. The model considers five energy-consumption sources, most of which are ignored in recently used models. By using the hardware parameters of commercial off-the-shelf components (Mica2 Motes and CC2520 of Texas Instruments, the energy requirement of a sensor node is quantified. A miniature REHS based on a judicious choice of rectifying diodes is then designed and developed to achieve optimal performance in the Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM band centralized at 2.45 GHz . Due to the mismatch between the REHS and the antenna, a band pass filter is designed to reduce reflection losses. A gradient method search is used to optimize the output characteristics of the adapted REHS. At 1 mW of input RF power, the REHS provides an output DC power of 0.57 mW and a comparison with the energy requirement of the node allows the Base Station (BS to be located at 310 m from the wireless nodes when the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has 100 nodes evenly spread over an area of 300

  19. A synthesis/design optimization algorithm for Rankine cycle based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The algorithm presented in this work has been developed to search for the optimal topology and design parameters of a set of Rankine cycles forming an energy system that absorbs/releases heat at different temperature levels and converts part of the absorbed heat into electricity. This algorithm can deal with several applications in the field of energy engineering: e.g., steam cycles or bottoming cycles in combined/cogenerative plants, steam networks, low temperature organic Rankine cycles. The main purpose of this algorithm is to overcome the limitations of the search space introduced by the traditional mixed-integer programming techniques, which assume that possible solutions are derived from a single superstructure embedding them all. The algorithm presented in this work is a hybrid evolutionary/traditional optimization algorithm organized in two levels. A complex original codification of the topology and the intensive design parameters of the system is managed by the upper level evolutionary algorithm according to the criteria set by the HEATSEP method, which are used for the first time to automatically synthesize a “basic” system configuration from a set of elementary thermodynamic cycles. The lower SQP (sequential quadratic programming) algorithm optimizes the objective function(s) with respect to cycle mass flow rates only, taking into account the heat transfer feasibility constraint within the undefined heat transfer section. A challenging example of application is also presented to show the capabilities of the algorithm. - Highlights: • Energy systems based on Rankine cycles are used in many applications. • A hybrid algorithm is proposed to optimize the synthesis/design of such systems. • The topology of the candidate solutions is not limited by a superstructure. • Topology is managed by the genetic operators of the upper level algorithm. • The effectiveness of the algorithm is proved in a complex test case

  20. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  1. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  2. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  3. Strategy Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Smoothing Wind Power Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing contribution of wind power plants, the reliability and security of modern power systems have become a huge challenge due to the uncertainty and intermittency of wind energy sources. In this paper, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS consisting of battery and supercapacitor is built to smooth the power fluctuations of wind power. A power allocation strategy is proposed to give full play to the respective advantages of the two energy storage components. In the proposed strategy, the low-frequency and high-frequency components of wind power fluctuations are absorbed by battery groups and supercapacitor groups, respectively. By inhibiting the low-frequency components of supercapacitor current, the times of charging-discharging of battery groups can be significantly reduced. A DC/AC converter is applied to achieve the power exchange between the HESS and the grid. Adjustment rules for regulating state-of-charge (SOC of energy storage elements are designed to avoid overcharge and deep discharge considering the safety and the high efficiency of the energy storage elements. Experimental results on the test platform verify the effectiveness of the proposed power allocation strategy in DC/AC converter and battery SOC adjustment rules for regulating SOC levels.

  4. Investigation of geometric design in piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems diaphragms for ultrasonic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiongfeng; Wang, Tao; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic energy transfer (AET) has been widely used for contactless energy delivery to implantable devices. However, most of the energy harvesters (ultrasonic receivers) for AET are macro-scale transducers with large volume and limited operation bandwidth. Here, we propose and investigate two microelectromechanical systems diaphragm based piezoelectric ultrasonic energy harvesters (PUEHs) as an alternative for AET. The proposed PUEHs consist of micro-scale diaphragm array with different geometric parameter design. Diaphragms in PUEH-1 have large length to width ratio to achieve broadband property, while its energy harvesting performance is compromised. Diaphragms in PUEH-2 have smaller length to width ratio and thinner thickness to achieve both broadband property and good energy harvesting performance. Both PUEHs have miniaturized size and wide operation bandwidth that are ideally suitable to be integrated as power source for implantable biomedical devices. PUEH-1 has a merged -6 dB bandwidth of 74.5% with a central frequency of 350 kHz. PUEH-2 has two separate -6 dB bandwidth of 73.7%/30.8% with central frequencies of 285 kHz/650 kHz. They can adapt to various ultrasonic sources with different working frequency spectrum. Maximum output power is 34.3 nW and 84.3 nW for PUEH-1 and PUEH-2 at 1 mW/cm2 ultrasound intensity input, respectively. The associated power density is 0.734 μW/cm2 and 4.1 μW/cm2, respectively. Better energy harvesting performance is achieved for PUEH-2 because of the optimized length to width ratio and thickness design. Both PUEHs offer more alignment flexibility with more than 40% power when they are in the range of the ultrasound transmitter.

  5. Energy efficient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Solar Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building Design and Town Planning (RER/87/006) is a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project of the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, France, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Turkey, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. The project began in 1988 and comes to a conclusion at the end of 1991. It is to enhance the professional skills of practicing architects, engineers and town planners in European countries to design energy efficient buildings which reduce energy consumption and make greater use of passive solar heating and natural cooling techniques. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is the Executing Agency of the project which is implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Energy, General Energy Programme of Work for 1990-1994, sub-programme 5 Energy Conservation and Efficiency (ECE/ENERGY/15). The project has five main outputs or results: an international network of institutions for low energy building design; a state-of-the-art survey of energy use in the built environment of European IPF countries; a simple computer program for energy efficient building design; a design guide and computer program operators' manual; and a series of international training courses in participating European IPF countries. Energy Efficient Design is the fourth output of the project. It comprises the design guide for practicing architects and engineers, for use mainly in mid-career training courses, and the operators' manual for the project's computer program

  6. Integrated Community Energy Systems: engineering analysis and design bibliography. [368 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.; Sapienza, G.R.

    1979-05-01

    This bibliography cites 368 documents that may be helpful in the planning, analysis, and design of Integrated Community Energy Systems. It has been prepared for use primarily by engineers and others involved in the development and implementation of ICES concepts. These documents include products of a number of Government research, development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected studies and references from the literature of various technical societies and institutions; and other selected material. The key programs which have produced cited reports are the Department of Energy Community Systems Program (DOE/CSP), the Department of Housing and Urban Development Modular Integrated Utility Systems Program (HUD/MIUS), and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Integrated Utility Systems Program (HEW/IUS). The cited documents address experience gained both in the U.S. and in other countries. Several general engineering references and bibliographies pertaining to technologies or analytical methods that may be helpful in the analysis and design of ICES are also included. The body of relevant literature is rapidly growing and future updates are therefore planned. Each citation includes identifying information, a source, descriptive information, and an abstract. The citations are indexed both by subjects and authors, and the subject index is extensively cross-referenced to simplify its use.

  7. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I.

    1979-09-01

    A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility diurnal load-leveling but can also function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. This study explores several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. This report examines aspects of the coil, the superconductor supported off of the dewar shell, the dewar shell, and its configuration and stresses, the underground excavation and construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar, the helium refrigeration system, the electrical converter system, the vacuum system, the guard coil, and the costs. This report is divided into two major portions. The first is a general treatment of the work and the second is seven detailed technical appendices issued as separate reports. The information presented on the aluminum stabilizer for the conductor, on the excavation, and on the converter is based upon industrial studies contracted for this work

  8. Optimal hybrid renewable energy design in autonomous system using Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis and Homer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahboune, Hassan; Zouggar, Smail; Krajacic, Goran; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Elhafyani, Mohammed; Ziani, Elmostafa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New approach to integrate the Pinch Analysis illustrated. • Total annual cost and loss of power supply probability are the objective functions. • The new Hybrid Cascade Table to determine the optimal system design. • The performances of the new method are compared with Homer Pro. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for designing hybrid electricity generation systems is presented. It is based on the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis method. The Power Pinch analysis is used as a guideline for development of an isolated power supply system, which consists of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and energy storage units. The design procedure uses a simulation model, developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and applies the developed algorithms for obtaining an optimal design. A validation of the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis method is performed by comparing the obtained results with those from the Homer Pro software. The procedure takes as inputs hourly wind speed, solar radiation, demands, as well as cost data, for the generation and storage facilities. It is also applied to minimize the loss of power supply probability and to minimize the number of storage units. The algorithm has been demonstrated with a case study on a site in Oujda city, with daily electrical energy demand of 18.7 kWh, resulting in a combination of photovoltaic panels, wind turbine and batteries at minimal cost. The results from the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis and HOMER Pro show that both tools successfully identified the optimal solution with difference of 0.04% in produced energy, 5.4% in potential excess of electricity and 0.07% in the cost of the energy.

  9. The Design of Operational Amplifier for Low Voltage and Low Current Sound Energy Harvesting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liew Hui; Rahim, Rosemizi Bin Abd; Isa, Muzamir; Idris Syed Hassan, Syed; Ismail, Baharuddin Bin

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a combination of an operational amplifier (op-amp) with a rectifier used in an alternate current (ac) to direct current (dc) power conversion. The op-amp was designed to specifically work at low voltage and low current for a sound energy harvesting system. The goal of the op-amp design with adjustable gain was to control output voltage based on the objectives of the experiment conducted. The op-amp was designed for minimum power dissipation performance, with the means of increasing the output current when receiving a large amount of load. The harvesting circuits which designed further improved the power output efficiency by shortening the fully charged time needed by a supercapacitor bank. It can fulfil the long-time power demands for low power device. Typically, a small amount of energy sources were converted to electricity and stored in the supercapacitor bank, which was built by 10 pieces of capacitors with 0.22 F each, arranged in parallel connection. The highest capacitance was chosen based on the characteristic that have the longest discharging time to support the applications of a supercapacitor bank. Testing results show that the op-amp can boost the low input ac voltage (∼3.89 V) to high output dc voltage (5.0 V) with output current of 30 mA and stored the electrical energy in a big supercapacitor bank having a total of 2.2 F, effectively. The measured results agree well with the calculated results.

  10. Carbon exergy tax (CET): its impact on conventional energy system design and its contribution to advanced systems utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, A.F.; Santarelli, M.; Borchiellini, R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed analytical procedure for a charge on CO 2 emissions is used to determine its impact on the design process of different conventional energy systems. The charge on CO 2 emissions is defined as a Carbon Exergy Tax (CET). The CET utilises the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system coupled with the Index of CO 2 Emissions, which connects the amount of the CO 2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The aim is to reward the efficient use of energy resources, both from a resource and environmental standpoint, and to penalise plants inefficient in this respect. The CET and the conventional Carbon Tax (CT, based on energy policy considerations and imposed on the mass of emitted CO 2 ) are applied to different conventional energy systems (a gas turbine simple cycle; a regenerative cogeneration gas turbine; a three pressure levels combined cycle) in order to determine their impact on the design of the plants. The effects of the CET and CT are investigated for different scenarios (pressure ratio, fuel cost, etc.). The results are presented using useful representations: the cost of electricity vs. efficiency, the cost of electricity vs. specific work, and the cost of electricity vs. plant design parameters (e.g., pressure ratio). Finally, ways that the use of the CET can contribute to the widespread utilization of advanced energy systems, which are more efficient and less polluting, is discussed. In particular, the CET and CT influence is presented and discussed for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine combined cycle

  11. Line filter design of parallel interleaved VSCs for high power wind energy conversion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    The Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel in a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) to match the high power rating of the modern wind turbines. The effect of the interleaved carriers on the harmonic performance of the parallel connected VSCs is analyzed in this paper...... limit. In order to achieve the desired filter performance with optimal values of the filter parameters, the use of a LC trap branch with the conventional LCL filter is proposed. The expressions for the resonant frequencies of the proposed line filter are derived and used in the design to selectively...

  12. Energy-Based Design Criterion of Dissipative Bracing Systems for the Seismic Retrofit of Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Terenzi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct sizing criteria represent useful tools in the design of dissipative bracing systems for the advanced seismic protection of existing frame structures, especially when incorporated dampers feature a markedly non-linear behaviour. An energy-based procedure is proposed herein to this aim, focusing attention on systems including fluid viscous devices. The procedure starts by assuming prefixed reduction factors of the most critical response parameters in current conditions, which are evaluated by means of a conventional elastic finite element analysis. Simple formulas relating the reduction factors to the equivalent viscous damping ratio of the dampers, ξeq, are proposed. These formulas allow calculating the ξeq values that guarantee the achievement of the target factors. Finally, the energy dissipation capacity of the devices is deduced from ξeq, finalizing their sizing process. A detailed description of the procedure is presented in the article, by distinguishing the cases where the prevailing structural deficiencies are represented by poor strength of the constituting members, from the cases having excessive horizontal displacements. A demonstrative application to the retrofit design of a reinforced concrete gym building is then offered to explicate the steps of the sizing criterion in practice, as well as to evaluate the enhancement of the seismic response capacities generated by the installation of the dissipative system.

  13. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Cuprak

    2011-08-31

    West Chester University is launching a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution is in the process of designing and implementing this project to build well fields, a pumping station and install connecting piping to provide the geothermal heat/cooling source for campus buildings. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply. For this grant, WCU will extend piping for its geo-exchange system. The work involves excavation of a trench approximately 8 feet wide and 10-12 feet deep located about 30 feet north of the curb along the north side of West Rosedale for a distance of approximately 1,300 feet. The trench will then turn north for the remaining distance (60 feet) to connect into the mechanical room in the basement of the Francis Harvey Green Library. This project will include crossing South Church Street near its intersection with West Rosedale, which will involve coordination with the Borough of West Chester. After installation of the piping, the trench will be backfilled and the surface restored to grass as it is now. Because the trench will run along a heavily-used portion of the campus, it will be accomplished in sections to minimize disruption to the campus as much as possible.

  14. Multi-objective optimization and simulation model for the design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falke, Tobias; Krengel, Stefan; Meinerzhagen, Ann-Kathrin; Schnettler, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a model for the optimal design of district energy systems. • Multi-objective approach: integrated economic and ecological optimization. • Consideration of conventional conversion technologies, RES and district heating. • Decomposition of optimization problem to reduce computation complexity. • Approach enables the investigation of districts with more than 150 buildings. - Abstract: In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model for the investment planning and operation management of distributed heat and electricity supply systems is presented. Different energy efficiency measures and supply options are taken into account, including various distributed heat and power generation units, storage systems and energy-saving renovation measures. Furthermore, district heating networks are considered as an alternative to conventional, individual heat supply for each building. The optimization problem is decomposed into three subproblems to reduce the computational complexity. This enables a high level of detail in the optimization and simultaneously the comprehensive investigation of districts with more than 100 buildings. These capabilities distinguish the model from previous approaches in this field of research. The developed model is applied to a district in a medium-sized town in Germany in order to analyze the effects of different efficiency measures regarding total costs and emissions of CO 2 equivalents. Based on the Pareto efficient solutions, technologies and efficiency measures that can contribute most efficiently to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are identified.

  15. Design of a novel geothermal heating and cooling system: Energy and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, G.; Diglio, G.; Sasso, M.; Calise, F.; Dentice d’Accadia, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A desiccant-based air handling unit is coupled with a geothermal source. • A TRNSYS model is developed to simulate both winter and summer period. • Sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the effects of the design parameters. • Pay back period about 1.2 years and Primary Energy Savings higher than 90% were founded. • Economic and energetic performance increase with to the use of Domestic Hot Water. - Abstract: A dynamic simulation study in TRNSYS environment has been carried out to evaluate energy and economic performance of a novel heating and cooling system based on the coupling between a low or medium-enthalpy geothermal source and an Air Handling Unit, including a Desiccant Wheel. During summer season, a Downhole Heat Exchanger supplies heat to regenerate the desiccant material, while a certain amount of geothermal fluid is continuously extracted by the well in order to maintain high operating temperatures. Simultaneously, the extracted geothermal fluid drives an absorption chiller, producing chilled water to the cooling coil of the Air Handling Unit. Conversely, during the winter season, geothermal energy is used to cover a certain amount of the space heating demand. In both summer and winter operation modes, a geothermal energy is also used to supply Domestic Hot Water. A case study was analyzed, in which an existing low-enthalpy geothermal well (96 °C), located in Ischia (an island close to Naples, Southern Italy), is used to drive the geothermal system. Results showed that the performance of the proposed system is significantly affected by the utilization factor of Domestic Hot Water. In fact, considering a range of variation of such parameter between 5% and 100%, Primary Energy Saving increase from 77% to 95% and Pay-Back Period decreases from 14 years to 1.2 years, respectively. The simulations proved the technical and economic viability of the proposed system. In fact, a comparison with similar systems available

  16. New design solutions for low-power energy production in water pipe systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of ongoing research for a European Union 7th Framework Program Project regarding energy converters for very low heads, and aims to analyze optimization of new cost-effective hydraulic turbine designs for possible implementation in water supply systems (WSSs or in other pressurized water pipe infrastructures, such as irrigation, wastewater, or drainage systems. A new methodology is presented based on a theoretical, technical and economic analysis. Viability studies focused on small power values for different pipe systems were investigated. Detailed analyses of alternative typical volumetric energy converters were conducted on the basis of mathematical and physical fundamentals as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD associated with the interaction between the flow conditions and the system operation. Important constraints (e.g., size, stability, efficiency, and continuous steady flow conditions can be identified and a search for alternative rotary volumetric converters is being conducted. As promising cost-effective solutions for the coming years, adapted rotor-dynamic turbomachines and non-conventional axial propeller devices were analyzed based on the basic principles of pumps operating as turbines, as well as through an extensive comparison between simulations and experimental tests.

  17. Design and Concept of an Energy System Based on Renewable Sources for Greenhouse Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Aschilean

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-organic greenhouses that are based on alternative resources for producing heat and electricity stand out as an efficient option for the sustainable development of agriculture, thus ensuring good growth and development of plants in all seasons, especially during the cold season. Greenhouses can be used with maximum efficiency in various agricultural lands, providing ideal conditions of temperature and humidity for short-term plant growing, thereby increasing the local production of fruit and vegetables. This paper presents the development of a durable greenhouse concept that is based on complex energy system integrating fuel cells and solar panels. Approaching this innovative concept encountered a major problem in terms of local implementation of this type of greenhouses because of the difficulty in providing electrical and thermal energy from conventional sources to ensure an optimal climate for plant growing. The project result consists in the design and implementation of a sustainable greenhouse energy system that is based on fuel cells and solar panels.

  18. Towards Design of Sustainable Energy Systems in Developing Countries: Centralized and Localized Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursun, Berrin

    Energy use in developing countries is projected to equal and exceed the demand in developed countries in the next five years. Growing concern about environmental problems, depletion and price fluctuation of fossil fuels pushes the efforts for meeting energy demand in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Hence, it is essential to design energy systems consisting of centralized and localized options that generate the optimum energy mix to meet this increasing energy demand in a sustainable manner. In this study, we try to answer the question, "How can the energy demand in Rampura village be met sustainably?" via two centralized clean coal (CCC) technology and three localized energy technology options analyzed. We perform the analysis of these energy technologies through joint use of donor-side analysis technique emergy analysis (EA) and user-side analysis technique life cycle assessment (LCA). Sustainability of such an energy combination depends on its reliance on renewable inputs rather than nonrenewable or purchased inputs. CCC technologies are unsustainable energy systems dependent on purchased external inputs almost 100%. However, increased efficiency and significantly lower environmental impacts of CCC technologies can lead to more environmentally benign utilization of coal as an energy source. CCC technologies supply electricity at a lower price compared to the localized energy options investigated. Localized energy options analyzed include multi-crystalline solar PV, floating drum biogas digester and downdraft biomass gasifier. Solar PV has the lowest water and land use, however, solar electricity has the highest price with a high global warming potential (GWP). Contrary to general opinion, solar electricity is highly non-renewable. Although solar energy is a 100% renewable natural resource, materials utilized in the production of solar panels are mostly non-renewable purchased inputs causing the low renewability of solar electricity. Best

  19. Preliminary physical design of 7 MeV proton RFQ for the accelerator driven-energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zihua

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary physical design of 7 MeV proton RFQ for the ADS (Accelerator Driven-energy System) is briefly described. The design features and the basic parameters and the design version of the RFQ are discussed. The matches between IS and RFQ and between RFQ and CCDTL/DTL are also discussed. The ideas of research for the RFQ are presented

  20. Conceptual design of primary coolant purification system using cylindrical membrane for nuclear energy system base on HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping Supriatna

    2011-01-01

    The recent progress of reactor technology design for next generation reactor will be implemented on cogeneration reactor, which the aim of reactor operation not only for generating electrical energy, but also for other application like desalination, industrial manufacturing process, hydrogen production, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), etc. The cogeneration reactor concept developed for generate energy effectively, efficiently and sustainable, which reserve of uranium and thorium nuclear fuel for cogeneration reactor is supply able for world energy demand until next thousand years. The cogeneration reactor produce temperature output higher than commonly Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), and need special Heat Exchanger with helium gas as coolant. In order to preserve heat transfer with high efficiency, constant purity of the gas must be maintained as well as possible, especially contamination from its impurities. In this research has been designed modeling and assessment of primary coolant gas purification system with purify and fill up helium gas continuously, by using Cylindrical Helium Splitting Membrane and helium gas inventory system. The result of flow rate helium assessment for the purification system is 0.844x10 -3 kg/sec, where helium flow rate of reactor primary coolant is 120 kg/sec. The result of study show that the Primary Coolant Gas Purification System is enable to be implemented on Cogeneration Reactor HTGR200C. (author)

  1. Design of the CART data system for the US Department of Energy's ARM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.B.; Campbell, A.P.; Edwards, D.M.; Kanciruk, P.; Tichler, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a major atmospheric research effort to reduce the uncertainties found in general circulation and other models due to the effects of clouds and radiation. The objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and testing parameterizations of the processes for use in atmospheric models. This experimental testbed, known as the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART), will include a complex data system, the CART Data Environment (CDE). The major functions of the CDE will be to: acquire environments from instruments and external data sources; perform quality assessments of the data streams; create data streams of known quality to be used as model input compared to model output; execute the models and capture their predictions; and make data streams associated with model tests available to ARM investigators in near real-time. The CDE will also be expected to capture ancillary information (''meta-data'') associated with the data streams, provide data management facilities for design of ARM experiments, and provide for archival data storage. The first section of this paper presents background information on CART. Next the process for the functional design of the system is described, the functional requirements summarized, and the conceptual architecture of the CDE is presented. Finally, the status of the CDE design activities is summarized, and major technical challenges are discussed

  2. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.

    2018-01-01

    Vortex induced vibration based energy harvesting systems have gained interests in these recent years due to its potential as a low water current energy source. However, the effectiveness of the system is limited only at a certain water current due to the resonance principle that governs the concept. In order to extend the working range, a bistable spring to support the structure is introduced on the system. The improvement on the performance is essentially dependent on the bistable gap as one of the main parameters of the nonlinear spring. A sufficiently large bistable gap will result in a significant performance improvement. Unfortunately, a large bistable gap might also increase a chance of chaotic responses, which in turn will result in diminutive harvested power. To mitigate the problem, an appropriate control structure is required to stabilize the chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter with the bistable supporting structure. Based on the nature of the double-well potential energy in a bistable spring, the ideal control structure will attempt to drive the responses to inter-well periodic vibrations in order to maximize the harvested power. In this paper, the OGY control algorithm is designed and implemented to the system. The control strategy is selected since it requires only a small perturbation in a structural parameter to execute the control effort, thus, minimum power is needed to drive the control input. Facilitated by a wake oscillator model, the bistable VIV system is modelled as a 4-dimensional autonomous continuous-time dynamical system. To implement the controller strategy, the system is discretized at a period estimated from the subspace hyperplane intersecting to the chaotic trajectory, whereas the fixed points that correspond to the desired periodic orbits are estimated by the recurrence method. Simultaneously, the Jacobian and sensitivity matrices are estimated by the least square regression method. Based on the defined fixed point and the

  3. Special Issue on Advances in Integrated Energy Systems Design, Control and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    and novel operation schemes, and new incentives and business models. This revolution is affecting the current paradigm and demanding that energy systems be integrated into multi-carrier energy hubs [1]. It is greatly increasing the interactions between today’s energy systems at various scales (ranging from...... energy costs to all consumers, increase reliability of service and mitigate carbon footprints. However, this plan of action necessitates regulatory frameworks, strategic incentives and business models for efficient deployment....

  4. Electrochemical conversion technologies for optimal design of decentralized multi-energy systems : Modeling framework and technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    The design and operation of integrated multi-energy systems require models that adequately describe the behavior of conversion and storage technologies. Typically, linear conversion performance or fixed data from technology manufacturers are employed, especially for new or advanced technologies.

  5. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However

  6. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System reference design. Appendix G. Design study. Thyristor converter stations for use with superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, C.B.; Pohl, R.V.; Trojan, H.T.

    1979-09-01

    The cost for the power conversion equipment for four different SMES systems were developed. These were 1- and 5-GWh units for 4- and 8-h charge periods. Only constant power operation of the converter was considered with 10% of the maximum energy remaining in the magnet at the end of the discharge cycle. The cost increases almost linearly with the maximum coil current between 30 kA and 150 kA, and the cost for a 4-h charge system is about 20% lower than for an 8-h charge system. The converter terminal cost is estimated to be $40/kW of installed power for a 1-GWh 4-h charge system at 30 kA maximum current and $60/kW of installed power for a 5-GWh 4-h charge system at 50 kA maximum current

  7. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  8. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  9. Interdisciplinary design study of a high-rise integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s market in micro-wind turbines is in constant development introducing more efficient solutions for the future. Besides the private use of tower supported turbines, opportunities to integrate wind turbines in the built environment arise. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System (IRWES presented in this work is a modular roof structure integrated on top of existing or new buildings. IRWES is build up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels used for both wind inlet and outlet. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in the center-top of the roof unit for the generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The scope of this research aims to make an optimized structural design of IRWES to be placed on top of the Vertigo building in Eindhoven; analysis of the structural performance; and impact to the existing structure by means of Finite Element Modeling (FEM. Results show that the obvious impact of wind pressure to the structural design is easily supported in different configurations of fairly simple lightweight structures. In particular, the weight addition to existing buildings remains minimal.

  10. Real application of BIM in the engineering system design for energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelipenko, Alexey; Gogina, Elena

    2017-10-01

    In the article, the information modelling technology (BIM) that is gaining popularity in Russia and in the world, is considered. Its growing relevance relates to many factors: first, attention to this technology by the local and federal authorities; Secondly, with the desire to improve the quality of design documentation, to obtain the correct volumes of materials and equipment; Thirdly, with the tendency to create “smart” cities and, as a result, the rational use of energy resources. Within the framework of this article, on an example of an urban infrastructure object, the pros and cons of this technology were considered. As a facility, a local wastewater treatment plant was chosen. The stages of creating an information model on the available documentation are described: 4 main milestones that need to be implemented. In addition, further possible ways of using the model are described. Presented are the pros and cons of using this technology. Among the main advantages is the possibility of using this information model in the operation of treatment plants and further obtaining actual data for monitoring the condition of equipment and, therefore, controlling the consumable resources; At an early stage, a reduction in the number of mutual intersections of engineering systems; Obtaining the correct specifications. The results of the work described in the article can be used in the following areas: utilities, energy management, design and construction.

  11. Design and thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system based on A-CAES (adiabatic compressed air energy storage) and FESS (flywheel energy storage system) for wind power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping; Wang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generated from renewable wind sources is highly erratic due to the intermittent nature of wind. This uncertainty of wind power can lead to challenges regarding power system operation and dispatch. Energy storage system in conjunction with wind energy system can offset these effects, making the wind power controllable. Moreover, the power spectrum of wind power exhibits that the fluctuations of wind power include various components with different frequencies and amplitudes. Thus, the hybrid energy storage system is more suitable for smoothing out the wind power fluctuations effectively rather than the independent energy storage system. A hybrid energy storage system consisting of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) system and flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is proposed for wind energy application. The design of the proposed system is laid out firstly. The A-CAES system operates in variable cavern pressure, constant turbine inlet pressure mode, whereas the FESS is controlled by constant power strategy. Then, the off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. Meanwhile, a parametric analysis is also performed to investigate the effects of several parameters on the system performance, including the ambient conditions, inlet temperature of compressor, storage cavern temperature, maximum and minimum pressures of storage cavern. - Highlights: • A wind-hybrid energy storage system composed of A-CAES and FESS is proposed. • The design of the proposed hybrid energy storage system is laid out. • The off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine the system performance

  12. Genetic algorithm based optimization on modeling and design of hybrid renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.S.; Moghavvemi, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar data was analyzed in the location under consideration. • A program was developed to simulate operation of the PV hybrid system. • Genetic algorithm was used to optimize the sizes of the hybrid system components. • The costs of the pollutant emissions were considered in the optimization. • It is cost effective to power houses in remote areas with such hybrid systems. - Abstract: A sizing optimization of a hybrid system consisting of photovoltaic (PV) panels, a backup source (microturbine or diesel), and a battery system minimizes the cost of energy production (COE), and a complete design of this optimized system supplying a small community with power in the Palestinian Territories is presented in this paper. A scenario that depends on a standalone PV, and another one that depends on a backup source alone were analyzed in this study. The optimization was achieved via the usage of genetic algorithm. The objective function minimizes the COE while covering the load demand with a specified value for the loss of load probability (LLP). The global warming emissions costs have been taken into account in this optimization analysis. Solar radiation data is firstly analyzed, and the tilt angle of the PV panels is then optimized. It was discovered that powering a small rural community using this hybrid system is cost-effective and extremely beneficial when compared to extending the utility grid to supply these remote areas, or just using conventional sources for this purpose. This hybrid system decreases both operating costs and the emission of pollutants. The hybrid system that realized these optimization purposes is the one constructed from a combination of these sources

  13. Optimal Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient D2D Sharing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2016-11-23

    In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design, which optimizes the energy efficiency of a potential future 5G spectrum-sharing environment, in two sharing scenarios. In the first scenario, underlying sharing is considered. We propose and minimize a modified energy per good bit (MEPG) metric, with respect to the spectrum sharing user’s transmission power and media access frame length. The cellular users, legacy users, are protected by an outage probability constraint. To optimize the non-convex targeted problem, we utilize the generalized convexity theory and verify the problem’s strictly pseudoconvex structure. We also derive analytical expressions of the optimal resources. In the second scenario, we minimize a generalized MEPG function while considering a probabilistic activity of cellular users and its impact on the MEPG performance of the spectrum sharing users. Finally, we derive the associated optimal resource allocation of this problem. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared with other systems.

  14. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  15. Adaptive Control Design for Autonomous Operation of Multiple Energy Storage Systems in Power Smoothing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    -pass-filter (HPF) structure. It generates the power reference according to the fluctuating power and provides a stabilization effect. The power and energy supplied by ESS are majorly configured by the cut-off frequency and gain of the HPF. Considering the operational limits on ESS state-of-charge (SoC), this paper...... proposes an adaptive cut-off frequency design method to realize communication-less and autonomous operation of a system with multiple distributed ESS. The experimental results demonstrate that the SoCs of all ESS units are kept within safe margins, while the SoC level and power of the paralleled units...... converge to the final state, providing a natural plug-and-play function....

  16. Mathematical programming models for the economic design and assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, K. A.

    The use of linear decision rules (LDR) and chance constrained programming (CCP) to optimize the performance of wind energy conversion clusters coupled to storage systems is described. Storage is modelled by LDR and output by CCP. The linear allocation rule and linear release rule prescribe the size and optimize a storage facility with a bypass. Chance constraints are introduced to explicitly treat reliability in terms of an appropriate value from an inverse cumulative distribution function. Details of deterministic programming structure and a sample problem involving a 500 kW and a 1.5 MW WECS are provided, considering an installed cost of $1/kW. Four demand patterns and three levels of reliability are analyzed for optimizing the generator choice and the storage configuration for base load and peak operating conditions. Deficiencies in ability to predict reliability and to account for serial correlations are noted in the model, which is concluded useful for narrowing WECS design options.

  17. Droop Control Design of Multi-VSC Systems for Offshore Networks to Integrate Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research envisages the droop control design of multi voltage source converter systems for offshore networks to integrate wind power plant with the grids. An offshore AC network is formulated by connecting several nearby wind power plants together with AC cables. The net energy in the network is transferred to onshore using voltage source high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC transmissionsystems. In the proposed configuration, an offshore network is energized by more than one VSC-HVDC system, hereby providing redundancy to continue operation in case of failure in one of the HVDC transmission lines. The power distribution between VSC-HVDC systems is done using a droop control scheme. Frequency droop is implemented to share active power, and voltage droop is implemented to share reactive power. Furthermore, a method of calculating droop gains according to the contribution factor of each converter is presented. The system has been analyzed to evaluate the voltage profile of the network affected by the droop control. Nonlinear dynamic simulation has been performed for the verification of the control principle.

  18. Dyadic design interface between energy and agriculture: the case of Pinthali micro hydro system in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regmi, A.

    2003-01-01

    Technology, like society, is heterogeneous. It mirrors the context in which it operates. Micro hydro development in Nepal is a rural energy strategy, which relies on technology and innovation and takes place in a specific social context. In designing this energy strategy, both technology and its

  19. Design and Implementation of Wireless Energy Meter System for Monitoring the Single Phase Supply

    OpenAIRE

    U. V, Prashanth B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless energy meter is a system developed to serve as a basic single-phase energy meter with advanced functionalities such as Peak hour setting, Peak load setting Wireless reading transmission; further the system eliminates the role of a Meter Reader.

  20. A system design for distributed energy generation in low temperature district heating (LTDH) networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sean; Gillott, Mark C.; Boukhanouf, Rabah; Walker, Gavin S.; Tunzi, Michele; Tetlow, David; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto; Sumner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Project SCENIC (Smart Controlled Energy Networks Integrated in Communities) involves connecting properties at the University of Nottingham’s Creative Energy Homes test site in a community scale, integrated heat and power network. Controls will be developed to allow for the most effective heat load allocation and power distribution scenarios. Furthermore, the system will develop the prosumer concept, where consumers are both buyers and sellers of energy in both heat and power systems. \\ud \\ud ...

  1. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design: pyrolysis and waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-08

    The University of Minnesota is studying and planning a grid-connected integrated community energy system to include disposal of wastes from health centers and utilizing the heat generated. Following initial definition of the 7-county metropolitan region for which the solid waste management system is to be planned, information is then necessary about the nature of the waste generated within this region. Estimates of the quantities generated, generation rates, and properties of the waste to be collected and disposed of are required in order to determine the appropriate size and capacity of the system. These estimates are designated and subsequently referred to as ''system input''. Institutional information is also necessary in designing the planned system, to be compatible with existing institutional operations and procedures, or to offer a minimum amount of problems to the participating institution in the region. Initial considerations of health care institutions generating solid waste within the defined region are made on a comprehensive basis without any attempt to select out or include feasible candidate institutions, or institutional categories. As the study progresses, various criteria are used in selecting potential candidate institutional categories and institutions within the 7-county region as offering the most feasible solid waste system input to be successfully developed into a centralized program; however, it is hoped that such a system if developed could be maintained for the entire 7-county region, and remain comprehensive to the entire health care industry. (MCW)

  2. Design of full scale wave simulator for testing Power Take Off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H. C.; Hansen, R. H.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    is therefore on the design and commissioning of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The challenge is to be able to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system – especially when considering discrete type PTO...

  3. Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avital, E J; Salvatore, E [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Rd London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Munjiza, A [Civil Engineering, University of Split, Livanjska 2100 Split (Croatia); Suponitsky, V; Plant, D; Laberge, M, E-mail: e.avital@qmul.ac.uk [General Fusion Inc.,108-3680 Bonneville Place, Burnaby, BC V3N 4T5 (Canada)

    2017-08-15

    An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots. (paper)

  4. Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, E. J.; Salvatore, E.; Munjiza, A.; Suponitsky, V.; Plant, D.; Laberge, M.

    2017-08-01

    An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots.

  5. Hierarchical Control Design for Shipboard Power System with DC Distribution and Energy Storage aboard Future More-Electric Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    power system (SPS) with DC distribution and energy storage system (ESS) is picked as study case. To meet the requirement of control and management of such a large-scale mobile power system, a hierarchical control design is proposed in this paper. In order to fully exploit the benefit of ESS, as well...

  6. Effective user interface designs to increase energy-efficient behavior in a Rasch-based energy recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, A.D.; Willemsen, M.C.; Snijders, C.C.P.

    People often struggle to find appropriate energy-saving measures to take in the household. Although recommender studies show that tailoring a system's interaction method to the domain knowledge of the user can increase energy savings, they did not actually tailor the conservation advice itself. We

  7. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  8. "Solvent-in-salt" systems for design of new materials in chemistry, biology and energy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azov, Vladimir A; Egorova, Ksenia S; Seitkalieva, Marina M; Kashin, Alexey S; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2018-02-21

    Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents. Water molecules tend to form nano- and microstructures (droplets and channel networks) in ionic media impacting their heterogeneity. Such microscale domains can be employed as microreactors for chemical and enzymatic synthesis. In this review, we address known SIS systems and discuss their composition, structure, properties and dynamics. Special attention is paid to the current and potential applications of inorganic and organic SIS systems in energy research, chemistry and biochemistry. A separate section of this review is dedicated to experimental methods of SIS investigation, which is crucial for the development of this field.

  9. Optimum design of flywheel energy storage system using superconducting magnetic bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hun; Lee, Jeung Gun; Kim, Jong Soo [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Electricity demands changes by as much as 30% over a 12-hour period and results in significant costs for utilities as power output get adjusted to meet these changes. The purpose of High-Temperature Superconducting Flywheel Energy Storage System (HTS FES) is to store unused nighttime electricity until it is needed during the daytime. The HTS FES is designed by using flywheel shape function with uniform stress. Natural frequencies and natural modes are estimated by using Finite Element Analysis and correlated with the experimental results. By performing a vibration test, the stiffness and the damping ratio of the flux line, the flux pinning phenomenon are measured Using the modal parameters of each component and the measured stiffness, damping coefficient, the IDEAS System Dynamics Analysis is performed and frequency response function(FRF) of the joined system is obtained. The effect of tangential torque on flywheel has been studied using cantilever shaft with rotor at free end. To obtain the equation of motion, the Lagrange`s equation and the assumed-mode method are used. As a admissible function, a free vibration mode of clamped-free beam is used. The eigenvalues are computed and the stability boundaries are obtained. 19 refs., 33 figs. (author)

  10. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  11. Design of arc power supply for neutral beam injection system based on super capacitor energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Puqiong; Xuan Weimin; Cao Jianyong; Li Qing; Liu Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    The arc power supply is one of the most important equipment for neutral beam injection system. The stability of arc discharge and the quality of ion beam extraction were determined by its performance. For improving stability of the arc discharge, reducing the power network capacity and decreasing impulse on power network, the topology of the arc power supply applied the structure of DC/DC converter based on technology of super capacitor energy storage and switching power supply. Several IGBT power modules are operated in parallel, and it can improve the arc power supply's operating frequency and dynamic response. A filter circuit and a current fast transferring circuit were designed based on a detailed analysis on working process of the arc power sup- ply. According to the requirements and parameters of the arc power supply, and the current response of RL first order circuit, the minimum filter inductances were accurately calculated. Finally, using the model and Matlab, the performance of the arc power supply was simulated and verified, and it meets the design requirement. (authors)

  12. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix F. 1-GWh electrical system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.

    1979-09-01

    Two circuit configurations for reducing the installed converter power and cost of high-power converter systems that operate in a constant-power mode over a wide current and voltage range are suggested and analyzed

  13. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  14. Design methodology for flexible energy conversion systems accounting for dynamic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Casati, Emiliano; Casella, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodology to help in the definition of the optimal design of power generation systems. The innovative element is the integration of requirements on dynamic performance into the system design procedure. Operational flexibility is an increasingly important specification...

  15. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 3. Conceptual designs and market analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the feasibility of using solar energy to provide a significant fraction of the energy needs of commercial buildings that have energy demands greater than 200 kWe. The STES concept trade studies, sensitivity parameters, performance characteristics, and selected concepts are discussed. Market penetration rate estimates are provided, and technology advancements and utilization plans are discussed. Photovoltaic STES configurations and Rankine cycle thermal STES systems are considered. (WHK)

  16. On the use of simulation in the design of embedded energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, J.A.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Johnstone, C.M.; Macdonald, I.

    1999-01-01

    A reduction in the emissions arising from urban activities demands a combination of energy efficiency measures and a move away from fossil fuel sources. Progress may be enabled by the use of advanced materials and control systems and the adoption, where possible, of renewable energy conversion

  17. Hybrid Energy System Design of Micro Hydro-PV-biogas Based Micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishrina; Abdullah, A. G.; Risdiyanto, A.; Nandiyanto, ABD

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid renewable energy system is an arrangement of one or more sources of renewable energy and also conventional energy. This paper describes a simulation results of hybrid renewable power system based on the available potential in an educational institution in Indonesia. HOMER software was used to simulate and analyse both in terms of optimization and economic terms. This software was developed through 3 main principles; simulation, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. Generally, the presented results show that the software can demonstrate a feasible hybrid power system as well to be realized. The entire demand in case study area can be supplied by the system configuration and can be met by ¾ of electricity production. So, there are ¼ of generated energy became an excess electricity.

  18. Optimization of Domestic-Size Renewable Energy System Designs Suitable for Cold Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    Five different kinds of domestic-size renewable energy system configurations for very cold climate regions were investigated. From detailed numerical modeling and system simulations, it was found that the consumption of fuel oil for the auxiliary boiler in residential-type households can almost be eliminated with a renewable energy system that incorporates photovoltaic panel arrays for electricity generation and two storage tanks: a well-insulated electric water storage tank that services the hot water loads, and a compact boiler/geothermal heat pump tank for room heating during very cold seasons. A reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) of about 28% was achieved for this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. The near elimination of the use of fuel oil in this system makes it very promising for very cold climate regions in terms of energy savings because the running cost is not so dependent on the unstable nature of global oil prices.

  19. Designing an Energy Storage System Fuzzy PID Controller for Microgrid Islanded Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Yul Kim; Hak-Man Kim; Seul-Ki Kim; Jin-Hong Jeon; Heung-Kwan Choi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, interest in microgrids, which are composed of distributed generation (DG), distributed storage (DS), and loads, has been growing as a potentially effective clean energy system to mitigate against climate change. The microgrid is operated in the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode according to the conditions of the upstream power grid. The role of the energy storage system (ESS) is especially important to maintain constant the frequency and voltage of an islanded microgrid. For...

  20. Design and testing of a uniformly solar energy TIR-R concentration lenses for HCPV systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S C; Chang, S J; Yeh, C Y; Teng, P C

    2013-11-04

    In this paper, total internal reflection-refraction (TIR-R) concentration (U-TIR-R-C) lens module were designed for uniformity using the energy configuration method to eliminate hot spots on the surface of solar cell and increase conversion efficiency. The design of most current solar concentrators emphasizes the high-power concentration of solar energy, however neglects the conversion inefficiency resulting from hot spots generated by uneven distributions of solar energy concentrated on solar cells. The energy configuration method proposed in this study employs the concept of ray tracing to uniformly distribute solar energy to solar cells through a U-TIR-R-C lens module. The U-TIR-R-C lens module adopted in this study possessed a 76-mm diameter, a 41-mm thickness, concentration ratio of 1134 Suns, 82.6% optical efficiency, and 94.7% uniformity. The experiments demonstrated that the U-TIR-R-C lens module reduced the core temperature of the solar cell from 108 °C to 69 °C and the overall temperature difference from 45 °C to 10 °C, and effectively relative increased the conversion efficiency by approximately 3.8%. Therefore, the U-TIR-R-C lens module designed can effectively concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a small solar cell, and the concentrated solar energy can be evenly distributed in the solar cell to achieve uniform irradiance and effectively eliminate hot spots.

  1. Design and Experimental Evaluation on an Advanced Multisource Energy Harvesting System for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective multisource energy harvesting system is presented as power supply for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs. The advanced system contains not only an expandable power management module including control of the charging and discharging process of the lithium polymer battery but also an energy harvesting system using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT circuit with analog driving scheme for the collection of both solar and vibration energy sources. Since the MPPT and the power management module are utilized, the system is able to effectively achieve a low power consumption. Furthermore, a super capacitor is integrated in the system so that current fluctuations of the lithium polymer battery during the charging and discharging processes can be properly reduced. In addition, through a simple analog switch circuit with low power consumption, the proposed system can successfully switch the power supply path according to the ambient energy sources and load power automatically. A practical WSNs platform shows that efficiency of the energy harvesting system can reach about 75–85% through the 24-hour environmental test, which confirms that the proposed system can be used as a long-term continuous power supply for WSNs.

  2. Design of a hybrid power system based on solar cell and vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Li, Mingxue; Zhong, Shaoxuan; He, Zhichao; Zhang, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Power source has become a serious restriction of wireless sensor network. High efficiency, self-energized and long-life renewable source is the optimum solution for unmanned sensor network applications. However, single renewable power source can be easily affected by ambient environment, which influences stability of the system. In this work, a hybrid power system consists of a solar panel, a vibration energy harvester and a lithium battery is demonstrated. The system is able to harvest multiple types of ambient energy, which extends its applicability and feasibility. Experiments have been conducted to verify performance of the system.

  3. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the developed computer models, water system dynamic studies, miscellaneous performance analysis, materials and processes, detailed equipment lists, turbine design studies, tube cleaner design, ammonia leak detection, and heat exchanger design supporting data. (WHK)

  4. EDGaR D1 : Integrating local and regional energy systems for enhancing sustainability. Work Package 3: Designing Institutions for Future Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy into the Dutch energy infrastructure raises interrelated operational and market challenges. In their efforts to address them, engineers and economists approach the design of electricity infrastructures very differently, however. While economists focus on a market

  5. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  6. Onboard guidance system design for reusable launch vehicles in the terminal area energy management phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lingxia; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, Ping; Wang, Xinmin

    2018-02-01

    A terminal area energy management (TAEM) guidance system for an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is proposed in this paper. The mathematical model representing the RLV gliding motion is provided, followed by a transformation of extracting the required dynamics for reference profile generation. Reference longitudinal profiles are conceived based on the capability of maximum dive and maximum glide that a RLV can perform. The trajectory is obtained by iterating the motion equations at each node of altitude, where the angle of attack and the flight-path angle are regarded as regulating variables. An onboard ground-track predictor is constructed to generate the current range-to-go and lateral commands online. Although the longitudinal profile generation requires pre-processing using the RLV aerodynamics, the ground-track prediction can be executed online. This makes the guidance scheme adaptable to abnormal conditions. Finally, the guidance law is designed to track the reference commands. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed guidance scheme is capable of guiding the RLV to the desired touchdown conditions.

  7. Box-Behnken statistical design to optimize thermal performance of energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Iman Joz; Mohammadiun, Mohammad; Moqadam, Hamid Hashemi; Mohammadiun, Hamid

    2018-05-01

    Latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) is a technology that can help to reduce energy consumption for cooling applications, where the cold is stored in phase change materials (PCMs). In the present study a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is performed on a LHTES system containing RT25 as phase change material (PCM). Process optimization of the experimental conditions (inlet air temperature and velocity and number of slabs) was carried out by means of Box-Behnken design (BBD) of Response surface methodology (RSM). Two parameters (cooling time and COP value) were chosen to be the responses. Both of the responses were significantly influenced by combined effect of inlet air temperature with velocity and number of slabs. Simultaneous optimization was performed on the basis of the desirability function to determine the optimal conditions for the cooling time and COP value. Maximum cooling time (186 min) and COP value (6.04) were found at optimum process conditions i.e. inlet temperature of (32.5), air velocity of (1.98) and slab number of (7).

  8. Box-Behnken statistical design to optimize thermal performance of energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Iman Joz; Mohammadiun, Mohammad; Moqadam, Hamid Hashemi; Mohammadiun, Hamid

    2017-11-01

    Latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) is a technology that can help to reduce energy consumption for cooling applications, where the cold is stored in phase change materials (PCMs). In the present study a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is performed on a LHTES system containing RT25 as phase change material (PCM). Process optimization of the experimental conditions (inlet air temperature and velocity and number of slabs) was carried out by means of Box-Behnken design (BBD) of Response surface methodology (RSM). Two parameters (cooling time and COP value) were chosen to be the responses. Both of the responses were significantly influenced by combined effect of inlet air temperature with velocity and number of slabs. Simultaneous optimization was performed on the basis of the desirability function to determine the optimal conditions for the cooling time and COP value. Maximum cooling time (186 min) and COP value (6.04) were found at optimum process conditions i.e. inlet temperature of (32.5), air velocity of (1.98) and slab number of (7).

  9. Load Situation Awareness Design for Integration in Multi-Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hanmin; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) have been penetrating in power system at a staggering pace in recent years. Their intermittent nature is, however, posing great threat to system operation. Recently, active load management has been suggested as a tool to counteract these side effects. In multi......-energy system, thermal load management will benefit not only electric network but also district heating network. Electric heater will be the main focus of this paper as a common thermal load. A situation awareness framework for its integration into electric and district heating network will be proposed...

  10. Parameter Design for the Energy Regeneration System of Series Hydraulic Hybrid Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yunpu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper simplifies the energy recovery process in the series hydraulic hybrid bus’ energy regeneration system into a process in which the main axle’s moment of inertia drives the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and brings hydraulic oil from the oil tank to the accumulator. This process enables braking of the vehicle and also allows recovery of energy to the accumulator. Based on the flow equation for the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and the torque equilibrium equation for its axle, the force equilibrium equation for vehicle braking and the pressure variation and flow continuity equations for the accumulator, simulation studies are conducted to analyze the effects of various system parameters, such as accumulator capacity, displacement of the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor, initial operating pressure of the system, etc. on system performance during regenerative braking.

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the INSTAR [INertial STorage And Recovery] System: A Flywheel-based, High Power Energy Storage System for Improved Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Talancon, Daniel Raul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the INSTAR system: a high-power, cost-effective energy storage system designed to improve HEV regenerative braking capabilities by combining chemical batteries with an electromechanical flywheel. This combination allows the regenerative braking system in hybrid vehicles to recapture more available braking energy at a lower battery pack charging current, increasing vehicle energy efficiency while also potentially increasing battery life.A prototype flyw...

  12. Design and analysis of a waste gasification energy system with solid oxide fuel cells and absorption chillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2018-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence, and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents a new sustainable trigeneration system (power, heat and cool) based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system integrated with an absorption chiller for special applications such as hotels, resorts, hospitals, etc....... with a focus on plant design and performance. The proposal system is based on the idea of gasifying the municipal waste, producing syngas serving as fuel for the trigeneration system. Such advanced system when improved is thus self-sustainable without dependency on net grid, district heating and district...

  13. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...... energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system...

  14. Solar Energy: System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  15. Conceptual design of a FGM thermoelectric energy conversion system for high temperature heat source. 1. Design of thermoelectric energy conversion unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Teraki, Junichi; Hirano, Toru.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power conversion system has been focused as a candidate of direct energy conversion systems for high temperature heat source to meet the various power requirements in next century. A concept of energy conversion unit by using TE cell elements combined with FGM compliant pads has been presented to achieve high thermal energy density as well as high energy conversion efficiency. An energy conversion unit consists of 8 couples of P-N cell elements sandwiched between two FGM compliant pads. Performance analysis revealed that the power generated by this unit was 11 watts which is nearly ten times as much as conventional unit of the same size. Energy conversion efficiency of 12% was expected based on the assumption of ZT = 1. All the member of compliant pads as well as TE cells could be bonded together to avoid thermal resistance. (author)

  16. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  17. Tool for optimal design and operation of hydrogen storage based autonomous energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschachtsiek, B.; Lemken, D. [ZBT - Duisburg (Germany); Stark, M.; Krost, G. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Decentralized small scale electricity generation based on renewable energy sources usually necessitates decoupling of volatile power generation and consumption by means of energy storage. Hydrogen has proven as an eligible storage medium for mid- and long-term range, which - when indicated - can be reasonably complemented by accumulator short term storage. The selection of appropriate system components - sources, storage devices and the appertaining peripherals - is a demanding task which affords a high degree of freedom but, on the other hand, has to account for various operational dependencies and restrictions of system components, as well as for conduct of load and generation. An innovative tool facilitates the configuration and dimensioning of renewable energy based power supply systems with hydrogen storage paths, and allows for applying appropriate operation strategies. This tool accounts for the characteristics and performances of relevant power sources, loads, and types of energy storage, and also regards safety rules the energy system has to comply with. In particular, the tool is addressing small, detached and autonomous supply systems. (orig.)

  18. Design and Analysis of a Solar-Powered Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    sized PV panel arrays. Kim et al. [49] and Manfrida et al. [50] proposed that a SS-AA- CAES system using COTS parts could be made more economical by...directly improve system efficiency. Furthermore, the power formulas derived using this approach can easily be used to both size the compressor based on...48] Villela, D., Kasinathan, V., De Valle, S., 2010, “Compressed-Air Energy Storage Systems for Stand-Alone Off-Grid Photovoltaic Modules

  19. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix A: energy storage coil and superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1979-09-01

    The technical aspects of a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil for use as a diurnal load-leveling device in an electric utility system are presented. The superconductor for the coil is analyzed, and costs for the entire coil are developed

  20. Design and parametric study on energy harvesting from bridge vibration using tuned dual-mass damper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Kouichi; Sasaki, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A bridge vibration energy harvester has been proposed in this paper using a tuned dual-mass damper system, named hereafter Tuned Mass Generator (TMG). A linear electromagnetic transducer has been applied to harvest and make use of the unused reserve of energy the aforementioned damper system absorbs. The benefits of using dual-mass systems over single-mass systems for power generation have been clarified according to the theory of vibrations. TMG parameters have been determined considering multi-domain parameters, and TMG has been tuned using a newly proposed parameter design method. Theoretical analysis results have shown that for effective energy harvesting, it is essential that TMG has robustness against uncertainties in bridge vibrations and tuning errors, and the proposed parameter design method for TMG has demonstrated this feature.

  1. A Micro grid design for a kind of household energy efficiency management system based on high permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhuochu; Wang, Min; Yue, Liang

    2017-05-01

    After the access of household distributed photovoltaic, conditions of high permeability generally occur, which cut off the connection between distributed power supply and major network rapidly and use energy storage device to realize electrical energy storage. The above operations cannot be adequate for the power grid health after distributed power supply access any more from the perspective of economy and rationality. This paper uses the integration between device and device, integration between device and system and integration between system and system of household microgrid and household energy efficiency management, to design household microgrid building program and operation strategy containing household energy efficiency management, to achieve efficient integration of household energy efficiency management and household microgrid, to effectively solve problems of high permeability of household distributed power supply and so on.

  2. Design and construction of a resistive energy dump device for bipolar superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. J.

    1977-05-01

    When superconducting magnets quench, the resistance of the conductor material rises rapidly to its normal value. This increase in resistance can result in catastrophic heating in the magnet unless stored field energy is quickly removed from the system. Phase inversion is the normal mode of energy removal. SCR's in the power supply are phased back, the output of the supply is inverted, and magnetic field energy is directed back into the utility grid. Under certain conditions, however, the power supply may fail to invert properly, and an alternate energy removal scheme must protect the superconducting magnet system. Composed of an isolation switch, a semiconductor switching module, and a dump resistor, the resistive dump device provides a viable protection scheme. Operationally, several conditions are capable of activating the isolation switch and triggering the bipolar SCR switching module. Manual dump commands, for instance, permit the operator to dump field energy in the event of observed abnormalities. A special voltage tap quench detector senses the aforementioned abnormal power supply output inversion and also fires the dump circuit. Regardless of the nature of the trigger input, however, activation of the energy dump device diverts coil current through the dump resistor. I/sup 2/R losses over time then safely dissipate stored magnetic field energy.

  3. Solar photovoltaic system design optimization by shading analysis to maximize energy generation from limited urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachchh, Ravi; Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Scheme to maximize total number of solar panels in a given area. • Enhanced energy output from a fixed area without compromising the efficiency. • Capacity and generated energy are enhanced by more than 25%. - Abstract: In the urban areas the demand of solar power is increasing due to better awareness about the emission of green house gases from conventional thermal power plants and significant decrease in the installation cost of residential solar power plants. But the land cost and the under utilization of available space is hindering its further growth. Under these circumstances, solar photovoltaic system installation needs to accommodate the maximum number of solar panels in either roof-top or land-mounted category. In this article a new approach is suggested to maximize the total number of solar panels in a given area with enhanced energy output without compromising the overall efficiency of the system. The number of solar panels can be maximized in a solar photovoltaic energy generation system by optimizing installation parameters such as tilt angle, pitch, gain factor, altitude angle and shading to improve the energy yield. In this paper mathematical analysis is done to show that the capacity and generated energy can be enhanced by more than 25% for a given land area by optimization various parameters.

  4. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. - Highlights: • Design modelling and energy management strategy is proposed for CPV-Hydrogen system. • Micro GA does multi-variable and multi-objective optimization for standalone operation. • Design is verified and analysed for minimum cost, zero PSFT and optimal storage. • Performance of each component is presented for different real weather data conditions. • Proposed design approach is applicable in all regions with low and high DNI.

  5. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  6. Design of scanning motion control system for high-energy X-ray industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Liming

    2008-01-01

    A scanning motion control system was developed for the high-energy X-ray industrial computerized tomography (CT). The system consists of an industrial control computer, a counter card, a control card, servo drivers, servo motors, working platforms, gratings and control software. Based on windows driver model(WDM) mode, the composition of the driver pro- gram for the system was studied. Took the motor control card as an example, the method to develop the driver program was researched, and the intercourse process between the device driver program and the user-program was analyzed. The real-time control of the system was implemented using the WDM driver. The real-time performance and reliability of the system can satisfy the requirement of high-energy X-ray industrial CT. (authors)

  7. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  8. Design of Energy Storage Management System Based on FPGA in Micro-Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yafeng; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dexiao

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage system is the core to maintain the stable operation of smart micro-grid. Aiming at the existing problems of the energy storage management system in the micro-grid such as Low fault tolerance, easy to cause fluctuations in micro-grid, a new intelligent battery management system based on field programmable gate array is proposed : taking advantage of FPGA to combine the battery management system with the intelligent micro-grid control strategy. Finally, aiming at the problem that during estimation of battery charge State by neural network, initialization of weights and thresholds are not accurate leading to large errors in prediction results, the genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the neural network method, and the experimental simulation is carried out. The experimental results show that the algorithm has high precision and provides guarantee for the stable operation of micro-grid.

  9. Energy simulation in building design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Design decision support related to building energy consumption and / or indoor climate, should be based on an integral approach of environment, building, heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) system and occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer

  10. Design of Energy Storage Control Strategy to Improve the PV System Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2016-01-01

    Random fluctuation of PV power is becoming a more and more serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of grid as the PV penetration keeps increasing recent years. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed a control strategy of energy storage system based on Model Predictive Contr...

  11. Environmental Systems Simulations for Carbon, Energy, Nitrogen, Water, and Watersheds: Design Principles and Pilot Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lant, C.; Pérez Lapena, B.; Xiong, W.; Kraft, S.; Kowalchuk, R.; Blair, M.

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the Next Generation Science Standards and elements of problem-based learning, four human-environment systems simulations are described in brief—carbon, energy, water, and watershed—and a fifth simulation on nitrogen is described in more depth. These science, technology, engineering, and

  12. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Eco-energy urban system (Research of systematization technology and evaluation technology out of energy system designing technology researches); Koiki energy riyo network system kaihatsu (eko energy toshi system) 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Energy system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu no uchi system ka gijutsu hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the realization of urban society respecting enhanced energy efficiency and environmental protection, cities and surrounding industrial facilities are investigated for the development of element technologies involving energy recovery, conversion, transportation, storage, delivery, utilization, etc., and for the compounding of urban energy systems. In the study of the effect of introduction, assumption is made of delivery of heat to an urban heat accumulation district from a plant equivalent to a district air-conditioning system which is covered by the existing technologies. Also assumed are the delivery of exhaust heat to the said plant utilizing eco-energy element technologies and the replacement of existing technologies by eco-energy element technologies. Comparison is established in terms of energy efficiency, environmental protection, and economy, and then it is found that the eco-energy element technologies for the utilization of exhaust heat are in all cases superior to the conventional technologies as far as energy efficiency and environmental protection are concerned. It is found, however, that they are inferior from the economic viewpoint. The energy efficiency technology in heat transportation is superior to the existing technology in energy efficiency and environmental protection but roughly equal to the existing ones in economy. (NEDO)

  14. University Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design: How Postsecondary Institutions Use the LEEDRTM Green Building Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Shannon Massie

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study focused on how institutions of higher education have used the United States Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]) Green Building Rating system. It employed statistical methods to assess which types of universities have used LEED, what ratings they earned, and…

  15. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Preliminary design of cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    The preliminary design of a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota is described. This coal-fired plant will produce steam and electric power for a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  16. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Renewable Energy Integrated CCHP System Using PICEA-g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable energies into combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP systems has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, the optimization of renewable energies integrated CCHP (RECCHP systems (i.e., optimal component configurations is far from being well addressed, especially in isolated mode. This study aims to fill this research gap. A multi-objective optimization model characterizing the system reliability, system cost, and environmental sustainability is constructed. In this model, the objectives include minimization of annual total cost (ATC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and loss of energy supply probability (LESP. The decision variables representing the configuration of the RECCHP system include the number of photovoltaic (PV panels and wind turbines (WTs, the tilt angle of PV panels, the height of WTs, the maximum fuel consumption, and the capacity of battery and heat storage tanks (HSTs. The multi-objective model is solved by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, namely, the preference-inspired coevolutionary algorithm (PICEA-g, resulting in a set of Pareto optimal (trade-off solutions. Then, a decision-making process is demonstrated, selecting a preferred solution amongst those trade-off solutions by further considering the decision-maker preferences. Furthermore, on the optimization of the RECCHP system, operational strategies (i.e., following electric load, FEL, and following thermal load, FTL are considered, respectively. Experimental results show that the FEL and FTL strategies lead to different optimal configurations. In general, the FTL is recommended in summer and winter, while the FEL is more suitable for spring and autumn. Compared with traditional energy systems, RECCHP has better economic and environmental advantages.

  17. Short-term prediction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia using automated-design fuzzy logic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraashi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is considered as one of the main sources for renewable energy in the near future. However, solar energy and other renewable energy sources have a drawback related to the difficulty in predicting their availability in the near future. This problem affects optimal exploitation of solar energy, especially in connection with other resources. Therefore, reliable solar energy prediction models are essential to solar energy management and economics. This paper presents work aimed at designing reliable models to predict the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) for the next day in 8 stations in Saudi Arabia. The designed models are based on computational intelligence methods of automated-design fuzzy logic systems. The fuzzy logic systems are designed and optimized with two models using fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) and simulated annealing (SA) algorithms. The first model uses FCM based on the subtractive clustering algorithm to automatically design the predictor fuzzy rules from data. The second model is using FCM followed by simulated annealing algorithm to enhance the prediction accuracy of the fuzzy logic system. The objective of the predictor is to accurately predict next-day global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using previous-day meteorological and solar radiation observations. The proposed models use observations of 10 variables of measured meteorological and solar radiation data to build the model. The experimentation and results of the prediction are detailed where the root mean square error of the prediction was approximately 88% for the second model tuned by simulated annealing compared to 79.75% accuracy using the first model. This results demonstrate a good modeling accuracy of the second model despite that the training and testing of the proposed models were carried out using spatially and temporally independent data.

  18. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  19. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. K.; Kim, G. K.; Yeo, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  20. Load management as a smart grid concept for sizing and designing of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltamaly, Ali M.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Al-Saud, M. S.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2017-10-01

    Optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) to satisfy load requirements with the highest reliability and lowest cost is a crucial step in building HRESs to supply electricity to remote areas. Applying smart grid concepts such as load management can reduce the size of HRES components and reduce the cost of generated energy considerably. In this article, sizing of HRES is carried out by dividing the load into high- and low-priority parts. The proposed system is formed by a photovoltaic array, wind turbines, batteries, fuel cells and a diesel generator as a back-up energy source. A smart particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm using MATLAB is introduced to determine the optimal size of the HRES. The simulation was carried out with and without division of the load to compare these concepts. HOMER software was also used to simulate the proposed system without dividing the loads to verify the results obtained from the proposed PSO algorithm. The results show that the percentage of division of the load is inversely proportional to the cost of the generated energy.

  1. Design and experimental investigation of a low-voltage thermoelectric energy harvesting system for wireless sensor nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Mingjie; Wang, Kunpeng; Xu, Dazheng; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermoelectric energy harvesting system for wireless sensor nodes is designed. • An ultra-low voltage self-startup is implemented. • Maximum power point tracking and low power designs are applied for high efficiency. • Efficiency of 44.2–75.4% is obtained with open-circuit voltage of 84–400 mV. • System efficiency is higher than the commercial BQ25504 converter. - Abstract: A thermoelectric energy harvesting system designed to harvest tens of microwatts to several milliwatts from low-voltage thermoelectric generators is presented in this paper. The proposed system is based-on a two-stage boost scheme with self-startup ability. A maximum power point tracking technique based on the open-circuit voltage is adopted in the boost converter for high efficiency. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system can harvest thermoelectric energy and run a microcontroller unit and a wireless sensor node under low input voltage and power with high efficiency. The harvest system and wireless sensor node can be self-powered with minimum thermoelectric open-circuit voltage as 62 mV and input power of 84 μW. With a self-startup scheme, the proposed system can self-start with a 20 mV input voltage. Low power designs are applied in the system to reduce the quiescent dissipation power. It results in better performance considering the conversion efficiency and self-startup ability compared to commercial boost systems used for thermal energy harvesting.

  2. Optimization Design Method and Experimental Validation of a Solar PVT Cogeneration System Based on Building Energy Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic (PV and a conventional solar thermal collector, representing the deep exploitation and utilization of solar energy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a solar PVT cogeneration system based on specific building energy demand using theoretical modeling and experimental study. Through calculation and simulation, the dynamic heating load and electricity load is obtained as the basis of the system design. An analytical expression for the connection of PVT collector array is derived by using basic energy balance equations and thermal models. Based on analytical results, an optimized design method was carried out for the system. In addition, the fuzzy control method of frequency conversion circulating water pumps and pipeline switching by electromagnetic valves is introduced in this paper to maintain the system at an optimal working point. Meanwhile, an experimental setup is established, which includes 36 PVT collectors with every 6 PVT collectors connected in series. The thermal energy generation, thermal efficiency, power generation and photovoltaic efficiency have been given in this paper. The results demonstrate that the demonstration solar PVT cogeneration system can meet the building energy demand in the daytime in the heating season.

  3. Design and Experimental Characterization of a Vibration Energy Harvesting Device for Rotational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutao Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vibration based electromagnetic power generator to transfer energy from stationary to rotating equipment, which can be a new attempt to substitute slip ring in rotational systems. The natural frequencies and modes are simulated in order to have a maximum and steady power output from the device. Parameters such as piezoelectric disk location and relative motion direction of the magnet are theoretically and experimentally analyzed. The results show that the position that is close to the fixed end of the cantilever and the relative motion along the long side gives higher power output. Moreover, the capability of the energy harvester to extract power from lower energy environment is experimentally validated. The voltage and power output are measured at different excitation frequencies.

  4. Design and development of a new-type terminal for smart electricity use in the energy USB system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Cheng, Lefeng; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Haorong; Tan, Zhukui; Yu, Tao

    2017-11-01

    With the in-depth development of energy Internet, the requirements for smart electricity use (SEU) in a comprehensive energy system is higher. Aiming at the current smart electricity controllers that can only realize the monitoring of voltage, current, power and electricity consumption, while neglecting the impact of environmental quality on electricity use behaviours, this paper designs and develops a new type of terminal for SEU in the energy universal service bus system (USB), based on the techniques of digital signal processing, wireless communication and intelligent sensing. A detailed modular hardware design is given for the terminal, as well as the software design, apart from the basic functions, the terminal can complete harmonic analysis, wireless communication, on-off controlling, data display, etc. in addition, take the user perception into account through collecting the ambient temperature and humidity, as well as detecting indoor environment comfort, so that promoting home electricity use optimization. The terminal developed can play an important role in the energy USB system under the background of energy Internet, and the paper ends by giving the testing results which verify the effectiveness, intelligence and practicability of the terminal.

  5. Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic analysis of energy systems. Part II: Formation Structure of Optimality for robust design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Ennio

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents the Part II of a paper in two parts. In Part I the fundamentals of Scope Oriented Thermoeconomics have been introduced, showing a scarce potential for the cost accounting of existing plants; in this Part II the same concepts are applied to the optimization of a small set of design variables for a vapour compression chiller. The method overcomes the limit of most conventional optimization techniques, which are usually based on hermetic algorithms not enabling the energy analyst to recognize all the margins for improvement. The Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic optimization allows us to disassemble the optimization process, thus recognizing the Formation Structure of Optimality, i.e. the specific influence of any thermodynamic and economic parameter in the path toward the optimal design. Finally, the potential applications of such an in-depth understanding of the inner driving forces of the optimization are discussed in the paper, with a particular focus on the sensitivity analysis to the variation of energy and capital costs and on the actual operation-oriented design.

  6. Design and construction status of the energy system for the ZTH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Gribble, R.F.; Melton, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    A large scale reversed-field pinch fusion experiment, called ZTH, is being designed and built at Los Alamos. Initially, the machine will be operating at a 1.7 MA plasma current, however, the machine can be upgraded to a 4 MA current with many of the components, such as the torus, coil system and electrical power source already having the 4 MA capability. The first plasma discharges are expected to take place in the spring of 1993. Major electrical power equipment components, such as a 1430 MVA generator, controlled power supplies, isolation and opening switches, current interrupter, capacitor banks and transfer resistor are being designed and procured for this experiment. The design philosophy of the electrical system is explained. Test results of in-house research are described and the procurement status of the major components are summarized. 6 refs., 2 figs

  7. Optimal design and operating strategies for a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yingying; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Kornbluth, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    An economic linear programming model with a sliding time window was developed to assess designing and scheduling a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system consisting of biomass gasifier, internal combustion engine, heat recovery set, heat-only boiler, producer gas storage and thermal energy......, utility tariff structure and technical and finical performance of the system components. Engine partial load performance was taken into consideration. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate how the optimal BCHP configuration changes with varying demands and utility tariff rates....

  8. Adequate intraday market design to enable the integration of wind energy into the European power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christoph [University Duisburg-Essen, Chair for Energy Economics and Management Sciences, Universitaetsstrasse 12, 45 117 Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This contribution analyses the European electricity markets with respect to their aptitude to absorb large amounts of wind energy. Thereby in a first step the market designs of the major European power markets in France, Germany, Scandinavia, Spain and UK are reviewed, with a particular focus on liquidity in the spot and intraday markets. Then some key features of the short-term adjustments required by wind energy are discussed and the necessity of sufficient liquidity in intraday markets is highlighted. For the example of the German market subsequently the discrepancy between the physical short-term adjustment needs and the traded volumes on the intraday market is analyzed. This leads to an evaluation of proposals for improving the liquidity on the short-term market, including the use of continuous spot trading like in UK or the use of intraday auctions like in Spain. (author)

  9. Design, Analysis and Implementation of an Experimental System to Harvest Energy From Atmospheric Temperature Variations Using Ethyl Chloride Filled Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gibran

    The increase in global warming and the dwindling supplies of fossil fuels have shifted the focus from traditional to alternate sources of energy. This has resulted in a concerted effort towards finding new energy sources as well as better understanding traditional renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. In addition to the shift in focus towards alternate energy, the last two decades have offered a dramatic rise in the use of digital technologies such as wireless sensor networks that require small but isolated power supplies. Energy harvesting, a method to gather energy from ambient sources including sunlight, vibrations, heat, etc., has provided some success in powering these systems. One of the unexplored areas of energy harvesting is the use of atmospheric temperature variations to obtain usable energy. This thesis investigates an innovative mechanism to extract energy from atmospheric variations using ethyl chloride filled mechanical bellows. The energy harvesting process was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of extracting energy from the temperature variations and converting it into the potential energy stored in a linear coil spring. This was achieved by designing and fabricating an apparatus that consisted of an ethyl chloride filled bellows working against a mechanical spring in a closed and controlled environment. The bellows expanded/contracted depending upon the ambient temperature and the energy harvested was calculated as a function of the bellows' length. The experiments showed that 6 J of potential energy may be harvested for a 23°C change in temperature. The numerical results closely correlated to the experimental data with an error magnitude of 1%. In regions with high diurnal temperature variation, such an apparatus may yield approximately 250 microwatts depending on the diurnal temperature range. The second part of the energy harvesting process consisted of transforming linear expansion of the bellows into electric

  10. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  11. A mathematical technique for hybrid power system design with energy loss considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jui-Yuan; Chen, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Hui-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A superstructure-based model is developed for hybrid power system design. • The model considers various power losses occurring in hybrid power systems. • The model locates rigorous outsourced electricity targets. • The model determines the minimum electricity storage capacity required. • Three literature case studies are solved to demonstrate the use of the model. - Abstract: This paper presents a generic mathematical optimisation model for the design of hybrid power systems (HPSs). The model takes into account power losses during the allocation of power generated from renewables to appliance loads, and is formulated as a linear programme (LP) based on a superstructure including all possible power allocation options in a typical HPS. With given power source and demand data for an HPS, the minimum outsourced electricity supply and the minimum electricity storage capacity required can be determined through a two-step optimisation. Three literature case studies are solved to illustrate the proposed approach

  12. Design, Simulation, and Preliminary Testing of a 20 Ampere Energy Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    power control [5]. Figure 1.1 illustrates how an EMS can be used with a microgrid . Here, the EMS is interfacing the local DGs and DS with the...redesigns that are needed to overcome the electromagnetic interference from the switching currents of the power modules that leak into the control ...using measurements from the actual EMS prototype in the laboratory. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Energy Management System, microgrid , switching noise

  13. Design of sustainable energy systems : a new challenge for Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Astier, Stéphan; Fontes, Guillaume; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the master-level programme in “EcoEnergy” offered as a full-time one year course at “Institut National Polytechnique of Toulouse” in order to provide engineers with a state-of-the-art education in the area of advanced energy technologies and systems. It is based on an original and equilibrated combination of process systems engineering and electrical engineering disciplines, with an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach necessary for identifying s...

  14. Unconditionally Energy Stable Implicit Time Integration: Application to Multibody System Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshin; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    of ordinary diffferential equations is employed to avoid the instabilities associated with the direct integrations of differential-algebraic equations. To extend the unconditional stability of the implicit Newmark method to nonlinear dynamic systems, a discrete energy balance is enforced. This constraint......Advances in computer hardware and improved algorithms for multibody dynamics over the past decade have generated widespread interest in real-time simulations of multibody mechanics systems. At the heart of the widely used algorithms for multibody dynamics are a choice of coordinates which define...... the kinmatics of the system, and a choice of time integrations algorithms. The current approach uses a non-dissipative implict Newmark method to integrate the equations of motion defined in terms of the independent joint coordinates of the system. The reduction of the equations of motion to a minimal set...

  15. Design and development of a MLS based compact active suspension system, featuring air spring and energy harvesting capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of an novel Magnetic Lead Screw based active suspension system for passenger vehicles, using a new MLS topology. The design is based on performance specifications found from ISO road profiles, with a maximum harvested energy approach. By integrating...... the PMSM motor with the MLS, it possible to construct a very compact design with an integrated air spring. The prototype is build and frictional losses and efficiency for the MLS damper unit are measured. Additional the stall force and stall torque are measured for the build prototype to validate...

  16. Large scale wind energy conversion system (WECS) design and installation as affected by site wind energy characteristics, grouping arrangement, and social acceptance. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungstrom, O

    1977-01-01

    The Swedish wind energy prospecting program includes special features of determining site wind characteristics and design of WECS group stations, which are described briefly, such as applications of normalized WDP-Wind Duration Profiles, WHP-Wind Height Profiles and how these are affected by site location and terrain roughness. A set of WEC-Wind Energy Classes (1 to 4) is introduced as an aid in territorial wind energy surveys. A survey of Sweden's WEPA-Wind Energy Producing Areas--with associated distribution over WEC-2-4 is presented. In order to determine the corresponding wind energy production capacity, the problem of optimizing WECS group station design for cost effective energy production per land usage must be solved. Here, the effects of WECS unit size and spacing on specific annual energy production, TWh/km/sup 2/, yr, are analyzed with the use of specific group station models in the 40 to 100 MW capacity range, applying WECS unit sizes 50kW, 1 MW and 5 MW, studying the energy balance for typical group stations. By applying the specific productivity data for 1 to 5 MW systems, a survey of the WEPA-associated wind energy production capacity in Sweden is presented.

  17. Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development-I. Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-18

    The results of a conceptual and preliminary design study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) closed loop ammonia power system modules performed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) are presented. This design study is the second of 3 tasks in Phase I of the Power System Development-I Project. The Task 2 objectives were to develop: 1) conceptual designs for a 40 to 50-MW(e) closed cycle ammonia commercial plant size power module whose heat exchangers are immersed in seawater and whose ancillary equipments are in a shirt sleeve environment; preliminary designs for a modular application power system sized at 10-MW(e) whose design, construction and material selection is analogous to the 50 MW(e) module, except that titanium tubes are to be used in the heat exchangers; and 3) preliminary designs for heat exchanger test articles (evaporator and condenser) representative of the 50-MW(e) heat exchangers using aluminum alloy, suitable for seawater service, for testing on OTEC-1. The reference ocean platform was specified by DOE as a surface vessel with the heat exchanger immersed in seawater to a design depth of 0 to 20 ft measured from the top of the heat exchanger. For the 50-MW(e) module, the OTEC 400-MW(e) Plant Ship, defined in the Platform Configuration and Integration study, was used as the reference platform. System design, performance, and cost are presented. (WHK)

  18. Energy storage technologies and hybrid architectures for specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles: Design and system integration aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, M.; Prenleloup, P.; Schmid, S.; Palacin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed integration of energy storage systems into hybrid system architectures. • We considered mechanical and electrical energy storage systems. • Potential of different combinations has been analyzed by standardized duty cycles. • Most promising are diesel-driven suburban, regional and shunting operations. • Double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential. - Abstract: The use of diesel-driven traction is an intrinsic part of the functioning of railway systems and it is expected to continue being so for the foreseeable future. The recent introduction of more restrictive greenhouse gas emission levels and other legislation aiming at the improvement of the environmental performance of railway systems has led to the need of exploring alternatives for cleaner diesel rolling stock. This paper focuses on assessing energy storage systems and the design of hybrid system architectures to determine their potential use in specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles. Hydrostatic accumulators, flywheels, Lithium-ion batteries and double-layer capacitors have been assessed and used to design hybrid system architectures. The potential of the different technology combinations has been analyzed using standardized duty cycles enhanced with gradient profiles related to suburban, regional and shunting operations. The results show that double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential to be successfully integrated into the system architecture of diesel-driven rail vehicles. Furthermore, the results also suggest that combining these two energy storage technologies into a single hybridisation package is a highly promising design that draws on their strengthens without any significant drawbacks.

  19. Exergy based methods for economic and risk design optimization of energy systems: Application to a gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, G.; Rocco, M.V.; Colombo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Exergy based analyses are considered by the scientific community appropriate tools for the design and the performance evaluation and improvements of energy systems. Moreover, they are today recognized as proper instruments to assess economic, environmental and social externalities of energy systems. This paper presents the results of a study in which different exergy analysis methods are adopted to determine the optimal design configuration of a gas turbine operating in simple Joule Brayton cycle. Standard exergy and Thermoeconomic analyses are performed to identify the highest thermodynamic efficiency and minimum economic cost configurations of the system, while for the environmental analysis Authors propose an innovative method in which the exergy analysis is combined with a Risk Analysis. With this method the total risk associated to the system is used as objective function in the same way as monetary cost is for standard Thermoeconomic analysis. These three methods aims therefore to determine the optimal design configurations of the system with respect to their specific objective functions, respectively: exergy cost (J/J), monetary (exergoeconomic) cost (€/J) and risk (injured/J) of the product. Results lead to three different optimal design parameters for the system, according to the objective of each analysis procedure. - Highlights: • An original implementation of Thermoeconomic framework is proposed. • Standard Exergy and Thermoeconomic analysis are performed on a case study. • A new model using exergy as allocation criteria for Risk Analysis is performed. • Different optimal configurations are obtained and compared

  20. Validation of a Tool for the Initial Dynamic Design of Mooring Systems for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bjerg Thomsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mooring of floating wave energy converters is an important topic in renewable research since it highly influences the overall cost of the wave energy converter and thereby the cost of energy. In addition, several wave energy converter failures have been observed due to insufficient mooring systems. When designing these systems, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the design tool and to establish an understanding of the error between model and prototype. The present paper presents the outcome of an experimental test campaign and construction of a numerical model using the open-source boundary element method code NEMOH and the commercial time-domain mooring analysis tool OrcaFlex. The work used the wind/wave energy converter Floating Power Plant as a case study, which is defined as a large floating structure with a passive mooring system. The investigated mooring consists of a three-legged turret system with synthetic lines, and it was tested for both operational and extreme events. In order to understand the difference between the model and experimental results, no tuning of the model was done, besides adding drag elements with values found from a simplified methodology. This resembles initial design cases where no experimental data are available. Generally good agreement was found for the tensions in the lines when the drag element was applied, with some overestimation of the motions. The main cause of difference was found to be underestimation of linear damping. A model was tested with additional linear damping, and it illustrated that a final analysis needs to use experimental data to achieve the best results. However, the analyses showed that the investigated model can be used without tuning in initial investigations of mooring systems, and it is expected that this approach can be applied to other similar systems.

  1. Maximization of primary energy savings of solar heating and cooling systems by transient simulations and computer design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, F.; Palombo, A.; Vanoli, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the simulation of the performance of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems is analyzed. Three different plant layouts are considered: (i) the first one consists of evacuated solar collectors and a single-stage LiBr-H 2 O absorption chiller; here in order to integrate the system in case of insufficient solar radiation, an electric water-cooled chiller is activated; (ii) configuration of the secondly considered system is similar to the first one, but the absorption chiller and the solar collector area are sized for balancing about 30% of the building cooling load only; (iii) the layout of the thirdly considered system differs from the first one since the auxiliary electric chiller is replaced by a gas-fired heater. Such system configurations also include: circulation pumps, storage tanks, feedback controllers, mixers, diverters and on/off hysteresis controllers. All such devices are modelled for maximizing the system energy efficiency. In order to simulate the systems' performance for dynamic heating/cooling loads, a single-lumped capacitance building is also modelled and implemented in the computer code. A cost model is also developed in order to calculate the systems' operating and capital costs. All the models and the relative simulations are carried out by TRNSYS. A design of experiment procedure is also included. By such tool the effects of the system operating parameters' variation on the relative energy efficiency are analyzed. In addition, the set of synthesis/design variables maximizing the system's energetic performance can be also identified. The annual primary energy saving is chosen as the optimization objective function, whereas collector slope, pump flows, set-point temperatures and tank volume are selected as optimizing system design variables. A case study was developed for an office building located in South Italy. Here, the energetic and the economic analysis for all the three considered system layouts are carried out. The

  2. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  3. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  4. Design and implementation of a marine animal alert system to support Marine Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Choi, Eric Y.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-08-08

    Power extracted from fast moving tidal currents has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. Device developers and utilities are pursuing deployment of prototype tidal turbines to assess technology viability, site feasibility, and environmental interactions. Deployment of prototype turbines requires permits from a range of regulatory authorities. Ensuring the safety of marine animals, particularly those under protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 has emerged as a key regulatory challenge for initial MHK deployments. The greatest perceived risk to marine animals is from strike by the rotating blades of tidal turbines. Development of the marine mammal alert system (MAAS) was undertaken to support monitoring and mitigation requirements for tidal turbine deployments. The prototype system development focused on Southern Resident killer whales (SRKW), an endangered population of killer whales that frequents Puget Sound and is intermittently present in the part of the sound where deployment of prototype tidal turbines is being considered. Passive acoustics were selected as the primary means because of the vocal nature of these animals. The MAAS passive acoustic system consists of two-stage process involving the use of an energy detector and a spectrogram-based classifier to distinguish between SKRW’s calls and noise. A prototype consisting of two 2D symmetrical star arrays separated by 20 m center to center was built and evaluated in the waters of Sequim Bay using whale call playback.

  5. Modular battery design for reliable, flexible and multi-technology energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothgang, Susanne; Baumhöfer, Thorsten; Hoek, Hauke van; Lange, Tobias; De Doncker, Rik W.; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Collection of existing battery topologies in electric vehicles. • Analysis of load profiles and the power consumption for electric vehicles. • Composition of battery packs and their passive components. • Modular, hybrid battery architecture with a dc-link. - Abstract: With large scale battery systems being more and more used in demanding applications regarding lifetime, performance and safety, it is of great importance to utilize not only cells with a high cyclic and calendric lifetime but also to optimize the whole system architecture. The aim of this work is therefore, to highlight the benefits of a modular system architecture allowing the use of hybrid battery systems combining high power and high energy cells in a multi-technology system. To achieve an optimized performance, efficiency and lifetime for an electric vehicle the complete drive train topology has to be taken into account instead of optimizing one of the components individually. Consequently, the topic will be analyzed from the system’s point of view, addressing in particular the modularization of the battery as well as the power electronics needed to do so. It will be shown that a highly flexible battery system can be realized by dc-to-dc converters between a modular, hybrid battery system and the drive inverter. By the dc-to-dc converters the battery output voltages and the inverter input voltages are decoupled. Hence, the battery’s topology can be chosen unrestrictedly within a wide range and easily be interconnected to a common dc-link of a different voltage. The benefits of this flexibility will be analyzed in detail showing especially how the lifetime of the battery system can be improved and the impact on system weight

  6. Analytical study on different blade-shape design of HAWT for wasted kinetic energy recovery system (WKERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, J. B.; Jamaludin, Z.; Jafar, F. A.; Mat Ali, M.; Mokhtar, M. N. Ali; Tan, C. H.

    2017-06-01

    Wasted kinetic energy recovery system (WKERS) is a wind renewable gadget installed above a cooling tower outlet to harvest the discharged wind for electrical regeneration purpose. The previous WKERS is operated by a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) with delta blade design but the performance is still not at the optimum level. Perhaps, a better blade-shape design should be determined to obtain the optimal performance, as it is believed that the blade-shape design plays a critical role in HAWT. Hence, to determine a better blade-shape design for a new generation of WKERS, elliptical blade, swept blade and NREL Phase IV blade are selected for this benchmarking process. NREL Phase IV blade is a modern HAWT’s blade design by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research lab. During the process of benchmarking, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was ran by using SolidWorks design software, where all the designs are simulated with linear flow simulation. The wind speed in the simulation is set at 10.0 m/s, which is compatible with the average wind speed produced by a standard size cooling tower. The result is obtained by flow trajectories of air motion, surface plot and cut plot of the applied blade-shape. Besides, the aspect ratio of each blade is calculated and included as one of the reference in the comparison. Hence, the final selection of the best blade-shape design will bring to the new generation of WKERS.

  7. Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S. Whiteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus.

  8. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  9. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  10. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide

  11. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide minimal

  12. Design of a Bidirectional Energy Storage System for a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery in a Microgrid with SOC Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwu Gong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper used a Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB as the storage battery and designed a two-stage topology of a VRB energy storage system in which a phase-shifted full bridge dc-dc converter and three-phase inverter were used, considering the low terminal voltage of the VRB. Following this, a model of the VRB was simplified, according to the operational characteristics of the VRB in this designed topology of a VRB energy storage system (ESS. By using the simplified equivalent model of the VRB, the control parameters of the ESS were designed. For effectively estimating the state of charge (SOC of the VRB, a traditional method for providing the SOC estimation was simplified, and a simple and effective SOC estimation method was proposed in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the proper design of the VRB ESS and the proposed SOC estimation method, a corresponding simulation was designed by Simulink. The test results have demonstrated that this proposed SOC estimation method is feasible and effective for indicating the SOC of a VRB and the proper design of this VRB ESS is very reasonable for VRB applications.

  13. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  14. Improving energy efficiency in agriculture - Proposal for the design of advisory systems; Energieffektivisering inom jordbruket - Foerslag till utformning av raadgivningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einarson, Elin; Hagerberg, Anna; Linder, Camilla; Sten, Roland; Vannesjoe, Binella; Holmberg, Rurik

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the results of a study that the Board of Agriculture has carried out after consultation with the Energy Agency. The aim is to give proposals for the design of a counseling system for improving energy efficiency in the agricultural sector. Such an advisory system should be designed as group counseling combined with a single advisors' visit on the farm. Board of Agriculture suggests that counseling is done within existing environmental counseling in the project 'Greppa Naeringen'. It is estimated that the counseling can reach 800-1500 participants during the period 2011-2013. The number of farmers that can be reached is limited by the budget available to the project but also by the number of active advisors

  15. Designing an Energy Storage System Fuzzy PID Controller for Microgrid Islanded Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hong Jeon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in microgrids, which are composed of distributed generation (DG, distributed storage (DS, and loads, has been growing as a potentially effective clean energy system to mitigate against climate change. The microgrid is operated in the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode according to the conditions of the upstream power grid. The role of the energy storage system (ESS is especially important to maintain constant the frequency and voltage of an islanded microgrid. For this reason, various approaches for ESS control have been put forth. In this paper, a fuzzy PID controller is proposed to improve the frequency control performance of the ESS. This fuzzy PID controller consists of a fuzzy logic controller and a conventional PI controller, connected in series. The fuzzy logic controller has two input signals, and then the output signal of the fuzzy logic controller is the input signal of the conventional PI controller. For comparison of control performance, gains of each PI controller and fuzzy PID controller are tuned by the particle swam optimization (PSO algorithm. In the simulation study, the control performance of the fuzzy PID was also tested under various operating conditions using the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation platform.

  16. Design of variable energy and price components of electricity tariffs as an incentive for system-efficient energy management of flexible consumers in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change, both the heating and transport sectors will need to be electrically driven, with the higher electrical demand met by emission-free technologies, in addition to general efficiency improvements. On the generation side, wind and photovoltaic power plants must have a rated power significantly exceeding the current peak demand, in order to cover this increased electrical requirement. On the consumption side, heat pumps and private electric vehicles will increase the percentage of energy withdrawn at the low-voltage level of the new system. Given the right incentives, these customers will shift the energy demand in such a way as to benefit the system. This flexibility can be used as a tool to deal with variable renewable insertion while avoiding simultaneous overloading of the power grid. This thesis analyses and evaluates the effects of different electricity tariff designs on energy consumption. These tariffs should incentivise households to adapt their energy consumption to market prices, without inducing critical peak demands in times of particularly low prices. Therefore, time-varying energy price components and power price components are combined into flexible electricity tariffs and implemented as target functions within an optimization problem. The cost-minimizing effect of household energy management is determined under these flexible tariffs, and the effects of the tariff designs on energy consumption and the induced costs are evaluated. Additionally, the results of the flexible tariff approach are compared with results from a centralized optimization by a virtual power plant. It is possible to develop a design for a suitable flexible tariff that decreases the energy procurement costs of electric vehicles while simultaneously reducing peak demand in comparison to a single real-time pricing incentive. Furthermore, this thesis shows that certain kinds of electricity tariff design do not only fail to support but actually

  17. Design Optimization of Heat Wheels for Energy Recovery in HVAC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Antonellis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Air to air heat exchangers play a crucial role in mechanical ventilation equipment, due to the potential primary energy savings both in case of refurbishment of existing buildings or in case of new ones. In particular, interest in heat wheels is increasing due to their low pressure drop and high effectiveness. In this paper a detailed optimization of design parameters of heat wheels is performed in order to maximize sensible effectiveness and to minimize pressure drop. The analysis is carried out through a one dimensional lumped parameters heat wheel model, which solves heat and mass transfer equations, and through appropriate correlations to estimate pressure drop. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data of a heat wheel tested in specific facilities, and good agreement is attained. The device optimization is performed through the variation of main design parameters, such as heat wheel length, channel base, height and thickness and for different operating conditions, namely the air face velocity and the revolution speed. It is shown that the best configurations are achieved with small channel thickness and, depending on the required sensible effectiveness, with appropriate values of wheel length and channel base and height.

  18. Design and Implementation of Energy Efficiency in HVAC Systems Based on Robust PID Control for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is a primary concern in process projects, since the energy consumption has the highest percentage in HVAC for all processes. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the humidity and air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach described the effective energy efficiency for HVAC systems which are used in industrial process. Due to the complex relationship of the HVAC system parameters, it is necessary to suggest optimum settings for different operations in response to the dynamic cooling loads and changing weather conditions during a year. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID programming was developed which can effectively handle the discrete, nonlinear and highly constrained optimization problems. Energy efficiency process has been made by controlling of alternative current (AC drivers for ventilation and exhaust fans, according to supplied air flow capacity and differential air pressure between supplied and exhaust air. Supervisory controller software was developed by using programmable controllers and human machine interface (HMI units. The new designed HVAC control system would have a saving potential of about 40% as compared to the existing operational settings, without any extra cost.

  19. Analysis and design of a Taguchi-Grey based electricity demand predictor for energy management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Albert W.L.; Chi, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to use electricity efficiently, a demand control management system is one of the effective ways to reduce energy consumption and electric bills. An electricity demand control system is used as a means to monitor and manage the usage of electricity effectively. Moreover, it is a useful tool for avoiding penalties beyond the contracted demand value of electricity with the electric power company. In this project, we developed a Taguchi-Grey based predictor to forecast the demand value of electricity on line. In a Grey prediction, the parameter settings are highly relevant to the accuracy of forecasting. A Taguchi method was employed to optimize the parameter settings for the Grey based electricity demand value predictor. Our experimental results show that the optimal parameter settings of the Grey prediction are α=0.4, five point modeling and three minute sampling time of the data acquisition system. The improved Taguchi-Grey based electricity demand predictor in conjunction with the PC based electricity demand control system is a cost effective and efficient means to manage the usage of electricity

  20. A thermodynamic approach for selecting operating conditions in the design of reversible solid oxide cell energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher H.; Kazempoor, Pejman; Braun, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Reversible solid oxide cell (ReSOC) systems are being increasingly considered for electrical energy storage, although much work remains before they can be realized, including cell materials development and system design optimization. These systems store electricity by generating a synthetic fuel in electrolysis mode and subsequently recover electricity by electrochemically oxidizing the stored fuel in fuel cell mode. System thermal management is improved by promoting methane synthesis internal to the ReSOC stack. Within this strategy, the cell-stack operating conditions are highly impactful on system performance and optimizing these parameters to suit both operating modes is critical to achieving high roundtrip efficiency. Preliminary analysis shows the thermoneutral voltage to be a useful parameter for analyzing ReSOC systems and the focus of this study is to quantitatively examine how it is affected by ReSOC operating conditions. The results reveal that the thermoneutral voltage is generally reduced by increased pressure, and reductions in temperature, fuel utilization, and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, many different combinations of these operating conditions are expected to promote efficient energy storage. Pressurized systems can achieve high efficiency at higher temperature and fuel utilization, while non-pressurized systems may require lower stack temperature and suffer from reduced energy density.

  1. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  2. Design optimization and sensitivity analysis of a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system with thermal energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliano, Martina; Bianco, Nicola; Graditi, Giorgio; Mongibello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel operation strategy for biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system is presented. • A design optimization of the system is conducted. • The effects of variation of the incentive for the electricity generation are evaluated. • The effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size and the thermal energy storage system one are evaluated. • The inclusion of a cold storage system into the combined cooling, heating and power system is also analyzed. - Abstract: In this work, an operation strategy for a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system, composed of a cogeneration unit, an absorption chiller, and a thermal energy storage system, is formulated in order to satisfy time-varying energy demands of an Italian cluster of residential multi-apartment buildings. This operation strategy is adopted for performing the economical optimization of the design of two of the devices composing the combined cooling, heating and power system, namely the absorption chiller and the storage system. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the impact of the incentive for the electricity generation on the optimized results, and also to evaluate, separately, the effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size, and the effects of the variation of the thermal energy storage system size on the system performance. In addition, the inclusion into the system of a cold thermal energy storage system is analyzed, as well, assuming different possible values for the cold storage system cost. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influencing factors from the economical point of view are represented by the incentive for the electricity generation and the absorption chiller power. Results also show that the combined use of a thermal energy storage and of a cold thermal energy storage during the hot season could represent a viable solution from the economical point of view.

  3. Operational simulation, design and management of decentralized energy systems; Betriebliche Modellierung, Auslegung und Management von dezentralen Energiesystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matics, J.

    2007-06-28

    house energy supply. In chapter 7 the contributions in the frame of this research work for the operational simulation, design and management of decentralized energy systems are summarized. (orig.)

  4. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  5. Design of energy systems for gas-heated through air dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weineisen, Henrik; Stenstroem, Stig [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-04-15

    The aim of the work has been to acquire a better understanding for the through-drying process and to use this knowledge to improve the energy efficiency of the process. In order to learn more about the mechanisms involved in through-drying, the process has been studied by experiments and by mathematical modelling. The work has been focused on the following areas: A. Review of the existing literature on through-drying B. Initial computer modelling of the through-drying process and comparison with experimental data from the literature C. Study of the overall energy balances of the through-drying system D. Experimental work with the aim of acquiring data at conditions comparable to industrial intensities (The work was performed at the Metso Paper research facility, Biddeford, Maine, USA.) E. Modelling of through-drying at high intensity and comparison with experimental data (ongoing). Short reports of stages A-C and a detailed report from stage D are presented in this publication.

  6. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  7. The role of heat pump technologies in the design of future sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the operational analysis shows that when a large-scale heat pump is integrated with an existing CHP unit, the projected spot market situation in Nord Pool, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-bound power generation electricity......In this paper, it is shown that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps with existing CHP units, is critically sensitive to the operational mode...... of the heat pump vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance (COP), which is set by the temperature level of the heat source. When using only ambient air as the heat source, the total heat production costs increases by about 10%, while the partial use of condensed flue gas from the CHP unit as a heat...

  8. Energy Consumption Management in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the basic issues in low power design is presented, including techniques for the analysis of energy consumption in the early design phase of analog and digital circuits. The concept of energy complexity will be introduced in conjunction with techniques for parameterized energy management.

  9. Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System. Phase II: detailed feasibility analysis and preliminary design. Final report, Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the economic and environmental feasibility of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) based on a multifuel (gas, oil, treated solid wastes, and coal) design with which to serve any or all the institutions within the Louisiana Medical Complex in cooperation with the Health Education Authority of Louisiana (HEAL). In this context, a preliminary design is presented which consists of ICES plant description and engineering analyses. This demonstration system is capable of meeting 1982 system demands by providing 10,000 tons of air conditioning and, from a boiler plant with a high-pressure steam capacity of 200,000 lb/h, approximately 125,000 lb/h of 185 psig steam to the HEAL institutions, and at the same time generating up to 7600 kW of electrical power as byproduct energy. The plant will consist of multiple-fuel steam boilers, turbine generator, turbine driven chillers and necessary auxiliaries and ancillary systems. The preliminary design for these systems and for the building to house the central plant systems are presented along with equipment and instrumentation schedules and outline specifications for major components. Costs were updated to reflect revised data. The final preliminary cost estimate includes allowances for contingencies and escalation, as well as cost for the plant site and professional fees. This design is for a facility specifically with coal burning capability, recognizing that it is more capital-intensive than a gas/oil facility. In the opinion of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the relatively modest allocations made for scrubbing and ash removal involve less than is implied in standard industry (EPRI) cost increments of over 30% for these duties. The preliminary environmental assessment is included. (LCL)

  10. Design of a Reliable Hybrid (PV/Diesel Power System with Energy Storage in Batteries for Remote Residential Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience acquired with a photovoltaic (PV hybrid system simulated as an alternative to diesel system for a residential home located in Southern Nigeria. The hybrid system was designed to overcome the problem of climate change, to ensure a reliable supply without interruption, and to improve the overall system efficiency (by the integration of the battery bank. The system design philosophy was to maximize simplicity; hence, the system was sized using conventional simulation tool and representative insolation data. The system includes a 15 kW PV array, 21.6 kWh (3600 Ah worth of battery storage, and a 5.4 kW (6.8 kVA generator. The paper features a detailed analysis of the energy flows through the system and quantifies all losses caused by PV charge controller, battery storage round-trip, rectifier, and inverter conversions. In addition, simulation was run to compare PV/diesel/battery with diesel/battery and the results show that the capital cost of a PV/diesel hybrid solution with batteries is nearly three times higher than that of a generator and battery combination, but the net present cost, representing cost over the lifetime of the system, is less than one-half of the generator and battery combination.

  11. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-01-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery

  12. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Akimoto, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  13. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  14. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  15. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  16. Optimisation based design of a district energy system for an eco-town in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.; Shah, N.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of CO 2 emissions linked with human activities (mainly energy services and transport), together with the increased use of renewable energies, remain high priorities on various political agendas. However, considering the increased consumption of energy services (especially electricity), and the stochastic nature of some of the most promising renewable energies (wind for instance), the challenge is to find the optimal mix of technologies that will provide the energy services, without increasing the CO 2 emissions, but nonetheless ensuring reliability of supply. The focus of this paper is to present the DESDOP tool, based on mixed integer linear optimisation technics, that helps giving insight in the optimal mix of technologies that will simultaneously help decrease the emissions while at the same time guarantee resilience of supply. The results show that while it is not yet possible to avoid electricity from the grid completely (hence nuclear or fossil fuel), CO 2 reductions up to 20%, at no extra costs compared to the business-as-usual case, are easily achievable. -- Research highlights: → Mixed integer linear optimisation techniques are a powerful tool to design and optimise district energy systems. → Integrated energy conversion systems (especially combination of CHPs and heat-pumps) allow CO2 reductions for energy services of at least 20% at no extra-costs compared to business-as-usual (grid and boiler). → While the grid (hence nuclear and/or fossil fuels) cannot be avoided as long as electricity storage doesn't come of age, the criticism of anti-wind lobbyists regarding the ineffectiveness of wind power could not be verified.

  17. Design of the steam generator in an energy conversion system based on the aluminum combustion with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercati, Stefano; Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Paltrinieri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development of a numerical approach for the analysis of a co-generation system based on the aluminum water reaction. ► Construction of system operating maps for estimating the system behavior. ► Comparison of two different designs of the steam generator for the system. ► Definition of the operating range where each configuration provides the best performance. -- Abstract: The paper shows the preliminary design of the superheated steam generator to be used in a novel hydrogen production and energy conversion system based on the combustion of aluminum particles with water. The system is aimed at producing hydrogen and pressurized superheated steam, using the heat released by the Al–H 2 O reaction. The interest on this type of technology arises because of the possibility of obtaining hydrogen with very low pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to the traditional hydrogen production systems, such as the steam reforming from methane. The analysis of the combustion chamber and the heat recovery system is carried out by means of a lumped and distributed parameter numerical approach. The multi phase and gas mixture theoretical principles are used both to characterize the mass flow rate and the heat release in the combustion chamber and within the heat exchangers in order to relate the steam generator performance to the system operating parameters. Finally, the influence of the steam generator performance on the whole energy conversion system behavior is addressed, with particular care to the evaluation of the total power and efficiency variation with the combustion parameters.

  18. Optimization Design of an Inductive Energy Harvesting Device for Wireless Power Supply System Overhead High-Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overhead high voltage power line (HVPL online monitoring equipment is playing an increasingly important role in smart grids, but the power supply is an obstacle to such systems’ stable and safe operation, so in this work a hybrid wireless power supply system, integrated with inductive energy harvesting and wireless power transmitting, is proposed. The energy harvesting device extracts energy from the HVPL and transfers that from the power line to monitoring equipment on transmission towers by transmitting and receiving coils, which are in a magnetically coupled resonant configuration. In this paper, the optimization design of online energy harvesting devices is analyzed emphatically by taking both HVPL insulation distance and wireless power supply efficiency into account. It is found that essential parameters contributing to more extracted energy include large core inner radius, core radial thickness, core height and small core gap within the threshold constraints. In addition, there is an optimal secondary coil turn that can maximize extracted energy when other parameters remain fixed. A simple and flexible control strategy is then introduced to limit power fluctuations caused by current variations. The optimization methods are finally verified experimentally.

  19. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    Fuel cells can produce electricity with high efficiency, low pollutants, and low noise. With the advent of fuel cell technologies, fuel cell systems have since been demonstrated as reliable power generators with power outputs from a few watts to a few megawatts. With proper equipment, fuel cell systems can produce heating and cooling, thus increased its overall efficiency. To increase the acceptance from electrical utilities and building owners, fuel cell systems must operate more dynamically and integrate well with renewable energy resources. This research studies the dynamic performance of fuel cells and the integration of fuel cells with other equipment in three levels: (i) the fuel cell stack operating on hydrogen and reformate gases, (ii) the fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit, and (iii) the hybrid energy system consisting of photovoltaic panels, fuel cell system, and energy storage. In the first part, this research studied the steady-state and dynamic performance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell stack. Collaborators at Aalborg University (Aalborg, Denmark) conducted experiments on a high temperature PEM fuel cell short stack at steady-state and transients. Along with the experimental activities, this research developed a first-principles dynamic model of a fuel cell stack. The dynamic model developed in this research was compared to the experimental results when operating on different reformate concentrations. Finally, the dynamic performance of the fuel cell stack for a rapid increase and rapid decrease in power was evaluated. The dynamic model well predicted the performance of the well-performing cells in the experimental fuel cell stack. The second part of the research studied the dynamic response of a high temperature PEM fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit with high thermal integration. After verifying the model performance with the

  20. Proposed Design Procedure of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger for an Orc Energy Recovery System for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Bonafoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several systems that produce energy from low grade heat sources such as Stirling engines, thermoelectric generators, and ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. This paper shows the heat recovery from exhaust gases of a 1400 cc Diesel engine, to vaporize the working fluid of a small (<10 kW ORC system. The main objective is to have a system as compact as possible, to make it suitable for transport applications such as cars, ships, trains, etc. Three fluids were studied for this application: water and two refrigerant fluids: R134a and R245fa, which were found to be more appropriate than water at certain pressure and temperature values. Afterwards, a design procedure was proposed, then the heat exchanger was modeled and finally a steady-state thermal and structural analysis were carried out using a commercial software to find the temperature and the effects of the thermal stress on the material of the helical coiled tube.

  1. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  2. A trigeneration system based on polymer electrolyte fuel cell and desiccant wheel – Part B: Overall system design and energy performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intini, M.; De Antonellis, S.; Joppolo, C.M.; Casalegno, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seasonal simulation of a trigeneration system for building air-conditioning. • Effects of technical constraints on trigeneration system power consumption. • Optimal PEMFC unit size for maximizing trigeneration primary energy savings. - Abstract: This paper represents the second part of a major work focusing on a trigeneration system integrating a low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC) and a desiccant wheel-based air handling unit. Low temperature PEMFC systems have a significant potential in combined heating, cooling and power applications. However cogenerated heat temperature is relatively low (up to 65–70 °C), resulting in low efficiency of the cooling process, and the fuel processor is far from being flexible, hindering the operation of the system at low load conditions. Therefore a trigeneration system based on PEMFC should be carefully designed through accurate simulation tools. In the current paper a detailed analysis of the energy performance of the trigenerative system is provided, taking into account constraints of real applications, such as PEMFC part load behavior, desiccant wheel effectiveness, heat storage losses and air handling unit electrical consumptions. The methodology adopted to model system components is deeply described. Energy simulations are performed on yearly basis with variable building air conditioning loads and climate conditions, in order to investigate the optimal trigenerative unit size. A sensitivity analysis on crucial design parameters is provided. It is shown that constrains of actual applications have relevant effects on system energy consumption, which is significantly far from expected values based on a simplified analysis. Primary energy savings can be positive in winter time if the ratio of PEMFC heating capacity to air conditioning peak heating load is close to 0.15. Instead on yearly basis primary energy savings cannot be achieved with present components performance. Positive savings

  3. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  4. A Rotating Speed Controller Design Method for Power Levelling by Means of Inertia Energy in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Power fluctuation caused by wind speed variations may be harmful for the stability of the power system as well as the reliability of the wind power converter, since it may induce thermal excursions in the solder joints of the power modules. Using the wind turbine rotor inertia energy for power...... in the frequency domain for power leveling. Moreover, the impact of other parameters on power leveling, including the time constant of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and the rotor inertia, are also studied. With the proposed optimal design, the power fluctuations are mitigated as much as possible, while...

  5. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  6. Design and testing of a separate-type lighting system using solar energy and cold-cathode fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.-P.; Hsiao, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a solar-powered lighting system, using cold-cathode fluorescent-lamps (CCFLs), with its battery-charging circuit and lamp-ignition circuit being separated so that its solar panels can be installed at any distance deemed necessary away from the lighting site in order to receive the maximum solar energy available. This system adopts the maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) method to control the power output of the solar panels and uses the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) DC-DC converter, as the charging circuit, to increase the panels' power generation efficiency and the charging circuit's conversion efficiency. The electronic ballast circuit for the CCFL is constructed with a half-bridge inverter, a resonant inductor, and a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer, which forms a piezoelectric resonant-type inverter: to simplify the circuitry and to improve the power conversion efficiency, the ballast circuit is designed to directly step up the battery voltage in igniting the lamp. We also establish the transmission-parameter model for the piezoelectric resonant-type inverter to provide the base for the electric-power circuit design. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed system possesses some advantages, such as greater energy efficiency, circuitry simplicity, and so on, and is suitable for night lighting in house yards, parks and advertising panels

  7. Design and testing of a separate-type lighting system using solar energy and cold-cathode fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.-P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, China Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 115, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: april4120@tp.edu.tw; Hsiao, H.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hsiao@mouse.ee.ntust.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents a solar-powered lighting system, using cold-cathode fluorescent-lamps (CCFLs), with its battery-charging circuit and lamp-ignition circuit being separated so that its solar panels can be installed at any distance deemed necessary away from the lighting site in order to receive the maximum solar energy available. This system adopts the maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) method to control the power output of the solar panels and uses the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) DC-DC converter, as the charging circuit, to increase the panels' power generation efficiency and the charging circuit's conversion efficiency. The electronic ballast circuit for the CCFL is constructed with a half-bridge inverter, a resonant inductor, and a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer, which forms a piezoelectric resonant-type inverter: to simplify the circuitry and to improve the power conversion efficiency, the ballast circuit is designed to directly step up the battery voltage in igniting the lamp. We also establish the transmission-parameter model for the piezoelectric resonant-type inverter to provide the base for the electric-power circuit design. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed system possesses some advantages, such as greater energy efficiency, circuitry simplicity, and so on, and is suitable for night lighting in house yards, parks and advertising panels.

  8. Optimal Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient D2D Sharing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    modified energy per good bit (MEPG) metric, with respect to the spectrum sharing user’s transmission power and media access frame length. The cellular users, legacy users, are protected by an outage probability constraint. To optimize the non

  9. Designing multi-reservoir system designs via efficient water-energy-food nexus trade-offs - Selecting new hydropower dams for the Blue Nile and Nepal's Koshi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harou, J. J.; Hurford, A.; Geressu, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the world's multi-reservoir water resource systems are being considered for further development of hydropower and irrigation aiming to meet economic, political and ecological goals. Complex river basins serve many needs so how should the different proposed groupings of reservoirs and their operations be evaluated? How should uncertainty about future supply and demand conditions be factored in? What reservoir designs can meet multiple goals and perform robustly in a context of global change? We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems in a context of deeply uncertain change. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration across many scenarios representing plausible future conditions. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between capital costs, total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. The impact of filling period for large reservoirs is considered in a context of hydrological uncertainty. The approach is also applied to the Koshi basin in Nepal where combinations of hydropower storage and run-of-river dams are being considered for investment. We show searching for investment portfolios that meet multiple objectives provides stakeholders with a rich view on the trade-offs inherent in the nexus and how different investment bundles perform differently under plausible futures. Both case-studies show how the proposed approach helps explore and understand the implications of investing in new dams in a global change context.

  10. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  11. Mechanical energy profiles of the combined ankle-foot system in normal gait: insights for prosthetic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Stanhope, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Over the last half-century, the field of prosthetic engineering has continuously evolved with much attention being dedicated to restoring the mechanical energy properties of ankle joint musculatures during gait. However, the contributions of 'distal foot structures' (e.g., foot muscles, plantar soft tissue) have been overlooked. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total mechanical energy profiles (e.g., power, work, and work-ratio) of the natural ankle-foot system (NAFS) by combining the contributions of the ankle joint and all distal foot structures during stance in level-ground steady state walking across various speeds (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 statures/s). The results from eleven healthy subjects walking barefoot indicated ankle joint and distal foot structures generally performed opposing roles: the ankle joint performed net positive work that systematically increased its energy generation with faster walking speeds, while the distal foot performed net negative work that systematically increased its energy absorption with faster walking speeds. Accounting for these simultaneous effects, the combined ankle-foot system exhibited increased work-ratios with faster walking. Most notably, the work-ratio was not significantly greater than 1.0 during the normal walking speed of 0.8 statures/s. Therefore, a prosthetic design that strategically exploits passive-dynamic properties (e.g., elastic energy storage and return) has the potential to replicate the mechanical energy profiles of the NAFS during level-ground steady-state walking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and dynamic simulation of a novel polygeneration system fed by vegetable oil and by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Palombo, Adolfo; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel polygeneration system based on engines (RE) fed by rapeseed oil is investigated. ► RE are integrated with high temperature solar heating and cooling systems. ► The polygeneration system is dynamically investigated for a Mediterranean Climate. ► System performance is excellent from the energetic point of view. ► The system is economically profitable only in case of feed-in tariffs. - Abstract: In this paper the integration of vegetable oil-fed reciprocating engines with solar thermal collector is investigated, seeking to design a novel polygeneration system producing: electricity, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water, for a university building located in Naples (Italy), assumed as case study. The polygeneration system is based on the following main components: concentrating parabolic trough solar collector, double-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller and a reciprocating engine fed by vegetable oil. The engine operates at full load producing electrical energy which is in part consumed by the building lights and equipments, in part used by the system passive loads and the rest is eventually sold to the grid. In fact, the engine is grid connected in order to perform a convenient net metering. The system was designed and then simulated by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed using the TRNSYS software. The simulation tool developed by the authors allows one to analyze the results for different time basis (minutes, days, weeks, months and years), from both energetic and economic points of view. The economic results show that the system under investigation is profitable, especially if properly funded.

  13. Material and Structural Design of Novel Binder Systems for High-Energy, High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ye; Zhou, Xingyi; Yu, Guihua

    2017-01-01

    Developing high-performance battery systems requires the optimization of every battery component, from electrodes and electrolyte to binder systems. However, the conventional strategy to fabricate battery electrodes by casting a mixture of active materials, a nonconductive polymer binder, and a conductive additive onto a metal foil current collector usually leads to electronic or ionic bottlenecks and poor contacts due to the randomly distributed conductive phases. When high-capacity electrode materials are employed, the high stress generated during electrochemical reactions disrupts the mechanical integrity of traditional binder systems, resulting in decreased cycle life of batteries. Thus, it is critical to design novel binder systems that can provide robust, low-resistance, and continuous internal pathways to connect all regions of the electrode. Here in this Account, we review recent progress on material and structural design of novel binder systems. Nonconductive polymers with rich carboxylic groups have been adopted as binders to stabilize ultrahigh-capacity inorganic electrodes that experience large volume or structural change during charge/discharge, due to their strong binding capability to active particles. To enhance the energy density of batteries, different strategies have been adopted to design multifunctional binder systems based on conductive polymers because they can play dual functions of both polymeric binders and conductive additives. We first present that multifunctional binder systems have been designed by tailoring the molecular structures of conductive polymers. Different functional groups are introduced to the polymeric backbone to enable multiple functionalities, allowing separated optimization of the mechanical and swelling properties of the binders without detrimental effect on electronic property. Then, we describe the design of multifunctional binder systems via rationally controlling their nano- and molecular structures, developing

  14. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia; Castells, Escriva; Abanades

    2011-01-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  15. Optimal Design of Dual-Hop VLC/RF Communication System With Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Yang, Hong Chuan; Gebali, Fayez; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we consider a dual-hop heterogeneous visible light communication (VLC)/radio frequency (RF) communication system to extend the coverage of VLC systems. Besides detecting the information over VLC link, the relay is able to harvest

  16. Integrated Energy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Dvořáková, Pavla; Wyckmans, Annemie

    2014-01-01

    the development, it is essential that educational institutions foster professionals with such knowledge, skills and competences. An initiative toward this direction is the EUproject of IDES-EDU: “Master and Post-Graduate education and training in multi-disciplinary teams”. The paper describes the necessity...... of more integrated and cross-disciplinary approaches to building design through state-of-the-art of the building sector and educational initiatives in the participating countries in the project, and through theory of design processes. The paper also communicates the results of newly developed cross...

  17. Optimal design and operation of an integrated multi-energy system for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beuzekom, I.; Mazairac, L.A.J.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Cities are at the center of the sustainable development challenge. Growing urbanization, intensity of resource-usage, and related emissions lead to high incentives for local governments to act. Large-scale integration of intermittent renewable energy is an important part of their strategy. However,

  18. Design optimization model for the integration of renewable and nuclear energy in the United Arab Emirates’ power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansoori, Ali; Betancourt-Torcat, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A design optimization model for the power sector has been developed. • We examine the influence of exogenous variables in the UAE power infrastructure. • Subsidizing fuel prices will stimulate fossil-based electricity generation. • Carbon tax and higher fuel prices are suitable options to decrease air emissions. • Accounting the social benefits of emissions avoidance incentivizes diversification. - Abstract: A Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation is presented for the optimal design of the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) power system. The model was formulated in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), which is a mathematical modeling language for programming and optimization. Previous studies have either focused on the estimation of the UAE’s energy demands or the simulation of the operation of power technologies to plan future electricity supply. However, these studies have used international simulation tools such as “MARKAL” and “MESSAGE”; whereas the present work presents an optimization model. The proposed design optimization model can be used to estimate the most suitable combination of power plants under CO 2 emission and alternative energy targets, carbon tax, and social benefits of air emissions avoidance. Although the proposed model was used to estimate the future power infrastructure in the UAE, the model includes several standard power technologies; thus, it can be extended to other countries. The proposed optimization model was verified using historical data of the UAE power sector operation in the year 2011. Likewise, the proposed model was used to study the 2020 UAE power sector operations under three scenarios: domestic vs. international natural gas prices (considering different carbon tax levels), social benefits of using low emission power technologies (e.g., renewable and nuclear), and CO 2 emission constraints. The results show that the optimization model is a practical tool for designing the

  19. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Judith [Climate Forecast Applications Network, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  20. Development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system in fiscal 1998. Pt. 3. Research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology (Research on design technology for optimal system); 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 3. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes achievements during fiscal 1998 on researching part of the energy transportation and storage technologies, energy supply and utilization technologies, environmental load reducing technologies, and optimal system design in the 'research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology'. With regard to energy transportation and storage technologies, researches and developments were performed on a vacuum adiabatic transportation piping system, surfactants used for high-density heat transportation and high-density latent heat transportation technologies. In the field of energy supply and utilization technologies, researches and developments were carried out on a heat supply system using high-performance heat pumps capable of using multiple kinds of fuels, and a compression and absorption type hybrid heat utilization system. For the environmental load reducing technologies, research and development were performed on a power saving heat pump system utilizing natural coolant. In researching the optimal system design technologies, overall adjustment was made on the element technologies, whereas technological discussions and site surveys were executed by the committees at the same time. The latest achievements accomplished to date was published in a book. (NEDO)

  1. Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development. Final design report: PSD-I, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-30

    The PSD-I program provides a heat exchanger sytem consisting of an evaporator, condenser and various ancillaries with ammonia used as a working fluid in a closed simulated Rankine cycle. It is to be installed on the Chepachet Research Vessel for test and evaluation of a number of OTEC concepts in a true ocean environment. It is one of several test articles to be tested. Primary design concerns include control of biofouling, corrosion and erosion of aluminum tubes, selection of materials, and the development of a basis for scale-up to large heat exchangers so as to ultimately demonstrate economic feasibility on a commercial scale. The PSD-I test article is devised to verify thermodynamic, environmental, and mechanical performance of basic design concepts. The detailed design, development, fabrication, checklist, delivery, installation support, and operation support for the Test Article Heat Exchangers are described. (WHK)

  2. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bhaduri, P.P.; Jahan, H.; Senger, A.; Adak, R.; Samanta, S.; Prakash, A.; Dey, K.; Lebedev, A.; Kryshen, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Senger, P.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Ghosh, S.K.; Raha, S.; Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N.; Farooq, M.; Singh, B.

    2015-01-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6–45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

  3. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  4. Distributed Energy Generation Systems Based on Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Blending: New Business Models for Economic Incentives, Electricity Market Design and Regulatory Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangon, Joseph

    Expansion of distributed energy resources (DERs) including solar photovoltaics, small- and medium-sized wind farms, gas-fired distributed generation, demand-side management, and energy storage poses significant complications to the design, operation, business model, and regulation of electricity systems. Using statistical regression analysis, this dissertation assesses if increased use of natural gas results in reduced renewable energy capacity, and if natural gas growth is correlated with increased or decreased non-fossil renewable fuels demand. System Generalized Method of Moments (System GMM) estimation of the dynamic relationship was performed on the indicators in the econometric model for the ten states with the fastest growth in solar generation capacity in the U.S. (e.g., California, North Carolina, Arizona, Nevada, New Jersey, Utah, Massachusetts, Georgia, Texas, and New York) to analyze the effect of natural gas on renewable energy diffusion and the ratio of fossil fuels increase for the period 2001-2016 to policy driven solar demand. The study identified ten major drivers of change in electricity systems, including growth in distributed energy generation systems such as intermittent renewable electricity and gas-fired distributed generation; flat to declining electricity demand growth; aging electricity infrastructure and investment gaps; proliferation of affordable information and communications technologies (e.g., advanced meters or interval meters), increasing innovations in data and system optimization; and greater customer engagement. In this ongoing electric power sector transformation, natural gas and fast-flexing renewable resources (mostly solar and wind energy) complement each other in several sectors of the economy. The dissertation concludes that natural gas has a positive impact on solar and wind energy development: a 1% rise in natural gas capacity produces 0.0304% increase in the share of renewable energy in the short-run (monthly) compared

  5. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum F. HVAC systems energy analysis for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facilities proposed to be constructed in southeastern New Mexico. This report analyzes a total of ten WIPP structures to determine the most energy and economic efficient means of providing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning services. Additional analyses were performed to determine the merits of centralized versus dispersed refrigeration and heating facilities, and of performing supplemental domestic hot water heating with solar panels

  6. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Building Assessment System is a performance-based tool for determining the environmental impact of a facility from the whole-building perspective...

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 2. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the R and D of the high efficiency energy effective utilization technology, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the energy transportation/storage technology, the R and D were made on the following: methanol/energy system, non-equilibrium high efficiency methanol decomposition reaction technology, development of multiple functions of catalyst, high efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen storage alloys, heat-hydrogen recovery/transportation/utilization technology, vacuum insulated heat transport piping system, surfactant used for high density heat transport, high density latent heat transportation technology, etc. Concerning the energy supply/utilization technology, the R and D were made of the heat supply system using high efficient heat pump corresponding to multiple fuels. Relating to the environmental load reduction technology, the energy conserved heat pump system using natural coolant. As to the optimum system design technology, the comprehensive preparation of element technology, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Perron, J.

    2010-01-01

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada . Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost.

  9. Energy Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Building Energy Information Systems and Performance Monitoring (EIS-PM) Building Energy evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings. Within the and visualization capabilities to energy and facility managers. As an increasing number of

  10. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development (PSD) II. Preliminary design report. Appendix II: supporting data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    The trade studies, calculations, and reports which provide the rationale for design conclusions for the 10 MWe OTEC power system are presented in this volume. These appendices include: (1) system design and optimization model; (2) system off-design performance computer model; (3) seawater system dynamics; (4) system mechanical design studies; (5) electrical design studies; (6) structural design studies; (7) tube cleaner design report and proposed brush test program; (8) heat exchangers: mechanical design; (9) heat exchangers: thermal hydraulic computer model; (10) heat exchangers: manufacturing flow plan; (11) heat exchangers: installation and removal procedures; (12) heat exchangers: stainless steel conceptual design; (13) heat exchangers: cost studies; (14)heat exchangers: materials selection and corrosion; and (15) heat exchangers: quality assurance. (WHK)

  11. Charging electric vehicles from solar energy : Power converter, charging algorithm and system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles are only sustainable if the electricity used to charge them comes from renewable sources and not from fossil fuel based power plants. The goal of this PhD thesis is to develop a highly efficient, V2G-enabled smart charging system for electric vehicles at

  12. Design and Manufacturing of Desalination System Powered by Solar Energy Using CDI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mohammad Sajjad; Khashehchi, Morteza; Pipelzadeh, Ehsan

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging energy efficient, low pressure and low capital intensive desalination process where ions are separated by a pure electrostatic force imposed by a small bias potential as low as 1 V That funded by an external Renewable (Solar) power supply to materials with high specific surface area. The main objective of this configuration is to separate the cation and anions on oppositely charged electrodes. One of the key parameters for commercial realization of CDI is the salt adsorption capacity of the electrodes. State-of-the-art electrode materials are based on porous activated carbon particles or carbon aerogels. Various electrode materials have been developed in the past, which have suffered from instability and lack of performance. Preliminary experimental results using carbon black, graphite powder, graphene ∖ graphite ∖ PTFE (Active ∖ Conductive ∖ binder) show that the graphene reduced via urea method is a suitable method to develop CDI electrode materials. Although some progress has been made, production of efficient and stable carbon based electrode materials for large scale desalination has not been fully realized. A new desalination technique using capacitive deionization.

  13. Designing for Optimal Energy Use in Production Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    These briefing charts accompany a presentation on how Albert Kahn Associate saves its clients energy costs through building structure, design of HVAC systems, lighting systems, process related systems...

  14. Evolving energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis presents scenarios of future energy systems, a cost-benefit analysis of measures to avoid greenhouse-gas emissions, an analysis of the effect of energy prices on end-use efficiencies and fuel choices, and an evaluation of financial-incentive programs designed to induce investments in efficient energy use. Twelve integrated energy supply/demand scenarios for the Swedish heat-and-power sector are presented to illustrate the potential for improvements in end-use efficiency and increased utilization of renewable energy sources. The results show that greenhouse-gas emissions could be reduced by 35 per cent from 1987 levels by 2010, with a net economic benefit compared to a business-as-usual scenario. A generalized methodology for calculating the net costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions is applied to a variety of fuel choices and energy end-use technologies. A key finding is that a combination of increased end-use efficiencies and use of renewable energy systems is required to achieve maximum cost-effective emissions reductions. End-use efficiencies and inter-fuel competition in Denmark and Sweden are compared during a time period in which real electricity prices were declining in Sweden and increasing in Denmark. Despite these different price environments, efficiencies and choices of heating fuels did not generally develop as expected according to economic theory. The influences of counter-price and non-price factors are important in understanding this outcome. Relying on prices alone injects considerable uncertainty into the energy planning process, and precludes efficiency improvements and fuel choices attainable with other mechanisms. Incentive programs can be used to promote energy-efficient technologies. Utilities in Europe have recently offered financial incentives intended to stimulate the adoption of compact-fluorescent lamps. These programs have been cost-effective in comparison to new electric supply. (au).

  15. Co-designing energy landscapes: Application of participatory mapping and geographic information systems in the exploration of low carbon futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Picchi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The chapter begins with a literature review of energy potential mapping, ecosystem services (ES) assessment and participatory mapping (PM). PM is a key technique to conduct tradeoff analysis while co-designing sustainable energy landscapes (SEL) with local communities. Stakeholders, among others,

  16. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  17. Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis

  18. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  19. Optimum autonomous stand-alone photovoltaic system design on the basis of energy pay-back analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Zafirakis, D.; Kondili, E.

    2009-01-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems comprise one of the most promising electrification solutions for covering the demand of remote consumers. However, such systems are strongly questioned due to extreme life-cycle (LC) energy requirements. For similar installations to be considered as environmentally sustainable, their LC energy content must be compensated by the respective useful energy production, i.e. their energy pay-back period (EPBP) should be found less than their service period. In this context, an optimum sizing methodology is currently developed, based on the criterion of minimum embodied energy. Various energy autonomous stand-alone PV-lead-acid battery systems are examined and two different cases are investigated; a high solar potential area and a medium solar potential area. By considering that the PV-battery (PV-Bat) system's useful energy production is equal to the remote consumer's electricity consumption, optimum cadmium telluride (CdTe) based systems yield the minimum EPBP (15 years). If achieving to exploit the net PV energy production however, the EPBP is found less than 20 years for all PV types. Finally, the most interesting finding concerns the fact that in all cases examined the contribution of the battery component exceeds 27% of the system LC energy requirements, reflecting the difference between grid-connected and stand-alone configurations.

  20. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  1. A multi-agent decentralized energy management system based on distributed intelligence for the design and control of autonomous polygeneration microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavas, Christos-Spyridon; Kyriakarakos, George; Arvanitis, Konstantinos G.; Papadakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A decentralized energy management system based on multi agent systems theory. • A decentralized energy management system is technically feasible. • A decentralized approach utilizes the devices better than a centralized one. • A decentralized energy management system is economically competitive. - Abstract: The autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology has been developed in order to cover holistically needs in a remote area such as electrical energy, space heating and cooling, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as fuel for transportation. The existence of an advanced energy management system is essential for the operation of an autonomous polygeneration microgrid. So far, energy management systems based on a centralized management and control have been developed for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology based on computational intelligence approaches. A decentralized management and control energy management system can have important benefits, when taking into consideration the autonomous character of these microgrids. This paper presents the design and investigation of a decentralized energy management system for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology. The decentralized energy management system gives the possibility to control each unit of the microgrid independently. The most important advantage of using a decentralized architecture is that the managed microgrid has much higher chances of partial operation in cases when malfunctions occur at different parts of it, instead of a complete system breakdown. The designed system was based on a multi-agent system and employed Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for its implementation. It was then compared through a case study with an existing centralized energy management system. The technical performance of the decentralized solution performance is on par with the existing centralized one, presenting improvements in financial and operational terms for the implementation and

  2. A New Method of Technical Analysis to Optimise the Design of Low Impact Energy Systems for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Lieto Vollaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption for civil constructions represents about 40% of total energy requirements, so it is necessary to achieve the goal of energy savings and the consequent reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. The study in content aims to provide a design methodology enables to identify the best plant configuration for buildings from a technical, economic and environmental point of view. To assess validity of the calculation model, an analysis of an historical building was carried out in combination with two softwares of proven reliability: TRNSYS, used to evaluate the thermal demand of users, and RETScreen, used to estimate the validity of the chosen energy model.

  3. Development of a Performance Analysis Code for the Off-design conditions of a S-CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yong-Hwan; Cha, Jae-Eun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-O

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled to KALIMER-600, a thermal balance has been established on 100% power operating conditions including all the reactor system models such as a primary heat transport system (PHTS), an intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), and an energy conversion system. The S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system consists of a sodium-CO2 heat exchanger (Hx), turbine, high temperature recuperate (HTR), low temperature recuperate (LTR), precooler, compressor no.1, and compressor no.2. Two compressors were employed to avoid a sharp change of the physical properties near their critical point with a corresponding pressure. The component locations and their operating conditions are illustrated. Energy balance of the power conversion system in KALIMER-600 was designed with the full power condition of each component. Therefore, to predict the off-design conditions and to evaluate each component, an off-design performance analysis code should be accomplished. An off-design performance analysis could be classified into overall system control logic and local system control logic. The former means that mass flow rate and power are controlled by valves, and the latter implies that a bypass or inventory control is an admitted system balance. The ultimate goal of this study is development of the overall system control logic

  4. Towards the Comprehensive Design of Energy Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.; Kunneke, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Energy infrastructures are increasingly perceived as complex, adaptive socio-technical systems. Their design has not kept up; it is still fragmented between an engineering and economic dimension. While economists focus on a market design that addresses potential market failures and imperfections,

  5. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 3); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the (techniques for transportation and storage of energy (continued), energy supply and utilization, reducing environmental loads, and designing the optimum systems). The R and D on heat transfer system through the vacuum heat insulation pipes involves fabrication, on a trial basis, the vacuum insulation covers for the vacuum insulation tubes, joints, flanges and valves for the 80A pipes, and the heat loss evaluation test for each item. The R and D on the energy supply and utilization techniques involves the heat transfer systems for a variety of fuels by the highly functional heat pump, and compression/absorption hybrid type heat-utilization system. The hybrid type heat-utilization system simulation results suggest possibility of achieving exergy efficiency of 56% as the development target by use of the new medium. The R and D on the environmental load reduction involves the power-saving type heat pump systems which use a natural coolant. (NEDO)

  6. FAULT PROPAGATION AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS FOR DESIGNING AN ONLINE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SECONDARY LOOP OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PART OF A HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huijuan; Diao, Xiaoxu; Li, Boyuan; Smidts, Carol; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies the propagation and effects of faults of critical components that pertain to the secondary loop of a nuclear power plant found in Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES). This information is used to design an on-line monitoring (OLM) system which is capable of detecting and forecasting faults that are likely to occur during NHES operation. In this research, the causes, features, and effects of possible faults are investigated by simulating the propagation of faults in the secondary loop. The simulation is accomplished by using the Integrated System Failure Analysis (ISFA). ISFA is used for analyzing hardware and software faults during the conceptual design phase. In this paper, the models of system components required by ISFA are initially constructed. Then, the fault propagation analysis is implemented, which is conducted under the bounds set by acceptance criteria derived from the design of an OLM system. The result of the fault simulation is utilized to build a database for fault detection and diagnosis, provide preventive measures, and propose an optimization plan for the OLM system.

  7. Designing a Model for the Glogbal Energy System—GENeSYS-MOD: An Application of the Open-Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Löffler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a path for the global energy system up to 2050, presenting a new application of the open-source energy modeling system (OSeMOSYS to the community. It allows quite disaggregate energy and emission analysis: Global Energy System Model (GENeSYS-MOD uses a system of linear equations of the energy system to search for lowest-cost solutions for a secure energy supply, given externally defined constraints, mainly in terms of CO2-emissions. The general algebraic modeling system (GAMS version of OSeMOSYS is updated to the newest version and, in addition, extended and enhanced to include e.g., a modal split for transport, an improved trading system, and changes to storages. The model can be scaled from small-scale applications, e.g., a company, to cover the global energy system. The paper also includes an application of GENeSYS-MOD to analyze decarbonization scenarios at the global level, broken down into 10 regions. Its main focus is on interdependencies between traditionally segregated sectors: electricity, transportation, and heating; which are all included in the model. Model calculations suggests that in order to achieve the 1.5–2 °C target, a combination of renewable energy sources provides the lowest-cost solution, solar photovoltaic being the dominant source. Average costs of electricity generation in 2050 are about 4 €cents/kWh (excluding infrastructure and transportation costs.

  8. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach to the optimal design of heat network in a polygeneration energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Pei; Zhou, Zhe; Ma, Linwei; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of heat streams with HRSG in a polygeneration system is studied. • A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is proposed to optimize heat network. • Operating parameters and heat network configuration are optimized simultaneously. • The optimized heat network highly depends on the HRSG type and model specification. - Abstract: A large number of heat flows at various temperature and pressure levels exist in a polygeneration plant which co-produces electricity and chemical products. Integration of these external heat flows in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) has great potential to further enhance energy efficiency of such a plant; however, it is a challenging problem arising from the large design space of heat exchanger network. In this paper, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed for the design optimization of a HRSG with consideration of all alternative matches between the HRSG and external heat flows. This model is applied to four polygeneration cases with different HRSG types, and results indicate that the optimized heat network mainly depends on the HRSG type and the model specification

  9. Energy manager design for microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services such as voltage support and emergency demand response. Local aggregations of distributed energy resources (DER) that may include active control of on-site end-use energy devices can be called microgrids. Microgrids require control to ensure safe operation and to make dispatch decisions that achieve system objectives such as cost minimization, reliability, efficiency and emissions requirements, while abiding by system constraints and regulatory rules. This control is performed by an energy manager (EM). Preferably, an EM will achieve operation reasonably close to the attainable optimum, it will do this by means robust to deviations from expected conditions, and it will not itself incur insupportable capital or operation and maintenance costs. Also, microgrids can include supervision over end-uses, such as curtailing or rescheduling certain loads. By viewing a unified microgrid as a system of supply and demand, rather than simply a system of on-site generation devices, the benefits of integrated supply and demand control can be exploited, such as economic savings and improved system energy efficiency

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Study of energy system designing technology (Research into factory area energy system); Koiki energy riyo network system kaihatsu, energy system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kojogun no energy system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Actualities of exhaust heat and demand for heat in the area are investigated on the result of which a wide-area energy utilization network system will be built. In fiscal 1998, further questionnaires are distributed in addition to last fiscal year's, and door-to-door visits are made on leading factories representing 10 types of industries. The result of data analysis places the nationwide total of exhaust heat at 320,000 Tcal/year including heat generated by electric power generation. When it is so defined that usable heat be above 150 degrees C for exhaust gas, above 40 degrees C for hot water, and above 200 degrees for solids, the total will be reduced to 230,000 Tcal/year. Cleaning plants (plants that treat refuse or sewage) as the sources of exhaust heat besides the factories are investigated for the amount of heat they discharge, and then it is found that the amount of heat they discharge is the fourth largest following electric power plants, iron and steel mills, and chemical plants. It is also found that most of their exhaust heat is of good quality because it is latent in steam or hot water. It is acknowledged, partly because many of such plants are situated relatively near to the urban district, that their role is important when studies are made on the utilization of exhaust heat. (NEDO)

  11. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  12. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  13. System management model based on the design SWOT-matrix and quality management system for energy complex enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Novikov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with categorical apparatus of information management systems to build a model pairing SWOT-matrix and the quality management system, which is especially important for the energytion industry.

  14. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System Using Entropy Weight Method Based on HOMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of hybrid energy system (HES is generally considered as a promising way to satisfy the electrification requirements for remote areas. In the present study, a novel decision making methodology is proposed to identify the best compromise configuration of HES from a set of feasible combinations obtained from HOMER. For this purpose, a multi-objective function, which comprises four crucial and representative indices, is formulated by applying the weighted sum method. The entropy weight method is employed as a quantitative methodology for weighting factors calculation to enhance the objectivity of decision-making. Moreover, the optimal design of a stand-alone PV/wind/battery/diesel HES in Yongxing Island, China, is conducted as a case study to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Both the simulation and optimization results indicate that, the optimization method is able to identify the best trade-off configuration among system reliability, economy, practicability and environmental sustainability. Several useful conclusions are given by analyzing the operation of the best configuration.

  15. Design principles and requirements for the ICT of future smart energy systems; Designprinzipien und Anforderungen an die IKT fuer intelligente Energiesysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eger, Kolja [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Mohr, Werner [Nokia Siemens Networks Management International GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabling technology for Smart Grids. With respect to very short innovation cycles for ICT compared to longer innovation cycles for the transition of the energy system there is a huge challenge to develop and exploit the potential of future ICT and their application in a future intelligent energy system. Different ICT technologies, such as Internet of Things or Cloud Computing are intensively being discussed. They can be summarized under the term ''Future Internet''. The EU project FINSENY is investigating the potential of Future Internet concepts and technologies in particular for Smart Energy systems. A series of design principles and the necessary ICT are developed, which are described in this paper. These design principles such as open interfaces, security-by-design, simplicity, maintenance, auto-configuration and modularity are of general nature. They will remain despite technology developments. Furthermore, several design principles are not only applicable to ICT but they are also related to design principles of intelligent energy systems like decentralized energy generation systems. (orig.)

  16. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  17. Design energy spectra for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    López Almansa, Francisco; Yazgan, Ahmet Utku; Benavent Climent, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of velocity, derived through linear dynamic analyses on Turkish registers and intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; in the short period range, the spectra are more sensitive to the structural parameters and nonlinear analyses would be re...

  18. Precoding Design of MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Communication System With an Energy Harvesting Relay and Possibly Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication system where the relay is an energy harvesting (EH) node

  19. Daylight prediction techniques in energy design tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, M.; Zurick, J. [California Univ., Los Angeles, Dept. of Architecture, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Four different whole-building energy design tool systems that calculate energy savings from daylighting and that display annual performance on an-hour-by-hour basis, have been tested. The nature of design tools, the sources of hourly outdoor illuminance data, the ways of predicting indoor illumination, the assumptions of each tool, and the resulting energy savings of the design tools tested are discussed. The tests were carried out with the essential criteria for evaluating whole-building daylighting and energy design tools in mind. These have been identified as user confidence, accuracy, response time, and the amount of detail. Results of the tests, all four of them run on a single elementary school classroom for the sake of comparability, were provided. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Design, performance and cost of energy from high concentration and flat-plate utility-scale PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent study to assess the near-term cost of power in central station applications. Three PV technologies were evaluated: Fresnel-lens high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV), central receiver HCPV, and flat-plate PV using thin-film copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. Baseline assumptions included PV cell designs and performances projected for the 1995 timeframe, 25 and 100 MW/year cell manufacturing rates, 50 MW power plant size, and mature technology cost and performance estimates. The plant design characteristics are highlighted. Potential sites were evaluated and selected for the PV power plants (Carrisa Plains, CA and Apalachicola, FL) and cell manufacturing plants (Dallas-Fort Worth, TX). Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for the plants and their components. Plant performance was modeled and the designs were optimized to minimize levelized energy costs. Overall, the flat plate design exhibited the lowest energy costs among the designs evaluated. Its levelized energy costs at the Carrisa Plains site were estimated to be 11.8 and 10.8 cents/kWh (1990 $) for 25 and 100 MW/year module production rates, respectively. This meets the 12 cents/kWh DOE near-term goal. The energy cost of the Fresnel lens plant (at Carrisa Plains and a 100 MW/year cell production rate) was estimated to be 12.4 cents/kWh and the corresponding central receiver energy cost was estimated to be 13.1 cents/kWh, both of which are very close to the DOE goal. Further design optimization efforts are still warranted and can be expected to reduce plant capital costs

  1. Product-Service System Design Approach for the Base of the Pyramid Markets: Practical Evidence from the Energy Sector in the Brazilian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa Junior, J.; Diehl, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In Emerging Markets, the product-service system (PSS) design approach may represent a promising solution as a socially and environmentally sound path to economic development. In addition, the energy sector has a major role for the social-economic development and is central to poverty alleviation. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the challenges of increasing the well-being of the lowincome population by means of proposing functional systems of products and services for the energy sector w...

  2. System analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seung Hui

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with information technology and business process, information system architecture, methods of system development, plan on system development like problem analysis and feasibility analysis, cases for system development, comprehension of analysis of users demands, analysis of users demands using traditional analysis, users demands analysis using integrated information system architecture, system design using integrated information system architecture, system implementation, and system maintenance.

  3. Development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system in fiscal 1998. Pt. 1. Research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology (Research on design technology for optimal system); 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes achievements of the researches during fiscal 1998 on researching a highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology. With regard to technologies to recover and convert unutilized energies, a process simulator was developed, basic internal structure was discussed by experiments and simulation, and substance migrating and heat exchanging characteristics were identified by using partial testing devices. These researches and developments were performed for the waste heat reforming and recovering systems used in chemical plants. In developing a thermoelectric generation system using low calorie exhaust gases, thermoelectric power generating materials were developed, a powder manufacturing technology was developed, a thermoelectric conversion element bulking technology was developed, a thermoelectric power generation system using porous structures was simulated, development and concept design were carried out on system element technologies. In the research and development of the thermoelectric generation system using low calorie exhaust gases, advanced materials and modules were manufactured, the modules were evaluated, and power generation systems were researched. In addition, researches were performed on energy transportation, supply and utilization technologies, and on environmental load reducing technologies. (NEDO)

  4. Design of a Closed-Loop, Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface System With Energy Efficient Neural Feature Extraction and PID Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional brain machine interface (BMI) microsystem designed for closed-loop neuroscience research, especially experiments in freely behaving animals. The system-on-chip (SoC) consists of 16-channel neural recording front-ends, neural feature extraction units, 16-channel programmable neural stimulator back-ends, in-channel programmable closed-loop controllers, global analog-digital converters (ADC), and peripheral circuits. The proposed neural feature extraction units includes 1) an ultra low-power neural energy extraction unit enabling a 64-step natural logarithmic domain frequency tuning, and 2) a current-mode action potential (AP) detection unit with time-amplitude window discriminator. A programmable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has been integrated in each channel enabling a various of closed-loop operations. The implemented ADCs include a 10-bit voltage-mode successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for the digitization of the neural feature outputs and/or local field potential (LFP) outputs, and an 8-bit current-mode SAR ADC for the digitization of the action potential outputs. The multi-mode stimulator can be programmed to perform monopolar or bipolar, symmetrical or asymmetrical charge balanced stimulation with a maximum current of 4 mA in an arbitrary channel configuration. The chip has been fabricated in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology, occupying a silicon area of 3.7 mm 2 . The chip dissipates 56 μW/ch on average. General purpose low-power microcontroller with Bluetooth module are integrated in the system to provide wireless link and SoC configuration. Methods, circuit techniques and system topology proposed in this work can be used in a wide range of relevant neurophysiology research, especially closed-loop BMI experiments.

  5. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Research on energy system design technology (Research on Eco-Energy City systematization); Eco ene toshi no system ka kenkyu 1999 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Efforts are being exerted to develop systems for effectively utilizing various kinds of waste heat in presence in cities and their neighborhood. In fiscal 1999, investigations were conducted into cases of low temperature waste heat utilization at 16 locations in Japan and into trends of heat utilization in five European countries, with a visit paid to European District Heating Association. There are 128 district heat supplying sites in service in Japan, of which 25 handles low temperature waste heat. As for their types of utilization, 12 are of the temperature difference energy utilization type while 13 are of the heat recovery type. When it comes to the system details, the importance of proper selection of structures and materials for heat accumulating systems and heat exchangers on the secondary side should be emphasized although it is the heat pump that assumes the key role. In Europe, indications are that district systems are developing into wide-area networks and that they are growing increasingly marketable. In the northern and eastern parts of Europe, 30-70% of demand for heat is met by district heating. Waste heat from power generation is the heat source, and this occupies 30-80% of the whole. Thanks to the introduction of the environmental tax, in addition, environments are now complete under which recoverable energy utilization will enjoy an advantageous position. (NEDO)

  6. Trenton ICES: demonstration of a grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II. Volumes 1 and 2. Preliminary design of ICES system and analysis of community ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Preliminary design and evaluation for the system has been carried out. The findings of this study are: (1) it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; (2) under utility ownership and operation, it will not be economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings (analysis contained in companion report under separate cover); (3) under utility ownership and operation, no restrictions have been identified that would prevent the project from proceeding; (4) under community ownership, preliminary analysis indicates that thermal energy produced by Trenton ICES will be approximately 12 percent less expensive than thermal energy produced by oil-fired boilers; and (5) a review and update of institutional analyses performed during Phase 2 has identified no factors that would preclude community ownership and operation of the Trenton ICES. The background data produced for the analysis of the Trenton ICES based on utility ownership and operation can, in large part, be used as the bases for a detailed analysis of community ownership.

  7. The Danish Perspective of Energy Internet: From Service-oriented Flexibility Trading to Integrated Design, Planning and Operation of Multiple Cross-sectoral Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Jin, Lin; Hu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the success of internet technologies, energy internet, also referred as web-based smart grid (SG) or SG 2.0, is expected to offer innovative applications based on advanced connectivity and intelligent management of distributed energy resources (DER), systems and services with a strong...

  8. Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Pnevmatikatos, Dionisios; Sklavos, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for modern applications of embedded systems design, using field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices.  Coverage includes state-of-the-art research from academia and industry on a wide range of topics, including advanced electronic design automation (EDA), novel system architectures, embedded processors, arithmetic, dynamic reconfiguration and applications. Describes a variety of methodologies for modern embedded systems design;  Implements methodologies presented on FPGAs; Covers a wide variety of applications for reconfigurable embedded systems, including Bioinformatics, Communications and networking, Application acceleration, Medical solutions, Experiments for high energy physics, Astronomy, Aerospace, Biologically inspired systems and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  9. PBFA II energy storage section design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    PBFA II will be the second thirty-six module accelerator built at Sandia National Laboratories for particle beam fusion feasibility studies. Each module of the machine will deliver 2.8 terawatts to a central experimental chamber. The total power delivered (100 terawatts) is expected to permit ignition scaling studies beginning in 1986. The PBFA II energy storage system consists of thirty-six 6.0 mv, 400 kj. Marx generators with their high voltage trigger and charging systems, and electromechanical output switching system. The paper describes the current design of this section of the machine. Constraints imposed by the existing tank and building are presented, as they relate to locating support systems in the oil section of PBFA II. The charging system and output switches have been designed and are described. A conceptual design for the Marx triggering system is also presented. Additional hardware (monitors, grounding connections, etc.) is discussed briefly with design details given where available

  10. Promoting sustainable energy systems through networks. A framework for network design developed using the case of BASE (Basel Agency for Sustainable Energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlup, M.

    2001-09-01

    only allow network growth. The conclusions of the thesis are that network design is not different from a general methodology when addressing Sustainable Energy Systems, even though there are a number of particularities. The basic difference for the network discussed in the thesis is the integration of actors along the value chain, i.e. the networking of actors with fundamentally different goals and activities. This can create problems in the network through inequitable distribution of power and creates and increased potential for conflicts. Also, trust will only emerge if a minimum degree of formalization secures confidentiality of business secrecies and if the network itself and the coordinator are politically neutral. Flexibility of participants is necessary as types of contributions to the network will vary due to the different resource availability and because different time-scales are used between business organisations and sustainability-oriented promoting organisations. (abstract truncated)

  11. Model for optimum design of standalone hybrid renewable energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An optimization model for the design of a hybrid renewable energy microgrid ... and increasing the rated power of the wind energy conversion system (WECS) or solar ... a 70% reduction in gas emissions and an 80% reduction in energy costs.

  12. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  13. Energy Monitoring System Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novan Zulkarnain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM encourages the energy savings at whole buildings in Indonesia. Energy Monitoring System (EMS is a web-based solution to monitor energy usage in a building. The research methods used are the analysis, prototype design and testing. EMSconsists of hardware which consists of electrical sensors, temperature-humidity sensor, and a computer. Data on EMS are designed using Modbus protocol, stored in MySQL database application, and displayed on charts through Dashboard on LED TV using PHP programming.

  14. System design of a proton linac for the neutron science project at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Ouchi, Nobuo; Honda, Yoichiro; Ino, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP). The NSP requires pulse and CW proton beams with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power up to 8MW. This paper describes design concepts and parameters of the linac. A front end part of the linac, which consists of RFQ, DTL and SDTL sections, uses normal conducting structures and a high energy part uses superconducting (SC) structures. The linac has two injector lines for the pulse and the CW modes, respectively, and the two lines merge at 7 MeV. The total linac length is approximately 900 m and most of the part (>75%) is the superconducting section. An equipartitioning design, which is a new idea to suppress an emittance growth for high power linacs, has been taken for the DTL, the SDTL and the SC sections. Compared with the conventional constant phase advance design scheme, the equipartitioning design scheme is proved to be a good approach to suppress the longitudinal emittance growth. (author)

  15. Precoding Design of MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Communication System With an Energy Harvesting Relay and Possibly Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2017-03-02

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication system where the relay is an energy harvesting (EH) node and harvests the energy the signals transmitted from the source. The harvested energy is partially used to forward signals from the source to the destination, and the remaining energy is stored for other usages. The SWIPT in relay-assisted communication is interesting as long as the relay stores energy from the source and the destination receives successfully the data from the source. In this context, we propose to investigate the source and relay precoders that characterize the relationship between the achievable stored energy at the relay and the achievable sourceto- destination rate, namely the rate-stored energy (R-E) tradeo region. First, we consider the ideal scheme where there is the simultaneous operation of the EH and ID receivers at the relay. Then, we consider practical schemes such as the power splitting (PS) and the time switching (TS) that separate the operation of EH and information decoding (ID) receivers over power domain or time domain, respectively. Moreover, we study the case of imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the relay and the destination and characterize its impact on the achievable R-E region. Through the simulation results, we show the eect of the position of the relay and the channel uncertainty on the achievable R-E regions of all the schemes when the used energy at the relay is constant or variable. We also show that, although it provides an outer bound on the achievable rate-energy region in one-hop MIMO systems, the ideal scheme provides only an upper bound on the maximum achievable end-to-end rate and not an outer bound on the R-E region.

  16. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  17. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  18. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    determine how well a solar photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage can provide backup power to . These analyses will result in a design guide for climate-specific sizing of the system. NREL's Erfan , feasibility, and operational analyses for photovoltaic and concentrating solar power generation projects

  19. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  20. Validation of a Tool for the Initial Dynamic Design of Mooring Systems for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    -source boundary element method code NEMOH and the commercial time-domain mooring analysis tool OrcaFlex. The work used the wind/wave energy converter Floating Power Plant as a case study, which is defined as a large floating structure with a passive mooring system. The investigated mooring consists of a three...

  1. The role of the design and operation of individual heating systems for the energy retrofits of residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terés-Zubiaga, J.; Campos-Celador, A.; González-Pino, I.; Diarce, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal renovation of buildings is analysed by dynamic simulation. • Different envelope and individual heating options are considered. • Temperature set point plays the most important role in the energy consumption. • Condensing boilers increase 10% the energy savings compared to regular ones. • The rebound effect can cause significant differences on energy consumption. - Abstract: The feasibility of individual natural gas fired boiler-based heating systems in the retrofitting of buildings constructed in the 50–60 s in Bilbao (northern Spain) is evaluated in this paper. A holistic approach through dynamic simulations using TRNSYS is employed for the purpose. An existing dwelling previously monitored and used to validate the model applied is selected as a case study. 54 different scenarios are evaluated, which arise from the combination of 3 different envelope options, 2 types of heat production units, 3 heat production temperatures and 3 comfort temperature set-points. The cases are evaluated in terms of energy results, economic aspects, and the influence of user behaviour. Regarding the latter, the influence of the potential rebound effect is also evaluated. The results show energy savings nearby 10% when condensing boilers are compared with high efficiency boilers. In relation to hot water production temperature, energy savings between 5 and 10% are found when the temperature is lowered from 60 to 50 °C. The greatest impact on energy consumption is related to the occupants’ behaviour: reductions up to 89% are achieved if the indoor temperature set-point is lowered 2 °C. This is reinforced with the results related to the rebound effect, which show significant differences on energy consumption values. These evidences demonstrate that the user behaviour is an essential feature to be considered in studies regarding buildings energy performance. As a consequence, the holistic approach herein employed emerges as a key tool to be applied in

  2. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  3. Analysis, Design, Modeling, and Control of an Interleaved-Boost Full-Bridge Three-Port Converter for Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of an isolated dc-dc three-port converter (TPC) based on an interleaved-boost full-bridge converter with pulsewidth modulation (PWM) and phase-shift control for hybrid renewable energy systems. In the proposed topology, the switches are driven...

  4. Product-Service System Design Approach for the Base of the Pyramid Markets : Practical Evidence from the Energy Sector in the Brazilian Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Costa Junior, J.; Diehl, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In Emerging Markets, the product-service system (PSS) design approach may represent a promising solution as a socially and environmentally sound path to economic development. In addition, the energy sector has a major role for the social-economic development and is central to poverty alleviation.

  5. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report. [ODSP-3 code; OTEC Steady-State Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The following appendices are included; Dynamic Simulation Program (ODSP-3); sample results of dynamic simulation; trip report - NH/sub 3/ safety precautions/accident records; trip report - US Coast Guard Headquarters; OTEC power system development, preliminary design test program report; medium turbine generator inspection point program; net energy analysis; bus bar cost of electricity; OTEC technical specifications; and engineer drawings. (WHK)

  6. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The Design Energy Consumption shall be calculated by modeling the Proposed Design using the same methods...

  7. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  8. Energy and environment design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, K. [Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    The Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) released an Environment Policy for architects in September 1994 which forms part of the RAIA Code of Professional Conduct. Prior to releasing the policy, it was recognised that members needed information and education in the area of energy and environment in order to adopt and implement the guide. This document is a report on the scope, work programme and achievements of a project to provide an easy reference resource for architects and other building designers, and bring together a wide range of information and research. It includes the Environment Policy as an appendix. The project produced 24 notes entitled the `Environment Design Guide - energy/environment notes` covering a wide range of topics, and four newsletters. Feedback received from architects to date indicates that the development of the notes has had a positive effect on their knowledge of these issues, resulting in the making of informed design decisions. The topics covered by the notes are expected to expand in 1996 with the preparation of additional notes which provide information on products and sustainable construction.

  9. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  10. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 1); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1 Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the 'techniques for recovery and conversion of unutilized energy'. The R and D on waste heat recovery and conversion for chemical plants designs an internal structure of the 'wetted wall column for shell side as the stripping section' for increasing quantity of heat exchanged inside, and stably operates the bench plant for 100 hours or more. The R and D on thermoelectric power generating systems using low calorie exhaust gases involves development of materials, production of fine particle materials and sinters, and evaluation of their functions, among others. The program for application of the techniques to commercial plants confirms applicability of a 3kg thermoelectric power generating system to automobile coating process. The R and D on systems for thermoelectric recovery of low-temperature waste heat finds cracks on the ceramic plate for the power generating system WATT100, disassembled for repair. (NEDO)

  11. Renewable energy covernance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system introduces an inefficient competition between energy robots, and weakens the increasingly important competition between equipment producers. It hampers the competition between investors by making it difficult for neighbours and local investors to invest in wind turbines. Due to its mono price character, it gives too high profits to wind turbine owners at very good wind sites, and not high enough to wind turbine owners at poor wind sites. The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system is very far from being a market model, as the RE amount is politically decided and the certificate market price is also political influenced. The conclusion, therefore, is that it is time to find a RE governance model that considers the specific needs and characteristics of RE technologies. The present analysis strongly indicates that a 'political price-/amount market' model in this connection is far better than the 'political quota-/certificate price market' model. Furthermore, a common EU model, based on the principle of site efficiency, would be much more flexible, cheaper and easier to pursue than the 'political quota-/certificate price market', or mono price model, which is designed for uranium and fossil fuel technologies, and represents a governance model designed for the technologies of yesterday. (EHS)

  12. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 2); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the (techniques for transportation and storage of energy). The R and D on methanol energy systems involves the R and D on decomposition and synthesis catalyst of methanol and methyl formate for the waste heat sources of relatively low temperature. The R and D on high-efficiency techniques using hydrogen-occluding alloys involves development of heat exchangers of low sensible heat ratio, fabrication of double-effect type MH heat pump cycle devices, and demonstration tests for the system operation. It is found that the heat output of the hydrogen-occluding alloy for high temperature use is 0.18kW/kg at 90 degrees C, and that the alloy can be massively produced. A thermal utilization efficiency COP of 0.68 is obtained for the double-effect type MH heat pump cycles. The R and D on the heat-hydrogen recovery, transportation and utilization techniques involves designs and fabrication on a trial basis of a sensible heat recovery unit. (NEDO)

  13. Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    • To reduce the costs of energy towards 2050 This transition faces many challenges from a variety of different perspectives, including: • Technology: The development of new technologies and infrastructures, which will enable us to utilise renewable energy resources. • Business: The design of new markets...

  14. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1977-01-01

    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  15. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  16. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  17. Optimal Design of Complex Passive-Damping Systems for Vibration Control of Large Structures: An Energy-to-Peak Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palacios-Quiñonero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new design strategy that makes it possible to synthesize decentralized output-feedback controllers by solving two successive optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI constraints. In the initial LMI optimization problem, two auxiliary elements are computed: a standard state-feedback controller, which can be taken as a reference in the performance assessment, and a matrix that facilitates a proper definition of the main LMI optimization problem. Next, by solving the second optimization problem, the output-feedback controller is obtained. The proposed strategy extends recent results in static output-feedback control and can be applied to design complex passive-damping systems for vibrational control of large structures. More precisely, by taking advantages of the existing link between fully decentralized velocity-feedback controllers and passive linear dampers, advanced active feedback control strategies can be used to design complex passive-damping systems, which combine the simplicity and robustness of passive control systems with the efficiency of active feedback control. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a passive-damping system for the seismic protection of a five-story building is designed with excellent results.

  18. Designing automatic resupply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, M L

    1999-02-01

    This article outlines the process for designing and implementing autoresupply systems. The planning process includes determination of goals and appropriate participation. Different types of autoresupply mechanisms include kanban, breadman, consignment, systems contracts, and direct shipping from an MRP schedule.

  19. Energy Systems Integration Facility News | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility News Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Dataset A massive amount of wind data was recently made accessible online, greatly expanding the Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has completed technology validation testing for Go

  20. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  1. Under Voltage Lock-Out Design Rules for Proper Start-Up of Energy Autonomous Systems Powered by Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitier, V.; Durand Estèbe, P.; Monthéard, R.; Bafleur, M.; Dilhac, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with the issue of the initial start-up of an autonomous and battery-free system powered by an energy harvester associated with a storage subsystem based on supercapacitors initially discharged. A review of different low power Under Voltage Lock-Out (UVLO) solutions used to delay the load start-up and to avoid a useless discharge of supercapacitors is presented and discussed.

  2. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  3. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  4. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  5. What Is Energy Systems Integration? | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL What Is Energy Systems Integration? What Is Energy Systems Integration? Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to Research Community NREL is a founding member of the International Institute for Energy Systems Integration

  6. Design of USB/RS485 converter and its application in slow control data collection system of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xihui; Xie Song; Gao Cuishan; Xie Xiaoxi; Nie Zhendong; Zhang Yinhong; Gao Lu

    2005-01-01

    Most of traditional data collection systems are based on RS232/485 converter. Such a system can only realize the point-to-point connection and its branches cannot work independently. So it brings on lots of inconvenience in debugging, installing and maintenance. On the other hand, the widely used Universal Serial Bus (USB) has many advantages such as hot-plugging, easy to extend, convenient in installing and occupying less system resources. So if USB could be used in data collection system, it would bring on lots of convenience to the system and its branches could be work independently. The design of USB-485 converter and its application are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  7. Multi-objective design and operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Triple Combined-cycle Power Generation systems: Integrating energy efficiency and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifzadeh, Mahdi; Meghdari, Mojtaba; Rashtchian, Davood

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrating Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with thermal power plants enhance overall energy efficiency. • However, the high degree of process integration in hybrid power plants limits the operating window. • Multi-objective optimization was applied for integrated design and operation. • The Pareto optimal solutions demonstrated strong trade-off between energy efficiency and operational safety. - Abstract: Energy efficiency is one of the main pathways for energy security and environmental protection. In fact, the International Energy Agency asserts that without energy efficiency, 70% of targeted emission reductions are not achievable. Despite this clarity, enhancing the energy efficiency introduce significant challenge toward process operation. The reason is that the methods applied for energy-saving pose the process operation at the intersection of safety constraints. The present research aims at uncovering the trade-off between safe operation and energy efficiency; an optimization framework is developed that ensures process safety and simultaneously optimizes energy-efficiency, quantified in economic terms. The developed optimization framework is demonstrated for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation system. The significance of this industrial application is that SOFC power plants apply a highly degree of process integration resulting in very narrow operating windows. However, they are subject to significant uncertainties in power demand. The results demonstrate a strong trade-off between the competing objectives. It was observed that highly energy-efficient designs feature a very narrow operating window and limited flexibility. For instance, expanding the safe operating window by 100% will incur almost 47% more annualized costs. Establishing such a trade-off is essential for realizing energy-saving.

  8. Rectenna system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.; Dickinson, R. M.; Nalos, E. J.; Ott, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The function of the rectenna in the solar power satellite system is described and the basic design choices based on the desired microwave field concentration and ground clearance requirements are given. One important area of concern, from the EMI point of view, harmonic reradiation and scattering from the rectenna is also designed. An optimization of a rectenna system design to minimize costs was performed. The rectenna cost breakdown for a 56 w installation is given as an example.

  9. Status of the design and safety project for the sodium-cooled fast reactor as a generation IV nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Fiorini, Gian-Luigi; Sim, Yoon-Sub; Lennox, Tom; Cahalan, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The Design and Safety Project Management Board (DSPMB) was established under the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) System Steering Committee (SSC) in the Generation IV international Forum. The DSPMB will promote collaborative R and D activities on reactor core design, and safety assessment for candidate systems, and also integrate these results together with those from other PMBs such as advanced fuel and component to a whole fast reactor system in order to develop high performance systems that will satisfy the goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The DSPMB has formulated the present R and D schedules for this purpose. Two SFR concepts were proposed: a loop-type system with primarily a MOX fuel core and a pool-type system with a metal fuel core. Study of innovative systems and their evaluation will also be included. The safety project will cover both the safety assessment of the design and the preparation of the methods/tools to be used for the assessment. After a rather short viability phase, the project will move to the performance phase for development of performance data and design optimization of conceptual designs. This paper describes the schedules, work packages and tasks for the collaborative studies of the member countries. (author)

  10. Development and Experimental Validation of a TRNSYS Dynamic Tool for Design and Energy Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ruiz-Calvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems stand for an efficient technology for renewable heating and cooling in buildings. To optimize not only the design but also the operation of the system, a complete dynamic model becomes a highly useful tool, since it allows testing any design modifications and different optimization strategies without actually implementing them at the experimental facility. Usually, this type of systems presents strong dynamic operating conditions. Therefore, the model should be able to predict not only the steady-state behavior of the system but also the short-term response. This paper presents a complete GSHP system model based on an experimental facility, located at Universitat Politècnica de València. The installation was constructed in the framework of a European collaborative project with title GeoCool. The model, developed in TRNSYS, has been validated against experimental data, and it accurately predicts both the short- and long-term behavior of the system.

  11. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  12. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  13. Practical RF system design

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, William F

    2003-01-01

    he ultimate practical resource for today's RF system design professionals Radio frequency components and circuits form the backbone of today's mobile and satellite communications networks. Consequently, both practicing and aspiring industry professionals need to be able to solve ever more complex problems of RF design. Blending theoretical rigor with a wealth of practical expertise, Practical RF System Design addresses a variety of complex, real-world problems that system engineers are likely to encounter in today's burgeoning communications industry with solutions that are not easily available in the existing literature. The author, an expert in the field of RF module and system design, provides powerful techniques for analyzing real RF systems, with emphasis on some that are currently not well understood. Combining theoretical results and models with examples, he challenges readers to address such practical issues as: * How standing wave ratio affects system gain * How noise on a local oscillator will affec...

  14. Designing a Portable and Low Cost Home Energy Management Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Al Mahmud, A.; De Hoogh, M.; Luxen, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of a home energy and comfort management system. The system has three components such as a smart plug with a wireless module, a residential gateway and a mobile app. The combined system is called a home energy management and comfort toolkit. The design is inspired

  15. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  16. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...... 4,300 volts including all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety circuit and the aim of the investigations to be performed with the test bench....

  17. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  18. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, Zafar; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  19. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasin, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.yasin@eli-np.ro; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics / Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  20. Development of a wide-area energy utilization network system (research on a technology to design an energy system). FY 1998 report on achievements of research on systematizing ECO and ENERGY cities; Koiki energy riyo network system kaihatsu (energy system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu). 1998 nendo eko ene toshi no system ka kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    As a research on systematizing ECO and ENERGY cities, surveys and analyses were performed on the actual state of introducing district heat supply systems utilizing difference waste heats including factory waste heat. Waste heat from electric power generation is utilized for district heat supply in Japan at 122 points or about 20% of the district heat supply points in operation as of March 1998. The number is in the increasing trend in recent years, and the future potential of its introduction can be said high as the history thereof is still short. Its introduction form is accounted mostly for by building cogeneration or plant cogeneration. Back-up facilities for the case when waste heat supply stops because of regular facility checks are provided by the heat supply business operators, which impede the economy of the system. In the U.S., the Public Utility Regulatory Policy act motivated installation of cogeneration and off-peak power generation systems for district heat supply. Technical maps (for waste heat sources and different waste heat utilization systems) were prepared based on the surveys to discuss the future measures. (NEDO)

  1. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix D: superconductive magnetic energy storage cavern construction methods and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The excavation and preparation of an underground cavern to contain a 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit is examined. The cavern's principal function is to provide a rock structure for supporting the magnetic forces from the charged storage coil. Certain economic considerations indicate the refrigerator cold box for the helium system should also be underground. The study includes such a provision and considers, among other things, rock bolting, water seepage, concrete lining of the walls, steel bearing pads, a system to prevent freezing of the walls, a mining schedule, and costs

  2. Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

    2008-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NREL are developing target energy budgets and design guides to achieve 30% energy savings. This paper focuses the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing.

  3. Design of energy management indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Tomás Dalmau García

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work has as a main goal to demostrate the viability of the energy management indicator, that will be a part of the Balanced Scorecard in the organization and the own process of calculation allows to obtain a Balanced Scorecard of energy management. It describes the executive order of the actions that have to be done to reach to the mentioned indicator, based on the selection of the selected period of time; the types of power carriers, the weight of each carrier in the structure of the consumption and the activities where they are used. With these elements several tools are used to reach to the expected results, as the bar charts, comparative tables and indices of power intensity. The indices of energy intensity are recommended as comparative elements for the contribution to the operativity and information level, meaning that not always is necessary to tie them , if not, in some cases, may be other selected indicators that may result as qualitatives type, The Cuban enterprise system uses the model Control of Consumption and Catchment Demand of fuels and lubricants (CDA 002 of the Ministry of Economy and Planning (MEP that is used in the work and it is recommended for the organizations who apply it. The study and application of this method were made in the Company of Raw materials Recovery in an experimental form.

  4. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  5. Design of MHD generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Raeder, J.

    1975-01-01

    By assessment of the influence of the combustion efficiency on the electric output of the MHD generator, it can be shown that the construction and efficiency of the generator strongly depend on these parameters. The solutions of this system of equations are discussed. Following a derivation of criteria and boundary conditions of the design and a determination of the specific construction costs of individual system components, it is shown how the single design parameters influence the operational characteristics of such a system, especially the output, efficiency and energy production costs. (GG/LH) [de

  6. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  7. Custom design of a hanging cooling water power generating system applied to a sensitive cooling water discharge weir in a seaside power plant: A challenging energy scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Chuan Min; Jaffar, Mohd Narzam; Ramji, Harunal Rejan; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an innovative design of hydro-electricity system was applied to an unconventional site in an attempt to generate electricity from the exhaust cooling water of a coal-fired power plant. Inspired by the idea of micro hydro, present study can be considered new in three aspects: design, resource and site. This system was hung at a cooling water discharge weir, where all sorts of civil work were prohibited and sea water was used as the cooling water. It was designed and fabricated in the university's mechanical workshop and transported to the site for installation. The system was then put into proof run for a three-month period and achieved some success. Due to safety reasons, on-site testing was prohibited by the power plant authority. Hence, most data was acquired from the proof run. The driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45% experimentally while modeling results came close to experimental results. Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.23 years. Result obtained validates the feasibility of the overall design under the sensitive site application. - Highlights: • Challenging energy scheme via a hanging cooling water power generating system. • Driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45%. • Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.2 years

  8. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  9. Groundwater Energy Designer (GED); Groundwater Energy Designer (GED). Computergestuetztes Auslegungstool zur Waerme- und Kaeltenutzung von Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppei, J.; Mayer, G.; Schwarz, R.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a computer-aided dimensioning tool (Groundwater Energy Designer, GED) for use in the calculation work involved in designing systems for the thermal use of groundwater. The interactive tool is designed to support those involved in the analysis of heating and cooling demands and the direct use of groundwater to help meet such needs. The program and its user interface in German and French are described in detail, as are the basic models and data used in the calculations. Simulation aspects and the verification of the software are also discussed. Results of tests made are presented and discussed.

  10. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  11. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  12. Energy Doubler cryoloop temperature monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.; Howard, D.

    1981-10-01

    The Cryoloop Temperature Monitor System is a fully electronic system designed to monitor temperature at key points in the Energy Doubler cryoloop system. It is used for cryoloop diagnostics, temperature studies, and cooldown valve control

  13. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the research result on the conceptual design of the total system for the WE-NET project in 1996. Basic conditions are as follows: solid polymer water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, hydrogen transport/storage through ammonia medium, power generation scale of 1000-4000MW (2-5 yen/kWh), and transport distance of 5000-20000km between supply and consumption places. The system efficiency was estimated to be 68% and 23% at an ammonia arrival time and power sending end, respectively, and it was dependent on a transport distance, while no power generation scale. The power cost was estimated to be 7 yen/Mcal and 33 yen/kWh, respectively. The system efficiency at a sending end was lower by 15% and 2% than that of the liquid hydrogen and methanol system, while the power cost was higher by 0 and 8 yen/kWh, respectively. It was necessary for loss reduction of this ammonia system to develop a new high-efficiency ammonia synthesis process, and hydrogen separation (decomposition/refining) process. 80 figs., 52 tabs.

  14. LISA system design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallusti, M [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R, E-mail: marcello.sallusti@esa.in, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: dennis.weise@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: marcel.berger@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: Hans.Reiner.Schulte@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, Claude-Dornier-Str., 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  15. LISA system design highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallusti, M; Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R

    2009-01-01

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  16. Comparison between design and actual energy performance of a HVAC-ground coupled heat pump system in cooling and heating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, S. [Energesis Ingenieria S.L., Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work compares the experimental results obtained for the energy performance study of a ground coupled heat pump system with the design values predicted by means of standard methodology. The system energy performance of a monitored ground coupled heat pump system is calculated using the instantaneous measurements of temperature, flow and power consumption and these values are compared with the numerical predictions. These predictions are performed with the TRNSYS software tool following standard procedures taking the experimental thermal loads as input values. The main result of this work is that simulation results solely based on nominal heat pump capacities and performances overestimate the measured overall energy performance by a percentage between 15% and 20%. A sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to changes in percentage of its input parameters showed that the heat pump nominal coefficient of performance is the parameter that mostly affects the energy performance predictions. This analysis supports the idea that the discrepancies between experimental results and simulation outputs for this ground coupled system are mainly due to heat pump performance degradation for being used at partial load. An estimation of the impact of this effect in energy performance predictions reduces the discrepancies to values around 5%. (author)

  17. Energy Conservation of the Designated Government Buildings in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangskarn Prapat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designated government buildings have implemented and administered energy program under the energy development and promotion Act 2007 for many years continuously until 2015. Appointment person responsible for energy, performing energy management and implementing the energy conservation work plan and measures are legal requirements for the designated buildings. Therefore, the ministry of Energy has launched the project to support the implementation of energy management. The aim of the project was to create the energy management system in the designated government buildings, and to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented from the achievements of 839 designated government buildings. The energy saving is more than 440 ktoe/year. This is about 3% of energy consumptions of buildings.

  18. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  19. Designing Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2010-01-01

    the potential to revitalize and transform citizen engagement in democracy.  Although the majority of web 2.0 systems enable these discourses to some extent, government institutions commission and manage specialized deliberation systems (information systems designed to support participative discourse) intended...... to promote citizen engagement.  The most common examples of these are political discussion forums.  Though usually considered trivial adaptations of well-known technologies, these types of deliberative systems are often unsuccessful, and present a distinct set of design and management challenges.......  In this article we analyze the issues involved in establishing political deliberation systems under four headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, service management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement.  We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study...

  20. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption

  1. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  2. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume I. Scope and design criteria and project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The information in this document is the result of an intensive engineering effort to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass-fueled boilers in cogeneration applications. This design package is based upon a specific site in the State of Maine. However, the design is generic in nature and could serve as a model for other biomass conversion facilities located anywhere biomass is abundant. The project's purpose and summary information are presented: the plant, its concept of operation; and other overall information are described. The capital cost estimate for the plant, and the basis upon which it was obtained are given; a schedule of key milestones and activities required to construct the plant and put it into operation is presented; and the general findings in areas that affect the viability of the project are discussed. The technical design, biomass study, environmental impact, commercialization, and economic factors are addressed. Each major plant area and the equipment and facilities that each includes are discussed in depth. Some overall plant requirements, including noise control, reliability, maintainability, and safety, are detailed. The results of each study relating to alternatives considered for optimizing plant operation parameters and specific system process schemes are briefly presented. All economic factors that affect the feasibility and viability of the biomass project are defined and evaluated.

  3. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  4. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  5. Tests of variable-band multilayers designed for investigating optimal signal-to-noise vs artifact signal ratios in Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography (DDSA) imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyers, D.; Ho, A.; Li, Q.; Piestrup, M.; Rice, M.; Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, various design techniques were applied to investigate the feasibility of controlling the bandwidth and bandshape profiles of tungsten/boron-carbon (W/B 4 C) and tungsten/silicon (W/Si) multilayers for optimizing their performance in synchrotron radiation based angiographical imaging systems at 33 keV. Varied parameters included alternative spacing geometries, material thickness ratios, and numbers of layer pairs. Planar optics with nominal design reflectivities of 30%--94% and bandwidths ranging from 0.6%--10% were designed at the Stanford Radiation Laboratory, fabricated by the Ovonic Synthetic Materials Company, and characterized on Beam Line 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, in this paper we report selected results of these tests and review the possible use of the multilayers for determining optimal signal to noise vs. artifact signal ratios in practical Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography systems

  6. World energy data system (WENDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareau, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a unique application of System 2000: the storage of preformatted textual information in a completely user oriented data base. The World Energy Data System is an information system which allows qualified users online access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. WENDS has been used to transmit up-to-date informaion on foreign energy technology and research and development programs to DOE program divisions, the Congress, and other U.S. government officials going abroad. The WENDS concept is first described. Then, the method of storage of the textual information is discussed followed by a discussion of the retrieval system which is thoroughly designed to serve the user

  7. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  8. Design status of Hyper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won S.; Hwang, Woan; Kom, Yong G.; Tak, Nam Il; Song, Tae T.

    2000-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been performing accelerator driven system related research and development (Rid) called Hyper for the transmutation of nuclear waste and energy production through the transmutation process. Hyper program is within the frame work of the national mid and long-term nuclear research plan. KAERI is aiming to develop the system concept and a type of road map by the year of 2001 and complete the conceptual design of HYPER system by the year of 2006. Some major design features of HYPER system have been developed. On-power fueling concepts are employed to compensate for the rapid drop of core reactivity. In order to increase the proliferation resistance, whole TRU without any actinide separation will be transmuted in the HYPER system. The long-lived fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129 will be destroyed using the localized thermal neutrons separately in the HYPER. A hollow cylinder-type metal fuel (TRU-Zr) has been chosen because of its high compatibility with pyro-chemical process. Pb-Bi is adopted as a coolant and spallation target material. The heat removal system is designed based on 3 loop concept. 1Gev 6mA proton beam is designed to be provided for HYPER. HYPER is to transmute about 380 kg of TRU a year and produce 1000MWth power. The support ratio of HYPER is believed to be 5 - 6. (author)

  9. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  10. Design and Implement a Digital H{sub {infinity}}Robust Controller for a MW-Class PMSG-Based Grid-Interactive Wind Energy Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlander, Abdul Motin [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Urasaki, Naomitsu [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Yona, Atsushi [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Senjyu, Tomonobu [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Saber, Ahmed Yousuf [Operation Technology, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    A digital H{sub {infinity}}controller for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind energy conversion system (WECS) is presented. Wind energy is an uncertain fluctuating resource which requires a tight control management. So, it is still an exigent task for the control design engineers. The conventional proportional-integral (PI) control is not ideal during high turbulence wind velocities, and the nonlinear behavior of the power converters. These are raising interest towards the robust control concepts. The robust design is to find a controller, for a given system, such that the closed-loop system becomes robust that assurance high-integrity and fault tolerant control system, robust H{sub {infinity}}control theory has befallen a standard design method of choice over the past two decades in industrial control applications. The robust H{sub {infinity}}control theory is also gaining eminence in the WECS. Due to the implementation complexity for the continuous H{sub {infinity}}controller, and availability of the high speedy micro-controllers, the design of a sample-data or a digital H{sub {infinity}}controller is very important for the realistic implementation. But there isn’t a single research to evaluate the performance of the digital H{sub {infinity}}controller for the WECS. In this paper, the proposed digital H{sub {infinity}}controller schemes comprise for the both generator and grid interactive power converters, and the control performances are compared with the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy controller. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method Energies 2013, 6 2085 which are ensured the WECS stabilities, mitigate shaft stress, and improving the DC-link voltage and output power qualities.

  11. Design and Implement a Digital H∞ Robust Controller for a MW-Class PMSG-Based Grid-Interactive Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonobu Senjyu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A digital H∞ controller for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG based wind energy conversion system (WECS is presented. Wind energy is an uncertain fluctuating resource which requires a tight control management. So, it is still an exigent task for the control design engineers. The conventional proportional-integral (PI control is not ideal during high turbulence wind velocities, and the nonlinear behavior of the power converters. These are raising interest towards the robust control concepts. The robust design is to find a controller, for a given system, such that the closed-loop system becomes robust that assurance high-integrity and fault tolerant control system, robust H∞ control theory has befallen a standard design method of choice over the past two decades in industrial control applications. The robust H∞ control theory is also gaining eminence in the WECS. Due to the implementation complexity for the continuous H∞ controller, and availability of the high speedy micro-controllers, the design of a sample-data or a digital H∞ controller is very important for the realistic implementation. But there isn’t a single research to evaluate the performance of the digital H∞ controller for the WECS. In this paper, the proposed digital H∞ controller schemes comprise for the both generator and grid interactive power converters, and the control performances are compared with the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy controller. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method Energies 2013, 6 2085 which are ensured the WECS stabilities, mitigate shaft stress, and improving the DC-link voltage and output power qualities.

  12. Photurgen: The open source software for the analysis and design of hybrid solar wind energy systems in the Caribbean region: A brief introduction to its development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren Watson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES use multiple renewable resources such as hydro, solar and wind collaboratively to produce energy that can meet a defined load demand continuously. Their combination can lead to the improvement in the systems efficiency and overall reliability. However, the level of penetration of HRES in the Caribbean region is less than its expected potential. The constraints generated by their complexity and the costly access to useful energy planning tools is a limitation to their implementation. Therefore, in collaboration with the Alternative Energy Research Group, UWI Mona, we develop a free Linear Optimization software, Photurgen, for the design and analysis of hybrid solar-wind systems within the Caribbean region. Solar-wind hybrid systems are simulated based on historic climatological resources and instantaneous load consumption data, providing the user with graphics and advice for their optimal configuration. This paper introduces the first version of Photurgen and its associated development policies. This tool is one simple solution to be applied to increase the rate of autonomous and grid-tied households within the region, with Jamaica being its experimental location.

  13. Application of precision mechanical engineering techniques to the design of a moderate energy beam transport for the FAA explosive detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujan, R.; Christensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of precision mounting and alignment techniques to a moderate energy beam transport system (MEBT) used on the exit of a 1.75 MeV RFQ. While frequently found in optical systems, techniques-such-as kinematic mounting, and degree-of-freedom decoupling, are not as widely used for accelerator components. The MEBT consist of one permanent magnet quadrupole, four electro magnet quadrupole, and one debuncher cavity. Included in the paper are discussions of design and fabrication considerations as well as, installation, alignment and operations experience during the successful implementation on a working accelerator

  14. Modeling and control design of a stand alone wind energy conversion system based on functional model predictive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Ahmed M. [Beni-Suef University, Electrical Dept., Beni Suef (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    This paper investigates the application of the model predictive control (MPC) approach to control the voltage and frequency of a stand alone wind generation system. This scheme consists of a wind turbine which drives an induction generator feeding an isolated load. A static VAR compensator is connected at the induction generator terminals to regulate the load voltage. The rotor speed, and thereby the load frequency are controlled via adjusting the mechanical power input using the blade pitch-angle. The MPC is used to calculate the optimal control actions including system constraints. To alleviate computational effort and to reduce numerical problems, particularly in large prediction horizon, an exponentially weighted functional model predictive control (FMPC) is employed. Digital simulations have been carried out in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The proposed controller has been tested through step changes in the wind speed and the load impedance. Simulation results show that adequate performance of the proposed wind energy scheme has been achieved. Moreover, this scheme is robust against the parameters variation and eliminates the influence of modeling and measurement errors. (orig.)

  15. Design and Control of the PowerTake-Off System for a Wave Energy Converter with Multiple Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    waves. This enables a comparison of the performance of the wave power extraction methods according to PTO requirements. The framework also allows comparing performance of fundamentally different PTOs. The idea of reactive control for increasing power absorption dates back to the 1970’s, and today its...... techniques. The research leads to three potential PTO systems, where one is a magnetic gear based PTO. The gear is based on implementing the function of a screw and nut magnetically by placing permanent magnets in a helical pattern. A PTO layout with the magnetic lead screw is found and analysed using...... simulations. The feasibility leads to having a group of master students designing a working prototype at a scale of 17kN with a half meter stroke. The magnetic lead screw is able to directly convert a linear motion of 0.5m/s to a rotational motion above 1000rpm, driving a conventional generator. Two other...

  16. Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin

    2017-09-01

    Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.

  17. Conceptual design of a thermo-electrical energy storage system based on heat integration of thermodynamic cycles – Part A: Methodology and base case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandin, Matteo; Maréchal, François; Mercangöz, Mehmet; Buchter, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The interest in large scale electricity storage (ES) with discharging time longer than 1 h and nominal power greater than 1 MW, is increasing worldwide as the increasing share of renewable energy, typically solar and wind energy, imposes severe load management issues. Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to pump hydro and compressed air energy storage. TEES is based on the conversion of electricity into thermal energy during charge by means of a heat pump and on the conversion of thermal energy into electricity during discharge by means of a thermal engine. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO 2 cycles, is discussed in two papers. In this first paper a methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on the analysis of the thermal integration between charging and discharging cycles through Pinch Analysis tools is introduced. According to such methodology, the heat exchanger network and temperatures and volumes of storage tanks are not defined a priori but are determined after the cycle parameters are optimized. For this purpose a heuristic procedure based on the interpretation of the composite curves obtained by optimizing the thermal integration between the cycles was developed. Such heuristic rules were implemented in a code that allows finding automatically the complete system design for given values of the intensive parameters of the charging and discharging cycles only. A base case system configuration is introduced and the results of its thermodynamic optimization are discussed here. A maximum roundtrip efficiency of 60% was obtained for the base case configuration assuming turbomachinery and heat exchanger performances in line with indications from manufacturers. -- Highlights: ► Energy storage based on water, ice, and transcritical CO 2 cycles is

  18. THE EVALUATION OF THE SOLAR ORIENTED ENERGY EFFECTIVE BUILDING DESIGN UNDER THE MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN TERMS OF WATER HEATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem TETİK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the acknowledging of the fact that the half of the resources of the earth is being utilized for construction purposes; in this dissertation, which aims to lower this rate for our country by raising the awareness of the society, it is asserted that the utilization of the solar energy, unlike the common belief, should be considered as a passive manner during the design phase, before utilizing it in an active manner and the types of utilization, in which the solar energy can be benefitted at its full, is further demonstrated. Within this context, the analyses of the solar energy systems were conducted, the variables according to the climate and building types were discussed and the current suggestions for the improvement were presented along with the relevant literature reviews and case studies.

  19. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  20. Distributed System Design Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.

  1. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  2. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  3. Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos Energy Systems Integration Facility Integration Facility NREL + SolarCity: Maximizing Solar Power on Electrical Grids Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF Microgrid

  4. Energy Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Integration Laboratory Energy Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy Systems Integration Laboratory is advancing engineering knowledge and market deployment of hydrogen technologies. Applications include microgrids, energy storage for renewables integration, and home- and station

  5. Design of a prosumer EMS for energy trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, T.; Yoo, Y.; Kang, S.; Lee, I.

    2018-03-01

    We design a DER management system for energy trading based on OASIS EI and EMIX. With the spread of DERs, there is a growing need of a system for integrated management of DERs and customer loads. In this paper, we give a brief overview of a DER EMS for prosumer energy saving and trading. Based on the OASIS standards, we design a functional architecture of a DER EMS for energy trading. After showing communication protocols and operation sequences, we summarize our works.

  6. Safeguards system design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravens, M.N.; Winblad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing methods for the design of physical protection systems to safeguard special nuclear material and vital equipment at fixed sites. One method is outlined and illustrated with simplified examples drawn from current programs. The use of an adversary sequence diagram as an analysis tool is discussed

  7. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  8. Partnering with the Pinoleville Pomo Nation: Co-Design Methodology Case Study for Creating Sustainable, Culturally Inspired Renewable Energy Systems and Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Agogino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the co-design methodology created by the authors to partner with communities that have historical trauma associated with working with outsiders on projects that involved substantial use of engineering and science—renewable energy technologies, for example—that have not integrated their value system or has been historically denied to them. As a case study, we present the lessons learned from a partnership with the Pinoleville Pomo Nation (PPN of Ukiah, CA and UC Berkeley’s Community Assessment of Renewable Energy and Sustainability (CARES team to develop sustainable housing that utilizes sustainability best practices and renewable energy technology as well as reflect the long-standing culture and traditions of the PPN. We also present the Pomo-inspired housing design created by this partnership and illustrate how Native American nations can partner with universities and other academic organizations to utilize engineering expertise to co-design solutions that address the needs of the tribes.

  9. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  10. Experimental Test and Simulations on a Linear Generator-Based Prototype of a Wave Energy Conversion System Designed with a Reliability-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Boscaino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a reliability-oriented design of a linear generator-based prototype of a wave energy conversion (WEC, useful for the production of hydrogen in a sheltered water area like Mediterranean Sea. The hydrogen production has been confirmed by a lot of experimental testing and simulations. The system design is aimed to enhance the robustness and reliability and is based on an analysis of the main WEC failures reported in literature. The results of this analysis led to some improvements that are applied to a WEC system prototype for hydrogen production and storage. The proposed WEC system includes the electrical linear generator, the power conversion system, and a sea-water electrolyzer. A modular architecture is conceived to provide ease of extension of the power capability of the marine plant. The experimental results developed on the permanent magnet linear electric generator have allowed identification of the stator winding typology and, consequently, ability to size the power electronics system. The produced hydrogen has supplied a low-power fuel cell stack directly connected to the hydrogen output from the electrolyzer. The small-scale prototype is designed to be installed, in the near future, into the Mediterranean Sea. As shown by experimental and simulation results, the small-scale prototype is suitable for hydrogen production and storage from sea water in this area.

  11. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  12. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  13. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  14. Sustainable and Resilient Design of Interdependent Water and Energy Systems: A Conceptual Modeling Framework for Tackling Complexities at the Infrastructure-Human-Resource Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Mo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A modeling framework was conceptualized for capturing the complexities in resilience and sustainability associated with integration of centralized and decentralized water and energy systems under future demographic, climate, and technology scenarios. This framework integrates survey instruments for characterizing individual preferences (utility functions related to decentralization of water and energy infrastructure systems. It also includes a spatial agent-based model to develop spatially explicit adoption trajectories and patterns in accordance with utility functions and characteristics of the major metropolitan case study locations as well as a system dynamics model that considers interactions among infrastructure systems, characterizes measures of resilience and sustainability, and feeds these back to the agent-based model. A cross-scale spatial optimization model for understanding and characterizing the possible best case outcomes and for informing the design of policies and incentive/disincentive programs is also included. This framework is able to provide a robust capacity for considering the ways in which future development of energy and water resources can be assessed.

  15. Assessing Climate to Improve Solar Design. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC) Brochure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet complements the fact sheet on passive solar design, and provides information on how sunlight, weather patterns, and microclimates affect the performance of solar energy systems and designs

  16. BWID System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness

  17. Design of variable energy and price components of electricity tariffs as an incentive for system-efficient energy management of flexible consumers in households; Design variabler Energie- und Leistungspreiskomponenten von Stromtarifen als Anreiz fuer ein systemdienliches Energiemanagement flexibler Verbraucher in Haushalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Michael

    2017-11-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change, both the heating and transport sectors will need to be electrically driven, with the higher electrical demand met by emission-free technologies, in addition to general efficiency improvements. On the generation side, wind and photovoltaic power plants must have a rated power significantly exceeding the current peak demand, in order to cover this increased electrical requirement. On the consumption side, heat pumps and private electric vehicles will increase the percentage of energy withdrawn at the low-voltage level of the new system. Given the right incentives, these customers will shift the energy demand in such a way as to benefit the system. This flexibility can be used as a tool to deal with variable renewable insertion while avoiding simultaneous overloading of the power grid. This thesis analyses and evaluates the effects of different electricity tariff designs on energy consumption. These tariffs should incentivise households to adapt their energy consumption to market prices, without inducing critical peak demands in times of particularly low prices. Therefore, time-varying energy price components and power price components are combined into flexible electricity tariffs and implemented as target functions within an optimization problem. The cost-minimizing effect of household energy management is determined under these flexible tariffs, and the effects of the tariff designs on energy consumption and the induced costs are evaluated. Additionally, the results of the flexible tariff approach are compared with results from a centralized optimization by a virtual power plant. It is possible to develop a design for a suitable flexible tariff that decreases the energy procurement costs of electric vehicles while simultaneously reducing peak demand in comparison to a single real-time pricing incentive. Furthermore, this thesis shows that certain kinds of electricity tariff design do not only fail to support but actually

  18. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design, demand and fuel projections and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-08

    The Phase I Report, Grid ICES, presented the broad alternatives and implications for development of an energy system satisfying thermal demand with the co-generation of electric power, all predicated on the use of solid fuels. Participants of the system are the University of Minnesota, operator and primary thermal user, and Northern States Power Company, primary electrical user; with St. Mary's Hospital, Fairview Hospital, and Augsburg College as Add-on Customers for the thermal service (Option I). Included for consideration are the Options of (II) solid waste disposal by the Pyrolysis Method, with heat recovery, and (III) conversion of a portion of the thermal system from steam to hot water distribution to increase co-generation capability and as a demonstration system for future expansion. This report presents the conceptual design of the energy system and each Option, with the economic implications identified so that selection of the final system can be made. Draft outline of the Environmental Assessment for the project is submitted as a separate report.

  19. Financial overview of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hurter, A. P.; Lerner, E.; Breen, W.; Baum, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A case analysis of alternative ICES concepts applied to a major metropolitan development complex is documented. The intent of this study is twofold: (1) to develop a framework for comparing ICES technologies to conventional energy supply systems and (2) to identify potential problems in the commercialization of new systems approaches to energy conservation. In brief, the ICES Program of the ERDA Office of Energy Conservation is intended to identify the opportunities for energy conservation in the community context through analysis, development, and/or demonstration of: location and design of buildings, building complexes, and infrastructure links; engineering and systems design of existing, emerging, and advanced energy production and delivery technologies and systems; regulatory designs for public planning, administration, and regulation of energy-conserving community development and energy services; and financial planning for energy-conserving community development and energy supply systems.

  20. Frequency-Division Power Sharing and Hierarchical Control Design for DC Shipboard Microgrids with Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing need to reduce the cost and emission of ships, shipboard applications are calling advanced technologies to go onboard. Recently, cleaner power sources (i.e. gas turbines, fuel cell, solar and wind power), energy storage, advanced control and power/energy management......, the operation point of prime movers can be maintained at their optimal area, meanwhile, different energy storages will provide characteristic based response. On the basis of the proposed power sharing method, voltage restoration and power management-level control methods are also introduced to form hierarchical...