WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy survey direct

  1. Determination for energy response and directionality of neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Xie Jianlun; Su Jingling

    1992-01-01

    The energy response and directionality of neutron survey meter type MK7 and 2202D are determined. The reactor thermal column beam, reactor filtered beams (6 eV, 24.4 keV and 144 keV), 226 Ra-Be, 241 Am-Be, 252 Cf and its moderated sources are used for the measurement. The results shows: the survey meters are influenced obviously by the direction; the response of middle-energy region is large, the energy response of 2202D is better than MK7

  2. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  3. Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    future business . In defense systems, the key to future business is the existence of funded programs. Military commanders understand the lethality and...directed energp capabilities that can provide visibiliy into the likey futur business case for sustaining directed energy industry capabilities...the USD (I) staff to be afocalpointfor advocating improvement in all dimensions of directed energy intelligence. - The Director, Defense Inteligence

  4. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  5. The ''energy tax'' directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    As Austria dropped its reservation, U.E. Economics and Finance Ministers gave, on 20 March at Brussels, their political agreement to the proposed Directive on a Community framework for the taxation of energy products. (author)

  6. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  7. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  8. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  9. 75 FR 76630 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ....S. Direct Investment Abroad--Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter With Foreign Affiliate.'' The..., Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad--Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter With Foreign...] RIN 0691--AA75 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad...

  10. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  11. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  12. 75 FR 53611 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] RIN 0691-AA75 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad--Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter With Foreign Affiliate AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce...-577 quarterly survey of U.S. direct investment abroad. The survey is conducted quarterly and obtains...

  13. Ethiopia - energy survey 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The energy situation of the country is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. The country's energy policy is commented on, and trends in power generation and in the various energy sources are outlined. Some important figures are given on the country's foreign trade.

  14. Venezuela - energy survey 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The energy situation of the country is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. The country's energy policy is commented on, and trends in power generation and in the various energy sources are outlined. Some important figures are given on the country's foreign trade.

  15. European energy survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This economic analysis deals with the energy situation in Europe. The following aspects are presented: the socio-economical convergencies, the improvement of the energy situation, the difference for each countries of the energy balance sheets and the new concept of competition. Tables and statistics support the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  16. Directed Energy for Interstellar Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to expand our investigations started in our NIAC Phase I of using directed energy to allow the achievement of relativistic flight to pave the way to the...

  17. Attitude survey on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The questionnairing was conducted on 500 persons within 30 km of Tokyo from October 20 to November 17, 2003. The questionnaire consisted of consciousness of society and living, energy problem, nuclear power generation and power-short in Tokyo in 2003. Main replies submitted to a questionnaire contained to wish for safety and economic stability, low interesting in energy problems and nuclear power generation, feeling uneasy about undersupply, to place their hopes on new energy, about 30% feeling useful and uneasy about nuclear power generation, little understanding of use nuclear power generation. Women did not deny the nuclear power generation. On the short supply of electricity of Tokyo in summer 2003, most answerers did not think about the efforts of electric company and power saving by consumer, but the cold summer. However, many people have a new understanding of importance of electricity. 20% replies expressed their appreciation of the location's services. (S.Y.)

  18. Wind energy survey in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind energy survey made for one country in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia) using mean wind speed data obtained from meteorological observations. The paper also presents reasons for expecting the calculated energy estimates to be potentially useful around most of the sites considered in the study.

  19. Sustainable Energy Survey. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This report shows the results of a quick survey of current developments in the Dutch sustainable energy market. The companies and organizations, which are all members of the branch organizations under the umbrella of the Duurzame Energie Koepel, were interviewed about their situation in relation to the credit crisis and their vision on what is needed to put a halt to (further) slumping in the sustainable energy branch and in fact to promote the growth in turnover and employment. [nl

  20. Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

    2010-05-28

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data.

  1. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  2. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  3. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  4. Effects of Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    S. Feld, Ronald E. McNair, and Stephen R. Wilk, “The Physics of Karate,” Scientific American 240, 150 (April, 1979). 103. See Kittel (note 18...References 1. Figure 4–1 was adapted from Stephen Cheung and Frederic H. Levien, Microwaves Made Simple: Principles and Applications. (Dedham, MA: Artech...Physics (New York: MC- Graw Hill, 1965). Effects of Directed Energy Weapons 258 16. The physical meaning of this integral is that the propagation path

  5. Public opinion survey on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of a public opinion survey on energy, conducted by Prime Minister's Office from November 26 to December 2, 1980, are described. Of the sampling of 5,000 adults throughout the nation, 4,113 replied the questions. The contents are as follows: awaraness of energy conservation, projection of the future of nuclear power, uneasiness about nuclear power, and energy policies. Concerning the major power generation system of the future, 47% of the people mentioned nuclear energy, followed by 18% mentioned solar energy. As to the future share of nuclear power, 38% favored its increase, 28% its maintaining at the current level, and only 5% wanted its decrease. About the feeling of uneasiness, 56% felt uneasiness and 44% were secure, making it clear that the uneasiness has not yet been eliminated. (J.P.N.)

  6. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  7. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  8. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  9. 76 FR 58420 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...] RIN 0691-AA80 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the... of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. Benchmark surveys are conducted every five years; the prior survey covered 2007. The benchmark survey covers the universe of foreign direct investment...

  10. Advance directives: survey of primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-04-01

    To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients' perspectives on a family doctor's role in initiating discussions about advance directives. A self-administered patient questionnaire. A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients' expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  11. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  12. 76 FR 79054 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...] RIN 0691-AA80 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the... reporting requirements for the 2012 BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United... survey covers the universe of foreign direct investment in the United States, and is BEA's most detailed...

  13. 75 FR 57217 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-11, Annual Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... both U.S. and international definitions for foreign direct investment and must be represented in the...] RIN 0691-AA74 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-11, Annual Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad AGENCY... the reporting requirements for the BE-11, Annual Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad. The survey...

  14. 77 FR 49721 - International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .... See, e.g., Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the...] RIN 0691-AA81 International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting AGENCY: Bureau of... BEA will follow to collect data on international trade in services and direct investment surveys. The...

  15. Cometary Defense with Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Lubin, P. M.; Hughes, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Cometary impacts pose a long-term hazard to humans on Earth. Due to their comparative rarity, most planetary defense schemes neglect the comet threat, choosing instead to focus exclusively on mitigating asteroid impacts. Methods like kinetic impactors may be suitable for deflecting near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), both of which are characterized by low inclination orbits and short orbital periods which favor early detection—characteristics ideal for an interception mission. In contrast, Halley-type comets (HTCs) and long-period comets (LPCs) are often found in high inclination orbits rarely more than 2 yr prior to reaching Earth's orbit. Unless discovered and identified in a prior apparition—often centuries or millennia earlier, if ever—timely interception of a threatening HTC or LPC is improbable even with preparation, with missions demanding delta-v budgets often in excess of 30 km/s. Active comets, however, are already naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar-driven sublimation of volatiles. Further deflection may be achieved by supplementing the solar radiation with an artificial directed energy source such as by one or more laser arrays positioned on or near Earth. Simulations were developed with models derived from the known solar nongravitational perturbations of typical comets. Results suggest that a diffraction-limited 500 m array operating at 10 GW for 10 min/day may be sufficient to divert a typical active 500 m comet from an impact given 1 yr. A larger 1 km array operating at 100 GW for 100 s/day is similarly effective. Care must be taken to ensure the target remains intact throughout the deflection period due to comets' low compressive strength and resulting propensity for disintegration at high incident flux.

  16. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  17. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Hammagren, Erik J. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  18. 77 FR 772 - International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... and publish in the Federal Register notices of future surveys of foreign and direct investment in the....: 111012619-1619-01] RIN 0691-AA81 International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting... international trade in services and direct investment surveys provided for by the International Investment and...

  19. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  20. 78 FR 41031 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-11, Annual Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... owning foreign business enterprises in the 2009 benchmark survey of U.S. direct investment abroad, along... Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-11, Annual Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad AGENCY: Bureau... to Sarahelen Thompson, Acting Chief, Direct Investment Division (BE-50), Bureau of Economic Analysis...

  1. 76 FR 17819 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-15, Annual Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-15, Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States (Form BE-15... data are needed to provide reliable, useful, and timely measures of foreign direct investment in the...

  2. 2007 Survey of Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC study is a unique comprehensive compilation of global energy resources. Complementing the BP Statistical Review and the World Energy Outlook, it details 16 key energy resources with the latest data provided by 96 WEC Member Committees worldwide. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, NGOs, industry, academia and the finance community. This 21st edition is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy.

  3. 2007 Survey of Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC study is a unique comprehensive compilation of global energy resources. Complementing the BP Statistical Review and the World Energy Outlook, it details 16 key energy resources with the latest data provided by 96 WEC Member Committees worldwide. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, NGOs, industry, academia and the finance community. This 21st edition is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy.

  4. Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A corporate profile of Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Direct Energy is responsible for marketing and distributing natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The company owns physical natural gas reserves that serve as a supply hedge to its growing customer base. The highlights for the natural gas distribution income fund (OPTUS) for 1998 were described. OPTUS acquired WestCastle Energy, adding 38 mmcf/d of natural gas supply. It also amalgamated Channel Lake Petroleum and WestCastle Energy into Direct Energy and created the production division, Direct Energy Resources. It also formed Energy America with Sempra Energy, adding over 160,000 retail customers in Michigan and Ohio. Direct Energy's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, and statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  5. Studying dark energy with galaxy cluster surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; O'Shea, Brian; Evrard, August E.; Bialek, John; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys provide a powerful means of studying the density and nature of the dark energy. The redshift distribution of detected clusters in a deep, large solid angle SZE or X-ray survey is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state. Accurate constraints at the 5% level on the dark energy equation of state require that systematic biases in the mass estimators must be controlled at better than the ∼10% level. Observed regularity in the cluster population and the availability of multiple, independent mass estimators suggests these precise measurements are possible. Using hydrodynamical simulations that include preheating, we show that the level of preheating required to explain local galaxy cluster structure has a dramatic effect on X-ray cluster surveys, but only a mild effect on SZE surveys. This suggests that SZE surveys may be optimal for cosmology while X-ray surveys are well suited for studies of the thermal history of the intracluster medium

  6. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  7. A survey of some solar energy retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report briefly describes a survey of some solar energy retrofits, such as solar heaters and Trombe walls, that can be easily adapted into existing buildings belonging to the Department. With their relatively high cost, commercial solar heaters ha...

  8. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  9. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  10. Power production with direct energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, C. [Morrow Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Beller, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brown, L. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States); Parish, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  11. Power production with direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S.; Morrow, C.; Anghaie, S.; Beller, D.; Brown, L.; Parish, T.

    2001-01-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  12. FINDIET 2007 Survey: energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Paturi, Merja; Reinivuo, Heli; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    The National FINDIET surveys are carried out every 5 years to monitor dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population. The latest survey was carried out in 2007. Cross-sectional population-based study. Dietary assessment was carried out using 48 h recall interviews. A picture book of food portions was used to estimate portion sizes and the national Food Composition Database Fineli(R) to calculate nutrient intakes. A representative sample taken in five regions in Finland. A total of 730 men and 846 women aged 24-64 years. The percentage contribution of fat to the total energy intake was 33 % in men and 31 % in women. The respective percentages for SFA in men and women were 13 % and 12 %, respectively, and 0.4 % for trans fatty acids in both genders. The average intakes of folate, vitamin D and fibre fell below the recommended levels, whereas the average salt intake was somewhat higher than the recommendations. Women's diet was higher in protein, dietary fibre and sucrose compared to that of men. According to the FINDIET 2007 Survey, the dietary habits of the adult Finnish population have headed in a positive direction overall. However, although the quality of the fats consumed has continued to improve, and the intake of salt has decreased, they still do not meet the recommended levels of intake. Similarly, the average intakes of folate and vitamin D continue to fall below the recommendations. There is also a need to increase fibre intake and to cut down the intake of sucrose.

  13. Energy Policies of Slovenia. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA survey was carried out at the request of the Government of Slovenia in order to assist the Government in defining and meeting energy policy objectives. Since its independence in 1991, Slovenia has made considerable progress in establishing a market-oriented energy sector. The report analyses developments in energy supply and demand, the restructuring of the coal and electricity industries, nuclear safety, and progress in energy efficiency and environmental protection. It contains energy production and consumption data as well as supply and demand projections. The report includes recommendations on removing distortions in energy prices, on increasing security of supply and on measures to improve the environment. (author). 21 figs., 41 tabs

  14. 77 FR 58979 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-15, Annual Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-15, Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States... measures of foreign direct investment in the United States, assess its impact on the U.S. economy, and based upon this assessment, make informed policy decisions regarding foreign direct investment in the...

  15. Construction engineering inspection direct cost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to provide a rationale to Georgia Department of Transportation : (GDOT) for Direct Costs in terms of salary and wages charged by qualified independent : contractors performing Construction Engineering Inspection (CEI) s...

  16. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  17. Energy policies of Poland: 1994 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This survey, conducted in co-operation with the Polish Government as a follow-up to the 1990 IEA Survey of Energy Policies of Poland, is intended to support Polish authorities responsible for designing measures and setting targets for energy policy. Another purpose is to report on progress made since 1990 in adapting the Polish energy sector to the requirements of a market economy. The survey documents and analyses recent developments in energy supply and demand, the energy pricing situation as of late 1994, Poland's energy supply security, the structure of the energy industries and the evolving relationship between the Government, public enterprises and private companies in the energy sector. It also looks at developments and initiatives in energy end-use efficiency and outlines the considerable environmental problems caused by energy production and use. The analysis points to areas where there is a need for further measures, comments on the Government's present policies and makes recommendations for the future. (authors). 41 figs., 51 tabs

  18. Energy policies of Hungary: 1995 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Great progress has been made towards adapting the energy sector of the Hungarian economy to perform effectively in an increasingly market oriented economy since the last IEA Survey in 1991. This new report reviews progress in restructuring energy industries and developments in energy markets, privatisation policy and regulatory arrangements. it also examines issues of energy supply security and environmental protection. Analysis of energy supply and demand is based on the most authoritative data available and the Survey concludes with a series of recommendations designed to further achievement of the Government's energy policy objectives. The Government is applauded for building emergency oil stocks in line with IEA policy and for progress in industrial restructuring and price reform. At the same time the need to complete price reforms to schedule is underlined and the Government is urged to complete regulatory arrangements well ahead of the planned privatisation of gas and electricity industries to ensure success. (authors). 60 tabs

  19. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Capacitive Neutralization Dialysis for Direct Energy Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Yi; Ou-Yang, Wei; Bastos Sales, Bruno; Sun, Zhuo; Liu, Fei; Zhao, Ran

    2017-08-15

    Capacitive neutralization dialysis energy (CNDE) is proposed as a novel energy-harvesting technique that is able to utilize waste acid and alkaline solutions to produce electrical energy. CNDE is a modification based on neutralization dialysis. It was found that a higher NaCl concentration led to a higher open-circuit potential when the concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions were fixed. Upon closing of the circuit, the membrane potential was used as a driving force to move counter ions into the electrical double layers at the electrode-liquid interface, thereby creating an ionic current. Correspondingly, in the external circuit, electrons flow through an external resistor from one electrode to the other, thereby generating electrical energy directly. The influence of external resistances was studied to achieve greater energy extraction, with the maximum output of 110 mW/m 2 obtained by employing an external resistance of 5 Ω together with the AC-coated electrode.

  1. Direct energy conversion for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Complex multistage plasma converters were tested at efficiencies approaching 90% at low energies and powers, and simpler, more cost-effective versions at 65% efficiency. Laboratory tests of neutral-beam direct converters at 15 keV and 2 kW gave 70% efficiency. A 120-keV, 1.5-MW version is being tested

  2. Energy Policies of Ukraine. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Few countries in the world have a more precarious energy situation than Ukraine. A heavy dependence on oil and gas imports, inefficiently-mined coal, and unsafe unsafe nuclear power have left the country vulnerable to energy supply disruptions. Despite some positive moves to restructure the energy sector, Ukraine has not charted a course toward the adoption of a market-oriented, long term energy strategy. This IEA report takes an in-depth look at recent developments and additional steps needed to move Ukraine's energy sector through the difficult transition process, including: a redefinition of the government's energy role; a shift toward market-led business practices in oil and gas production, oil refining and marketing, coal mining and distribution, electricity generation, and gas and power distribution; improved energy security through more diversified energy imports, reliance on domestic coal, and after use of nuclear energy; and a drive to conserve energy and minimise energy waste, in tandem with energy price liberation. Included in this IEA survey are revised data on Ukraine's energy demand, supply, trade and prices. The study offers policy makers and private companies a better understanding of the energy risks and trade-off facing Ukraine in the years ahead. (author). 28 figs., 47 tabs., 8 appends., 8 charts., 3 maps

  3. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  4. Direction of Nuclear Energy. Activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This report proposes an overview of the research activities performed by the French DEN (Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, Direction of Nuclear Energy) within the CEA. These activities address the future nuclear industrial systems (4. generation reactors, back-end of the future fuel cycle, basic scientific and technological research), the optimization of the industrial nuclear power (fuel cycle front end, second and third generation reactors, back-end of the present fuel cycle), major tools for the development of nuclear energy (simulation tools, Jules Horowitz reactor, value creation), clean up and dismantling of nuclear facilities (present status, the Passage project in Grenoble, the Aladin project in Fontenay-aux-Roses, projects at Marcoule, flow management of radioactive wastes, materials and disused fuels, transport). Three research centres are presented: Marcoule, Cadarache and Saclay

  5. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list...... is limitedexclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separatedinto broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the categorythought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  6. Wind Energy literature survey no. 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  7. Wind Energy literature survey no. 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list...... is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  8. Wind energy literature survey no. 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals, including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  9. Energy and the deregulated marketplace 1998 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In this comprehensive survey of the energy and deregulated marketplace, 911 respondents indicate how deregulation will impact their business. Well organized for easy reference this published survey report provides answers on how companies will procure electricity and natural gas, and what criteria will be used in their decision process. The results presented also illustrate effect of real time pricing on the procurement of energy equipment. Readers will be able to see whether companies are delaying the purchase of energy efficiency equipment as a result of deregulation, as well as what current trends are developing in the use of energy services and performance contracting. The performance and overall cost effectiveness of various types of energy efficient equipment is also rated by respondents, and the results of existing installations is reported. Responses are broken down and can be assessed by respondent categories, including utility, energy supplier, energy user, power marketer, ESCO, equipment supplier, and consultant. This survey report offers a valuable tool for all companies whose business and marketing strategies are impacted by deregulation

  10. Particle Discrimination Experiment for Direct Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Kiriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeno, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct energy conversion system designed for D- 3 He fusion reactor based on a field reversed configuration employs a venetian-blind type converter for thermal ions to produce DC power and a traveling wave type converter for fusion protons to produce RF power. It is therefore necessary to separate, discriminate, and guide the particle species. For this purpose, a cusp magnetic field is proposed, in which the electrons are deflected and guided along the field line to the line cusp, while the ions pass through the point cusp. A small-scale experimental device was used to study the basic characteristics of discrimination of electrons and ions in the cusp magnetic field. Ions separated from electrons are guided to an ion collector, which is operated as a one-stage direct energy converter. The conversion efficiency was measured for cases with different values of mean and spread of ion energy. These experiments successfully demonstrate direct energy conversion from plasma beams using particle discrimination by a cusp magnetic field

  11. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generates electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy conversion are mentioned. (author)

  12. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generates electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy conversion are mentioned.

  13. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generates electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy conversion are mentioned. (author).

  14. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1994-12-31

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generate electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A Strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy converter are mentioned. (author).

  15. Direct energy conversion of radiation energy in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1994-01-01

    Direct energy conversion from plasma heat flux has been studied. Since major parts of fusion energy in the advanced fusion reactor are radiation and charged particle energies, the flexible design of the blanket is possible. We discuss the potentiality of the thermoelectric element that generate electricity by temperature gradient in conductors. A Strong magnetic field is used to confine the fusion plasma, therefore, it is appropriate to consider the effect of the magnetic field. We propose a new element which is called Nernst element. The new element needs the magnetic field and the temperature gradient. We compare the efficiency of these two elements in a semiconductor model. Finally, a direct energy converter are mentioned. (author)

  16. Wind Energy literature survey no. 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  17. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  18. Wind Energy literature survey no. 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  19. Wind energy literature survey no. 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  20. Wind Energy literature survey no. 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  1. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  2. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems, along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  3. Wind energy literature survey no. 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  4. Wind energy literature survey no. 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  5. Wind energy literature survey no. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  6. Wind Energy literature survey no. 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  7. Wind Energy literature survey no. 22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  8. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  9. Wind Energy literature survey no. 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  10. Wind Energy literature survey no. 29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  11. Wind Energy literature survey no. 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  12. Wind Energy literature survey no. 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and so on. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  13. Wind Energy literature survey no. 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  14. Wind Energy literature survey no. 27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  15. Wind Energy literature survey no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  16. Wind Energy literature survey no. 26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  17. HEDP and new directions for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for fusion energy has a long history and the demonstration of thermonuclear energy release in 1951 represented a record achievement for high energy density. While this first demonstration was in response to the extreme fears of mankind, it also marked the beginning of a great hope that it would usher in an era of boundless cheap energy. In fact, fusion still promises to be an enabling technology that can be compared to the prehistoric utilization of fire. Why has the quest for fusion energy been so long on promises and so short in fulfillment? This paper briefly reviews past approaches to fusion energy and suggests new directions. By putting aside the old thinking and vigorously applying our experimental, computational and theoretical tools developed over the past decades we should be able to make rapid progress toward satisfying an urgent need. Fusion not only holds the key to abundant green energy, but also promises to enable deep space missions and the creation of rare elements and isotopes for wide-ranging industrial applications and medical diagnostics.

  18. Ontario Energy Board 2005 survey of stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted among members of the Ontario Energy Board's (OEB) various stakeholder groups in order to measure the Board's performance and to help the Board identify areas for improvement in the way it operates. The survey included telephone interviews with consumer groups, advocacy groups, the energy sector, electricity and gas distributors, financial organizations as well as other stakeholders. The topics addressed in the survey were key energy issues and priority issues; the perceived role of the OEB; the OEB strengths and weaknesses; the importance of various OEB functions; the overall performance of the OEB; an evaluation of OEB communication with industry and consumers; an evaluation of service quality; and, awareness and participation in regulatory policy initiatives. Respondents used a 10-point scale in their evaluation. This report presented the main findings and their interpretations. Major stakeholders identified electricity supply issues and the price of electricity as being the most important energy issues facing Ontario. This report also presented the detailed findings for questions regarding the lack of generator capacity, policy stability, the coal phase out program, electricity blackouts, conservation, electricity restructuring and investment. The major finding of the survey was an overall increase in satisfaction with the OEB's performance. It was suggested that the OEB can improve in timeliness and providing consumer information. The major areas of strength were found to be its professionalism in conducting hearings and the fairness of the Board's decisions and regulations. tabs

  19. The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, E.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a five-year optical imaging campaign with the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. DES performs a 5000 square degree survey of the southern sky in five optical bands (g,r,i,z,Y) to a depth of ~24th magnitude. Contemporaneously, DES performs a deep, time-domain survey in four optical bands (g,r,i,z) over 27 square degrees. DES exposures are processed nightly with an evolving data reduction pipeline and evaluated for image quality to determine if they need to be retaken. Difference imaging and transient source detection are also performed in the time domain component nightly. On a bi-annual basis, DES exposures are reprocessed with a refined pipeline and coadded to maximize imaging depth. Here we describe the DES image processing pipeline in support of DES science, as a reference for users of archival DES data, and as a guide for future astronomical surveys.

  20. Energy and communal patrimony - 2012 survey. Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, Bruno; Lestage, Christophe; Rozo, Ariane; Bisson, Nicolas; Pouillot, Jean-Pierre; Tessier, Philippe; Belon, Daniel; Caron, Clotilde

    2014-06-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of a study based on a survey on energy consumption and expenditures directly paid by local communities, the built patrimony, public lighting and vehicle fuel, the electricity consumptions and expenditures of drinking water stations, sewage treatment plants and waste treatment plants. The survey has been performed among more than 1600 towns and communities of more than 500 inhabitants in metropolitan France and overseas territories. The considered built patrimony comprises schools, swimming pools, other sport facilities, administrative buildings, social and cultural facilities, and other various facilities. The report indicates key figures for 2012 in terms of global assessment, main consumer sectors, buildings, public lighting, vehicle fuel, actions for energy management, and renewable energies. The evolution of consumptions and expenditures is then analysed (evolution of main indicators, market shares of energies in buildings)

  1. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  2. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  3. Compressed beam directed particle nuclear energy generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei which are caused to travel towards each other along collision courses, orbiting in common paths having common axes and equal radii. High velocity fusible ion beams are directed along head-on circumferential collision paths in an annular zone wherein beam compression by electrostatic focusing greatly enhances head-on fusion-producing collisions. In one embodiment, a steady radial electric field is imposed on the beams to compress the beams and reduce the radius of the spiral paths for enhancing the particle density. Beam compression is achieved through electrostatic focusing to establish and maintain two opposing beams in a reaction zone

  4. Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng

    2018-04-01

    Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.

  5. Directional clustering in highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Haim; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    An unexpected degree of small-scale clustering is observed in highest-energy cosmic ray events. Some directional clustering can be expected due to purely statistical fluctuations for sources distributed randomly in the sky. This creates a background for events originating in clustered sources. We derive analytic formulas to estimate the probability of random cluster configurations, and use these formulas to study the strong potential of the HiRes, Auger, Telescope Array and EUSO-OWL-AirWatch facilities for deciding whether any observed clustering is most likely due to nonrandom sources. For a detailed comparison to data, our analytical approach cannot compete with Monte Carlo simulations, including experimental systematics. However, our derived formulas do offer two advantages: (i) easy assessment of the significance of any observed clustering, and most importantly, (ii) an explicit dependence of cluster probabilities on the chosen angular bin size

  6. Strategies and directions of Malaysian energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharudin Yatim

    1995-01-01

    Research on energy efficiency could reconcile environmental issues associated with economic development. It could enhance energy supplies, improve the environment and develop alternative energy sources. Author reviews some of Malaysia's best energy R and D programmes

  7. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; Darnell, J.Anthony; Beldica, Cristina; Barkhouse, Wayne; Bertin, Emmanuel; Dora Cai, Y.; Daues, Gregory E.; Gower, Michelle; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; Jarvis, Michael; Lin, Huan

    2008-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent

  8. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Illinois U., Urbana; Barkhouse, Wayne; /North Dakota U.; Beldica, Cristina; /Illinois U., Urbana; Bertin, Emmanuel; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Dora Cai, Y.; /NCSA, Urbana; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Darnell, J.Anthony; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Daues, Gregory E.; /NCSA, Urbana; Jarvis, Michael; /Pennsylvania U.; Gower, Michelle; /NCSA, Urbana; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  9. Project of european directive on the renewable energies; Projet de directive europeenne sur les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P

    2008-01-15

    The project of directive is a legislative adaptation of the ''road map of the renewable energies'' presented by the Ministers Council Commission the 10 January 2007. Meanwhile, this approach does not take into account the final objectives, the reduction of the CO{sub 2} and the fuels importation. The author aims to discuss the project. He shows how the text is exclusively centered on the renewable energies, the lack of guarantee that the objectives will be reach, the lack of criteria to determine the % of renewable energies by country and the lack of an approach cost-benefit. (A.L.B.)

  10. Direct solar energy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdani, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. Even solar cells are now on the eve of becoming economically competitive. After a brief account of solar-cell theory, this paper gives the essential details of Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing Technologies, Single Crystal Technology, Fabrication of Wafers, Fabrication of Solar Cell, Photovoltaic Module, Multi Crystalline Silicon, Amorphous Silicon Cell. Semi-conductor based Thin-Film Technology (other than silicon), Copper-Indium Di selenide (IS), Gallium Arsenide, Multi-Junction Devices, as well as Technologies for Improving Conversion Efficiencies, Criteria for high-efficiency Cells and Module Fabrication. It concludes with a section on Direct Utilisation of solar energy, in which a brief description is presented on Solar Thermal Devices, Solar Water Heaters, Calculating hot-water requirements, Solar Stills, Solar Drying, Concentrator Collectors and, finally Measurement of the Solar Resource. At the end, there is a useful Appendix on World-Wide Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Capacity Expansion Profile. (author)

  11. The Dark Energy Survey instrument design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugher, B.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of ∼5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R and D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009

  12. 77 FR 24373 - International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... regulations governing the procurement of information on international trade in services and direct investment...) revises its rules to establish general guidelines for how BEA will collect data on international trade in services and direct investment surveys, which are provided for by the International Investment and Trade in...

  13. A literature survey on energy-growth nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the recent progress in the literature of energy consumption-economic growth and electricity consumption-economic growth causality nexus. The survey highlights that most empirical studies focus on either testing the role of energy (electricity) in stimulating economic growth or examining the direction of causality between these two variables. Although the positive role of energy on growth has become a stylized fact, there are some methodological reservations about the results from these empirical studies. A general observation from these studies is that the literature produced conflicting results and there is no consensus neither on the existence nor on the direction of causality between energy consumption (electricity consumption) and economic growth. As a policy implication, to avoid from conflicting and unreliable results, the authors may use the autoregressive distributed lags bounds test, two-regime threshold co-integration models, panel data approach and multivariate models including new variables (such as: real gross fixed capital formation, labor force, carbon dioxide emissions, population, exchange rates, interest rates, etc.). Thus, the authors should focus more on the new approaches and perspectives rather than by employing usual methods based on a set of common variables for different countries and different intervals of time.

  14. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  15. The Dark Energy Survey First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will announce and highlight the main components of the first public data release (DR1) coming from the Dark Energy Survey (DES).In January 2016, the DES survey made available, in a simple unofficial release to the astronomical community, the first set of products. This data was taken and studied during the DES Science Verification period consisting on roughly 250 sq. degrees and 25 million objects at a mean depth of i=23.7 that led to over 80 publications from DES scientist.The DR1 release is the first official release from the main survey and it consists on the observations taken during the first 3 seasons from August 2013 to February 2016 (about 100 nights each season) of the survey which cover the entire DES footprint. All of the Single Epoch Images and the Year 3 Coadded images distributed in 10223 tiles are available for download in this release. The catalogs provide astrometry, photometry and basic classification for near 400M objects in roughly 5000 sq. degrees on the southern hemisphere with a approximate mean depth of i=23.3. Complementary footprint, masking and depth information is also available. All of the software used during the generation of these products are open sourced and have been made available through the Github DES Organization. Images, data and other sub products have been possible through the international and collaborative effort of all 25 institutions involved in DES and are available for exploration and download through the interfaces provided by a partnership between NCSA, NOAO and LIneA.

  16. 1997 survey of residential direct sales of natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacalso, N.; Given, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report comments on the prevailing state of direct sales of natural gas in Canada and shows how the situation has changed since the Canadian Energy Research Institute initiated its first survey in 1994. The report describes current regulations relating to direct sales and quantifies direct sales activity in each of the provinces. Information on direct sales volumes and the number of direct sales customers contained in the report was gathered through interviews with local distribution companies, provincial regulatory commissions and many natural gas brokers and marketers. It was noted that Ontario and Quebec (where the industry is self-regulating) were the two provinces with the highest volumes of residential direct sales. The need for regular monitoring was recommended in view of the current climate of rapid changes in the energy market. 7 tabs., 1 fig

  17. A Comprehensive Energy Analysis and Related Carbon Footprint of Dairy Farms, Part 1: Direct Energy Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Todde

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle farms are continuously developing more intensive systems of management which require higher utilization of durable and not-durable inputs. These inputs are responsible of significant direct and indirect fossil energy requirements which are related to remarkable emissions of CO2. This study aims to analyze direct energy requirements and the related carbon footprint of a large population of conventional dairy farms located in the south of Italy. A detailed survey of electricity, diesel and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG consumptions has been carried out among on-farm activities. The results of the analyses showed an annual average fuel consumption of 40 kg per tonne of milk, while electricity accounted for 73 kWh per tonne of milk produced. Expressing the direct energy inputs as primary energy, diesel fuel results the main resource used in on-farm activities, accounting for 72% of the total fossil primary energy requirement, while electricity represents only 27%. Moreover, larger farms were able to use more efficiently the direct energy inputs and reduce the related emissions of carbon dioxide per unit of milk produced, since the milk yield increases with the herd size. The global average farm emissions of carbon dioxide equivalent, due to all direct energy usages, accounted for 156 kg CO2-eq per tonne of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM, while farms that raise more than 200 heads emitted 36% less than the average value. In this two-part series, the total energy demand (Part 1 + Part 2 per farm is mainly due to agricultural inputs and fuel consumption, which have the largest quota of the annual requirements for each milk yield class. These results also showed that large size farms held lower CO2-eq emissions when referred to the mass of milk produced.

  18. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  19. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@ewea.org; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  20. Direct employment in the wind energy sector. An EU study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers - including major sub-components - are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles - project managers, engineers and O and M technicians - is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice. (author)

  1. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  2. 78 FR 14962 - BE-15: Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... BE-15: Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States AGENCY: Bureau of Economic... Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. This survey is authorized by the International... BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. What To Report: The survey...

  3. The Dark Energy Survey Data Release 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We describe the first public data release of the Dark Energy Survey, DES DR1, consisting of reduced single epoch images, coadded images, coadded source catalogs, and associated products and services assembled over the first three years of DES science operations. DES DR1 is based on optical/near-infrared imaging from 345 distinct nights (August 2013 to February 2016) by the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4-m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. We release data from the DES wide-area survey covering ~5,000 sq. deg. of the southern Galactic cap in five broad photometric bands, grizY. DES DR1 has a median delivered point-spread function of g = 1.12, r = 0.96, i = 0.88, z = 0.84, and Y = 0.90 arcsec FWHM, a photometric precision of < 1% in all bands, and an astrometric precision of 151 mas. The median coadded catalog depth for a 1.95" diameter aperture at S/N = 10 is g = 24.33, r = 24.08, i = 23.44, z = 22.69, and Y = 21.44 mag. DES DR1 includes nearly 400M distinct astronomical objects detected in ~10,000 coadd tiles of size 0.534 sq. deg. produced from ~39,000 individual exposures. Benchmark galaxy and stellar samples contain ~310M and ~ 80M objects, respectively, following a basic object quality selection. These data are accessible through a range of interfaces, including query web clients, image cutout servers, jupyter notebooks, and an interactive coadd image visualization tool. DES DR1 constitutes the largest photometric data set to date at the achieved depth and photometric precision.

  4. Implications of directed energy for SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Philip

    2016-09-01

    We compute the detectability of directed-energy (DE) sources from distant civilizations that may exist. Recent advances in our own DE technology suggest that our eventual capabilities will radically enhance our capacity to broadcast our presence and hence allow us to ponder the reverse case of detection. We show that DE systems are detectable at vast distances, possibly across the entire horizon, which profoundly alters conceivable search strategies for extra-terrestrial, technologically-advanced civilizations. Even modest searches are extremely effective at detecting or constraining many civilization classes. A single civilization anywhere in our galaxy of comparable technological advancement to our own can be detected with near unity probability with a cluster of 0.1 m telescopes on Earth. A 1 m class telescope can detect a single civilization anywhere in the Andromeda galaxy. A search strategy is proposed using small Earth-based telescopes to observe 1012-1020 stellar and planetary systems. Such observations could address whether there exist other civilizations which are broadcasting with similar or more advanced DE capability. We show that such searches have near-unity probability of detecting comparably advanced civilizations anywhere in our galaxy within a few years, assuming the civilization: (1) adopts a simple "intelligent targeting" beacon strategy; (2) is beaconing at a wavelength we can detect; (3) broadcast the beacon long enough for the light to reach Earth now. In this blind-beacon, blind-search strategy, the civilization need not know where we are nor do we need to know where they are. The same basic strategy can be extended to extragalactic distances.

  5. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  6. HEDP and new directions for fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic-confinement fusion energy and inertia-confinement fusion energy (IFE) represent two extreme approaches to the quest for the application of thermonuclear fusion to electrical energy generation. Blind pursuit of these extreme approaches has long delayed the achievement of their common goal. We point out the possibility of an intermediate approach that promises cheaper, and consequently more rapid development of fusion energy. For example, magneto-inertial fusion appears to be possible over a broad range of parameter space. It is further argued that imposition of artificial constraints impedes the discovery of physics solutions for the fusion energy problem.

  7. Energie Efficiency Directive. Article 7. Dutch implementation; Energie Efficiency Directive. Artikel 7. Nederlandse invulling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.; Gerdes, J.; Boonekamp, P.; Kroon, P.; Stutvoet-Mulder, K.; Tigchelaar, C.; Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Article 7 of the recently adopted Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) obliges the EU member states to achieve 1.5% yearly efficiency improvements during the period 2014-2020, culminating in a cumulative savings target. This report describes the way the Netherlands intends to meet the article 7 obligations, as requested by the European Commission. The EED offers the member states various degrees of freedom with regard to the definition of the target and the way it is met. Hence, this report addresses the choices of the Netherlands and their consequences for the Dutch target and the realised energy savings. A broad-lined description of the choices and overall results is complemented by extensive annexes that offer technical descriptions and detailed numbers [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de manier waarop Nederland aan haar doelstelling voor artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) denkt te voldoen. Het is gebaseerd op de interpretaties en keuzes die de Nederlandse overheid heeft gemaakt. Artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive verplicht Nederland tot het realiseren van een efficiencyverbetering van 1,5% per jaar in de periode 2014-2020, als cumulatieve doelstelling. Voor Nederland betekent dit - rekening houdend met de vrijheidsgraden van de EED - een doelstelling van minimaal 482 PJ besparing op het finaal energiegebruik. Nederland verwacht een cumulatieve besparing te bereiken tussen de 387 en 562 PJ in finale termen, waarvan 87 tot 186 PJ door nieuw beleid. Dit nieuwe beleid bestaat uit de overeengekomen beleidsmaatregelen uit het recente Energieakkoord dat onder regie van de Sociaal Economische Raad (SER) is gesloten. Het kabinet heeft dit akkoord mede ondertekend.

  8. Embrace the Dark Side: Advancing the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchyta, Eric

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an ongoing cosmological survey intended to study the properties of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this dissertation, I present work of mine that has advanced the progress of DES. First is an introduction, which explores the physics of the cosmos, as well as how DES intends to probe it. Attention is given to developing the theoretical framework cosmologists use to describe the Universe, and to explaining observational evidence which has furnished our current conception of the cosmos. Emphasis is placed on the dark sector - dark matter and dark energy - the content of the Universe not explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. As its name suggests, the Dark Energy Survey has been specially designed to measure the properties of dark energy. DES will use a combination of galaxy cluster, weak gravitational lensing, angular clustering, and supernovae measurements to derive its state of the art constraints, each of which is discussed in the text. The work described in this dissertation includes science measurements directly related to the first three of these probes. The dissertation presents my contributions to the readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam); the name of this software is SISPI. SISPI uses client-server and publish-subscribe communication patterns to coordinate and command actions among the many hardware components of DECam - the survey instrument for DES, a 570 megapixel CCD camera, mounted at prime focus of the Blanco 4-m Telescope. The SISPI work I discuss includes coding applications for DECam's filter changer mechanism and hexapod, as well as developing the Scripts Editor, a GUI application for DECam users to edit and export observing sequence SISPI can load and execute. Next, the dissertation describes the processing of early DES data, which I contributed. This furnished the data products used in the first-completed DES science analysis, and contributed to improving the

  9. Electromagnetic or other directed energy pulse launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The physical realization of new solutions of wave propagation equations, such as Maxwell's equations and the scaler wave equation, produces localized pulses of wave energy such as electromagnetic or acoustic energy which propagate over long distances without divergence. The pulses are produced by driving each element of an array of radiating sources with a particular drive function so that the resultant localized packet of energy closely approximates the exact solutions and behaves the same.

  10. New directions in federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel embargo of 1973, followed by the oil disruption of 1979 heightened national security concerns over the availability and price of foreign oil to sustain all sectors of the U.S. economy. As a result of our growing dependence on foreign oil and diminishing resources at home, the Federal government has worked since 1974 to identify and implement a variety of measures to reduce energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations. Federal energy expenditures peaked at almost $14 billion in 1982 but has now been reduced to approximately $10 billion a year. However, much more needs to be done. Since the 1973 oil embargo, a series of legislative initiatives and Presidential authorities established the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and then expanded it to address a broad range of energy-related issues affecting the Federal sector. Administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, FEMP coordinates the design and implementation of energy-saving programs for Federal buildings and operations. This includes working with other Federal agencies through interagency committees to interpret and implement Federal policy, to provide technical assistance to other Federal agencies, and to collect and report Federal energy consumption data to Congress. In addition, with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, concerns over global climate change and a range of man-made and natural pollutants, environmental issues now play a critical role in our nation's energy policy. As a major consumer of energy, the Federal sector can serve as an important model for other sectors of the economy as a result of some of the innovative and cost-effective measures planned or currently underway. My talk today will focus on the Federal government's plans to ensure the energy efficient design and operation of Federal facilities, with an emphasis on life-cycle cost analyses

  11. Survey Study of Trunk Materials for Direct ATRP Grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Johnson, Joseph C. [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL

    2015-02-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated a new method to prepare polymeric fiber adsorbents via a chemical-grafting method, namely atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and identified parameters affecting their uranium adsorption capacity. However, ATRP chemical grafting in the previous study still utilized conventional radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) to introduce initiation sites on fibers. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to perform survey study of trunk fiber materials for direct ATRP chemical grafting method without RIGP for the preparation of fiber adsorbents for uranium recovery from seawater.

  12. Direct conversion of nuclear energy into radiation: New direction in thermonuclear laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, Yu.N.; Vedenov, A.A.; Filyukov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    In investigations dealing with thermonuclear fusion, a radical new direction appeared some time ago, namely the direct conversion of nuclear and thermonuclear energy into radiation energy. This paper reviews early work on this topic in Russia and the United States and discusses some recent new directions

  13. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  14. Renewable energy in Dutch households. An online survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mors, B.; Both, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the title survey was to find out how households in the Netherlands can be interested and involved in the use of renewable energy, in particular biomass, wind power and solar energy [nl

  15. Direct and indirect energy requirements of output of the New Zealand economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, N.J.

    1985-10-01

    Data on energy supply in New Zealand for the year of the survey are reviewed critically. Results are tabulated as the direct and indirect energy intensities of output for each of the energy supply industries: coal mining and natural gas production; petroleum refining, oil and coal products; electricity, state supply; electricity, local body supply; and gas manufacture and distribution. Two types of sector tabulations are presented; at the 178-sector level (the maximum detail available) and the 29-sector level, corresponding to the usual GDP sectors and the energy industries. Energy requirements of gross fixed capital formation are also tabulated, at the 29-sector level. While the data from the survey are now eight years old, changes in the energy supply industries, and in industry as a whole, are believed to have been sufficiently slow for the results to be generally applicable until data from the 1981-82 survey become available. 33 references, 4 tables.

  16. Biomass production for direct generation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In continuing its activities for the formation of public opinion the Deutsche Farming Association) held a colloquium in 1991 on the issue of biomass production and combustion. Its aim was to gather all current knowledge on this issue and, for the first time, to make a comprehensive appraisal of it. The following aspects were dealt with: Abatement of atmospheric pollution, ecologically oriented production, nature conservation, organisation of decentralized power plant operating corporations, state of the art in combustion technology, operational calculations and, not least, agrarin-political framework conditions. The meeting yielded important statements on remarkable innovations in the area of ecological biomass production and for its utilization as an energy source together with the conventional energy sources of oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. (orig.) [de

  17. 76 FR 71937 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-605, Quarterly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-605, Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United... Foreign Direct Investment in the United States--Transactions of U.S. Affiliate with Foreign Parent (BE-605... years from similar data reported in the BE- 12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the...

  18. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  19. Microparticle impact sensor measures energy directly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Berg, O. E.

    1965-01-01

    Construction of a capacitor sensor consisting of a dielectric layer between two conductive surface layers and connected across a potential source through a sensing resistor permits measurement of energy of impinging particles without degradation of sensitivity. A measurable response is produced without penetration of the dielectric layer.

  20. Nuclear energy center site survey reactor plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 required the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to make a nuclear energy center site survey (NECSS). Background information for the NECSS report was developed in a series of tasks which include: socioeconomic inpacts; environmental impact (reactor facilities); emergency response capability (reactor facilities); aging of nuclear energy centers; and dry cooled nuclear energy centers

  1. Direct energy inputs to the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    As a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.

  2. A survey of renewable energies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals set by the Grenelle agreement was to reach a ratio of 23% for the part of renewable energies in the final energies consumed in France by 2020. In 2005 this ratio was 10 per cent. In this article the situation in 2010 for wind energy, solar energy, biomass, wood heating and geothermal energy are reported. It appears that the results are promising but the reduction of fiscal incentives might jeopardize the objective for 2020. (A.C.)

  3. Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Chimczak, Eugeniusz

    2007-01-01

    Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence has been investigated. In the investigations reported here, monomolecular centers were taken into account. It was found that the integrated light is equal to the product of generation rate and time of duration of excitation pulse for both direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence.

  4. The CEDSS model of direct domestic energy demand

    OpenAIRE

    Gotts, Nicholas Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of the CEDSS model of direct domestic energy demand, and the first results of its use to produce estimates of future demand under a range of scenarios. CEDSS simulates direct domestic energy demand at within communities of approximately 200 households. The scenarios explored differ in the economic conditions assumed, and policy measures adopted at national level.

  5. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  6. Survey on the energy in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1998-01-01

    The state of energy sector in Lebanon for 1997 is presented. Balance of primary and final energy is drawn up as well as the production and consumption of electricity for 1997. Results have shown that primary energy is imported and is based essentially on petroleum products such as fuel oil 33,5%, gas oil 27,5%, gasoline 27%, GPL 3% and carbureactor 2%. Energy consumption has increased by 13% in 1997. Energy pricing has increased by 9% comparing to 1996. Balance of final energy shows that 80% of this energy is represented by gas oil, gasoline and electricity. Emissions of toxic substances due to the combustion of energy based on hydrocarbures are estimated. Economic analysis of electricity sector is presented. Tables and statistics support the results reported

  7. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  8. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  9. 76 FR 39260 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... are eliminated from the regulations are: A survey of foreign direct investment in the U.S. seafood... requirements for two surveys of new foreign direct investment in the United States. BEA suspended collection of... Enters into a Joint Venture With, a Foreign Person BE-21, Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in U.S...

  10. 76 FR 19282 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... surveys that would be eliminated from the regulations are: a survey of foreign direct investment in the U... foreign direct investment in the United States (BE-13 and BE-14). BEA suspended collection of these... a Joint Venture With, a Foreign Person BE-21, Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Business...

  11. Wind energy literature survey no. 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    To keep readers up-to-date in the field, each issue of Wind Energy will contain a list of relevant published articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Also note that the inclusion in the list...

  12. Wind energy literature survey no. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    To keep readers up-to-date in the field, each issue of Wind Energy will contain a list of relevant published articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Also note that the inclusion in the list...

  13. Can the Existence of Dark Energy be Directly Detected?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-23

    The majority of astronomers and physicists accept the reality of dark energy and also believe that it can only be studied indirectly through observation of the motions of stars and galaxies. In this paper I open the experimental question of whether it is possible to directly detect dark energy through the presence of dark energy density. Two thirds of this paper outlines the major aspects of dark energy density as now comprehended by the astronomical and physics community. The final third summarizes various proposals for direct detection of dark energy density or its possible effects. At this time I do not have a fruitful answer to the question: Can the Existence of Dark Energy Be Directly Detected?

  14. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1991 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy enterprises, with respect to investment, energy operations, and financial performance. Additionally, since energy investments are made in a global context, outward investment in energy is reviewed trough an examination of US-based companies' patterns of investment in foreign petroleum. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment transactions

  15. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1990 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy enterprises, with respect to investment, energy operations, and financial performance. Additionally, since energy investments are made in a global context, outward investment in energy is reviewed through an examination of US-based companies' patterns of investment in foreign petroleum. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment transactions

  16. US business and the energy crisis: a survey of managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefalas, A G [Univ. of Georgia, Athens; Mehra, S

    1979-09-01

    Although there seems to be an uncomfortably clear consensus among academic and other researchers that energy availability, accessibility, and affordability can no longer be taken for granted, most governments seem to have great difficulty in devising an energy policy that will solve the energy crisis or at least clarify the energy confusion. In 1974, barely a year after the 1973 oil embargo, a survey was conducted of US executives, asking them to comment about the severity of the energy situation and its impact upon their organizations. The results were published in the September 1976 issue of Energy Policy. Last November, five years since the 1973 experience, the survey was repeated, with production and inventory control personnel. This article presents a comparison of the two surveys.

  17. Direct Energy Centre underground parking integrated light control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    LightSavers is a project undertaken by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund to accelerate the use of lighting technologies. As part of the project a pilot test has been carried out in the Direct Energy Center in Toronto. The aim of this report is to present the study and its results. The Direct Energy Center is a large event facility with an large underground parking facility. A lighting energy management system, the energy control system (ECS), capable of adjusting lighting levels based on occupancy was implemented in the centre and data was collected during over one year. Results showed that the ECS permitted a reduction in energy consumption and thus greenhouse gas emissions by 47% and the payback will take less than 6 years. This project demonstrated that the energy control system provides better energy, environmental and economic performance than a traditional automation system.

  18. Grading of direct laryngoscopy. A survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Fleming, B G; Wace, J R

    1994-06-01

    One hundred and twenty anaesthetists (30 of each grade), from three separate regions, were interviewed as to how they recorded the appearance of laryngeal structures at direct laryngoscopy and about their knowledge of the commonly used numerical grading system. About two-thirds of anaesthetists surveyed (69.2%) used the numerical grading system, but of these, over half could not identify a 'grade 2' laryngoscopic appearance correctly. Of anaesthetists who did not use the numerical method, over half could not correctly state the difference between a 'grade 2' and a 'grade 3' laryngoscopic appearance. Over 40% of anaesthetists stated incorrectly that the grading should be made on the initial view, even when laryngeal pressure had been needed. Junior anaesthetists were more likely to use the numerical method of recording. The results show that there is unacceptable uncertainty and inaccuracy in the use of the numerical grading system by users as well as non-users, which makes the current routine clinical use of the numerical grading system unsatisfactory.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a technical handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This technical handbook includes comprehensive discussions on nature and occurrence of the geothermal resource, its development, utilization, economics, financing, and regulation. Information on pricing parameters for the direct use of geothermal energy is included as an appendix. (MRH)

  1. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, P.; Sheldon, E.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective exploratory approach for future astronomical surveys or other extensive data sets with a sufficiently large user base. We also release open-source code of the web application and host an online demo version at http://des-exp-checker.pmelchior.net.

  2. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  3. Third European Company SurveyDirect and indirect employee participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between

  4. Directionally independent energy gap formation due to the hyperfine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, Seiji; Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel

    We study energy gap formation at the level-crossing point due to the hyperfine interaction. In contrast to the energy gap induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the gap induced by the hyperfine interaction is independent of the direction of the magnetic field. We also study the dynamics

  5. Characterization of low energy radioactive beams using direct reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.G.; Fraser, M.A.; Bildstein, V.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to determine the beam structure of low energy radioactive beams using coincidence events from a direct reaction. The technique will be described and tested using Geant4 simulations. We use the technique to determine for the first time the width, divergence and energy...

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) conducted December 7--11, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PETC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PETC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site Survey activities at PETC. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the Plan's results will be incorporated into the PETC Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 64 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. Sectorial survey: energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2001-06-01

    After 3 years of quasi-stagnation, the consumption of primary energy started again in the year 2000 with a +2.1% of growth. Petroleum remains the first energy source consumed in the world, in front of coal which is closely followed by natural gas. The increase of oil prices all along the year 2000 up to the beginning of 2001 has had serious impacts on natural gas prices. In this context, the energy actors have had an offensive behaviour based on the acquisition of market shares in the areas in progress of deregulation. The historical actors of the gas back-end sector have had to face both the offensive of the oil companies on the one hand and of the electric utilities on the other hand. In this changing competition environment the 2000 financial year has been felt differently by the oil, natural gas and electric companies. This study makes a clear and detailed status of the oil, gas, coal, electricity and nuclear markets situation through the economical analysis of 8 companies of the energy sector. (J.S.)

  8. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey : summary report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecteau, V.; Hulan, I.; McNabb, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-06-15

    A survey was conducted on the energy consumption of Canada's commercial and institutional sectors. The primary purpose was to improve the understanding of various aspects of energy consumption in these sector and to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions that seek to achieve greater energy efficiency and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Energy intensity data was presented by energy source and region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and, accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio. In 2005, the commercial and institutional establishments consumed 1.04 billion gigajoules, nearly double the annual consumption of all private households in Ontario. The total energy intensity was 1.54 GJ per square metre. The lowest energy rating was found in social assistance establishments, while the highest energy rating was in food services and drinking places, followed by hospitals. Quebec and the Atlantic provinces had the lowest energy intensity levels, while the Prairie provinces had the highest energy intensity rate. The survey included data on the age of establishments; the energy sources used for space heating cooling and water heating; establishment spending on energy consumption; and, the use of auxiliary equipment. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. 78 FR 11141 - BE-577: Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad- Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... BE-577: Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-- Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter With... that it is conducting the mandatory surveys titled BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad--Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter with Foreign Affiliate. This survey is authorized by the...

  10. An innovative tri-directional broadband piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wei-Jiun, E-mail: weijiun@mie.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2013-11-11

    This paper presents a tri-directional piezoelectric energy harvester that is able to harvest vibration energy over a wide bandwidth from three orthogonal directions. The harvester consists of a main beam, an auxiliary beam, and a spring-mass system, with magnets integrated to introduce nonlinear force and couple the three sub-systems. Theoretical analysis and experiments were performed at constant acceleration under frequency sweeps to acquire frequency responses. The experimental results show that the voltage can achieve more than 2 V over more than 5 Hz of bandwidth with 1 MΩ load in the three orthogonal directions.

  11. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon; Miley, George H.

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D- 3 He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E- 3 He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  12. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Miley, George H. [Fusion Studies Laboratory, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D-{sup 3}He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E-{sup 3}He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  13. Survey of EPA facilities for solar thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. V.; Overly, P. T.; Bell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facility combinations were ranked on the basis of greatest cost effectiveness.

  14. Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given

  15. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool... heating equipment and pool heaters. Table I.1--Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... for national energy and water conservation; and 7. Other factors the Secretary of Energy (Secretary...

  16. The directive on energy efficiency: review in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Whereas it has not been entirely transposed for all counties yet, the European directive on energy efficiency is to be reviewed to match objectives defined for 2030. Therefore, the European Commission is elaborating an analysis and a consultation on this issue. This article indicates some available data published in the Energy Efficiency Progress Report related to the evolution of final energy consumption and to its objective for 2020, to the evolution of energy consumption in the main sectors, and to the evolution of heat production by co-generation between 2005 and 2013. It also comments the main articles of the directive which address problematic and general objectives, public purchases, energy efficiency obligation schemes (EEOS, which are the main matter of questions), counting and billing, financing, and monitoring

  17. Direct energy conversion system for D-3He fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Shu, L.Y.; Momota, H.

    1993-11-01

    A novel and highly efficient direct energy conversion system is proposed for utilizing D- 3 He fueled fusion. In order to convert kinetic energy of ions, we applied a pair of direct energy conversion systems each of which has a cusp-type DEC and a traveling wave DEC (TWDEC). In a cusp-type DEC, electrons are separated from the escaping ions at the first line-cusp and the energy of thermal ion components is converted at the second cusp DEC. The fusion protons go through the cusp-type DEC and arrive at the TWDEC, which principle is similar to 'LINAC.' The energy of fusion protons is recovered to electricity with an efficiency of more than 70%. These DECs bring about the high efficient fusion plant. (author)

  18. 78 FR 40690 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Request; Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad... Sarahelen Thompson, Acting Chief, Direct Investment Division (BE-50), Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S... Investment Abroad--Transactions of U.S. Reporter with Foreign Affiliate (Form BE-577), obtains quarterly data...

  19. Direct observation of coherent energy transfer in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Zanette, Damián H; Czaplewski, David A; Shaw, Steven; López, Daniel

    2017-05-26

    Energy dissipation is an unavoidable phenomenon of physical systems that are directly coupled to an external environmental bath. In an oscillatory system, it leads to the decay of the oscillation amplitude. In situations where stable oscillations are required, the energy dissipated by the vibrations is usually compensated by replenishment from external energy sources. Consequently, if the external energy supply is removed, the amplitude of oscillations start to decay immediately, since there is no means to restitute the energy dissipated. Here, we demonstrate a novel dissipation engineering strategy that can support stable oscillations without supplying external energy to compensate losses. The fundamental intrinsic mechanism of resonant mode coupling is used to redistribute and store mechanical energy among vibrational modes and coherently transfer it back to the principal mode when the external excitation is off. To experimentally demonstrate this phenomenon, we exploit the nonlinear dynamic response of microelectromechanical oscillators to couple two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance.

  20. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  1. Survey of Public Understanding on Energy Resources including Nuclear Energy (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Song, Sun-Ja

    2007-01-01

    Women in Nuclear-Korea (WINK) surveyed the public understanding on various energy resources in early September 2006 to offer the result for establishment of the nuclear communication policy. The reason why this survey includes other energy resources is because the previous works are only limited on nuclear energy, and also aimed to know the public's opinion on the present communication skill of nuclear energy for the public understanding. The present study is purposed of having data how public understands nuclear energy compared to other energies, such as fossil fuels, hydro power, and other sustainable energies. The data obtained from this survey have shown different results according to the responded group; age, gender, residential area, etc. Responded numbers are more than 2,000 of general public and university students. The survey result shows that nuclear understanding is more negative in women than in men, and is more negative in young than older age

  2. Modification of Surface Energy via Direct Laser Ablative Surface Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J., Jr. (Inventor); Belcher, Marcus A. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hopkins, John W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Surface energy of a substrate is changed without the need for any template, mask, or additional coating medium applied to the substrate. At least one beam of energy directly ablates a substrate surface to form a predefined topographical pattern at the surface. Each beam of energy has a width of approximately 25 micrometers and an energy of approximately 1-500 microJoules. Features in the topographical pattern have a width of approximately 1-500 micrometers and a height of approximately 1.4-100 micrometers.

  3. Exploring propositions about perceptions of energy security: An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor; Jain Bambawale, Malavika; Brown, Marilyn A.; Fátima Cardoso, Terezinha de; Nurbek, Sayasat; Suleimenova, Gulimzhan; Li Jinke; Xu Yang; Jain, Anil; Alhajji, A.F.; Zubiri, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how energy users from government, industry, civil society, and academia perceive of energy security challenges. It also analyzes how demographic characteristics influence such perceptions, and how geography, economic structure, modes of domestic energy production, and culture shape energy security priorities. Its primary source of data is a four-part survey distributed in seven languages (English, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, German, and Japanese) to 2167 respondents in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Kazakhstan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United States. These countries were selected because they represent a mix of urban and rural populations, developed and developing economies, import- and export-oriented energy trading flows, communist and capitalist societies, liberalized and state-owned energy markets, and small and large geographic sizes. The survey results are used to test four propositions about energy security related to the education, age, occupation, and gender of respondents, as well five propositions about national energy priorities and the interconnected attributes of security of supply, energy efficiency, energy research and development, energy trade, diversification and decentralization, affordability, environmental quality, climate change, and energy governance.

  4. Direct energy recovery from helium ion beams by a beam direct converter with secondary electron suppressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Toku, H.; Kobayashi, A.; Okazaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-yr study of beam direct energy conversion was performed at the Kyoto University Institute of Atomic Energy to clarify the essential features of direct energy recovery from monoenergetic ion beams so that the performance characteristics of energy recovery can be predicted reasonably well by numerical calculations. The study used an improved version of an electrostatically electron-suppressed beam direct converter. Secondary electron suppressor grids were added, and a helium ion beam was used with typical parameters of 15.4 keV, 90 mA, and 100 ms. This paper presents a comparison of experimental results with numerical results by the two-dimensional Kyoto University Advanced Dart (KUAD) code, including evaluation of atomic processes

  5. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  6. Market attractiveness Energy Performance Certificate for Buildings. Analysis of the survey results. Country report for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobben, M.M.H.; Hoogelander, K.J.; Schorel, J.S.; Corpeleijn, M.F.; Hezelmans, A.; Verhoef, L.A.

    2006-09-01

    The STABLE project aims at launching a collaborative effort of national energy agencies and federations of building owners in order to establish a firm basis for market acceptance of building energy certification as defined in the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. This report presents the results of a survey for the Netherlands. [nl

  7. Direct Characterization of Ultrafast Energy-Time Entangled Photon Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Donohue, John M; Resch, Kevin J

    2018-02-02

    Energy-time entangled photons are critical in many quantum optical phenomena and have emerged as important elements in quantum information protocols. Entanglement in this degree of freedom often manifests itself on ultrafast time scales, making it very difficult to detect, whether one employs direct or interferometric techniques, as photon-counting detectors have insufficient time resolution. Here, we implement ultrafast photon counters based on nonlinear interactions and strong femtosecond laser pulses to probe energy-time entanglement in this important regime. Using this technique and single-photon spectrometers, we characterize all the spectral and temporal correlations of two entangled photons with femtosecond resolution. This enables the witnessing of energy-time entanglement using uncertainty relations and the direct observation of nonlocal dispersion cancellation on ultrafast time scales. These techniques are essential to understand and control the energy-time degree of freedom of light for ultrafast quantum optics.

  8. Review of direct energy conversion for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The direct conversion to electrical energy of the energy carried by the leakage plasma from a fusion reactor and by the ions that are not converted to neutrals in a neutral-beam injector is discussed. The conversion process is electrostatic deceleration and direct particle collection as distinct from plasma expansion against a time-varying magnetic field or conversion in an EXB duct (both MHD). Relatively simple 1-stage plasma direct converters are discussed which can have efficiencies of about 50 percent. More complex and costly (measured in $/kW) 2-, 3-, 4-, and 22-stage concepts have been tested at efficiencies approaching 90 percent. Beam direct converters have been tested at 15 keV and 2 kW of power at 70 +- 2 percent efficiency, and a test of a 120-keV, 1-MW version is being prepared. Designs for a 120-keV, 4-MW unit are presented. The beam direct converter, besides saving on power supplies and on beam dumps, should raise the efficiency of creating a neutral beam from 40 percent without direct conversion to 70 percent with direct conversion for a 120-keV deuterium beam. The technological limits determining power handling and lifetime such as space-charge effects, heat removal, electrode material, sputtering, blistering, voltage holding, and insulation design, are discussed. The application of plasma direct converters to toroidal plasma confinement concepts is also discussed

  9. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, 3 He, 4 He, and lithium ions

  10. Public opinion survey 'Nuclear energy - the present and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prah, M.; Jurkovic, I.-A.; Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    As a part of Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network efforts in improving relations with the general public, a survey on nuclear energy issues among a student population (18-22 years old) has been planned. The survey, although somewhat modified, is based on a similar one that has been conducted at high schools as a part of organized educational program by the Museum of Technical Sciences and Hrvatska Elektroprivreda. (authors)

  11. Survey of particle codes in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    In the spring of 1976, the Fusion Plasma Theory Branch of the Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy conducted a survey of all the physics computer codes being supported at that time. The purpose of that survey was to allow DMFE to prepare a description of the codes for distribution to the plasma physics community. This document is the first of several planned and covers those types of codes which treat the plasma as a group of particles

  12. Public opinion survey 'Nuclear energy - the present and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkovic, I.-A.; Jecmenica, R.; Prah, M.; Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2000-01-01

    As a part of Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network efforts in improving relations with the general public, a survey on nuclear energy issues among a student population (18-22 years old) has been planned. The survey, although somewhat modified, is based on a similar one that has been conducted at high schools as a part of organized educational program by the Museum of Technical Sciences and Hrvatska Elektroprivreda. (author)

  13. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  14. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; McLean, Ian S.; Ramsay, Suzanne K.; Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Angstadt, Robert; Takami, Hideki; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; Briones, Jorge; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Campa, Juila; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco; Castilla, Javier; Cease, Herman; Chappa, Steve; Chi, Edward C.; da Costa, Luis; DePoy, Darren L.; Derylo, Gregory; de Vincente, Juan; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Estrada, Juan; Eiting, Jacob; Elliott, Anne E.; Finley, David A.; Flores, Rolando; Frieman, Josh; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gerdes, David; Gladders, Mike; Guarino, V.; Gutierrez, G.; Grudzinski, Jim; Hanlon, Bill; Hao, Jiangang; Holland, Steve; Honscheid, Klaus; Huffman, Dave; Jackson, Cheryl; Jonas, Michelle; Karliner, Inga; Kau, Daekwang; Kent, Steve; Kozlovsky, Mark; Krempetz, Kurt; Krider, John; Kubik, Donna; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve E.; Kuk, Kevin; Lahav, Ofer; Langellier, Nick; Lathrop, Andrew; Lewis, Peter M.; Lin, Huan; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Martinez, Gustavo; McKay, Timothy; Merritt, Wyatt; Meyer, Mark; Miquel, Ramon; Morgan, Jim; Moore, Peter; Moore, Todd; Neilsen, Eric; Nord, Brian; Ogando, Ricardo; Olson, Jamieson; Patton, Kenneth; Peoples, John; Plazas, Andres; Qian, Tao; Roe, Natalie; Roodman, Aaron; Rossetto, B.; Sanchez, E.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Scarpine, Vic; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Ricardo; Schmitt, Richard; Schubnell, Mike; Schultz, Kenneth; Selen, M.; Serrano, Santiago; Shaw, Terri; Simaitis, Vaidas; Slaughter, Jean; Smith, R. Christopher; Spinka, Hal; Stefanik, Andy; Stuermer, Walter; Sypniewski, Adam; Talaga, R.; Tarle, Greg; Thaler, Jon; Tucker, Doug; Walker, Alistair R.; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wester, William; Woods, Robert J.; Worswick, Sue; Zhao, Allen

    2012-09-24

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  15. Cosmic shear measurements with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present measurements of weak gravitational lensing cosmic shear two-point statistics using Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. We demonstrate that our results are robust to the choice of shear measurement pipeline, either ngmix or im3shape, and robust to the choice of two-point statistic, including both real and Fourier-space statistics. Our results pass a suite of null tests including tests for B-mode contamination and direct tests for any dependence of the two-point functions on a set of 16 observing conditions and galaxy properties, such as seeing, airmass, galaxy color, galaxy magnitude, etc. We use a large suite of simulations to compute the covariance matrix of the cosmic shear measurements and assign statistical significance to our null tests. We find that our covariance matrix is consistent with the halo model prediction, indicating that it has the appropriate level of halo sample variance. We also compare the same jackknife procedure applied to the data and the simulations in order to search for additional sources of noise not captured by the simulations. We find no statistically significant extra sources of noise in the data. The overall detection significance with tomography for our highest source density catalog is 9.7σ. Cosmological constraints from the measurements in this work are presented in a companion paper

  16. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  17. Historical Overview of Directed-Energy Work at Dahlgren

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    discharge of electrical energy at the gun breech to generate a plasma jet. This plasma jet heated a low- molecular-weight working fluid, such as water, to...cept augmented the electrical energy generating the plasma jet with a chemical reaction. A 127mm ETC gun was investigated, and a 60mm ETC gun was...ANSI Std Z39-18 13 Historical Overview of Directed-Energy Work at Dahlgren coaxial pipe, which was switched at one end, to create the oscillating

  18. Characterization of Direct Piezoelectric Properties for Vibration Energy Harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Miyabuchi, Hiroki; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Murakami, Syuichi, E-mail: tyoshi@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, 2-7-1 Ayumino, Izumi, Osaka, 594-1157 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Direct piezoelectric effect of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was investigated to discuss the application of ferroelectric films to vibration energy harvesting. From the model of the piezoelectric vibration energy harvester, it was found that the figure of merit (FOM) is proportional of the square of the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e{sub 31,f}. The e{sub 31,f} coefficient of PZT films were measured by substrate bending method. Furthermore, it was found that the e{sub 31,f} coefficient increases with increasing strain, which is favourable for the vibration energy harvesting.

  19. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people's energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  20. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people`s energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  1. Direct probe of dark energy through gravitational lensing effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Hong-Jian [T. D. Lee Institute, and School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Zhen, E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@pku.edu.cn [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-08-01

    We show that gravitational lensing can provide a direct method to probe the nature of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For lensing system as an isolated astrophysical object, we derive the dark energy contribution to gravitational potential as a repulsive power-law term, containing a generic equation of state parameter w . We find that it generates w -dependent and position-dependent modification to the conventional light orbital equation of w =−1. With post-Newtonian approximation, we compute its direct effect for an isolated lensing system at astrophysical scales and find that the dark energy force can deflect the path of incident light rays. We demonstrate that the dark-energy-induced deflection angle Δα{sub DE}∝ M {sup (1+1/3} {sup w} {sup )} (with 1+1/3 w > 0), which increases with the lensing mass M and consistently approaches zero in the limit M → 0. This effect is distinctive because dark energy tends to diffuse the rays and generates concave lensing effect . This is in contrast to the conventional convex lensing effect caused by both visible and dark matter. Measuring such concave lensing effect can directly probe the existence and nature of dark energy. We estimate this effect and show that the current gravitational lensing experiments are sensitive to the direct probe of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For the special case w =−1, our independent study favors the previous works that the cosmological constant can affect light bending, but our prediction qualitatively and quantitatively differ from the literature, including our consistent realization of Δα{sub DE} → 0 (under 0 M → ) at the leading order.

  2. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  3. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday...

  4. Energy Systems With Renewable Hydrogen Compared to Direct Use of Renewable Energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerfried Jungmeier; Kurt Konighofer; Josef Spitzer; R Haas; A Ajanovic

    2006-01-01

    The current Austrian energy system has a renewable energy share of 20% - 11% hydropower and 9 % biomass - of total primary energy consumption. Whereas a possible future introduction of renewable hydrogen must be seen in the context of current energy policies in Austria e.g. increase of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the research project is a life cycle based comparison of energy systems with renewable hydrogen from hydropower, wind, photovoltaic and biomass compared to the direct use of renewable energy for combined heat and power applications and transportation services. In particular this paper focuses on the main question, if renewable energy should be used directly or indirectly via renewable hydrogen. The assessment is based on a life cycle approach to analyse the energy efficiency, the material demand, the greenhouse gas emissions and economic aspects e.g. energy costs and some qualitative aspects e.g. energy service. The overall comparison of the considered energy systems for transportation service and combined heat and electricity application shows, that renewable hydrogen might be beneficial mainly for transportation services, if the electric vehicle will not be further developed to a feasibly wide-spread application for transportation service in future. For combined heat and electricity production there is no advantage of renewable hydrogen versus the direct use of renewable energy. Conclusions for Austria are therefore: 1) renewable hydrogen is an interesting energy carrier and might play an important role in a future sustainable Austrian energy system; 2) renewable hydrogen applications look most promising in the transportation sector; 3) renewable hydrogen applications will be of low importance for combined heat and electricity applications, as existing technologies for direct use of renewable energy for heat and electricity are well developed and very efficient; 4) In a future '100

  5. Energy Systems Training Programs and Certifications Survey White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thirumaran, Kiran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guo, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Compressed air system, industrial refrigeration system, chilled water system, pump system, fan system, steam system, process heating system, and combined heat and power system are the major industrial energy systems. By helping enhance knowledge and skills of workforce, training and certification programs on these systems are essential to improve energy efficiency of manufacturing facilities. A literature survey of currently available training and certification programs on these systems was conducted.

  6. From energy efficiency towards resource efficiency within the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    on the most significant environmental impact has often resulted in a focus on energy efficiency in the use phase. Therefore, the Ecodesign Directive should continue to target resource efficiency aspects but also consider environ- mental aspects with a large improvement potential in addition to the most...... significant environmental impact. For the introduction of resource efficiency requirements into the Ecodesign Directive, these requirements have to be included in the preparatory study. It is therefore recommended to broaden the scope of the Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-related products and the Eco......The article examines the integration of resource efficiency into the European Ecodesign Directive. The purpose is to analyse the processes and stakeholder interactions, which formed the basis for integrating resource efficiency requirements into the implementing measure for vacuum cleaners...

  7. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear energy center site survey: fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Background information for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey is presented in the following task areas: economics of integrated vs. dispersed nuclear fuel cycle facilities, plutonium fungibility, fuel cycle industry model, production controls and failure contingencies, environmental impact, waste management, emergency response capability, and feasibility evaluations

  9. Public Opinion Survey - Energy, The Present and The Future, 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Matijevic, M.; Jecmenica, R.; Duckic, P.; Lebegner, J.

    2016-01-01

    During the year 2015 the Department of Applied Physics of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb conducted a public opinion survey entitled 'Energy - The Present and the Future' among student population of 1115 individuals. The tested population consisted of the University of Zagreb six faculties' students: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, the Faculty of Science, and the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. The questions in the survey covered several different energy issues, including the present and the future energy resources, the acceptability of different fuel type power plants, the environmental protection and global warming, the radioactivity, the radioactive waste issues, reliable information sources, and position of participants towards climate change issues, as well as European Union and Croatian goals set for the year 2020. The basic results of survey analysis for nuclear oriented questions, as well as the comparison of results of the current survey with the results of the similar surveys conducted in the academic years 2007/08, and 2012/2013, are reported in this paper. Participants generally express high level of formal environmental awareness. However, their choices and attitudes are in a contradiction to claimed eco-orientation, as well as to the scientific facts. The discrepancies are particularly noticeable in parts of the survey dealing with the nuclear energy and the nuclear power plants. The participants are also demonstrating lack of knowledge on nuclear issues especially regarding radioactive waste management, as well as economics and operational safety of nuclear power plants. (author).

  10. Direct application of geothermal energy in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin

    1995-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy for balneology purposes has a history of many centuries. There is also a more than 30 years tradition for heating greenhouses. So called energy crisis of 70-ties and 80-ties provoked geology investigations in order to find possible energy sources, and development of systems for application of low-temperature geothermal water. Tere are a list of projects with direct application of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses, drying agricultural products. heating of public buildings and industrial projects, swimming pools , sanitary warm water preparation, industrial uses, etc. The essential energetic characteristics of different projects are presented in the paper. For the main projects a technical description of characteristics of the heating systems is given, and good technical solutions are underlined. Also the mistakes presented in some projects are listed. (Original)

  11. Methodology for energy audits in the framework of the energy efficiency directive

    OpenAIRE

    Méchaussie, Elfie; Maréchal, François; Van Eetvelde, Greet

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU (EED) was released in October 2012 and transposed in June 2014 by Member States. The Directive requires large companies to carry out an energy audit before December 2015, which has to be repeated every 4 years. A possibility for companies to be exempted from regular energy audits is to be or become certified by an approved energy management system (EnMS), most likely the international standard ISO 50001. In both cases it means that companies have to ...

  12. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  13. Violence Directed against Teachers: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmahon, Susan D.; Martinez, Andrew; Espelage, Dorothy; Rose, Chad; Reddy, Linda A.; Lane, Kathleen; Anderman, Eric M.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Jones, Abraham; Brown, Veda

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in U.S. schools report high rates of victimization, yet previous studies focus on select types of victimization and student perpetrators, which may underestimate the extent of the problem. This national study was based on work conducted by the American Psychological Association Classroom Violence Directed Against Teachers Task Force and…

  14. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  15. A survey of energy policy priorities in the United States: Energy supply security, economics, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Dawn K.; Hines, Valerie A.; Jordan, Matthew W.; Stoltz, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Security, environment, and economic concerns are commonly identified as three major objectives of energy policy. State and federal governments have set aggressive targets for carbon emissions reductions and for alternative fuel use and increased vehicle efficiency to reduce petroleum consumption. Moreover, jobs creation and GDP growth are often cited as key drivers for energy policies. Previous studies on energy policy decision-making have examined the process for developing and evaluating options using multi-criteria decision analysis tools. In addition, energy opinion polls have either elicited preferences between two goals or whether the public supports a specific policy action. In this article, we report results from a survey of 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy across the goals of energy supply security, environment and climate, and economics and job creation. The majority favor policymaking that is balanced across all three. Security and economic concerns increase with age for male respondents, whereas environment is the highest priority for females regardless of age. Unlike previous surveys that target the general public and focus on a particular objective or technology, these results provide an example of eliciting a portfolio allocation across multiple energy policy goals from targeted constituents. - Highlights: • We surveyed 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy. • The paper addresses direct elicitation of energy policy goal portfolio allocation for a large set of energy stakeholders. • The majority of respondents favor policymaking balanced across multiple goals. • We observed differences in priorities based on age and gender. • Respondents expressed a tension in allocating across goals that are interrelated

  16. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  18. Energy and society: a conceptual mapping. A preliminary literature survey. [142 references cited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    This literature survey relates energy to four broad categories of social research: Part One--The Diffusion of Innovations; Part Two--Community Studies; Part III--Culture Contact Studies; and Part IV--Energy and Society. The purpose of the report is twofold: to provide a nonexhaustive literature overview for each of these four categories of social science research; and to suggest how such research contributes to the study of energy-society interactions and how future research might be directed toward improving this developing body of knowledge. 143 references.

  19. The Dark Energy Survey and Operations: Years 1 to 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an operating optical survey aimed at understanding the accelerating expansion of the universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the 5000 sq-degree wide field and 30 sq-degree supernova surveys, the DES Collaboration built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square-degree, 570-Megapixel CCD camera that was installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DES has completed its third observing season out of a nominal five. This paper describes DES “Year 1” (Y1) to “Year 3” (Y3), the strategy, an outline of the survey operations procedures, the efficiency of operations and the causes of lost observing time. It provides details about the quality of the first three season's data, and describes how we are adjusting the survey strategy in the face of the El Niño Southern Oscillation

  20. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  1. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  2. Technological learning in energy-environment-economy modelling: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli-Brahmi, Sondes

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview and a critical analysis of the technological learning concept and its incorporation in energy-environment-economy models. A special emphasis is put on surveying and discussing, through the so-called learning curve, both studies estimating learning rates in the energy field and studies incorporating endogenous technological learning in bottom-up and top-down models. The survey of learning rate estimations gives special attention to interpreting and explaining the sources of variability of estimated rates, which is shown to be mainly inherent in R and D expenditures, the problem of omitted variable bias, the endogeneity relationship and the role of spillovers. Large-scale models survey show that, despite some methodological and computational complexity related to the non-linearity and the non-convexity associated with the learning curve incorporation, results of the numerous modelling experiments give several new insights with regard to the analysis of the prospects of specific technological options and their cost decrease potential (bottom-up models), and with regard to the analysis of strategic considerations, especially inherent in the innovation and energy diffusion process, in particular the energy sector's endogenous responses to environment policy instruments (top-down models)

  3. EU Directives, national regulations and incentives for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H.; Scholz, H.; Bloem, H.; Werring, L.

    2004-01-01

    The European Union long-term strategy for security of energy supply and its commitment to curb climate change led to the adoption of a series of Strategy Papers and EU Directives. In all these, it is clearly stated that climate change is a long-term challenge for the international community and that the commitments made in the Kyoto Protocol can only be a first step. The promotion of renewable energies is a most important element of this process. It regards industry, jobs and foreign trade balance as well, generating benefit to social sustainability. Photovoltaic is a key technology with the potential not only to serve the needs in energy supply of tomorrow in a sustainable way, but already today, it can improve security and stability of electricity services at peak times, due to its decentralized nature. This paper gives an update on the EU and National legislation in place to promote the implementation of photovoltaic. (authors)

  4. Direct observation of vibrational energy dispersal via methyl torsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M; Tuttle, William D; Whalley, Laura E; Wright, Timothy G

    2018-02-28

    Explicit evidence for the role of methyl rotor levels in promoting energy dispersal is reported. A set of coupled zero-order vibration/vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels in the S 1 state of para -fluorotoluene ( p FT) are investigated. Two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) and two-dimensional zero-kinetic-energy (2D-ZEKE) spectra are reported, and the assignment of the main features in both sets of spectra reveals that the methyl torsion is instrumental in providing a route for coupling between vibrational levels of different symmetry classes. We find that there is very localized, and selective, dissipation of energy via doorway states, and that, in addition to an increase in the density of states, a critical role of the methyl group is a relaxation of symmetry constraints compared to direct vibrational coupling.

  5. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  6. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. (DEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  7. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  8. Direct photons in nuclear collisions at fair energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Using the extrapolation of existing data, estimations of prompt-photon production at FAIR energies have been made. At y = y c.m. the rapidity density of prompt photons with p t > 1.5 GeV/c per central Au + Au event at 25 A GeV is estimated as ∼10 -4 . With the planned beam intensity 10 9 per second and 1% interaction probability, for 10% of most central events one can expect the prompt-photon rate ∼10 2 photons per second. Direct photons from the hadron scenario of ion collisions generated by the Hadron-String-Dynamics (HSD) transport approach with implemented meson scatterings πρ → πγ, ππ → ργ have been analyzed. Photons from short-living resonances (e.g., ω → π 0 γ) decaying during the dense phase of the collision should be considered as direct photons. They contribute significantly in the direct photon spectrum at p t = 0.5-1 GeV/c. At the FAIR energy 25 A GeV in Au + Au central collisions the HSD generator predicts, as a lower estimate, γ direct /γ ( π 0 ) ≅ 0.5% in the region p t = 0.5-1 GeV/c. At p t = 1.5-2 GeV/c γ prompt / γ ( π 0 ) ≅ 2%. Thermal direct photons have been evaluated with the Bjorken Hydro-Dynamics (BHD) model. The BHD spectra differ strongly from the HSD predictions. The direct-photon spectrum is very sensitive to the initial temperature parameter T 0 of the model. The 10-MeV increase in the T 0 value leads to ∼2 times higher photon yield.

  9. A survey of critical research areas in the energy segment of restructured electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Das, Tapas K.

    2009-01-01

    Availability of a large volume of recent literature on deregulated (a.k.a. restructured) electricity markets underscores the importance of the research needs to ensure proper design and functioning of the markets. Researchers have made significant contributions fueling the evolution of the fundamental market design changes that have taken place since the beginning of the restructuring process. Due to the vast scope, existing survey papers are focused on particular facets of deregulated electricity markets. We adopt a similar approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the energy market. The contributions of the survey paper lie in the novel approach used in classifying the literature based on critical research areas. Some areas of research such as auction based pricing, bidding strategy formulation, market equilibria, and market power are reviewed in a different light than other existing survey papers. We conclude by providing some future research directions for the energy markets. (author)

  10. A global survey of hydrogen energy research, development and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Several factors have led to growing interest in a hydrogen energy economy, especially for transportation. A successful transition to a major role for hydrogen will require much greater cost-effectiveness, fueling infrastructure, consumer acceptance, and a strategy for its basis in renewable energy feedstocks. Despite modest attention to the need for a sustainable hydrogen energy system in several countries, in most cases in the short to mid term hydrogen will be produced from fossil fuels. This paper surveys the global status of hydrogen energy research and development (R and D) and public policy, along with the likely energy mix for making it. The current state of hydrogen energy R and D among auto, energy and fuel-cell companies is also briefly reviewed. Just two major auto companies and two nations have specific targets and timetables for hydrogen fuel cells or vehicle production, although the EU also has an aggressive, less specific strategy. Iceland and Brazil are the only nations where renewable energy feedstocks are envisioned as the major or sole future source of hydrogen. None of these plans, however, are very certain. Thus, serious questions about the sustainability of a hydrogen economy can be raised

  11. Energy survey in the New Zealand dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, V T; Shannon, D V

    1977-12-25

    An in-depth report on energy consumption in the New Zealand dairy industry for 1974--75 shows that a reduction in fuel consumption per unit of production has occurred when compared with two previous surveys (1954--55 and 1964--65). The increase in thermal efficiency of dairy processing was due mainly to the use of hot water heating systems in milk-treatment stations, the increased capacity of butter and cheese factories, increased thermal efficiency in skim milk drying and casein manufacture, increased efficiency in boiler plants, and higher drying air temperature achieved with the use of indirect oil- and gas-fired air heaters and liquid-phase air heating systems. Total energy consumed by the industry by type is tabulated. Recommendations to the industry following the survey are listed. (MCW)

  12. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  13. Public opinion survey 'Nuclear energy - the present and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matani, R.; Lebegner, J.; Jurkovi, I.-A.; Prah, M.

    2000-01-01

    As a part of Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network efforts in improving relations with the general public, a survey on nuclear energy issues among a student population (18-22 years old) has been planned. The survey, although somewhat modified, is based on a similar one that has been conducted at high schools as a part of organized educational program by the Museum of Technical Sciences and Hrvatska Elektroprivreda. Preliminary results show a positive altitude among the student population when it comes to nuclear power plants. As it can be seen from the obtained data (preliminary analysis), this opinion is mostly built on student awareness of nuclear power plants as a clean energy source. (authors)

  14. Opinion survey on energy and climate in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    This issue comments the results of a survey on the opinion of French people on the reality of climate change (for the whole population and with respect to age), on the opinion of French people on nuclear energy (in relationship with the opinion on climate change, globally in terms of benefit or drawback with evolution of the opinion since 1994), on the feeling of having suffered from the cold during the winter of 2012-2013, on the dwelling temperature in winter, and on the opinion on energy price

  15. First SN Discoveries from the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F.; Achitouv, I.; Ahn, E.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Alonso, D.; Amara, A.; Annis, J.; Antonik, M.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Armstrong, R.; Ashall, C.; Asorey, J.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Barbary, K.; Barkhouse, W.; Baruah, L.; Bauer, A.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, M.; Bender, R.; Benoist, C.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernardi, M.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R.; Bertin, E.; Beynon, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Biswas, R.; Blake, C.; Bloom, J. S.; Bocquet, S.; Brandt, C.; Bridle, S.; Brooks, D.; Brown, P. J.; Brunner, R.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Burkert, A.; Busha, M.; Campa, J.; Campbell, H.; Cane, R.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, M.; Carrasco-Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Carter, M.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Chen, Y.; Chiu, I.; Chue, C.; Clampitt, J.; Clerkin, L.; Cohn, J.; Colless, M.; Copeland, E.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Crittenden, R.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C.; da Costa, L.; d'Andrea, C.; Das, S.; Das, R.; Davis, T. M.; Deb, S.; DePoy, D.; Derylo, G.; Desai, S.; de Simoni, F.; Devlin, M.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Dolag, K.; Efstathiou, G.; Eifler, T.; Erickson, B.; Eriksen, M.; Estrada, J.; Etherington, J.; Evrard, A.; Farrens, S.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Ferreira, P. C.; Finley, D.; Fischer, J. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Furlanetto, C.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gelman, M.; Gerdes, D.; Giannantonio, T.; Gilhool, S.; Gill, M.; Gladders, M.; Gladney, L.; Glazebrook, K.; Gray, M.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R.; Gupta, R.; Gutierrez, G.; Habib, S.; Hall, E.; Hansen, S.; Hao, J.; Heitmann, K.; Helsby, J.; Henderson, R.; Hennig, C.; High, W.; Hirsch, M.; Hoffmann, K.; Holhjem, K.; Honscheid, K.; Host, O.; Hoyle, B.; Hu, W.; Huff, E.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; James, D.; Jarvis, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M.; Jouvel, S.; Kacprzak, T.; Karliner, I.; Katsaros, J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A.; Kim-Vy, T.; King, L.; Kirk, D.; Kochanek, C.; Kopp, M.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Kovacs, E.; Krause, E.; Kravtsov, A.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kunder, A.; Kuropatkin, N.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Leistedt, B.; Levi, M.; Lewis, P.; Liddle, A.; Lidman, C.; Lilly, S.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.; Lopez-Arenillas, C.; Lorenzon, W.; LoVerde, M.; Ma, Z.; Maartens, R.; Maccrann, N.; Macri, L.; Maia, M.; Makler, M.; Manera, M.; Maraston, C.; March, M.; Markovic, K.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J.; Marshall, S.; Martini, P.; Marti Sanahuja, P.; Mayers, J.; McKay, T.; McMahon, R.; Melchior, P.; Merritt, K. W.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Moore, T.; Mortonson, M.; Mosher, J.; Mould, J.; Mukherjee, P.; Neilsen, E.; Ngeow, C.; Nichol, R.; Nidever, D.; Nord, B.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R.; Old, L.; Olsen, J.; Ostrovski, F.; Paech, K.; Papadopoulos, A.; Papovich, C.; Patton, K.; Peacock, J.; Pellegrini, P. S. S.; Peoples, J.; Percival, W.; Perlmutter, S.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A.; Ponce, R.; Poole, G.; Pope, A.; Refregier, A.; Reyes, R.; Ricker, P.; Roe, N.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rooney, P.; Ross, A.; Rowe, B.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sabiu, C.; Saglia, R.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez, C.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Santiago, B.; Saro, A.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schubnell, M.; Seitz, S.; Senger, R.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Sheldon, E.; Sheth, R.; Smith, R. C.; Smith, M.; Snigula, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Song, J.; Soumagnac, M.; Spinka, H.; Stebbins, A.; Stoughton, C.; Suchyta, E.; Suhada, R.; Sullivan, M.; Sun, F.; Suntzeff, N.; Sutherland, W.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Sypniewski, A. J.; Szepietowski, R.; Talaga, R.; Tarle, G.; Tarrant, E.; Balan, S. Thaithara; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Ural, S.; Vikram, V.; Voigt, L.; Walker, A. R.; Walker, T.; Wechsler, R.; Weinberg, D.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wetzstein, M.; White, M.; Wilcox, H.; Wilman, D.; Yanny, B.; Young, J.; Zablocki, A.; Zenteno, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) report the discovery of the first set of supernovae (SN) from the project. Images were observed as part of the DES Science Verification phase using the newly-installed 570-Megapixel Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope by observers J. Annis, E. Buckley-Geer, and H. Lin. SN observations are planned throughout the observing campaign on a regular cadence of 4-6 days in each of the ten 3-deg2 fields in the DES griz filters.

  16. Survey of employment in the UK wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of employment in the UK wind energy industry has been carried out. It related to the financial years 1993-4 and 1994-5. A questionnaire was sent to all organisations working in wind energy in the UK. Some 249 replies were received. The paper reports on the findings regarding overall employment in the industry, employment in the major sectors of the industry, jobs by type of organisation, the major employers, the location of jobs, and the overall impact on employment in the UK economy. (Author)

  17. National energy policy provides scant power direction. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-07

    More federal direction on electric power developments was expected than actually materialized in the national energy policy released recently by Energy, Mines, and Resources. None of the primary objectives was specifically geared to improving the sagging power outlook. The five targets mentioned would have varying positive influences on Canadian power security if achieved, but oil and gas problems stole the spotlight. Failure of a national energy grid to make the top priority list was a disappointment. Observers had been expecting more prominent treatment for grid schemes in light of comments made by energy minister Alastair Gillespie at the recent energy conservation conference in Ottawa. But the strategy paper merely endorses the strengthening of regional interconnections, particularly in eastern Canada, and urges closer coordination among provincial utilities in planning and development. It reveals no new move to spur grid action and only reiterates the federal offer to back 50 percent of interconnection studies and capital costs. The paper does recognize that strengthened regional ties would lead to a form of integrated national system permitting more efficient systems growth, mutual assistance in the event of power failures, and some averaging out of peak and off-peak loads. They would economize on the need for stand-by power and enhance more rational expansion.

  18. Research Capabilities Directed to all Electric Engineering Teachers, from an Alternative Energy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ordóñez Navea

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to contemplate research capabilities directed to all electric engineering teachers from an alternative energy model intro the explanation of a semiconductor in the National Training Program in Electricity. Some authors, such as. Vidal (2016, Atencio (2014 y Camilo (2012 point out to technological applications with semiconductor electrical devices. In this way; a diagnostic phase is presented, held on this field research as a descriptive type about: a how to identify the necessities of alternative energies, and b The research competences in the alternatives energies of researcher from a solar cell model, to boost and innovate the academic praxis and technologic ingenuity. Themselves was applied a survey for a group of 15 teachers in the National Program of Formation in electricity to diagnose the deficiencies in the research area of alternatives energies. The process of data analysis was carried out through descriptive statistic. Later the conclusions are presented the need to generate strategies for stimulate and propose exploration of alternatives energies to the development of research competences directed to the teachers of electrical engineering for develop the research competences in the enforcement of the teachers exercise for the electric engineering, from an alternative energy model and boost the technologic research in the renewal energies field.

  19. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  20. The challenges and directions for nuclear energy policy in Japan. Japan's nuclear energy national plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Tadao

    2007-01-01

    According to the 'framework for nuclear energy policy' (October, 2005 adopted by cabinet), basic goals of nuclear policy are (1) for nuclear energy to continue to meet more than around 30-40% of electricity supply, and also (2) to further promote a fuel cycle steadily aiming at commercial introduction of a fast breeder by 2050. In order to realize an aim of this framework for nuclear energy policy', the nuclear energy subcommittee of the METI advisory committee deliberated concrete actions and the subcommittee recommendations were drawn up as 'Japan's nuclear energy national plan' in August, 2006 and incorporated as main part of the revised 'basic plan on energy' adopted by the cabinet in March 2007. Backgrounds and directions of future actions for nuclear energy policy were described. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.

  2. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  3. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  4. Direct Energy Conversion for Nuclear Propulsion at Low Specific Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The project will continue the FY13 JSC IR&D (October-2012 to September-2013) effort in Travelling Wave Direct Energy Conversion (TWDEC) in order to demonstrate its potential as the core of a high potential, game-changing, in-space propulsion technology. The TWDEC concept converts particle beam energy into radio frequency (RF) alternating current electrical power, such as can be used to heat the propellant in a plasma thruster. In a more advanced concept (explored in the Phase 1 NIAC project), the TWDEC could also be utilized to condition the particle beam such that it may transfer directed kinetic energy to a target propellant plasma for the purpose of increasing thrust and optimizing the specific impulse. The overall scope of the FY13 first-year effort was to build on both the 2012 Phase 1 NIAC research and the analysis and test results produced by Japanese researchers over the past twenty years to assess the potential for spacecraft propulsion applications. The primary objective of the FY13 effort was to create particle-in-cell computer simulations of a TWDEC. Other objectives included construction of a breadboard TWDEC test article, preliminary test calibration of the simulations, and construction of first order power system models to feed into mission architecture analyses with COPERNICUS tools. Due to funding cuts resulting from the FY13 sequestration, only the computer simulations and assembly of the breadboard test article were completed. The simulations, however, are of unprecedented flexibility and precision and were presented at the 2013 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference. Also, the assembled test article will provide an ion current density two orders of magnitude above that available in previous Japanese experiments, thus enabling the first direct measurements of power generation from a TWDEC for FY14. The proposed FY14 effort will use the test article for experimental validation of the computer simulations and thus complete to a greater fidelity the

  5. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture for an unbundled liberalized electricity market system where a virtual power plant (VPP) is able to control a number of distributed energy resources (DERs) directly through a two-way communication link. The aggregator who operates the VPP utilizes the accumulated...... a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...

  6. Nuclear and geothermal energy as a direct heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    After some remarks on economic aspects, the swimming pool reactor simplified for the purpose of heat generation is described, the core of which supplies heat of 100-120 0 C for district heating. In this context, ways of storing waste heat are discussed. The alternative is pointed out that energy may be transferred by means of hydrogen. In conclusion, it is demonstrated on a French plant how geothermal water can be used directly via heat exchangers for district heating. (UA/LN) [de

  7. Public Opinion Survey-Energy-The Present and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejic Bach, M.; Pevec, D.; Bace, M.; Trontl, K.; Jecmenica, R.; Matijevic, M.; Lebegner, J.

    2008-01-01

    During the academic year 2007/08 the Department of Applied Physics of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing conducted a public opinion survey entitled 'Energy - The Present and the Future' among student population of 1439 individuals age 18-20. The tested population consisted of the University of Zagreb nine faculties' students: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing - 367 students, the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology - 149 students, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology - 118 students, the Faculty of Civil Engineering - 102 students, the Faculty of Philosophy - 100 students, the Faculty of Science - 50 students, the Medical School - 217 students, the School of Dental Medicine - 108 students, and the Faculty of Economics and Business - 228 students. The questions in the survey covered several different energy issues, including the present and the future energy resources, the acceptability of different fuel type power plants, the environmental protection and global warming, the radioactivity, the waste issues, as well as reliable information sources. The basic results of survey analysis for nuclear oriented questions are reported in this paper. Although participants expressed high level of formal environmental awareness, their choices and attitudes are in a contradiction to claimed eco-orientation, as well as to the scientific facts. The discrepancies are particularly noticeable in parts of the survey dealing with the nuclear energy and the nuclear power plants. The radioactive waste management, proved to be a potential stumbling-stone for the entire nuclear program. The participants are demonstrating deep lack of knowledge which results in the radioactive waste management becoming the main source of fear from the nuclear technology in general. A very disturbing attitude is a belief that the nuclear energy is non-economic, environmentally unacceptable and operationally unsafe source of energy. Such an attitude

  8. Wind energy in industrial areas. Results of an attitude survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoolderman, J.A.; Huiberts, R.G.J.

    2000-06-01

    The feasibility of installing wind turbines in industrial parks in the Netherlands has been investigated. An overview is given of possibilities and constraints to fit in wind turbines in industrial areas, based on the results of a literature study, a market consultation of sectoral organizations, representatives of local industrial circles and industrial experts in the field of renewable energy. Also a telephone survey was carried out among 130 entrepreneurs in the Netherlands to determine their attitudes towards the use of sustainable energy and wind energy in industrial parks. The results of the attitude study are published in this report. The main report is a separate report for which a separate abstract has been prepared. The intermediate results were discussed at a meeting (23 February 2000), in which representatives from the industry, provinces, municipalities and the government participated

  9. Harvesting Ambient Environmental Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have grown dramatically and made a great progress in many applications. But having limited life, batteries, as the power sources of wireless sensor nodes, have restricted the development and application of WSNs which often requires a very long lifespan for better performance. In order to make the WSNs prevalent in our lives, an alternative energy source is required. Environmental energy is an attractive power source, and it provides an approach to make the sensor nodes self-powered with the possibility of an almost infinite lifetime. The goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the various possible energy harvesting technologies from ambient environment for WSNs.

  10. Overview of direct air free cooling and thermal energy storage potential energy savings in data centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oró, Eduard; Depoorter, Victor; Pflugradt, Noah; Salom, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the total energy demand of data centres has experienced a dramatic increase which is expected to continue. This is why data centres industry and researchers are working on implementing energy efficiency measures and integrating renewable energy to overcome energy dependence and to reduce operational costs and CO 2 emissions. The cooling system of these unique infrastructures can account for 40% of the total energy consumption. To reduce the energy consumption, free cooling strategies are used more and more, but so far there has been little research about the potential of thermal energy storage (TES) solutions to match energy demand and energy availability. Hence, this work intends to provide an overview of the potential of the integration of direct air free cooling strategy and TES systems into data centres located at different European locations. For each location, the benefit of using direct air free cooling is evaluated energetically and economically for a data centre of 1250 kW. The use of direct air free cooling is shown to be feasible. This does not apply the TES systems by itself. But when using TES in combination with an off-peak electricity tariff the operational cooling cost can be drastically reduced. - Highlights: • The total annual hours for direct air free cooling in data centres are calculated. • The potential of TES integration in data centres is evaluated. • The implementation of TES to store the ambient air cold is not recommended. • TES is feasible if combined with redundant chillers and off-peak electricity price. • The cooling electricity cost is being reduced up to 51%, depending on the location

  11. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  12. US energy product supply elasticities. A survey and application to the US oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol; Duggan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    We survey studies of simple energy supply models to find the most promising technique for developing supply elasticities in the U.S. crude oil market. The two dozen studies located include direct estimates of energy supply elasticities or cost studies from which supply or reserve elasticities can be inferred. We include all available studies for all forms of energy both primary and secondary. We find direct estimates of oil supply to obtain weak results unless depletion and price expectations are included. Oil product supply elasticities vary widely across studies but appear to be elastic. Studies that estimate reserve price elasticities by computing reserve costs appear to be the most promising for estimating reserve elasticities for fossil fuel supply. Hence we apply this technique to US oil reserves and find a reserve elasticity of 1.27

  13. The Dark Energy Survey Data Processing and Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J. [Munich U.; Armstrong, Robert [Penn State U.; Bertin, Emmanuel [Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Daues, Gregory E. [NCSA, Urbana; Desai, Shantanu [Munich U.; Gower, Michelle [NCSA, Urbana; Gruendl, Robert [Illinois U., Urbana (main); Hanlon, William [Illinois U., Urbana (main); Kuropatkin, Nikolay [Fermilab; Lin, Huan [Fermilab; Marriner, John [Fermilab; Petravick, Don; Sevilla, Ignacio [Madrid, CIEMAT; Swanson, Molly [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Tomashek, Todd [NCSA, Urbana; Tucker, Douglas [Fermilab; Yanny, Brian [Fermilab

    2012-09-24

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5000 deg2 grizY survey reaching characteristic photometric depths of 24th magnitude (10 sigma) and enabling accurate photometry and morphology of objects ten times fainter than in SDSS. Preparations for DES have included building a dedicated 3 deg2 CCD camera (DECam), upgrading the existing CTIO Blanco 4m telescope and developing a new high performance computing (HPC) enabled data management system (DESDM). The DESDM system will be used for processing, calibrating and serving the DES data. The total data volumes are high (~2PB), and so considerable effort has gone into designing an automated processing and quality control system. Special purpose image detrending and photometric calibration codes have been developed to meet the data quality requirements, while survey astrometric calibration, coaddition and cataloging rely on new extensions of the AstrOmatic codes which now include tools for PSF modeling, PSF homogenization, PSF corrected model fitting cataloging and joint model fitting across multiple input images. The DESDM system has been deployed on dedicated development clusters and HPC systems in the US and Germany. An extensive program of testing with small rapid turn-around and larger campaign simulated datasets has been carried out. The system has also been tested on large real datasets, including Blanco Cosmology Survey data from the Mosaic2 camera. In Fall 2012 the DESDM system will be used for DECam commissioning, and, thereafter, the system will go into full science operations.

  14. Automated transient identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). et al.

    2015-08-20

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility.

  15. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  16. Ultra-fast evaluation of protein energies directly from sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevorg Grigoryan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure, function, stability, and many other properties of a protein in a fixed environment are fully specified by its sequence, but in a manner that is difficult to discern. We present a general approach for rapidly mapping sequences directly to their energies on a pre-specified rigid backbone, an important sub-problem in computational protein design and in some methods for protein structure prediction. The cluster expansion (CE method that we employ can, in principle, be extended to model any computable or measurable protein property directly as a function of sequence. Here we show how CE can be applied to the problem of computational protein design, and use it to derive excellent approximations of physical potentials. The approach provides several attractive advantages. First, following a one-time derivation of a CE expansion, the amount of time necessary to evaluate the energy of a sequence adopting a specified backbone conformation is reduced by a factor of 10(7 compared to standard full-atom methods for the same task. Second, the agreement between two full-atom methods that we tested and their CE sequence-based expressions is very high (root mean square deviation 1.1-4.7 kcal/mol, R2 = 0.7-1.0. Third, the functional form of the CE energy expression is such that individual terms of the expansion have clear physical interpretations. We derived expressions for the energies of three classic protein design targets-a coiled coil, a zinc finger, and a WW domain-as functions of sequence, and examined the most significant terms. Single-residue and residue-pair interactions are sufficient to accurately capture the energetics of the dimeric coiled coil, whereas higher-order contributions are important for the two more globular folds. For the task of designing novel zinc-finger sequences, a CE-derived energy function provides significantly better solutions than a standard design protocol, in comparable computation time. Given these advantages

  17. Peptide-chaperone-directed transdermal protein delivery requires energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Renquan; Jin, Peipei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Changli; Chen, Chuanjun; Ding, Weiping; Wen, Longping

    2014-11-03

    The biologically inspired transdermal enhanced peptide TD1 has been discovered to specifically facilitate transdermal delivery of biological macromolecules. However, the biological behavior of TD1 has not been fully defined. In this study, we find that energy is required for the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery through rat and human skins. Our results show that the permeation activity of TD1-hEGF, a fusion protein composed of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and the TD1 sequence connected with a glycine-serine linker (GGGGS), can be inhibited by the energy inhibitor, rotenone or oligomycin. In addition, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the essential energetic molecule in organic systems, can effectively facilitate the TD1 directed permeation of the protein-based drug into the skin in a dose-dependent fashion. Our results here demonstrate a novel energy-dependent permeation process during the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery that could be valuable for the future development of promising new transdermal drugs.

  18. Direct fission fragment energy converter - Magnetic collimator option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, P. V.; Hart, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. In addition to the extensive computational effort, the scaled prototype experimental proof-of-principle program was conducted to validate basic physics of the concept. The program was focused on electromagnetic components and experimental demonstration of performance. This paper summarizes the final results of the 6-years research program including both computational and experimental efforts. Potential future research and development and anticipated applications are discussed. (authors)

  19. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  20. Smart geo-energy village development by using cascade direct use of geothermal energy in Bonjol, West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Novrisal; Erwinsyah Umra Lubis, Defry; Raharjo, Dharmawan; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny; Pratama, Heru Berian

    2017-12-01

    West Sumatera is a province which has a huge geothermal potential - approximately 6% of Indonesia’s total geothermal potential which equals to 1,656 MWe. One of the significant reserves located in Bonjol subdistrict which accounts for more than 50 MWe. The energy from geothermal manifestation in Bonjol can be utilized prior to indirect development. Manifestation at the rate 3 kg/s and 87 °C will flow to cascading system consisting several applications, arranged in order from high to low temperature to efficiently use the excessive energy. The direct use application selected is based on the best potential commodities as well as temperature constraint of heat source. The objective of this paper is to perform a conceptual design for the first cascade direct use of geothermal energy in Indonesia to establish Bonjol Smart Geo-Energy Village which will be transformed as the center of agricultural, stockbreeding, tourism as well as cultural site. A comprehenssive research was performed through remote survey area, evaluation featured product, analysis of heat loss and heat exchange in cascade system. From potential commodities, the three applications selected are cocoa drying and egg hatching incubation machine as well as new tourism site called Terapi Panas Bumi. The optimum temperature for cocoa drying is 62°C with the moisture content 7% which consumes 78 kW for one tones cocoa dried. Whereas, egg incubation system consists of two chamber with the same temperature 40°C for each room and relative humidity 55% and 70%. For the last stage, Terapi Panas Bumi works in temperature 40°C. Based on the result technical and economical aspect, it exhibits cascade direct use of geothermal energy is very recommended to develop.

  1. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  2. Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael D

    2014-02-14

    I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.

  3. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require the calibration of optical/NIR broadband b = grizY photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a “Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)” for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broadband survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial and time dependences of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. “Standard” passbands that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey are chosen. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude {m}b{std} in the standard system. This “chromatic correction” to the standard system is necessary to achieve subpercent calibrations and in particular, to resolve ambiguity between the broadband brightness of a source and the shape of its SED. The FGCM achieves a reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes {m}b{std} of stellar sources over the multiyear Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of σ =6{--}7 {mmag} per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the 5000 {\\deg }2 DES footprint to within σ =7 {mmag}. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than 5 {mmag} for main-sequence stars with 0.5< g-i< 3.0.

  4. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-12-28

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require calibration of optical/NIR broadband $b = grizY$ photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a "Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)" for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broad-band survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial- and time-dependence of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. "Standard" passbands are chosen that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ in the standard system. This "chromatic correction" to the standard system is necessary to achieve sub-percent calibrations. The FGCM achieves reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ of stellar sources over the multi-year Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of $\\sigma=5-6\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the $5000\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ DES footprint to within $\\sigma=7\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than $5\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ for main sequence stars with $0.5

  5. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Theresa; /FERMILAB; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; /Barcelona, IFAE; Chappa, Steve; /Fermilab; de Vicente, Juan; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; /Fermilab; Martinez, Gustavo; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  6. Direct energy conversion - state of the art in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euler, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Contemporary research and development of direct energy conversion (D.E.C.) started about 25 years ago. Having considered possibilities, cost, and advantages, the efforts have become more and more steady during the last decade. It has been recognized that, in most cases, D.E.C. methods will serve only as electricity sources for special application. This is true for radioisotopic generators used in space and submarine technologies, for thermoelectric devices used in air defence and along desert pipelines, and for thermionic convertors used in television satellites. Thus, the goal, to introduce these D.E.C. units in large scale manufacture has not been reached, and will not be reached even in the future. Only magneto-hydrodynamic channels exhibit a certain innovation potential as topping devices in advanced thermal power stations. Fuel cells will not be treated here, solar cells only mentioned briefly. (orig.) [de

  7. Misreporting of energy intake in the 2007 Australian Children's Survey: identification, characteristics and impact of misreporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Timothy P

    2011-02-01

    Misreporting of energy intake (EI) is a common problem in national surveys. The aim of this study was to identify misreporters using a variety of criteria, examine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status, and to define the characteristics of misreporters in the 2007 Australian Children's Survey. Data from the 2007 Australian Children's Survey which included 4800 children aged 2-16 years were used to examine the extent of misreporting based on EI, physical activity level (PAL), age, gender, height and weight status. Three options for identifying misreporters using the Goldberg cut-offs were explored as was direct comparison of EI to energy expenditure (TEE) in a subset of children. Linear regression was used to determine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status. The prevalence of under-reporting among all children varied from 5.0% to 6.7%, and over-reporting from 1.6% to 3.0% depending on the option used. Direct comparison of EI to TEE revealed similar results. Regression analysis showed that excluding misreporters provided the best model to examine cross-sectional associations between EI and BMI. Characteristics associated with under-reporting included older age, female, higher BMI, higher PAL, living in an urban location, lower parental education level and feeling unwell on the survey day. Over-reporting was more common among children with a lower BMI and lower PAL. In conclusion, misreporting of EI is present among various subgroups of the 2007 Australian Children's Survey. The impact of misreporting on the association between EI and body weight should be recognised by users of this survey.

  8. Law project on the energy policy direction; Projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Sarkozy, N

    2004-05-01

    The law of the energy direction aims to define, in the first article, the objectives and the directions of the french energy policy and to complete the today dispositions in matter of energy. The first part is devoted to the energy demand control and presents a system of energy saving certificates, the thermal regulation increasing of buildings and a better information of the consumers. The second part promotes the renewable energies development. (A.L.B.)

  9. Survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports fiscal 2000 survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania. In Australia and New Zealand, renewable energy has already fairly been used. In Australia, it is promoted on the government policy level, with cost reduction and improved reliability in progress. The growth of 2% is set as a target in the year 2010. Promising are biomass and wind, while contributory in the long run are photovoltaic energies. New installations of hydraulic power generation are few, but potential is high for mini hydraulic power generation. Social interest is also comparatively high in renewable energies and greenhouse effect gas. However, further technological development is necessary for a full-scale contribution to global environmental problems. The situation in other south Pacific nations depends on their policy, economic condition and level of industrialization; each country heavily imports diesel oil for power generation, is under-developed industry-wise, and is a low income nation. The countries are desperately in need of foreign investment for the purpose of solving these problems. (NEDO)

  10. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  11. Survey of domestic research on superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1991-09-01

    This report documents the results of a survey of domestic research on superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) undertaken with the support of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconductivity Pilot Center. Each survey entry includes the following: Name, address, and other telephone and facsimile numbers of the principal investigator and other staff members; funding for fiscal year 1991, 1992, 1993; brief descriptions of the program, the technical progress to date, and the expected technical progress; a note on any other collaboration. Included with the survey are recommendations intended to help DOE decide how best to support SMES research and development (R ampersand D). To summarize, I would say that important elements of a well-rounded SMES research program for DOE are as follows. (1) Construction of a large ETM. (2) Development of SMES as an enabling technology for solar and wind generation, especially in conjunction with the ETM program, if possible. (3) Development of small SMES units for electric networks, for rapid transit, and as noninterruptible power supplies [uses (2), (3), and (4) above]. In this connection, lightweight, fiber-reinforced polymer structures, which would be especially advantageous for space and transportation applications, should be developed. (4) Continued study of the potential impacts of high-temperature superconductors on SMES, with construction as soon as feasible of small SMES units using high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)

  12. Use of direct gradient analysis to uncover biological hypotheses in 16s survey data and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb-Downward, John R; Sadighi Akha, Amir A; Wang, Juan; Shen, Ning; He, Bei; Martinez, Fernando J; Gyetko, Margaret R; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of direct gradient analysis of bacterial 16S pyrosequencing surveys to identify relevant bacterial community signals in the midst of a "noisy" background, and to facilitate hypothesis-testing both within and beyond the realm of ecological surveys. The results, utilizing 3 different real world data sets, demonstrate the utility of adding direct gradient analysis to any analysis that draws conclusions from indirect methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA). Direct gradient analysis produces testable models, and can identify significant patterns in the midst of noisy data. Additionally, we demonstrate that direct gradient analysis can be used with other kinds of multivariate data sets, such as flow cytometric data, to identify differentially expressed populations. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of direct gradient analysis in microbial ecology and in other areas of research where large multivariate data sets are involved.

  13. Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

    2014-08-11

    Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

  14. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimpan, Ciprian, E-mail: cic@kbm.sdu.dk; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat

  15. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste. • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste , in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS

  16. The CHAOS-X Model and Uncertainty Values for Magnetic Directional Surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herland, E. V.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    surveying applications. The model is derived from more than one million satellite and ground-based observatory magnetic measurements and consists of modules representing internal sources (in the Earth's core and crust), mag-netospheric sources, and ionospheric sources. Compared with previous reference...... positional errors in magnetic directional surveying applications. The discrepancy between geomagnetic measurements and reference models are typically dominated by spatial variations caused by local geology. In applications requiring high accuracy, these variations can be taken into account by using...

  17. A survey in Latin America;Survey of atomic energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    An eight-member mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Brazil and Venezuela last summer to survey their atomic energy needs and the conditions that may have a bearing on the fulfilment of these needs. The head of the mission and two members also visited Argentina to make a study in a more restricted sphere. While the mission's work in Brazil and Venezuela covered all aspects of atomic energy development, the investigations in Argentina were concerned specifically with the exploration, mining and processing of nuclear raw materials. The members of the mission held extensive discussions with the national authorities in charge of atomic energy development who acquainted them with their plans and the progress of work already undertaken. The IAEA experts also visited different centres of work to gain a first-hand knowledge of conditions and needs. They were thus able to advise the national authorities on lines of further development and assist them in formulating requests for technical assistance from the Agency. The information contained in the mission's reports may serve as a broad guide to the present state and future needs of atomic energy development in the three countries

  18. Modelling energy and non-energy substitution: A brief survey of elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the degree of substitution between energy and non-energy inputs is the key for any evaluation of environmental and energy policies. Yet, given the variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises as to which measure would be most appropriate. Apparently, Allen's elasticities of substitution have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. In line with , this paper argues that cross-price elasticities are preferable for many practical purposes. This conclusion is based on a survey of classical substitution measures, such as those from Allen, Morishima, and McFadden. The survey highlights the fact that cross-price elasticities are their essential ingredients. - Highlights: → Given the large variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises as to which measure would be most appropriate. Apparently, Allen's elasticities of substitution have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. → In line with , this paper argues that cross-price elasticities are preferable for many practical purposes. → This conclusion is based on a survey of classical substitution measures, such as those from Allen, Morishima, and McFadden. → The survey also highlights the fact that cross-price elasticities are their essential ingredients.

  19. Potential of Biomass for Energy. Market Survey Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this market survey is to provide information about the biomass sector in Portugal, relevant to mainly small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the Netherlands that are interested to strengthen their position in that sector. Much knowledge could be gathered from conversations with the partners of Sunergy, the company responsible for this survey. Sunergy is producing bio-diesel, and considering further investments in the solid biomass sector, and therefore well familiar with the developments. Other interviews were held with representatives of the Government (DGGE), association of forestry owners (AFLOPS), a biomass trading SME (Sobioen), the leading environmental NGO (Quercus), and an association representing the paper- and pulp industry (CELPA). Chapter 1 is a general introduction on biomass. Chapter 2 gives the background of the Portuguese energy sector and the relative importance of renewable and biomass energies within this market. Some prospects for future developments of the different renewable sources are given. Portugal's energy sector is dominated by a small number of players, which are introduced. Also the current policies and incentives (subsidies) are presented. In Chapter 3 the focus is on the Portuguese biomass sector, presenting the current use of biomass in each of the subsectors: transport, electricity and heat, and an overview of the policy framework specifically for biomass. Chapter 4 is a literature review of the market for existing and potential biomass resources, including demand, supply and other characteristics. Chapter 5 synthesizes the previous chapters. Also an overview of key drivers and key constraints for growth of this sector is given, leading to conclusions regarding the opportunities for Dutch companies. Finally, further information on how to proceed once the interest for Portugal's biomass sector is vested is listed at the end of Chapter 5

  20. On the directional accuracy of survey forecasts: the case of gold and silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsche, U.; Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We use a nonparametric market-timing test to study the directional accuracy of survey forecasts of the prices of gold and silver. We find that forecasters have market-timing ability with respect to the direction of change of the price of silver at various forecast horizons. In contrast, forecasters...... have no market-timing ability with respect to the direction of change in the gold price. Combining forecasts of both metal prices to set up a multivariate market-timing test yields no evidence of joint predictability of the directions of change of the prices of gold and silver....

  1. Multi-step direct reactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, A.; Marianski, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The theory of the multistep direct (MSD) reactions of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin has for quite some time become a subject of controversy due to the bi orthogonal distorted waves involved in the transition amplitudes describing the MSD cross sections. The bi orthogonal wave functions result in non-normal DWBA matrix elements, that can be expressed in terms of normal DWBA matrix elements multiplied by the inverse elastic scattering S-matrix. It has been argued that the enhancing inverse S-factors are washed out by averaging over energy in the continuum. As a result normal DWBA matrix elements are commonly used in practical calculations. Almost all analyses of inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions using the DWBA matrix elements have concluded that nucleon emission at low energies can be described as one-step reaction mainly. On the other hand, it has been shown that the limits imposed by the energy weighted sum rules (EWSR's) on transition of given angular momentum transfer lead to a significant reduction of the one step cross section that can be compensated by the enhanced MSD cross sections obtained with the use of the non-normal DWBA matrix elements. Very recently the MSD theory of FKK was modified to include collective excitations and the non-normal DWBA matrix elements and the prescription for calculations of the cross sections for the MSD reactions was given. In the present paper we present the results of the modified theory used for describing the 93 Nb (n,xn) 93 Nb reaction at incident energy of 20 MeV and the 65 Cu (p,xn) 65 Zn reaction at 27 MeV. The results show enhanced contributions from two-, three- and four step reactions. We investigate the importance of the multi-phonon, multi particle hole and the mixed particle hole-phonon excitations in neutron scattering to the continuum. We also show the importance of the different sequences of collisions of the leading continuum nucleon that contribute to the MSD (p,n) reaction. When all

  2. Boring and Sealing Rock with Directed Energy Millimeter-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H. H.; Oglesby, K.

    2015-12-01

    Millimeter-wave directed energy is being investigated to penetrate into deep crystalline basement rock formations to lower well costs and to melt rocks, metals, and other additives to seal wells for applications that include nuclear waste storage and geothermal energy. Laboratory tests have established that intense millimeter-wave (MMW) beams > 1 kW/cm2 can melt and/ or vaporize hard crystalline rocks. In principle this will make it possible to create open boreholes and a method to seal them with a glass/ceramic liner and plug formed from the original rock or with other materials. A 10 kW, 28 GHz commercial (CPI) gyrotron system with a launched beam diameter of about 32 mm was used to heat basalt, granite, limestone, and sandstone specimens to temperatures over 2500 °C to create melts and holes. A calibrated 137 GHz radiometer view, collinear with the heating beam, monitored real time peak rock temperature. A water load surrounding the rock test specimen primarily monitored unabsorbed power at 28 GHz. Power balance analysis of the laboratory observations shows that the temperature rise is limited by radiative heat loss, which would be expected to be trapped in a borehole. The analysis also indicates that the emissivity (absorption efficiency) in the radiated infrared range is lower than the emissivity at 28 GHz, giving the MMW frequency range an important advantage for rock melting. Strength tests on one granite type indicated that heating the rock initially weakens it, but with exposure to higher temperatures the resolidified black glassy product regains strength. Basalt was the easiest to melt and penetrate, if a melt leak path was provided, because of its low viscosity. Full beam holes up to about 50 mm diameter (diffraction increased beam size) were achieved through 30 mm thick basalt and granite specimens. Laboratory experiments to form a seal in an existing hole have also been carried out by melting rock and a simulated steel casing.

  3. How effective are directed credit policies in the United States? A literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Anita M.

    1992-01-01

    Schwarz surveys U.S. experience with directed credit as background for a larger study of the Asian experience. Almost half of net credit lent in the United States annually is directly affected by government policies - half of net credit covering budget deficits, and half falling under various federal credit programs. The main difference between U.S. and Asian credit policy is that U.S. credit policy is oriented more toward equity than toward growth. Different sectors are affected differently ...

  4. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  5. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  6. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Management & Planning Group (firm); United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  7. A survey of manufacturers of solar thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N.; Slonski, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-seven firms that had received funding for development of solar thermal energy systems (STES) were surveyed. The effect of the solar thermal technology systems program in accelerating (STES) were assessed. The 54 firms still developing STES were grouped into a production typology comparing the three major technologies with three basic functions. It was discovered that large and small firms were developing primarily central receiver systems, but also typically worked on more than one technology. Most medium-sized firms worked only on distributed systems. Federal support of STES was perceived as necessary to allow producers to take otherwise unacceptable risks. Approximately half of the respondents would drop out of STES if support were terminated, including a disproportionate number of medium-sized firms. A differentiated view of the technology, taking into account differing firm sizes and the various stages of technology development, was suggested for policy and planning purposes.

  8. SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Kuhlmann, S.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Crane, I.; Hufford, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Nugent, P. [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D' Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Finley, D. A.; Marriner, J.; Reis, R. R. R. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Jarvis, M. J. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, P.; Parkinson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey 2 Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Sako, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 203 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 deg{sup 2} search area in the griz filter set. We forecast (1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05

  9. SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Kuhlmann, S.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Crane, I.; Hufford, T.; Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Nugent, P.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Finley, D. A.; Marriner, J.; Reis, R. R. R.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mukherjee, P.; Parkinson, D.; Sako, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 deg 2 search area in the griz filter set. We forecast (1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05 < z < 1.2 and (2) that the increased red efficiency of the DES camera will significantly improve high-redshift color measurements. The redshift of each supernova with an identified host galaxy will be obtained from spectroscopic observations of the host. A supernova spectrum will be obtained for a subset of the sample, which will be utilized for control studies. In addition, we have investigated the use of combined photometric redshifts taking into account data from both the host and supernova. We have investigated and estimated the likely contamination from core-collapse supernovae based on photometric identification, and have found that a Type Ia supernova sample purity of up to 98% is obtainable given specific assumptions. Furthermore, we present systematic uncertainties due to sample purity, photometric calibration, dust extinction priors, filter-centroid shifts, and inter-calibration. We conclude by estimating the uncertainty on the cosmological parameters that will be measured from the DES supernova data.

  10. Public opinion survey on the relationship between society and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Yamano, Naoki; Torii, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The social research group of the 21st century COE program 'Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World' has studied under the theme coevolution of nuclear technology and society. As part of this study, this group conducted a questionnaire survey of 2,500 adults (collection rate of 22.0%; 551 replies) who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The purpose of this survey asking opinion about the relationship between attitude toward nuclear technology utilization and social awareness is to determine their request, exception and concern about nuclear technology utilization. The survey reveals that the differences of attitudes towards nuclear technology utilization can be explained in terms of differences of general views on the society, such as the directionality of social progress. Thus, it is necessary to argue with citizens about the strategy on nuclear technology utilization from the viewpoint of the directionality of the future society. The social decision-making process on nuclear technology utilization has to be renovated through dialogue among citizens as the partner taking on the achievement and contribution toward the directionality of the future society. (author)

  11. CALIBRATED ULTRA FAST IMAGE SIMULATIONS FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruderer, Claudio; Chang, Chihway; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Bergé, Joel; Gamper, Lukas, E-mail: claudio.bruderer@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-20

    Image simulations are becoming increasingly important in understanding the measurement process of the shapes of galaxies for weak lensing and the associated systematic effects. For this purpose we present the first implementation of the Monte Carlo Control Loops (MCCL), a coherent framework for studying systematic effects in weak lensing. It allows us to model and calibrate the shear measurement process using image simulations from the Ultra Fast Image Generator (UFig) and the image analysis software SExtractor. We apply this framework to a subset of the data taken during the Science Verification period (SV) of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We calibrate the UFig simulations to be statistically consistent with one of the SV images, which covers ∼0.5 square degrees. We then perform tolerance analyses by perturbing six simulation parameters and study their impact on the shear measurement at the one-point level. This allows us to determine the relative importance of different parameters. For spatially constant systematic errors and point-spread function, the calibration of the simulation reaches the weak lensing precision needed for the DES SV survey area. Furthermore, we find a sensitivity of the shear measurement to the intrinsic ellipticity distribution, and an interplay between the magnitude-size and the pixel value diagnostics in constraining the noise model. This work is the first application of the MCCL framework to data and shows how it can be used to methodically study the impact of systematics on the cosmic shear measurement.

  12. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Weak Lensing Shape Catalogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, J.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present two galaxy shape catalogues from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data set, covering 1500 square degrees with a median redshift of $0.59$. The catalogues cover two main fields: Stripe 82, and an area overlapping the South Pole Telescope survey region. We describe our data analysis process and in particular our shape measurement using two independent shear measurement pipelines, METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE. The METACALIBRATION catalogue uses a Gaussian model with an innovative internal calibration scheme, and was applied to $riz$-bands, yielding 34.8M objects. The IM3SHAPE catalogue uses a maximum-likelihood bulge/disc model calibrated using simulations, and was applied to $r$-band data, yielding 21.9M objects. Both catalogues pass a suite of null tests that demonstrate their fitness for use in weak lensing science. We estimate the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties in multiplicative shear calibration to be $0.013$ and $0.025$ for the METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE catalogues, respectively.

  13. Efficiency analysis of energy networks: An international survey of regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis.

  14. Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipp, N.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first three years of multi-band optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering $\\sim 5000$ sq. deg. to a depth of $g > 23.5$ with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of $< 1 \\%$. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of $\\sim 50$ kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched-filter in color-magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of eleven new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extra-tidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, as well as the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.

  15. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on energy conservation in chief industries in ASEAN countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With objectives to understand ASEAN countries for their current situation in energy consumption in the typical factories and businesses in their chief industries, prepare appropriate advices on energy saving methods, and establish energy inspection means, surveys were carried out working with experts in the ASEAN countries. In the workshop held in Singapore in November 2000, the textile factory, Arab-Malaysia Development Berhad was selected for Malaysia, on which the survey was performed from January 15 through 19, 2001. Energy saving proposals were submitted based on the survey results. For Indonesia, the paper and pulp mill, P.T. Kertas Leces (Persoro) Pulp Paper Mill was selected, on which the survey was performed from January 22 through 26, 2001. Based on the survey results, the energy saving means and their effects, necessary investment amount, and amortization period were prepared. For Brunei, the cement factory, Butra Djajanti Cement SDN BHD was surveyed, whereas improvements of the facilities were proposed. (NEDO)

  16. Foreign Direct Investments in Central Asian Energy: A CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. BARRY

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan have adopted significant legislative changes since the fall of the former Soviet Union in an effort to attract foreign direct investment into their energy sectors. Of the three republics, Kazakhstan has been the most successful in attracting foreign interest, but all three republics face significant challenges in further development of oil and gas infrastructure. Even if these countries are completely successful in bringing in foreign investment, a question will remain: who wins and who loses in these countries. Using updated data, this paper will use a computable general equilibrium model to measure the effects of FDI into Central Asia. Results of the model suggest that the region would be better off overall from foreign investment in its natural gas sector, due mostly to improvements in overall production efficiency and its overall terms of trade. However, the gain in the natural gas sector would come at the expense of production and net exports of non-petroleum related industries.

  17. Magnetically insulated fission electric cells for direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Seidel, D.B.; Lipinski, R.J.; Rochau, G.E.; Brown, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    The principles of fission electric cells are reviewed. A detailed Monte Carlo model of the efficiency of a fission electric cell is presented and a theory of magnetically insulated fission electric cells (MIFECs) is developed. It is shown that the low operating voltages observed in previous MIFEC experiments were due to nonoptimal magnetic field profiles. Improved magnetic field profiles are presented. It is further shown that the large electric field present in a MIFEC limits the structure of the cathode and can lead to a displacement instability of the cathode toward the anode. This instability places constraints on the number of cells that can be strung together without some external cathode support. The large electric field stress also leads to electrical surface breakdown of the cathode. It is shown that this leads to the formation of a virtual cathode resulting in geometry constraints for spherical cells. Finally it is shown that the requirements of magnetic insulation and high efficiency leads to very low average density of the fissile material. Thus a reactor using fission electric cells for efficient direct energy conversion will be large and require a very large number of cells. This could be mitigated somewhat by the use of exotic fuels

  18. Direct Energy Consumption Associated Emissions by Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Muye; Tao, Shu; Smith, Kirk; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Chen, Yilin; Chen, Xi; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; He, Canfei

    2015-11-17

    Hundreds of millions of rural residents have migrated to cities in China in recent years. Different lifestyles and living conditions lead to substantial changes in their household energy. Here, we present the result of a survey on direct household energy use of low-skilled rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing. The migrants moved up the energy ladder immediately after arriving in the city by replacing biomass fuels with coal, electricity, and liquefied petroleum gas. After the original shift, pattern of household energy use by the migrants has not changed much over decades, likely due to the long-existing household registration system (Hukou). As a result, the mix of energy types used by the rural-to-urban migrants were different from those by long-term urban residents, although total quantities were similar. Shifting from biomass fuels to coal, the migrants emitted 2.4 times more non-neutral CO2 than rural residents and 14% more than urban residents. The migration also resulted in significant increase in emissions of SO2 and mercury but dramatic decreases in some incomplete combustion products including particulate matter. All these changes have significant implication on air quality, health, and climate considering the scale of urbanization in China.

  19. Survey of red stars in the direction of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bappu, M.K.V.; Parthasarathy, M.; Scaria, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of red stars in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the technique of ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy is presented. A listing of the red stars in the 30 Doradus region is given for which finding charts and coordinates on the Hodge-Wright Atlas charts are provided. (author)

  20. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and... U.S.C. 6293(e)(2)) The current energy conservation standards for direct heating equipment and pool... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-TP-0004] RIN 1904-AC94 Energy...

  1. Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey, 1975. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey is a study of a potential alternative siting approach for nuclear power and fuel-cycle facilities, an approach that would cluster sizable groups of such facilities on a relatively small number of sites. The largest aggregation of reactors on a single site being planned today is four, and this quad is assumed (for comparative study purposes) to be the typical dispersed site by the year 2000. Three basic types of nuclear energy centers are considered: power-plant centers, consisting of 10 to 40 nuclear electric generating units of 1200-megawatt electric capacity each; fuel-cycle centers, consisting of fuel reprocessing plants, mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facilities, and radioactive waste management facilities; and combined centers, containing both power plants and fuel-cycle facilities. The results of the general site-location screening efforts are shown on a United States map that shows the locations of large areas identified as likely to contain suitable candidate sites for power NECs, on the basis of four coarse screening criteria: water resources, seismic activity, population density, and statutory excluded lands

  2. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  3. Fiscal 2000 survey report on regional new energy vision formulation for Oki town; 2000 nendo Okicho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Efforts are in progress to build a resource circulation type town symbiotic with natural environments at Oki town, Fukuoka Prefecture, which is an agricultural community where creeks run in every direction. A new energy vision has been worked out for the town, which centers about a plan for building a resource circulation type community. The survey results are summarized in six chapters dealing with (1) the survey outline, (2) local conditions relative to energy, (3) energy supply/demand structure, (4) amount of new energy in existence, (5) records and analysis of inhabitants' approach to energy conservation, and (6) a new energy introduction plan. The new energy introduction plan consists of four items involving a short term plan or a key project, a project for medium/long term surveys or feasibility study for the commercialization of new energy, plans for reducing energy consumption, and so forth. Discussed in relation to the short term plan are the introduction of photovoltaic power generation into public facilities, installation of a photovoltaic power station to be jointly utilized by the inhabitants, establishment of a grant system for the installation of solar water heaters for domestic use, creation of an additional subsidy system for domestic photovoltaic power generation, and the like. (NEDO)

  4. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  5. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy – an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, Vinu; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Aleksic, J.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.

    2016-03-21

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from ‘Science Verification’, and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  7. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  9. Survey of the actual state of energy consumption in the residential/commercial sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to energy demand in the business field, the paper conducted a questionnaire survey of the actual state and preparation of the existing literature and data. The purpose is to make the consumption structure and trend clear and to make it useful for the development/introduction of new energy and petroleum substitution energy in the future. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `office buildings` decreased from 227.0 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1990 survey to 179.5 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1995 survey. The energy type shifted from petroleum to electricity and gas. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `wholesale/retail` slightly decreased from 360.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 342.7 Mcal/{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. The energy type showed the same trend as in the case of office buildings. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `restaurants` increased from 573.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. As energy type, electricity increased while gas remarkably decreased. 55 refs., 155 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...

  11. A Survey on Energy Conserving Mechanisms for the Internet of Things: Wireless Networking Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zeeshan; Yoon, Wonyong

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging key technology for future industries and everyday lives of people, where a myriad of battery operated sensors, actuators, and smart objects are connected to the Internet to provide services such as mobile healthcare, intelligent transport system, environmental monitoring, etc. Since energy efficiency is of utmost importance to these battery constrained IoT devices, IoT-related standards and research works have focused on the device energy conserving issues. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on energy conserving issues and solutions in using diverse wireless radio access technologies for IoT connectivity, e.g., the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) machine type communications, IEEE 802.11ah, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Z-Wave. We look into the literature in broad areas of standardization, academic research, and industry development, and structurally summarize the energy conserving solutions based on several technical criteria. We also propose future research directions regarding energy conserving issues in wireless networking-based IoT. PMID:26404275

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  13. A Survey on Energy Conserving Mechanisms for the Internet of Things: Wireless Networking Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is an emerging key technology for future industries and everyday lives of people, where a myriad of battery operated sensors, actuators, and smart objects are connected to the Internet to provide services such as mobile healthcare, intelligent transport system, environmental monitoring, etc. Since energy efficiency is of utmost importance to these battery constrained IoT devices, IoT-related standards and research works have focused on the device energy conserving issues. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on energy conserving issues and solutions in using diverse wireless radio access technologies for IoT connectivity, e.g., the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP machine type communications, IEEE 802.11ah, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE, and Z-Wave. We look into the literature in broad areas of standardization, academic research, and industry development, and structurally summarize the energy conserving solutions based on several technical criteria. We also propose future research directions regarding energy conserving issues in wireless networking-based IoT.

  14. A Survey on Energy Conserving Mechanisms for the Internet of Things: Wireless Networking Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zeeshan; Yoon, Wonyong

    2015-09-25

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging key technology for future industries and everyday lives of people, where a myriad of battery operated sensors, actuators, and smart objects are connected to the Internet to provide services such as mobile healthcare, intelligent transport system, environmental monitoring, etc. Since energy efficiency is of utmost importance to these battery constrained IoT devices, IoT-related standards and research works have focused on the device energy conserving issues. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on energy conserving issues and solutions in using diverse wireless radio access technologies for IoT connectivity, e.g., the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) machine type communications, IEEE 802.11ah, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Z-Wave. We look into the literature in broad areas of standardization, academic research, and industry development, and structurally summarize the energy conserving solutions based on several technical criteria. We also propose future research directions regarding energy conserving issues in wireless networking-based IoT.

  15. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2011-BT-TP-0042] RIN 1904-AC53 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for...

  16. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  17. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  18. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  19. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  20. A Survey of Communications and Networking Technologies for Energy Management in Buildings and Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Kailas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exploding power consumption in private households and increasing environmental and regulatory restraints, the need to improve the overall efficiency of electrical networks has never been greater. That being said, the most efficient way to minimize the power consumption is by voluntary mitigation of home electric energy consumption, based on energy-awareness and automatic or manual reduction of standby power of idling home appliances. Deploying bi-directional smart meters and home energy management (HEM agents that provision real-time usage monitoring and remote control, will enable HEM in “smart households.” Furthermore, the traditionally inelastic demand curve has began to change, and these emerging HEM technologies enable consumers (industrial to residential to respond to the energy market behavior to reduce their consumption at peak prices, to supply reserves on a as-needed basis, and to reduce demand on the electric grid. Because the development of smart grid-related activities has resulted in an increased interest in demand response (DR and demand side management (DSM programs, this paper presents some popular DR and DSM initiatives that include planning, implementation and evaluation techniques for reducing energy consumption and peak electricity demand. The paper then focuses on reviewing and distinguishing the various state-of-the-art HEM control and networking technologies, and outlines directions for promoting the shift towards a society with low energy demand and low greenhouse gas emissions. The paper also surveys the existing software and hardware tools, platforms, and test beds for evaluating the performance of the information and communications technologies that are at the core of future smart grids. It is envisioned that this paper will inspire future research and design efforts in developing standardized and user-friendly smart energy monitoring systems that are suitable for wide scale deployment in homes.

  1. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa

    2018-01-01

    electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from...... positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area...

  2. Survey lecture on renewable energy sources. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliss, M

    1977-01-01

    The essay deals with utilizable regenerative energy sources: geothermal energy, tidal energy, solar energy, running water energy, and wind energy. Tests for the development of these sources have been carried out, but only one of them has a considerable share in meeting the energy demand--that gained from running water. The others are only of regional importance (geothermal energy, tidal energy) or have lost the importance they once had (wind energy, biochemical energy in the form of wood). The latest discussions about the restrictions on fossil and nuclear energy sources and the environmental effects of the technologies necessary for their utilization have increased the interest in the ''inexhaustible'' energy sources. This is why the author outlines the possible importance of renewable energy sources.

  3. Accurate measurement of directional emittance of solar energy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugo-Le Gof, A.; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Directional emittance plays an important role in the calculation of radiative heat exchange. It partly determines the thermal insulation of single and multiple glazing and the efficiency of solar collectors. An emissiometer has been designed and built, capable for measurements of the directional

  4. Impact Assessment of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/E U) for the Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    The Ministerial Council of the Energy Community has proposed implementation of Directive 2012127|E U, in each Contracting Party, but with certain modifications 1 . Therefore, this study was commissioned to assess the costs and benefits of implementing four specific elements of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) as modified for the Energy Community (En C) Contracting Parties 2 (C Ps) and to provide a basis for justification of proposed changes to particular articles within the Directive as it relates to the C Ps. The study assessed the following four articles: Task 1 - National Targets - Article 3; Task 2 - Exemplary role of public bodies' buildings - Article 5; Task 3 - Energy efficiency obligation schemes - Article 7, and Task 4 - Promotion of efficiency in heating and cooling - Article 14. The study conclusions and recommendations, which are based upon the best available data and assumptions regarding the cost, performance and availability of energy efficient devices in each sector, are summarized below: 1. Implementation of the EED is shown to be feasible for the C Ps, but the level of the target can have a significant impact on the cost. The E E Target 18-25% case is recommended for adoption because it the most cost-effective of the three options, and sharp increases in the required investment costs, especially in 2027 and 2030, for the E E Target 19-27% and E E Target 20-30% cases do not justify the associated incremental energy savings. The E E Target 18-25% levels are shown to be an achievable significant progression of ambition for each of the C Ps. 2. Renovation of central government buildings is beneficial for the C Ps, but government ownership is still too large in comparison to E U member states. Therefore, the 2% goal is recommended as being the most appropriate approach for the C Ps to achieve the goal of a government implemented demonstration program in its own buildings as example for other public and private sector entities to follow suit. 3

  5. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...

  6. Direct observation of vibrational energy flow in cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoki; Mizuno, Misao; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2011-11-10

    Vibrational energy flow in ferric cytochrome c has been examined by picosecond time-resolved anti-Stokes ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) measurements. By taking advantage of the extremely short nonradiative excited state lifetime of heme in the protein (energy of 20000-25000 cm(-1) was optically deposited selectively at the heme site. Subsequent energy relaxation in the protein moiety was investigated by monitoring the anti-Stokes UVRR intensities of the Trp59 residue, which is a single tryptophan residue involved in the protein that is located close to the heme group. It was found from temporal changes of the anti-Stokes UVRR intensities that the energy flow from the heme to Trp59 and the energy release from Trp59 took place with the time constants of 1-3 and ~8 ps, respectively. These data are consistent with the time constants for the vibrational relaxation of the heme and heating of water reported for hemeproteins. The kinetics of the energy flow were not affected by the amount of excess energy deposited at the heme group. These results demonstrate that the present technique is a powerful tool for studying the vibrational energy flow in proteins.

  7. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. Date of survey, August 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Rocky Flats Plant was conducted during August 1981. The survey consisted of an airborne measurement of both natural and man-made gamma radiation from the terrain surface in and around the Rocky Flats Plant. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotope concentrations in the survey area. Results are reported as exposure rate, man-made, and 241 Am isopleths superimposed on photographs of the area. The survey covered a square area approximately 9.7 km on each side. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides

  8. Extreme Variability Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Shen, Yue; Morganson, Eric; Liu, Xin; Banerji, M.; McMahon, R. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; (DES Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    We perform a systematic search for long-term extreme variability quasars (EVQs) in the overlapping Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 3 Year Dark Energy Survey imaging, which provide light curves spanning more than 15 years. We identified ∼1000 EVQs with a maximum change in g-band magnitude of more than 1 mag over this period, about 10% of all quasars searched. The EVQs have L bol ∼ 1045–1047 erg s‑1 and L/L Edd ∼ 0.01–1. Accounting for selection effects, we estimate an intrinsic EVQ fraction of ∼30%–50% among all g≲ 22 quasars over a baseline of ∼15 yr. We performed detailed multi-wavelength, spectral, and variability analyses for the EVQs and compared them to their parent quasar sample. We found that EVQs are distinct from a control sample of quasars matched in redshift and optical luminosity: (1) their UV broad emission lines have larger equivalent widths; (2) their Eddington ratios are systematically lower; and (3) they are more variable on all timescales. The intrinsic difference in quasar properties for EVQs suggests that internal processes associated with accretion are the main driver for the observed extreme long-term variability. However, despite their different properties, EVQs seem to be in the tail of a continuous distribution of quasar properties, rather than standing out as a distinct population. We speculate that EVQs are normal quasars accreting at relatively low rates, where the accretion flow is more likely to experience instabilities that drive the changes in flux by a factor of a few on multi-year timescales.

  9. Extreme Variability Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Shen, Yue; Morganson, Eric; Liu, Xin; Banerji, M.; McMahon, R. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2018-02-20

    We perform a systematic search for long-term extreme variability quasars (EVQs) in the overlapping Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and 3-Year Dark Energy Survey (DES) imaging, which provide light curves spanning more than 15 years. We identified ~1000 EVQs with a maximum g band magnitude change of more than 1 mag over this period, about 10% of all quasars searched. The EVQs have L_bol~10^45-10^47 erg/s and L/L_Edd~0.01-1. Accounting for selection effects, we estimate an intrinsic EVQ fraction of ~30-50% among all g<~22 quasars over a baseline of ~15 years. These EVQs are good candidates for so-called "changing-look quasars", where a spectral transition between the two types of quasars (broad-line and narrow-line) is observed between the dim and bright states. We performed detailed multi-wavelength, spectral and variability analyses for the EVQs and compared to their parent quasar sample. We found that EVQs are distinct from a control sample of quasars matched in redshift and optical luminosity: (1) their UV broad emission lines have larger equivalent widths; (2) their Eddington ratios are systematically lower; and (3) they are more variable on all timescales. The intrinsic difference in quasar properties for EVQs suggest that internal processes associated with accretion are the main driver for the observed extreme long-term variability. However, despite their different properties, EVQs seem to be in the tail of a continuous distribution of quasar properties, rather than standing out as a distinct population. We speculate that EVQs are normal quasars accreting at relatively low accretion rates, where the accretion flow is more likely to experience instabilities that drive the factor of few changes in flux on multi-year timescales.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  11. Peer to Peer Distributed Energy Trading in Smart Grids: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhar Abdella

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expansion of distributed renewable energy resources, peer to peer energy trading (P2P DET is expected to be one of the key elements of next generation power systems. P2P DET can provide various benefits such as creating a competitive energy market, reducing power outages, increasing overall efficiency of power systems and supplementing alternative sources of energy according to user preferences. Because of these promising advantages, P2P DET has attracted the attention of several researchers. Current research related to P2P DET include demand response optimization, power routing, network communication, security and privacy. This paper presents a review of the main research topics revolving around P2P DET. Particularly, we present a comprehensive survey of existing demand response optimization models, power routing devices and power routing algorithms. We also identify some key challenges faced in realizing P2P DET. Furthermore, we discuss state of the art enabling technologies such as Energy Internet, Blockchain and Software Defined Networking (SDN and we provide insights into future research directions.

  12. 15 CFR 806.16 - Rules and regulations for BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-2004. 806.16 Section 806.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.16 Rules and regulations for BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad—2004. A BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad will be...

  13. 15 CFR 806.17 - Rules and regulations for BE-12, 2007 Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. 806.17 Section 806.17 Commerce and... Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. A BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct... of the BE-12, 2007 Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States, contained in...

  14. A survey on human behavior towards energy efficiency for office worker in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Green environment has become an important topic around the world. This campaign can be realized if everybody understands and shares similar objectives on managing energy in an efficient way. This paper will present and analyse the survey on energy usage by office workers in Malaysia. The survey will focus on the workers in government sector. In social science surveys, it is important to support the tested data for a project. For issues related to human behaviour we must compare with real situations to verify the tested data and the results in energy monitoring system. The energy monitoring system will improve energy usage efficiency for the basic human activities in different situations and environments.

  15. Development of biomass energy lacks a clear direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    By the year 2020, 4.4% of total energy consumption in the Netherlands must be generated from biomass. That means that biomass will be the most important form of renewable energy for this country. But, with 20 years to go, there is still no generally accepted strategy for the technological and economical development of bio-energy. The most important questions are discussed: is biomass sustainable or not, is it better to burn biomass or to gasify, must one built large-scale or small-scale biomass conversion plants, should the Netherlands import or biomass or cultivate biomass themselves, should biomass wastes be incinerated or recycled, must the emission standard for SO2 be 40 or 200 mg, and, finally, is bio-energy economically feasible?

  16. Formation of the priority directions of innovative strategic energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaeva, Asiiat; Minnullina, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Article is devoted to the matter of the ensuring long-term potential of dynamic growth of the Russian economy, its sustainable development in which the special role is assigned to the energy industry. Inclusion of the stage of management of the human capital, which becomes one of priority levers in the field of management of the industrial enterprises, into the in structure of strategy of planning subsequently represents one of innovative steps at the heart of power management. In work the algorithm of the development of the key performance indicators of the human capital on the basis of stage-by-stage problem definition of energy saving, search of the centers of responsibility in energy consumption and quality control of the involved productions is offered in the article. The application of the offered innovative algorithm might promote the formation of high culture of energy saving and the decrease in the level of resistance to organizational changes.

  17. Rapidly Evolving Transients in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursiainen, M.; et al.

    2018-03-13

    We present the results of a search for rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Programme. These events are characterized by fast light curve evolution (rise to peak in $\\lesssim 10$ d and exponential decline in $\\lesssim30$ d after peak). We discovered 72 events, including 37 transients with a spectroscopic redshift from host galaxy spectral features. The 37 events increase the total number of rapid optical transients by more than factor of two. They are found at a wide range of redshifts ($0.05M_\\mathrm{g}>-22.25$). The multiband photometry is well fit by a blackbody up to few weeks after peak. The events appear to be hot ($T\\approx10000-30000$ K) and large ($R\\approx 10^{14}-2\\cdot10^{15}$ cm) at peak, and generally expand and cool in time, though some events show evidence for a receding photosphere with roughly constant temperature. Spectra taken around peak are dominated by a blue featureless continuum consistent with hot, optically thick ejecta. We compare our events with a previously suggested physical scenario involving shock breakout in an optically thick wind surrounding a core-collapse supernova (CCSNe), we conclude that current models for such a scenario might need an additional power source to describe the exponential decline. We find these transients tend to favor star-forming host galaxies, which could be consistent with a core-collapse origin. However, more detailed modeling of the light curves is necessary to determine their physical origin.

  18. A direct probe of dark energy interactions with a solar System laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a mission concept for direct detection of dark energy interactions with normal matter in a Solar System laboratory. Dark energy is the leading proposal to...

  19. Household direct energy consumption and CO2 emissions in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Household direct energy consumption is often regarded as a given and determined using a top-down approach. Furthermore, research regarding household energy consumption tends to focus on western countries. This research uses a bottom-up approach t

  20. Direct regional energy/economic modeling (DREEM) design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P.D.; Pleatsikas, C.J.

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the use of regional and multiregional economic models for estimating the indirect and induced impacts of Federally-mandated energy policies. It includes an examination of alternative types of energy policies that can impact regional economies and the available analytical frameworks for measuring the magnitudes and spatial extents of these impacts. One such analytical system, the National Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES), currently operational in the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), is chosen for more detailed investigation. The report summarizes the models capabilities for addressing various energy policy issues and then demonstrates the applicability of the model in specified contexts by developing appropriate input data for three scenarios. These scenarios concern the multi-state impacts of alternative coal-mining-development decisions, multi-regional impacts of macroeconomic change, and the comprehensive effects of an alternative national energy supply trajectory. On the basis of this experience, the capabilities of NRIES for analyzing energy-policy issues are summarized in a concluding chapter.

  1. DEVELOPING DIRECT USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ORADEA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASIU I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy demand for district heating in the city of Oradea is supplied at present, almost at whole, by the Cogeneration Thermal Power Plant, based on classical fuels, mainly consisting of low grade coal and natural gas, with a small contribution of the geothermal energy. Geothermal resource at low enthalpy, located within the city area of Oradea, available at an estimated level of 250 GWh/year, exploited at present by 12 production wells, can provide a share of 55 GWh/year for district heating, representing at present about 7 % from the overall thermal demand at the end users inlet. Geothermal energy is delivered by means of 3 main thermal stations, in order to prepare, especially household warm water, but sometimes also secondary agent for space heating, using additionally heat, based on natural gas. At present, in the city area of Oradea, more than 7,000 dwellings are supplied by geothermal stations with warm water and in addition for about 3,400 dwellings is assured simultaneously warm water and space heating. Even if the geothermal energy provides at present only a small part of the overall heating requirement at the city level, nevertheless by increased financial support, in the near future is expected its much more contribution, as an alternative to polluting energy of coal and natural gas.

  2. The solar greenhouse: a survey of energy saving methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saye, A.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The solar greenhouse project is aimed at the development of a greenhouse concept for the Netherlands with zero-fossil energy consumption. The solar greenhouse is formulated as a combination of a low energy demand greenhouse, an energy recovery installation and an energy storage facility. In this

  3. Direct observation of triplet energy transfer from semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongin, Cédric; Garakyaraghi, Sofia; Razgoniaeva, Natalia; Zamkov, Mikhail; Castellano, Felix N

    2016-01-22

    Triplet excitons are pervasive in both organic and inorganic semiconductors but generally remain confined to the material in which they originate. We demonstrated by transient absorption spectroscopy that cadmium selenide semiconductor nanoparticles, selectively excited by green light, engage in interfacial Dexter-like triplet-triplet energy transfer with surface-anchored polyaromatic carboxylic acid acceptors, extending the excited-state lifetime by six orders of magnitude. Net triplet energy transfer also occurs from surface acceptors to freely diffusing molecular solutes, further extending the lifetime while sensitizing singlet oxygen in an aerated solution. The successful translation of triplet excitons from semiconductor nanoparticles to the bulk solution implies that such materials are generally effective surrogates for molecular triplets. The nanoparticles could thereby potentially sensitize a range of chemical transformations that are relevant for fields as diverse as optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, and photobiology. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Electrohydrodynamics: a high-voltage direct energy conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, S.

    1967-04-01

    This analysis consists of a theoretical and practical study of a high-tension electrical power generator based on the Van de Graaff generator principle, the main difference being that the charges produced are transported by a gas in motion and not by a belt. The electrical and thermal properties of such a generator are studied, as well as the difficult problem of the production of the ionised particles used in the conversion. A certain number of results already published on this process for converting kinetic energy into electrical energy is given, as well as some possible applications in the field of space technology. (author) [fr

  5. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Syed Shah; Nor Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad Maisarah; Hashim Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-01-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to gener...

  6. Evaluating communication to optimise consumer-directed energy efficiency interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Awareness campaigns, education and training programmes, label schemes and smart metering are all initiatives based on the principle that more and better information will encourage consumers to use less energy. Initiatives of this type can realise efficiency savings of up to 30%, and are likely to remain politically popular while preferred by the public to legislation or fines. While widespread, such programmes can have mixed performance, with savings often not reaching potential. This article investigates whether existing theoretical models can usefully be combined for evaluations of such message-oriented programmes. To do this it examines relationships between the variables of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using empirical data from participants exposed to energy behaviour change projects. Analysis revealed that when used together, the theories may offer insight into the impact of messaging. While a single exploratory study can only describe what has occurred, it offers initial evidence to advocate further analysis of the potential of the combined framework. The author offers an illustration of how the framework might be utilised by other schemes by example of its application to a major EU project to save energy in Europe’s public buildings. - Highlights: • Consumer energy saving schemes have huge potential as a route to emissions reduction. • Mixed performance could be addressed by focus on impact of communication. • Evidence from exploratory study supports case for proposed evaluation framework. • Framework is illustrated at varying stages: planning, mid-term, and impact

  7. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report reviews the patterns of foreign ownership interest in US energy enterprises, exclusive of portfolio investment (<10% ownership of a US enterprise). It profiles the involvement of foreign-affiliated US companies in the following areas: domestic petroleum production (including natural gas), reserve holdings, refining and marketing activities, coal production, and uranium exploration and development

  8. Direct measurement of exciton dissociation energy in polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Paruzel, Bartosz; Pfleger, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 015113. ISSN 2158-3226 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exciton dissociation energy * polymers * SCR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016

  9. Direct measurement of superdiffusive energy transport in disordered granular chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Martínez, Alejandro J; Phenisee, Sean E; Kevrekidis, P G; Porter, Mason A; Yang, Jinkyu

    2018-02-13

    Energy transport properties in heterogeneous materials have attracted scientific interest for more than half of a century, and they continue to offer fundamental and rich questions. One of the outstanding challenges is to extend Anderson theory for uncorrelated and fully disordered lattices in condensed-matter systems to physical settings in which additional effects compete with disorder. Here we present the first systematic experimental study of energy transport and localization properties in simultaneously disordered and nonlinear granular crystals. In line with prior theoretical studies, we observe in our experiments that disorder and nonlinearity-which individually favor energy localization-can effectively cancel each other out, resulting in the destruction of wave localization. We also show that the combined effect of disorder and nonlinearity can enable manipulation of energy transport speed in granular crystals. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate superdiffusive transport. Furthermore, our numerical computations suggest that subdiffusive transport should be attainable by controlling the strength of the system's external precompression force.

  10. New bimetallic EMF cell shows promise in direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1968-01-01

    Concentration cell, based upon a thermally regenerative cell principle, produces electrical energy from any large heat source. This experimental bimetallic EMF cell uses a sodium-bismuth alloy cathode and a pure liquid sodium anode. The cell exhibits reliability, corrosion resistance, and high current density performance.

  11. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-16

    The report reviews the patterns of foreign ownership interest in US energy enterprises, exclusive of portfolio investment (<10% ownership of a US enterprise). It profiles the involvement of foreign-affiliated US companies in the following areas: domestic petroleum production (including natural gas), reserve holdings, refining and marketing activities, coal production, and uranium exploration and development.

  12. The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Half the world's population lives without access to electricity in the rural areas and villages of developing countries. In 1987, world population reached 5 billion and, according to World Bank projections, will increase to over 6 billion in the year 2000 and to over 8 billion in 2025. Such population growth is not uniformly distributed: developed countries have small or negative growth and account for a declining proportion of the world's population. Inasmuch as 95 per cent of the extra inhabitants added each year are in developing countries, rapid population growth in those countries raises serious questions about energy availability for basic human needs and, of course, more broadly about the environment's capacity to support that growth. The present report makes reference to one of the most comprehensively documented conservative scenarios for world energy demand in the year 2020, namely, Energy for a Sustainable World, which assumed that long-term world sustainability must entail constraints on (a) use of natural resources and (b) combustion of fossil fuels resulting in the greenhouse effect. Solar energy is abundant and could become a major source of electricity. Photovoltaics has three particular advantages. It accomplishes sunlight-to-electricity conversion entirely with solid-state electronic components, and with no moving parts required, thereby promising high equipment availability and very low operating and maintenance costs. PV also appears to have very limited environmental impact, with no emissions of the gaseous pollutants associated with fossil-fuel burning and few of the possible local problems associated with some other renewable energy technologies. Finally, the products of photovoltaic technology are modular in construction and can be built up on site in a flexible way, thus minimizing front-end financial risk and investment costs. Figs and tabs

  13. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the tertiary sector in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the tertiary sector. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The economic energy intensive activities have represented the nucleus of the survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  14. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the industry in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.; Mercanti, A.; Poggi, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the italian industry. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The energy intensive sectors and the great industries have represented the nucleus of survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  15. Survey of energy load leveling system in Europe; Energy fuka heijunka taisaku ni kansuru Europe chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Setsunan University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes the survey of energy load leveling systems in Europe. In Denmark, especially regional heating is remarkably diffused, and they have 350 plants. With extending the service areas, the energy load leveling has been promoted. For the cogeneration plants of SK Power, the largest electric power company, they have hot water heat storage tanks for regional heat supply with a total capacity 2,200 MWh. The regional heating system in Goeteborg City of Sweden supplies 80% of the total heat demand of the city. Unused energy sources derived from petroleum refining, sewage treatment, and garbage burning are utilized. In Uppsala, they have seasonal heat storage systems using solar heat. The Vienna Regional Heat Supply Corporation supplies heat equivalent to 5,000 GWh a year. Cogeneration plants and garbage burning plants are used as heat sources, and 25% of the total heating in the city is supplied. In Austria, they have an electric power demand with a peak in winter, and they have a pumped-storage power station in Kaprun for the annual load leveling using dump power in summer. This paper also introduces a compressed air storage gas turbine plant at Huntorf of Germany, and a large-scale underground natural gas storage of Gaz de France. 6 figs.

  16. Combustion and direct energy conversion inside a micro-combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yafeng; Chen, Wei; Lei, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flammability range of micro-combustor was broadened with heat recirculation. • The quenching diameter decreased with heat recirculation compared to without recirculation. • The surface areas to volume ratio was the most important parameter affecting the energy conversion efficiency. • The maximum conversion efficiency (3.15%) was achieved with 1 mm inner diameter. - Abstract: Electrical energy can be generated by employing a micro-thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell which absorbs thermal radiation from combustion taking place in a micro-combustor. The stability of combustion in a micro-combustor is essential for operating a micro-power system using hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as energy source. To understand the mechanism of sustaining combustion within the quenching distance of fuel, this study proposed an annular micro combustion tube with recirculation of exhaust heat. To explore the feasibility of combustion in the micro annular tube, the parameters influencing the combustion namely, quenching diameter, and flammability were studied through numerical simulation. The results indicated that combustion could be realized in micro- combustor using heat recirculation. Following results were obtained from simulation. The quenching diameter reduced from 1.3 mm to 0.9 mm for heat recirculation at equivalence ratio of 1; the lean flammability was 2.5%–5% lower than that of without heat recirculation for quenching diameters between 2 mm and 5 mm. The overall energy conversion efficiency varied at different inner diameters. A maximum efficiency of 3.15% was achieved at an inner diameter of 1 mm. The studies indicated that heat recirculation is an effective strategy to maintain combustion and to improve combustion limits in micro-scale system.

  17. Peel-and-Stick Sensors Powered by Directed RF Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalau-Keraly, Christopher; Daniel, George; Lee, Joseph; Schwartz, David

    2017-08-30

    PARC, a Xerox Company, is developing a low-cost system of peel-and-stick wireless sensors that will enable widespread building environment sensor deployment with the potential to deliver up to 30% energy savings. The system is embodied by a set of RF hubs that provide power to automatically located sensor nodes, and relay data wirelessly to the building management system (BMS). The sensor nodes are flexible electronic labels powered by rectified RF energy transmitted by an RF hub and can contain multiple printed and conventional sensors. The system design overcomes limitations in wireless sensors related to power delivery, lifetime, and cost by eliminating batteries and photovoltaic devices. Sensor localization is performed automatically by the inclusion of a programmable multidirectional antenna array in the RF hub. Comparison of signal strengths while the RF beam is swept allows for sensor localization, reducing installation effort and enabling automatic recommissioning of sensors that have been relocated, overcoming a significant challenge in building operations. PARC has already demonstrated wireless power and temperature data transmission up to a distance of 20m with less than one minute between measurements, using power levels well within the FCC regulation limits in the 902-928 MHz ISM band. The sensor’s RF energy harvesting antenna achieves high performance with dimensions below 5cm x 9cm

  18. Nuclear energy : member survey provides basis for common ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Rolfe

    2006-01-01

    There is a lot of misinformation to the general public about the nuclear energy and renewable energy and also the greenhouse effect is just as controversial. There is a need to educate general public that nuclear is a low greenhouse energy source. There are other energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro and geothermal. The most important aspect is the effective management of these sources

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rana@unifg.it; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP{sub 100} associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58 g CO{sub 2eq} MJ{sub e}{sup −1} and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Roberto; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP100 associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58gCO2eqMJe(-1) and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly adopted for cultivation of energy

  1. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    Occupant presence and behaviour in buildings has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. Energy-unaware behaviour can add one-third to a building's designed energy performance. Consequently,

  2. Survey report on establishing a new energy and energy saving vision in Fukui Prefecture; Fukuiken shin energy sho energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on establishing a new energy and energy saving vision in Fukui Prefecture. The energy consumption in Fukui Prefecture for fiscal 1996 was 25242 x 1 billion kcal, being 0.7% of the nation's total consumption. The per capita energy consumption is about a little greater than the national average. The energy consumption structure is characterized by large consumption in the transportation department, especially in automotive consumption. Carbon dioxide discharge is as little as being ranked 13th among all the prefectures in Japan. The availability and usable quantity of new energies in Fukui Prefecture is estimated as 1659939 x 10{sup 3} kWh/year as electric power, 9436 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year as gas, and 3536720 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year as heat. Energies could be saved most greatly by enhancing automotive fuel consumption rate, followed by effects of energy saving activities based on spontaneous action plans established by the industrial departments. New energies selected to be worked on importantly include: solar energy power generation, wind power generation, clean energy fueled automobiles, wastes energy, co-generation and solar heat. (NEDO)

  3. US Army Research Laboratory Directed Energy Internship Program 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    7 1400–1800 nm. However, when making EDFs, the solubility of Er in traditional silica ( SiO2 )-based glass is low and the ions that successfully...Thus, either half or all of the energy in a pair of excited ions could be wasted. In traditional SiO2 -based Er-doped glass (Er-SD), Er is co-doped...upconversion, Er-doped SiO2 NPs (Er-NP) are doped into the glass core of a fiber. This process is thought to create a cage of Al and O ions around each Er

  4. Comparison of Langevin dynamics and direct energy barrier computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, Rok; Schrefl, Thomas; Thiaville, Andre; Miltat, Jacques; Tsiantos, Vassilios; Fidler, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Two complementary methods to study thermal effects in micromagnetics are compared. On short time scales Langevin dynamics gives insight in the thermally activated dynamics. For longer time scales the 'nudged elastic band' method is applied. The method calculates a highly probable thermal switching path between two local energy minima of a micromagnetic system. Comparing the predicted thermal transition rates between ground states in small softmagnetic elements up to a size of 90x90x4.5 nm 3 gives good agreement of the methods

  5. Towards measurement and verification of energy performance under the framework of the European directive for energy performance of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Esfand; Mumovic, Dejan; Kimpian, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council on the Energy Performance of Buildings has led to major developments in energy policies followed by the EU Member States. The national energy performance targets for the built environment are mostly rooted in the Building Regulations that are shaped by this Directive. Article 3 of this Directive requires a methodology to calculate energy performance of buildings under standardised operating conditions. Overwhelming evidence suggests that actual energy performance is often significantly higher than this standardised and theoretical performance. The risk is national energy saving targets may not be achieved in practice. The UK evidence for the education and office sectors is presented in this paper. A measurement and verification plan is proposed to compare actual energy performance of a building with its theoretical performance using calibrated thermal modelling. Consequently, the intended vs. actual energy performance can be established under identical operating conditions. This can help identify the shortcomings of construction process and building procurement. Once energy performance gap is determined with reasonable accuracy and root causes identified, effective measures could be adopted to remedy or offset this gap. - Highlights: • Building energy performance gap is a negative externality that must be addressed. • A method is proposed to link actual performance to building compliance calculation. • Energy performance gap is divided into procurement and operational gaps. • This framework enables policy makers to measure and address procurement gap. • Building fine-tuning by construction teams could also narrow operational gap

  6. New directions in development of city energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Branko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the world level, the 20th century saw an increase from 220 million urbanites in 1900 to 2.84 billion in year 2000. The present century will match this absolute increase in about four decades. Developing regions, as a whole, will account for 93% of this growth [1]. Until now humankind has lived and worked primarily in rural areas. But the world is about to leave its rural past behind. Today we are witness, for the first time, that more than half of the globe’s population is living in towns and cities. The number and proportion of urban dwellers will continue to rise quickly. Urban population will grow to 4.9 billion by 2030. At the global level, all of future population growth will be in towns and cities [1]. Two centuries ago there was only one city on the planet that could say it had a million inhabitants - that was London. Today more than 400 cities can boast that - 408 to be precise, according to the Earth Policy Institute. But today a population of 1 million people means nothing; we are moving into the era of megacities of 10 million (and more people. Today, there are 20 so-called megacities, whose population, and therefore energy needs, easily exceed some countries population, according to Earth Policy Institute. More people now live in Tokyo than Canada, for example [2]. Despite only occupying 2% of the world's surface area, they are responsible for 75% of the world's energy consumption.

  7. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  8. Who exhibits more energy-saving behavior in direct and indirect ways in china? The role of psychological factors and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Zhang, Yanbing; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the possibilities for further energy saving in households in the Chinese context by conducting of a survey on energy curtailment behaviors. We examine how people's demographic characteristics and psychological factors affect their direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors at home, as well as the different effects of these antecedents. Results suggest that people with high sense of environmental responsibility and curtailment attitude are more likely to engage in both direct and indirect energy curtailment actions. Generally, indirect energy curtailment behavior is more strongly related to psychological and socio-demographic factors than direct behavior, and these socio-demographic factors vary for direct and indirect behaviors. Interesting patterns emerged with respect to gender, age, family structure, family income, and level of education. Results indicate that strengthening publicity and education to increase environmental awareness among Chinese urban residents would be effective in reducing household energy consumption, especially when the said measures target a specific population and specific behaviors. - Highlights: •A survey is used to explore Chinese urban residents' energy curtailment behaviors. •Make a distinction between direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors. •Effects of demographic and psychological variables are different on two behaviors. •Policy should target at specific behaviors and specific population.

  9. Survey on usage of electronic journals in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi; Fukazawa, Takeyasu

    2008-05-01

    Survey on usage of electronic journals was performed quantitatively by analyzing downloads accesses data to the 1,783 journals titles published by Elsevier in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2006. Although JAEA researchers are interested in 1,028 journal titles among physics, chemistry, engineering, medicine, social sciences etc., it is found that 80% of total downloads was occupied by only 102 journal titles. To satisfy researcher's needs for electronic journals effectively, identification the core journals by librarians based on user's needs is rational way in cost. By shifting from print to electronic journals, the number of users increased by 30% and the number of papers read by researchers increased by 7 times. It is also found that many of researchers do not use SD (Science Directs) useful functions such as searching, linking to other bibliographic records, and alerting new information of electronic journals. To inform the useful functions to researchers by librarians is necessary. (author)

  10. Point Climat no. 23 'The new European Energy Efficiency Directive: France is on track'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas; Alberola, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On October 4 2012, the European Union adopted a new Directive in order to help reach the common target of a 20% improvement in energy efficiency in 2020. At a time when a major national debate on energy transition is set to take place in France, this new directive will need to be taken into account when defining future energy policy. The measures specified in the European Directive, which focus on buildings and energy suppliers, will enable part of France's goal to be met. The transposition of the Directive into French law will result in the setting of a national target for 2020, and will primarily reinforce an existing requirement that applies to energy suppliers, as well as adding measures aimed at informing energy consumers

  11. New directions in low energy electron molecule collision calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, P.G.; Noble, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    New theoretical and computational methods for studying low energy electron molecule collisions are discussed. Having considered the fixed-nuclei approximation and the form of the expansion of the total collision wavefunction, the various approximations which have been made are examined, including the static plus model exchange approximation, the static exchange approximation and the close coupling approximation, particular attention being paid to methods of including the molecular charge polarisation. Various ways which have been developed to solve the resultant equations are discussed and it is found that there is increasing emphasis being given to methods which combine the advantages of discrete multi-centre analytic bases with single centre numerical bases. (U.K.)

  12. Energy for sustainable development in India: Linkages and strategic direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Rehman, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent times the two major international endorsements of the elements of sustainable development the Millennium Development Goals (Mags) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Wsso), have recognized universal access to energy as an important goal. In India, with a population of over a 1000 million people, it is estimated that a mere 43.5% of the households have access to electricity. The choices that the country makes towards energizing the remaining population will have a significant impact on other Sustainable Development parameters such as agriculture, water, health, and even biodiversity. India has set itself a target, going beyond the Mags, of energizing all households by the year 2012. In view of the differentiated responsibilities of the various ministries to the Government of India, the strategy for reaching this target may not address itself to the larger development goals

  13. Fiscal 1999 survey report on survey of long-term strategy on energy technology. Long-term energy technological strategy survey (Long-term energy technological strategy survey); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa (choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To enhance still more effectively the research and development of energy-related/environmental technologies, research and development strategies have to be worked out from a long-term view point and policy resources such as investment in research and development should be optimally distributed after clarifying and defining the course to follow toward the achievement of research and development goals. This project aims to conduct studies, and to show the course to follow in the future, towards the establishment of a long-term energy technological strategy by investigating energy systems for around 2050, interim energy systems at the intermediate stage, and innovative energy technologies for realizing such energy systems. In Chapter 1, the position of the survey and its purpose and prerequisites are shown. In Chapter 2, the history of social and economic conditions surrounding energy/environmental technologies and of energy situation up to the present time is compiled, and the outlook is analyzed and predicted. In Chapter 3, formulation of a long-term energy technological strategy is discussed. In Chapter 5, how to embody such a strategy is shown. (NEDO)

  14. Survey of Energy Computing in the Smart Grid Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Arun Agarwala

    2013-01-01

    Resource optimization, with advance computing tools, improves the efficient use of energy resources. The renewable energy resources are instantaneous and needs to be conserve at the same time. To optimize real time process, the complex design, includes plan of resources and control for effective utilization. The advances in information communication technology tools enables data formatting and analysis results in optimization of use the renewable resources for sustainable energy solution on s...

  15. Physiotherapists and General Practitioners attitudes towards 'Physio Direct' phone based musculoskeletal Physiotherapy services: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Nicholas; Blacklidge, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Physiotherapy phone based, "Physio Direct" (PD) musculoskeletal triage and treat services are a relatively new phenomena. This study explored Physiotherapist and GP attitudes towards PD services. Online national survey via cascade e-mail initiated by study leads. 488 Physiotherapists and 68 GPs completed the survey. The survey asked three negatively worded and three positively worded Likert scale questions regarding PD services. It also collected demographic data and more global attitudes including a version of the friends and family test. Overall both Physiotherapists and GP's have positive attitudes towards PD services. There was global agreement that PD triage was a good idea but in both groups the majority of respondents who expressed a definite opinion thought that patients would still eventually need to be seen face to face. The vast majority of all respondents also thought patients should be given a choice about first accessing PD services. Physiotherapists with experience of PD services had more positive and less negative attitudes than those without experience. More detailed results are discussed. Relevant clinical stakeholders have generally positive attitudes towards PD services, but more so when they have experience of them. Counter to research findings significant proportions of respondents believe patients accessing PD services will still need to be seen face to face. The significant majority of respondents believe patients should be given a choice whether they access PD services in the first instance or not. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE SEEDS DIRECT IMAGING SURVEY FOR PLANETS AND SCATTERED DUST EMISSION IN DEBRIS DISK SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Moro-Martin, Amaya [Department of Astrophysics, CAB (INTA-CSIC), Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial, Torrejonde Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Usuda, Tomonori; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, Sebastian [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Thalmann, Christian [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Carson, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, M5S 3H4 Toronto, ON (Canada); McElwain, M. W. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 2071 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Fukagawa, Misato [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Crepp, Justin [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Abe, Lyu [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7239, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus, E-mail: janson@astro.princeton.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-08-10

    Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris-disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here, we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that {beta} Pic b-like planets ({approx}10 M{sub jup} planets around G-A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15%-30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than {beta} Pic b.

  17. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  18. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only

  19. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Basic survey on practical application of innovative energy technologies; 1999 nendo kakushinteki energy gijutsu no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey aims to verify whether recoverable energies can bear the important role of energy source in place of fossil fuels, to probe into problems that may arise in the process of recoverable energy introduction, and to compile suggestions about measures toward their smooth introduction, these by working out an 'ultralong-term world energy supply and demand outlook' valid up to 2100. Various measures to deal with global warming are analyzed by simulation. The study is not to predict what is in store but to metrically describe and present choices and possibilities for the future with a theoretical consistency based on various factors including economic growth, population, demand for energy, magnitude of fossil energy resources, and feasibility and cost of recoverable energies. This study implies that there is not a single, determining policy for solving the global warming problem and that it is important to cope with the problem by resorting to combinations of various means. (NEDO)

  20. Taxes for energy products, electricity and CO2. Consequences of the revision of the Energy Taxation Directive for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.J.; Schroten, A.; Geurts, F.

    2011-07-01

    Taxes on energy products, electricity and CO2 are compared for a number of EU countries (Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands) with special focus on the fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the revision of the European Energy Directive for the Netherlands. [nl

  1. Variation in Direct Access to Tests to Investigate Cancer: A Survey of English General Practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Nicholson

    Full Text Available The 2015 NICE guidelines for suspected cancer recommend that English General Practitioners have direct access to diagnostic tests to investigate symptoms of cancer that do not meet the criteria for urgent referral. We aimed to identify the proportion of GPs in England with direct access to these tests.We recruited 533 English GPs through a national clinical research network to complete an online survey about direct access to laboratory, radiology, and endoscopy tests in the three months leading up to the release of the 2015 NICE guidance. If they had direct access to a diagnostic test, GPs were asked about the time necessary to arrange a test and receive a report. Results are reported by NHS sub-region and, adjusting for sampling, for England as a whole.Almost all GPs reported direct access to x-ray and laboratory investigations except faecal occult blood testing (54%, 95% CI 49-59% and urine protein electrophoresis (89%, 95% CI 84-92%. Fewer GPs had direct access to CT scans (54%, 95% CI 49-59% or endoscopy (colonoscopy 32%, 95% CI 28-37%; gastroscopy 72%, 95% CI 67-77%. There was significant variation in direct access between NHS regions for the majority of imaging tests-for example, from 20 to 85% to MRI. Apart from x-ray, very few GPs (1-22% could access radiology and endoscopy within the timescales recommended by NICE. The modal request to test time was 2-4 weeks for routine radiology and 4-6 weeks for routine endoscopy with results taking another 1-2 weeks.At the time that the 2015 NICE guideline was released, local investment was required to not only provide direct access but also reduce the interval between request and test and speed up reporting. Further research using our data as a benchmark is now required to identify whether local improvements in direct access have been achieved in response to the NICE targets. If alternative approaches to test access are to be proposed they must be piloted comprehensively and underpinned by robust

  2. Variation in Direct Access to Tests to Investigate Cancer: A Survey of English General Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brian D.; Oke, Jason L.; Rose, Peter W.; Mant, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2015 NICE guidelines for suspected cancer recommend that English General Practitioners have direct access to diagnostic tests to investigate symptoms of cancer that do not meet the criteria for urgent referral. We aimed to identify the proportion of GPs in England with direct access to these tests. Methods We recruited 533 English GPs through a national clinical research network to complete an online survey about direct access to laboratory, radiology, and endoscopy tests in the three months leading up to the release of the 2015 NICE guidance. If they had direct access to a diagnostic test, GPs were asked about the time necessary to arrange a test and receive a report. Results are reported by NHS sub-region and, adjusting for sampling, for England as a whole. Results Almost all GPs reported direct access to x-ray and laboratory investigations except faecal occult blood testing (54%, 95% CI 49–59%) and urine protein electrophoresis (89%, 95% CI 84–92%). Fewer GPs had direct access to CT scans (54%, 95% CI 49–59%) or endoscopy (colonoscopy 32%, 95% CI 28–37%; gastroscopy 72%, 95% CI 67–77%). There was significant variation in direct access between NHS regions for the majority of imaging tests—for example, from 20 to 85% to MRI. Apart from x-ray, very few GPs (1–22%) could access radiology and endoscopy within the timescales recommended by NICE. The modal request to test time was 2–4 weeks for routine radiology and 4–6 weeks for routine endoscopy with results taking another 1–2 weeks. Conclusion At the time that the 2015 NICE guideline was released, local investment was required to not only provide direct access but also reduce the interval between request and test and speed up reporting. Further research using our data as a benchmark is now required to identify whether local improvements in direct access have been achieved in response to the NICE targets. If alternative approaches to test access are to be proposed they must be

  3. Combining a survey approach and energy and indoor environment auditing in historic buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Dalewski, Mariusz; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an approach where a survey study is combined with energy and indoor environment auditing in the built environment. The combination of methods presented in this paper is one way to obtain a wider perspective on the indoor environment and energy use and also let...... this research project. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of energy and indoor environment auditing and standardized occupant surveys. Findings – The main findings in the paper are related to the good agreement between results from standardized occupant surveys and physical measurements...

  4. Principles Of Directed Energy Action In Food Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prospects of technologies of directed en ergy action (DEA are discussed. Classification of DEA-technologies is offered. The purpose of the wo rk is to give analysis of possibilities of DEA in food nanotechnologies. Combined processes of mass tr ansfer during the extraction and drying are con- sidered by methods of mathematical modeling. The physical model of combined processes in DEA- technologies is analyzed. The classification of hy drodynamic flow from the capillary structures of food raw materials is given. Conditions of upgrowth of laminar and turbulent barodiffusion are set. Problems of experimental modeling are grounded. A new number of similarities, the number of ener- getic action, is discussed. That number correctly ta kes into account the specific of combined processes of DEA-technologies. It has been shown that im pulse electromagnetic field is effective tool for realization DEA-technologies. Degree of intensification processes of mass transfer with application of barodiffusion and DEA-technologies can be by th e order greater than possibilities of traditional technologies.

  5. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  6. Survey of energy resources: focus on shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The energy sector around the world is undergoing major changes resulting from increasing competitive pressures and concerns about costs, security of supply and the environment. At the same time, 1.6 billion people, almost a quarter of the world population, do not have access to commercial energy and the need for energy infrastructure investment is huge. The energy challenges are not the same in all regions. While rapidly burgeoning economies in the developing world are focusing on expanding energy access to support their economic growth and provide basic energy services to their citizens, industrialised countries are focusing on securing energy supplies in a competitive environment and in a publicly and environmentally acceptable way. In recent years, shale gas has been making headlines as a potential solution for many of the energy-related challenges, in particular in the United States. A number of studies on shale gas have been conducted, the majority focusing on the assessment of the resource base and the role of emerging technologies, which can significantly increase the current reserve estimates.

  7. Preliminary survey on electric energy efficiency in Ethiopia:- Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the significance of electric energy efficiency improvement and major areas of loss in Ethiopia's electric power system are highlighted for further rigorous study. Major electric energy loss areas in the utility transmission and distribution systems and consumer premises are indicated. In the consumer area the loss ...

  8. Survey on alternative energy for industrial processes in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Sukarsono, R.; Wardaya; Suryawan, I.

    1997-01-01

    In consequence of the national industrial development, it is necessary to supply a lot of energy. This paper presented a discussion about the option of supplying nuclear processed heat as alternative energy sources for industry especially in Java island. The electrical energy requirement can be estimated rising. The stock and the requirement of energy in Indonesia is unbalance. If the oil production rate is constant, such as that of today, it can be estimated that the oil stock would be over in 20 years. The country is trying to difertify its source of energy and reduce its dependence on oil. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) produces electric and also heat at various temperature in the form of steam and gas. Heat processes from a high temperature reactor, could be used in industry for supplying heat for coal hidroforming, gasification of coal, metal annealing, petrochemical hydrogenation, distillation, purification of petrochemicals, evaporation, water heat, etc. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. A survey of energy saving techniques for mobile computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Portable products such as pagers, cordless and digital cellular telephones, personal audio equipment, and laptop computers are increasingly being used. Because these applications are battery powered, reducing power consumption is vital. In this report we first give a survey of techniques for

  10. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  11. Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, J.

    Microwave and laser-propelled sails are a new class of spacecraft using photon acceleration. It is the only method of interstellar flight that has no physics issues. Laboratory demonstrations of basic features of beam-driven propulsion, flight, stability (`beam-riding'), and induced spin, have been completed in the last decade, primarily in the microwave. It offers much lower cost probes after a substantial investment in the launcher. Engineering issues are being addressed by other applications: fusion (microwave, millimeter and laser sources) and astronomy (large aperture antennas). There are many candidate sail materials: carbon nanotubes and microtrusses, beryllium, graphene, etc. For acceleration of a sail, what is the cost-optimum high power system? Here the cost is used to constrain design parameters to estimate system power, aperture and elements of capital and operating cost. From general relations for cost-optimal transmitter aperture and power, system cost scales with kinetic energy and inversely with sail diameter and frequency. So optimal sails will be larger, lower in mass and driven by higher frequency beams. Estimated costs include economies of scale. We present several starship point concepts. Systems based on microwave, millimeter wave and laser technologies are of equal cost at today's costs. The frequency advantage of lasers is cancelled by the high cost of both the laser and the radiating optic. Cost of interstellar sailships is very high, driven by current costs for radiation source, antennas and especially electrical power. The high speeds necessary for fast interstellar missions make the operating cost exceed the capital cost. Such sailcraft will not be flown until the cost of electrical power in space is reduced orders of magnitude below current levels.

  12. Explaining Foreign Direct Investments in Gujarat: A Study based on an Opinion Survey of Persons Involved in the Foreign Direct Investment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Gujarat has attracted more foreign direct investment (FDI) than what its GDP size alone would suggest. But relative to its peer states (especially Tamilnadu, Delhi, Maharashtra and Karnataka, and possibly Andhra Pradesh) it has fallen short significantly. The above findings which we made in an earlier study are further confirmed through a survey of opinions and views of CEOs and others intimately concerned with the foreign investment decision process. The survey also brought out the crucial i...

  13. Comparison of Direct Solar Energy to Resistance Heating for Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gustafson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of delivering thermal energy to regolith for the carbo thermal reduction process has been performed. The comparison concludes that electrical resistance heating is superior to direct solar energy via solar concentrators for the following reasons: (1) the resistance heating method can process approximately 12 times as much regolith using the same amount of thermal energy as the direct solar energy method because of superior thermal insulation; (2) the resistance heating method is more adaptable to nearer-term robotic exploration precursor missions because it does not require a solar concentrator system; (3) crucible-based methods are more easily adapted to separation of iron metal and glass by-products than direct solar energy because the melt can be poured directly after processing instead of being remelted; and (4) even with projected improvements in the mass of solar concentrators, projected photovoltaic system masses are expected to be even lower.

  14. Survey of the general public's attitudes toward advance directives in Japan: How to respect patients' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ichiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese people have become increasingly interested in the expression and enhancement of their individual autonomy in medical decisions made regarding medical treatment at and toward the end of life. However, while many Western countries have implemented legislation that deals with patient autonomy in the case of terminal illness, no such legislation exists in Japan. The rationale for this research is based on the need to investigate patient's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life in order to re-evaluate advance directives policy and practice. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 418 members of the general middle-aged and senior adults (aged between 40 and 65 in Tokyo, Japan. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward advance directives, and preferences toward treatment options. Results Over 60% of respondents agreed that it is better to express their wishes regarding advance directives (treatment preferences in writing, appointment of proxy for care decision making, appointment of legal administrator of property, stating preferences regarding disposal of one's property and funeral arrangements but less than 10% of them had already done so. About 60% of respondents in this study preferred to indicate treatment preferences in broad rather than concrete terms. Over 80% would like to decide treatment preferences in consultation with others (22.2% with their proxy, 11.0% with the doctor, and 47.8% with both their proxy and the doctor. Conclusion This study revealed that many Japanese people indicate an interest in undertaking advance directives. This study found that there is a range of preferences regarding how advance directives are undertaken, thus it is important to recognize that any processes put into place should allow flexibility in order to best respect patients' wishes and autonomy.

  15. Prospective evaluation of direct approach with a tablet device as a strategy to enhance survey study participant response rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants’ experiences with this mode of survey administration. Findings An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children’s Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4 to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2 where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115. Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115. On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3] and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9] completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%, immediate survey access (62%, and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%. Most reluctant responders (89% indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion. Conclusions Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration.

  16. Design and Experiment Analysis of a Direct-Drive Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Haitao Yu; Zhenchuan Shi

    2018-01-01

    Coastal waves are an abundant nonpolluting and renewable energy source. A wave energy converter (WEC) must be designed for efficient and steady operation in highly energetic ocean environments. A direct-drive wave energy conversion (D-DWEC) system with a tubular permanent magnet linear generator (TPMLG) on a wind and solar photovoltaic complementary energy generation platform is proposed to improve the conversion efficiency and reduce the complexity and device volume of WECs. The operating pr...

  17. A Review of Previous Research in Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUONG, HENRY; POLANSKY, GARY F.; SANDERS, THOMAS L.; SIEGEL, MALCOLM D.

    1999-01-01

    From the earliest days of power reactor development, direct energy conversion was an obvious choice to produce high efficiency electric power generation. Directly capturing the energy of the fission fragments produced during nuclear fission avoids the intermediate conversion to thermal energy and the efficiency limitations of classical thermodynamics. Efficiencies of more than 80% are possible, independent of operational temperature. Direct energy conversion fission reactors would possess a number of unique characteristics that would make them very attractive for commercial power generation. These reactors would be modular in design with integral power conversion and operate at low pressures and temperatures. They would operate at high efficiency and produce power well suited for long distance transmission. They would feature large safety margins and passively safe design. Ideally suited to production by advanced manufacturing techniques, direct energy conversion fission reactors could be produced more economically than conventional reactor designs. The history of direct energy conversion can be considered as dating back to 1913 when Moseleyl demonstrated that charged particle emission could be used to buildup a voltage. Soon after the successful operation of a nuclear reactor, E.P. Wigner suggested the use of fission fragments for direct energy conversion. Over a decade after Wigner's suggestion, the first theoretical treatment of the conversion of fission fragment kinetic energy into electrical potential appeared in the literature. Over the ten years that followed, a number of researchers investigated various aspects of fission fragment direct energy conversion. Experiments were performed that validated the basic physics of the concept, but a variety of technical challenges limited the efficiencies that were achieved. Most research in direct energy conversion ceased in the US by the late 1960s. Sporadic interest in the concept appears in the literature until this

  18. Survey of regional new energy vision formulation for Shimizu town. Report on initial stage survey; Shimizucho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa. Shoki dankai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Shimizu town, Hokkaido, is a 11,000-strong town, located in the northwestern part of the Tokachi plains and consuming 1.7 times 10{sup 4} Gcal in energy. Discussion is held for new energy which will make the most of the local characteristics of the town while the basics of town building are considered and confirmed. The results of the survey are summarized in four chapters which are (1) the purpose of regional energy vision formulation, (2) local characteristics, (3) state of new energy in existence, (4) and the course to follow for the introduction of new energy (draft). Chapter (4) is constituted of the purpose of new energy introduction and the basic policy, and the course along which new energy will be adopted. Proposed in relation with the course of new energy introduction are the effective utilization of biomass resources, utilization of cold heat energy (ice) involving agriculture, introduction of a symbolic small scale water energy system, introduction of a symbolic wind energy system, extensive introduction of solar energy, and the deployment of popularizing and enlightening activities. A project is mentioned of experimentally introducing biogas facilities that makes use of farm animals' excretion. (NEDO)

  19. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  20. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  1. Survey of energy conservation in India: priorities and policy dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, R K

    1983-01-01

    The formulating and implementing of an energy conservation policy in India was delayed, because emphasis was placed upon an increase of energy production in the mistaken belief that this is tantamount to an improvement in the standard of life. Statistical data of energy production according to its source and of its consumption by individual sectors of the national economy are presented. They show that by far the largest turnover is in energy derived from firewood and vegetable and animal waste for domestic use in rural India. Although a very great potential for energy conservation exists in this domain, its implementation on a large scale is hardly practicable because it would affect many millions of village households with very different life styles dictated by varying natural conditions in individual areas of the country. Energy derived from oil and coal is used rather wastefully mainly because of obsolete equipment and technology. There is a vast scope for improvement in this area and appropriate measures have been initiated by the Government. The demand for oil derivatives for transportation is increasing dangerously, mainly because of dieselization of the national railways and of development of motorized road transport. A turnaround of this trend would require, however, a restructuring of the Indian transportation system.

  2. Herbaceous energy crops: a general survey and a microeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserta, G.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid fuels (bioethanol and biooil) derived from herbaceous crops are considered beneficial for the environment and human health especially if they are used as fuels for motor vehicles. The choice of the most suited crop to be cultivated for liquid biofuel production depends on many factors; the most important being the economic convenience for farmers to cultivate the new energy crop in place of the traditional ones. In order to analyse the conditions which favour the cultivation and selling of specific energy crops, a simple methodology is proposed, based on the calculation of the ''threshold price'' of the energy crop products. The ''threshold price'' is the minimum price at which the primary products of the energy crop, i.e., roots, tubers, seeds, etc., must be sold in order to obtain a gross margin equal to that usually obtained from the traditional crop which is replaced by the energy crop. As a case-study, this methodology has been applied to twelve Italian provinces where the cultivation of six energy crops, both in productive lands and set-aside lands, is examined. The crops considered are sugar beet, sweet sorghum and topinambour, useful for bioethanol production; and rapeseed, sunflower and soya, which are usually employed for the production of biooil. (Author)

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted November 30 through December 4, 1987. In addition, the preliminary findings of the Laramie Project Office (LPO) Survey, which was conducted as part of the METC Survey on January 25 through 29, 1988, are presented in Appendices E and F. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with METC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at METC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities at METC. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the METC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey METC. 60 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs.

  4. Parametric Study of Beta-Endpoint Energy in Direct Energy Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    value to the endpoint energy of nickel-63 ( Ni63 ), whose endpoint energy is 66 keV. Only an approximation is sought. Nickel-63 is an easily...is known to vary from Sr90’s spectrum, where instead of peaking at approximately one third of the endpoint energy, the peak of Ni63 ’s output spectrum

  5. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on energy use evaluation systems; 1999 nendo energy shiyo hyoka system chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present survey and study relate to the medium to long term policies for technological development of energy and environment related technologies, and are intended to develop a system that can evaluate the importance, feasibility, expected realization time, and expected cost of the technologies, including their synergetic effects. The survey and study are intended to provide clear guidelines for planning the technological development policies on which of the technological development should be promoted in what ways, based on the evaluation given by the use of the system. The report describes in Section 1 to adopt two types of approaches of a 'technology map' and a 'network chart evaluation system' to achieve the goal. Section 2, after describing the results of surveys on the past study cases of technology evaluation, describes that the present approach has new features that are different from conventional ones. Section 3 states the results of surveys on the basic technologies to prevent global warming, and shows cases of preparing maps that notice on energy flows. Section 4 relates to network chart evaluating methods. Section 5 describes the results of surveys that have been made in relation with chronological progress of the technological development, in preparation for surveys to be made in the coming fiscal years. (NEDO)

  6. SURVEY DESIGN FOR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING: A FISHER MATRIX APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bickerton, Steven J.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo Yicheng; Lee, Seong-Kook

    2012-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix (FM) formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED-fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED-fitting parameters predicted by the FM to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF-fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority (∼90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the universe needs to be incorporated in the FM, at least approximately, before the two methods can be properly compared. We conclude that the FM is a useful tool for astronomical survey design.

  7. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  8. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Basic survey for energy consumption rationalization and cooperative project on energy conservation seminar; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa oyobi sho energy seminar kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    A survey was conducted of Myanmar's energy-consuming industries for exploring the feasibility of introducing practical energy conservation techniques and facilities to this country and for collecting basic data for the implementation of the project in the future. On the other hand, some lecturers were dispatched to an energy conservation seminar which was held in cooperation with the Government of Myanmar. Visited during the basic survey were (1) the Kyan Gin plant of Myanmar Ceramic Enterprise representing Myanmar's cement making industry, (2) the Thanlyin plant of Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's oil refining industry, and (3) the Siftong plant of Myanmar Paper and Chemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's paper making industry. In the study of energy conservation measures for which stabilization of operation through reinforced facility maintenance and management were required, it was concluded that much time was necessary before Japan's advanced energy conservation technologies might be introduced into Myanmar. Three to six propositions were presented to each of the three plants. At the seminar, the importance of energy conservation promoting measures and the results of the basic survey were introduced to the audience. A lecture meeting was also held to familiarize some participants with NEDO-DB (Database of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). (NEDO)

  9. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Seismic Survey in the Eastern... low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is... funding provided by the National Science Foundation, a low-energy marine seismic survey. NMFS reviewed SIO...

  10. 76 FR 68720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Geophysical Survey in the Western... conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the western tropical Pacific Ocean... Science Foundation (NSF), and ``Environmental Assessment of a Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey by the...

  11. Understanding energy efficiency barriers in Ukraine: Insights from a survey of commercial and industrial firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Hochman, Gal; Fedets, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency is an important element of energy policy for a sustainable supply of energy in Ukraine. However, the country is facing several challenges to the large-scale deployment of energy efficient technologies. We conducted a two-stage quota sample survey of 509 commercial and industrial firms of all regions of Ukraine to understand the barriers to energy efficiency improvements. Our study finds that more than two-thirds of the commercial and industrial firms in the country view improvement of energy efficiency very important to their business. However, due to several barriers they are unable to realize the improvements of energy efficiency. Among the 19 potential barriers investigated in the study, the survey results show that high upfront investment requirement, lack of government policies to support energy efficiency improvements, higher cost of capital, and lack of information and awareness are the most critical barriers to the improvement of energy efficiency in the industrial and commercial sectors in Ukraine. - Highlights: • Despite attractiveness, large scale deployment of energy efficiency is lacking. • Several barriers are responsible for slow implementation of energy efficiency. • Understanding the barriers from the field is crucial to design effective policies. • A survey of commercial and industrial firms reveals the key barriers. • Financial barriers are the main hurdles to adopt energy efficient technologies.

  12. Improving the accuracy and reliability of MWD/magnetic-Wellbore-Directional surveying in the barents sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, I.; Nyrnes, E.; Johnsen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    of nonmagnetic steel in the bottomhole assembly (BHA). To maintain azimuth uncertaintyat an acceptable level in northern areas, it is crucial that wellbore-directional-surveying requirements are given high priority and considered early during well planning. During the development phase of an oil and gas field...... magnetic-reference stations. The different land and sea configuration, distant offshore oil and gas fields, higher geomagnetic latitude, and different behavior of the magnetic field require the procedures to be reassessed before being applied to the Barents Sea. To reduce drilling delays, procedures must...... be implemented to enable efficient management of magnetic disturbances.In some areas of the Barents Sea, the management requires new equipment to be developed and tested before drilling, such as seabed magnetometer stations. One simple way to reduce drillstring interference is increasing the amount...

  13. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa; Vogel, Jörg; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Jönsson, Karin

    2018-02-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization. Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and forward osmosis (FO) have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from bench- and pilot-scale experiments applying direct MF and FO, respectively. Additionally, available complementary data from a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant and the literature were used to evaluate the concepts in depth. The results of this study indicate that both concepts are net positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area-efficient manner with techniques that are already commercially available and with future membrane technology.

  14. Nested PCR detection of malaria directly using blood filter paper samples from epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Zhao, Zhenjun; Wang, Ying; Xing, Hua; Parker, Daniel M; Yang, Zhaoqing; Baum, Elizabeth; Li, Wenli; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Li, Shuying; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Fan, Qi

    2014-05-08

    Nested PCR is considered a sensitive and specific method for detecting malaria parasites and is especially useful in epidemiological surveys. However, the preparation of DNA templates for PCR is often time-consuming and costly. A simplified PCR method was developed to directly use a small blood filter paper square (2 × 2 mm) as the DNA template after treatment with saponin. This filter paper-based nested PCR method (FP-PCR) was compared to microscopy and standard nested PCR with DNA extracted by using a Qiagen DNA mini kit from filter paper blood spots of 204 febrile cases. The FP-PCR technique was further applied to evaluate malaria infections in 1,708 participants from cross-sectional epidemiological surveys conducted in Myanmar and Thailand. The FP-PCR method had a detection limit of ~0.2 parasites/μL blood, estimated using cultured Plasmodium falciparum parasites. With 204 field samples, the sensitivity of the FP-PCR method was comparable to that of the standard nested PCR method, which was significantly higher than that of microscopy. Application of the FP-PCR method in large cross-sectional studies conducted in Myanmar and Thailand detected 1.9% (12/638) and 6.2% (66/1,070) asymptomatic Plasmodium infections, respectively, as compared to the detection rates of 1.3% (8/638) and 0.04% (4/1,070) by microscopy. This FP-PCR method was much more sensitive than microscopy in detecting Plasmodium infections. It drastically increased the detection sensitivity of asymptomatic infections in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and Myanmar, suggesting that this FP-PCR method has a potential for future applications in malaria epidemiology studies.

  15. Survey on econometric analysis of oil substitute energy; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the econometric analysis of petroleum substitution energy, a domestic econometric model was developed which can concretely and econometrically grasp and analyze effects of measures taken for environmental policies, energy conservation, promotion of new energy, etc. The model was made so synthetic as to catch a relationship between energy supply/demand and changes of econosocial structures in economic growth, industrial structure, life style, etc. which are extremely important elements for catching future energy demand. The model is composed of a secondary energy price model, a new energy introduction model, and an energy supply/demand model. As case parameters, selected were the price of crude oil, introduction of new energy, GDP and energy conservation, and the following cases were assumed: standard case, high price energy case, new energy introduction promotion case, low economic growth case, energy conservation case, and low energy demand case. The results of simulating each of these cases were indicated. 91 figs., 110 tabs.

  16. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F. Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector–pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  17. Confronting the sound speed of dark energy with future cluster surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hannestad, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that, in combin......Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that......, in combination with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations from Planck, cluster surveys such as that in the ESA Euclid project will be able to determine a time-independent w with subpercent precision. Likewise, if the dark energy sound horizon falls within the length scales probed by the cluster survey......, then c_s^2 can be pinned down to within an order of magnitude. In the course of this work, we also investigate the process of dark energy virialisation in the presence of an arbitrary sound speed. We find that dark energy clustering and virialisation can lead to dark energy contributing to the total...

  18. Japan's energy sector beyond Fukushima. What direction for a sustainable energy future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhoff, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster will create long-term challenges for Japans energy security. Energy shortage is a major threat because all facets of the archipelago's economy and society are dependent upon reliable energy supply. Within this context and based on a historical institutionalist approach, this paper reflects on the long-term implications of the disaster for Japan's post-Fukushima energy policies. It argues that institutional change is incremental and path dependent for four major reasons: the massive costs of a major move to alternative energy sources; the rising importance of emission reduction and climate change mitigation policies; vested interests in the status quo of a centralised large-scale energy supply system; and the massive increase in resource nationalism in East Asia as a result of continuing geopolitical tensions. However, promoting energy efficiency, encouraging energy-saving behaviour and focusing on decentralized renewable energy development could help to reduce Japan's energy vulnerability.

  19. Basic survey report on regional new energy vision for Ehime Prefecture; Ehimeken chiiki shin energy vision kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new energy vision has been formulated to establish guidelines for popularizing and utilizing new energy which generates but a small amount of environmental impact. The results of surveys conducted in this connection are described in five chapters, which cover (1) the trend of new energy, (2) current situation of new energy in Ehime Prefecture, (3) calculation of the existing amount and available amount of new energy, (4) calculation of the introducible amount of new energy, and (5) the basic policy toward the introduction of new energy. Part (4) covers solar energy, wind energy, waste-derived energy, temperature difference energy, minor scale hydroelectric power generation, biomass energy, and like others. It states that a total of 540,000 kl/year will be available in terms of oil, equivalent to approximately 6% of Ehime Prefecture's 1997 energy consumption, and that it is expected that in fiscal 2010 photovoltaic/passive solar energy utilization, cogeneration, and wind power will yield 152,000, 314,000, and 27,000 kl/year respectively. (NEDO)

  20. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  1. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  2. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hamann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes...... vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies...... alone. We consider also the survey's potential to measure dark energy perturbations in models wherein the dark energy is parameterised as a fluid with a nonstandard non-adiabatic sound speed, and find that in an optimistic scenario in which w_0 deviates by as much as is currently observationally allowed...

  3. Ocean dynamic noise energy flux directivity in the 400 Hz to 700 Hz frequency band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir A. Shchurov; Galina F. Ivanova; Marianna V. Kuyanova; Helen S. Tkachenko

    2007-01-01

    Results of field studies of underwater dynamic noise energy flux directivity at two wind speeds, 6 m/s and 12 m/s, in the 400 Hz to 700 Hz frequency band in the deep open ocean are presented. The measurements were made by a freely drifting telemetric combined system at 500 m depth. Statistical characteristics of the horizontal and vertical dynamic noise energy flux directivity are considered as functions of wind speed and direction. Correlation between the horizontal dynamic noise energy flux direction and that of the wind was determined; a mechanism of the horizontal dynamic noise energy flux generation is related to the initial noise field scattering on ocean surface waves.

  4. The shift of energy regulatory powers under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the powers of Member States' national regulatory authorities under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC (OJEU L 176/37) and analyses the implications of framework of Directive 2009/72/EC on the national laws of the Member States, in particular on the Austrian and German constitutional, administrative and energy laws. The Introductory Part gives a historical overview of the development of national energy regulators under European energy legislation. This Part shows that the national regulatory authorities attract increased attention and that their regulatory powers are on a constant rise. In order to understand the huge impact of the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC on the regulatory regimes of the Member States, this Part briefly examines the former and current powers of the national energy regulators under Austrian and German law. Part Two analyses whether the powers conferred upon national energy regulators under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC have been enhanced in comparison to those established under the framework of Directive 2003/54/EC. The main focus lies thereby on the propositions made by the European Commission in its Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/54/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity (COM (2007) 528 final, 2.1) and laid down in Directive 2009/72/EC. Part Two comes to the conclusion that the powers of the national energy regulators under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC have indeed been enhanced in comparison to former regime of Directive 2003/54/EC. Part Three demonstrates that the enhancement of national energy regulators' powers does not benefit the Member States. On the contrary, they lose considerable powers of control over their own national energy regulators. While

  5. Measurements of energy spectra of fast electrons from PF-1000 in the upstream and downstream directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, R.; Czaus, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Zebrowski, J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubes, P. [Czech Technical University (CVUT), 166-27 Prague, (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes measurements of energy spectra of electrons emitted in the upstream direction along the symmetry-axis of the PF-1000 facility, operated with the deuterium filling at 21 kV, 290 kJ. The measurements were performed with a magnetic analyzer. The same analyzer was used to measure also electron beams emitted in along the symmetry-axis in the downstream direction. The recorded spectra showed that the electron-beams emitted in the upstream direction have energies in the range from about 40 keV to about 800 keV, while those in the downstream direction have energies in the range from about 60 keV to about 200 keV. These spectra confirm that in the PF (Plasma Focus) plasma column there appear strong local fields accelerating charged particles in different directions. This document is composed of a paper and a poster. (authors)

  6. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  7. Differences in perception: How the experts look at energy efficiency (findings from a Finnish survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Luoranen, Mika; Ikävalko, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Using energy efficiently is generally considered to be essential for a continuing prosperous future. As a result, improving efficiency has become a focus of attention, and recently a lot of time and effort has been expended to develop new energy efficiency methodologies and technologies. Considering the amount of focused attention, the rate of improvement has not been encouraging. Human behaviour is an important factor of the energy efficiency challenge, and research has revealed several consumer profiles with significantly different perceptions on energy issues. In this study, the focus is not on consumers but on energy efficiency professionals. A number of Finnish energy efficiency professionals from both the private and public sectors were surveyed revealing that experts have decidedly different perceptions regarding energy efficiency. Our analysis of survey results suggests that energy efficiency expertise comes from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds, and that instead of working on common ground, experts with differing perspectives are endeavouring to make progress in a complex and multifaceted arena. Focusing on specific areas in which players need to share a common understanding of terminology and where common and clearly stated goals can be established should result in an acceleration of efficiency improvement results. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency professionals from both private and public sectors were surveyed. • Perceptions of energy efficiency vary, which delays improvement progress. • The educational background and professional affiliation do influence to perceptions. • For energy efficiency progress, target-audience specific guiding actions are needed

  8. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  9. Survey of Beamed Energy Propulsion Concepts by the MSFC Space Environmental Effects Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Edwards, D. L.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This will be a survey paper of work that was performed by the Space Environmental Effects Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in the area of laser energy propulsion concepts. Two types of laser energy propulsion techniques were investigated. The first was ablative propulsion, which used a pulsed ruby laser impacting on single layer coatings and films. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the laser power density that produced an optimum coupling coefficient for each type of material tested. A commercial off-the-shelf multi-layer film was also investigated for possible applications in ablative micro-thrusters, and its optimum coupling coefficient was determined. The second type of study measured the purely photonic force provided by a 300W CW YAG laser. In initial studies, the photon force resulting from the momentum of incident photons was measured directly using a vacuum compatible microbalance and these results were compared to theory. Follow-on work used the same CW laser to excite a stable optical cavity for the purpose of amplifying the available force from incident photons.

  10. Results of a Global Survey on International Biomass Trade for Energy: Opportunities, Risks and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkmans, L.; Van Dael, Miet; Del Campo, I.; Sanchez, D.; Rutz, D.; Janssen, R.; Junginger, M.; Mai-Moulin, T.; Iriarte, L.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Elbersen, B.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Elbersen, W.

    2016-01-01

    European targets set by 2020 in the Climate and Energy package and the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) will require a serious increase in biomass demand for energy purposes. The analysis of the data reported by the Member States in their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) shows that biomass is expected to contribute more than half of the 20% renewable objective of the gross final energy consumption. However the data provided and trade statistics have revealed that the quan...

  11. 2002/03 public opinion survey 'Nuclear Energy - the Present and the Future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Gergeta, K.

    2003-01-01

    During the years 2000 and 2002 the Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network carried out public opinion surveys among student population of around 650 individuals age 18-20. The results of the surveys suggested the necessity of a more active involvement of nuclear experts in high school education. Croatian Young Generation Network decided to prepare brochures on different subjects concerning nuclear energy and distribute them to high school students, primarily third and fourth graders. To be able to evaluate the influence of distributed materials, fresh reference data are needed. Therefore, a traditional public opinion survey 'Nuclear Energy - the Present and the Future' has been carried out among faculty student population. (author)

  12. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only the direct household energy requirement. Our analysis is mainly based on data of expenditures of households and the associated energy intensities of consumer goods. We found that differences between countries in the total energy requirement of households are mainly due to differences in total household expenditure. In particular, the indirect energy requirement is linearly related to the total household expenditure. The share of direct energy to the total energy requirement in different countries varies from 34% up to 64%. Differences in climate do not fully account for this variation. Corrected for total household expenditure, indirect energy requirement may vary significantly per country in the consumption classes 'food, beverages and tobacco', 'recreation and culture', 'housing', and 'hotels, cafes and restaurants'

  13. 78 FR 11140 - BE-605: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States-Transactions of U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... BE-605: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States--Transactions of U.S... conducting the mandatory survey titled BE-605, Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United... quarterly Form BE-605 is required from each U.S. business enterprise in which a foreign entity has a direct...

  14. Direct fed microbial supplementation repartitions host energy to the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, R; Croom, J; Ali, R A; Ballou, A L; Smith, C D; Ashwell, C M; Hassan, H M; Chiang, C-C; Koci, M D

    2012-08-01

    Direct fed microbials and probiotics are used to promote health in livestock and poultry; however, their mechanism of action is still poorly understood. We previously reported that direct fed microbial supplementation in young broilers reduced ileal respiration without changing whole-body energy expenditure. The current studies were conducted to further investigate the effects of a direct fed microbial on energy metabolism in different tissues of broilers. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old broiler chicks (16 chicks/pen) were randomly assigned to 2 dietary groups: standard control starter diet (CSD) and CSD plus direct fed microbial (DFMD; 0.3%) with 6 pens/treatment. Body weight, feed consumption, whole-body energy expenditure, organ mass, tissue respiration rates, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) ATP concentrations were measured to estimate changes in energy metabolism. No differences in whole body energy expenditure or BW gain were observed; however, decreased ileal O(2) respiration (P energy consumption by PBMC corresponded with an altered immune response, broilers were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and assayed for differences in their humoral response. The DFMD-fed broilers had a faster rate of antigen specific IgG production (P direct fed microbial used in this study resulted in energy re-partitioning to the immune system and an increase in antibody production independent of changes in whole body metabolism or growth performance.

  15. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... included the HPBA membership directory, Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI.... Summary of the Proposed Rule II. History of the Energy Conservation Standards Rulemaking and Current... notice. DOE's rationale is presented in further detail immediately below. II. History of the Energy...

  16. The direct health-care burden of valvular heart disease: evidence from US national survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matt Moore,1 Jie Chen,2 Peter J Mallow,3 John A Rizzo4 1Global Health Economic Strategy, Edwards Lifesciences Inc, Irvine, CA, 2Department of Health Services and Administration, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3Health Economics and Outcomes Research, CTI Clinical Trial & Consulting Services Inc, Cincinnati, OH, 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Economics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Purpose: This study quantified the overall effects of aortic valve disease (AVD and mitral valve disease (MVD by disease severity on direct health-care costs to insurers and patients.Materials and methods: Based on 1996–2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS, a large, nationally representative US database, multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between AVD and MVD and direct annual health-care costs to insurers and patients, at individual and US-aggregate levels. Adults aged 18 years and over with diagnosis codes for AVD or MVD based on International Classification of Diseases (ninth revision diagnosis codes were identified. Subjects were further classified as symptomatic AVD, asymptomatic AVD, symptomatic MVD, and asymptomatic MVD. These classifications were determined with clinical assistance and based in part on data availability in the MEPS.Results: The MEPS database included 148 patients with AVD: 53 patients with symptomatic AVD, 95 patients with asymptomatic AVD, and 1,051 with MVD, including 315 patients with symptomatic MVD and 736 patients with asymptomatic MVD. Symptomatic AVD had the largest incremental effect on annual per patient health-care expenditure: $12,789 for symptomatic AVD, $10,816 for asymptomatic AVD, $5,163 for symptomatic MVD, and $1,755 for asymptomatic MVD. When aggregated to the US population, heart-valve disease accounted for an incremental annual cost of $23.4 billion. The largest aggregate annual costs were incurred by patients with symptomatic MVD ($7

  17. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  18. Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey, 1975. Part III. Technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the technical feasibility of nuclear energy centers (NECs) and the comparison between NEC technical feasibility and that of nuclear facilities on dispersed sites are reviewed. The conclusions related to technical feasibility of NEC are summarized. Technical feasibility was found to rest mainly on five major issues: heat dissipation, transmission, facility construction, radiological impact, and environmental impact. Although general conclusions can be reached in these five areas, it is recognized that they are interdependent, and detailed site-by-site analysis will be necessary. Some general conclusions on technical feasibility of NECs are presented, then detailed conclusions derived from the technical evaluation of NECs compared to dispersed site facilities are presented. The findings of this study on each of the five major feasibility issues are then discussed in sequence. The study concludes that nuclear energy centers, as defined herein, are technically feasible

  19. Solar energy utilization in the direct photocarboxylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran using CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela; Baran, Tomasz; Wojtyła, Szymon; Macyk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of CO2 into high energy products (fuels) and the direct carboxylation of C-H bonds require a high energy input. Energy cannot be derived from fossil carbon, in this case. Solar energy can be used instead, with a low environmental impact and good profit. We have studied the use of white light or solar energy in the photoreduction of CO2 and in photocarboxylation reactions, using different semiconductors modified at their surface. Two examples of reduction of CO2 to methanol and CO will be shortly discussed, and two cases of carboxylation of organic substrates. The case of carboxylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran will be discussed in detail.

  20. A Survey on Content Adaptation Systems towards Energy Consumption Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norasri Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of heterogeneous devices has rapidly changed the way people access the World Wide Web that includes rich content applications such as video streaming, 3D games, video conferencing, and mobile TV. However, most of these devices' (i.e., mobile phone, PDA, smartphone, and tablet capabilities differ in terms of built-in software and library (what they can display, display size (how the content appears, and battery supply (how long the content can be displayed. In order for the digital contents to fit the target device, content adaptation is required. There have been many projects focused on energy-aware-based content adaptation that have been designed with different goals and approaches. This paper reviews some of the representative content adaptation solutions that have been proposed during the last few years, in relation to energy consumption focusing on wireless multimedia streaming in mobile devices. Also, this paper categorizes the research work according to different classifications of multimedia content adaptation requirements. In addition, we discuss some energy-related challenges content adaptation systems.

  1. Simulation platform for direct load control of household appliances. Literature survey and G2 implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, J; Vlaheli, A

    1996-10-01

    There is an incentive for the power utilities to look for other ways than building new power stations to satisfy increasing customer power needs. One way to fulfill this demand is by redistributing the available electric power between the different power consumers. This method can successfully be used during high peak hours. The utility is also able to make financial profits selling the redistributed electric power at a higher price to customers with temporary high power demands. Direct Load Control - DLC, a Demand Side Management - DSM tool, is one way to achieve a redistribution of electric power. This masters thesis project consisted in developing a user-friendly simulation platform for domestic appliances combined with an electric power control system to be employed for Direct Load Control. The platform contains the necessary facilities for designing an electrical distribution network model and is implemented in G2, an object-oriented real-time environment. The final application provides an on-line instrument for the utility to control the power consumption over the entire system in terms of dispensing power in an electrical network. The report consists of two main parts. The first part describes a literature survey we systematically compiled to gather literature sources. The second part outlines our design and implementation of the G2 simulation platform for a water-heater model with a Direct Load Control system. The entire simulation platform is designed to allow a flexible change and improvement of the different models. Consequently, our software is a powerful tool for studying a wide range of problems related to a Load Management program involving electrical household loads. 9 refs, 32 figs

  2. Effective Theory of Dark Energy at Redshift Survey Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Mancarella, Michele; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    We explore the phenomenological consequences of general late-time modifications of gravity in the quasi-static approximation, in the case where cold dark matter is non-minimally coupled to the gravitational sector. Assuming spectroscopic and photometric surveys with configuration parameters similar to those of the Euclid mission, we derive constraints on our effective description from three observables: the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space, tomographic weak-lensing shear power spectrum and the correlation spectrum between the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the galaxy distribution. In particular, with $\\Lambda$CDM as fiducial model and a specific choice for the time dependence of our effective functions, we perform a Fisher matrix analysis and find that the unmarginalized $68\\%$ CL errors on the parameters describing the modifications of gravity are of order $\\sigma\\sim10^{-2}$--$10^{-3}$. We also consider two other fiducial models. A nonminimal coupling of CDM enhances the effects of modified gravit...

  3. 78 FR 28005 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... direct transfer of Grand Gulf ESP Site, to a new limited liability company, System Energy Resource, LLC..., LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, will be created, which will be the direct parent company of... Operations, Inc. (EOI), requested on behalf of itself, SERI, and their parent companies (together, the...

  4. Direct Clinical Health Effects of the Consumption of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drink in Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Karin; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    The direct clinical health effects of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) consumption are largely unknown. Using data from a nationwide questionnaire, two groups were compared: adolescents who consumed an energy drink at the event (ED+) and adolescents who did not (ED–). Blood alcohol

  5. Direct evaluation of free energy for large system through structure integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Tanaka, Ryohei; Yuge, Koretaka

    2015-09-30

    We propose a new approach, 'structure integration', enabling direct evaluation of configurational free energy for large systems. The present approach is based on the statistical information of lattice. Through first-principles-based simulation, we find that the present method evaluates configurational free energy accurately in disorder states above critical temperature.

  6. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  7. Periodical public opinion survey on nuclear energy. Inhabitants living in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Tsutida, Shouji; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (Fukushima accident) has brought about a great change in many people's perceptions about nuclear power plant safety. When discussing future energy options for Japan, it is important to have a full grasp of the attitude of a large number of people towards nuclear energy. The Atomic Energy Society of Japan has conducted annual questionnaire survey of 500 adults who live within 30 kilometers of Tokyo Station. The aim of this survey is to assess trends in public attitude towards nuclear energy. The authors that designed the questionnaire entries of this survey have been managing questionnaire data as members of the Data Management Working Group under the Social and Environmental Division of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. We confirmed the change in public attitude towards nuclear energy through this periodical survey after the Fukushima accident. In particular, public concerns about the use of nuclear energy increased after the Fukushima accident, and many people have raised doubts over the use of nuclear energy in the future. (author)

  8. International Energy Agency instrumented facilities survey for solar assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    Compiled are surveys outlining the instrumentation of 38 active and passive solar projects in 9 countries (Denmark, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and West Germany). After the surveys themselves are presented, the data are rearranged to compare answers from similar survey questions for each of the projects. These questions address building, solar system and instrumentation descriptions and meteorological, solar system and building system instrumentatation capabilities. (LEW)

  9. Direct energy rebound effect for road passenger transport in China: A dynamic panel quantile regression approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Hua-Rong; Liu, Zhao; Tan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector appears a main energy consumer in China and plays a significant role in energy conservation. Improving energy efficiency proves an effective way to reduce energy consumption in transport sector, whereas its effectiveness may be affected by the rebound effect. This paper proposes a dynamic panel quantile regression model to estimate the direct energy rebound effect for road passenger transport in the whole country, eastern, central and western China, respectively, based on the data of 30 provinces from 2003 to 2012. The empirical results reveal that, first of all, the direct rebound effect does exist for road passenger transport and on the whole country, the short-term and long-term direct rebound effects are 25.53% and 26.56% on average, respectively. Second, the direct rebound effect for road passenger transport in central and eastern China tends to decrease, increase and then decrease again, whereas that in western China decreases and then increases, with the increasing passenger kilometers. Finally, when implementing energy efficiency policy in road passenger transport sector, the effectiveness of energy conservation in western China proves much better than that in central China overall, while the effectiveness in central China is relatively better than that in eastern China. - Highlights: • The direct rebound effect (RE) for road passenger transport in China is estimated. • The direct RE in the whole country, eastern, central, and western China is analyzed. • The short and long-term direct REs are 25.53% and 26.56% within the sample period. • Western China has better energy-saving performance than central and eastern China.

  10. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Energy saving at petrochemical plant; 1999 nendo sekiyu kagaku kojo no sho energy chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A survey is conducted of energy-saving and greenhouse gas reducing measures in cooperation with the National Petrochemical Public Company Limited (NPC), Thailand. The NPC is the first petrochemical producer in that country and, after 10 years' operation, the largest such producer there. Transfer of energy-saving technologies from Japan will lead to the construction of clean development mechanism (CDM) in the future. The NPC plant surveyed is situated in a Maptaphut industrial complex, and produces ethylene propylene from natural gas and at the same time serves as a utility center to supply electricity and steam to factories and plants in the vicinity. Items examined involve waste heat power generation, power generating gas turbine efficiency improvement, ethylene plant cracking furnace heat retaining capability enhancement, steam pipe heat retaining material renewal, and replacement of obsolete air conditioners with higher-efficiency equipment. After tentative calculation a conclusion is reached that the total of energy-saving effects of the said five items will be 21,900 tons/year in terms of crude oil and that a CO2 reduction will be feasible at a rate of 45,300 tons/year. These figures are larger than the ones predicted before the survey. A total of 354.3 million bahts will have to be invested. Negotiations will continue with attention directed to the progress of NPC's preparedness to accept CDM. (NEDO)

  11. Analysis of energy poverty in the light of the 2013 National Housing Survey (ENL). Energy poverty in the light of the 2013 National Housing Survey - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Charles-Andre; Teissier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the results of the French national housing survey (ENL, Enquete Nationale Logement) of 2013 which gives information on the housing stock and on tenure conditions for households in their primary residence. After a brief presentation of this source and of its limitations, this study aims at characterising households in a situation of energy poverty according to indicators defined by the ONPE (national observatory of energy poverty), and at assessing their dwelling conditions. It also aims at highlighting the different aspects of the phenomenon of energy poverty. Evolutions of indicators are considered on the 1996-2013 period, based on the survey results in 1996, 2002, 2006 and 2013. After a recall of the ONPE indicators, the authors discuss statistic results related to these indicators, try to assess the severity of the energy poverty phenomenon, and the impact of the 'energy check'. Social-economic characteristics of households are presented in a table and discussed, as well as housing characteristics, the case of social housing, some behavioural characteristics of households, financial supports for works and works performed by occupying owners. The next part comments evolutions of indicators, their continuities and deviations, by examining their sensitivity to energy prices, and their evolution in time. A synthesis of results is proposed and lessons learned are finally discussed. Appendices address various issues (factors influencing a statement of the cold, methodologies of calculation of indicators), and propose additional results, and values of indicators in time

  12. Assembly for the measurement of the most probable energy of directed electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a setup for the measurement of the most probable energy of directed electron radiation up to 50 MeV. The known energy-range relationship with regard to the absorption of electron radiation in matter is utilized by an absorber with two groups of interconnected radiation detectors embedded in it. The most probable electron beam energy is derived from the quotient of both groups' signals

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs

  14. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical-biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical-biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3-9.5%, 1-18% and 1-8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full

  15. Survey of the actual energy consumption in the commercial/residential sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted of the actual energy consumption in the business sector (schools, hotels/inns, hospitals, and other service business) in fiscal 1996, and was put together with the survey conducted in the past in order to clarify the structure and trend of energy consumption in the commercial/residential sector. The survey was aimed at making basic data for the development/introduction of the petroleum substituting energy including future new energy. The consumption unit requirement of a school total was 84.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, that of a hotel/inn total was 455.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, and that of a hospital total was 400.2 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year. The energy consumption for business use was summarized. The consumption unit requirement of restaurants was the largest, 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, and that of schools was the smallest. In office building business and wholesale/retailing business, electricity is largely used mostly for illumination, power, etc. In restaurants, gas is largely used mostly for its own use including cooking. In schools, energy use for space heating was the largest, but was almost the same as that in office buildings in terms of the amount. 179 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. User-needs study for the 1993 residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-24

    During 1992, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducted a user-needs study for the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Every 3 years, the RECS collects information on energy consumption and expenditures for various classes of households and residential buildings. The RECS is the only source of such information within EIA, and one of only a few sources of such information anywhere. EIA sent letters to more than 750 persons, received responses from 56, and held 15 meetings with users. Written responses were also solicited by notices published in the April 14, 1992 Federal Register and in several energy-related publications. To ensure that the 1993 RECS meets current information needs, EIA made a specific effort to get input from policy makers and persons needing data for forecasting efforts. These particular needs relate mainly to development of the National Energy Modeling System and new energy legislation being considered at the time of the user needs survey.

  17. Challenge of the energy in Lebanon: Analysis and synthesis of the survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    The article is a survey conducted by the students of the ESIB Saint Joseph University within the ministry of Industry and petroleum, ministry of Hydraulic and Electrical resources and the Central Administration of statistics in Lebanon. The survey presents the primary and secondary energy, its sectorial production and consumption. Tables and figures describe the essential socio-economic indicators of energy, primary and secondary consumption of energy in 1995. Sectorial distribution of final energy in 1995 per habitant, imported products and varieties as gasoline, gasoil, fuel oil etc....Charts for imported petroleum products, percentage of electric production between hydraulic and thermal energy are also included. Tarification of the EDL, prices of electricity per consumer and estimation of EDL of electricity per GWH are also described. Combustion of energy in Lebanon is a main source of air pollution by emitting substances as follows: 15 Ktonnes of dust, 80 Kt of SO 2 and 40 Kt of CO 2 per year

  18. Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Tang, J.

    2015-01-01

    This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined

  19. Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Tang, J., E-mail: jtang@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined.

  20. Market survey of the state of affairs in the Dutch energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this market survey: to get insight in the knowledge, perception and behavior of consumers in relation to the energy market; to offer insight in developments in aforementioned aspects; to get insight in the effectiveness of the actions of the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation. Derived purposes/functions of the research include: an own measuring instrument for the Office of Energy Regulation, which makes them less dependent on other parties for obtaining data on the energy market; enabling periodical contact with the consumer and sounding out the mood on the energy market. The target can be translated into the following research questions: To what extent are consumers informed about the energy market, or to what extent do they know how to access relevant information?; To what extent is the energy market transparent in the eyes of the consumer?; How much confidence do consumers have in the energy market?; How do people judge the service provision of the energy companies?. [nl

  1. Federal Office of Energy Research program: Survey on Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, M.

    2012-01-01

    Marcos Buser presented the state of the art on markers by means of a literature survey; the study has synthesized the knowledge on markers, identified gaps and contradictions in the marker programs and addressed research areas that have been covered in the past. The boundary conditions for the study were that it would take a very broad inter- and trans- disciplinary approach that incorporates results and evidences. Questions related to knowledge transfer and long-term societal issues show important gaps of knowledge, particularly regarding message transmission. The transmission process is strongly dependent on contextual understanding, and better understanding of such contextual changes is necessary for better encoding. The general findings of the survey are: - Need of synthesis has been confirmed; - Contradictions in the goals of marker strategies must be identified; - Entirety: although questions of technical nature or relating to the natural sciences are easier than societal questions, all processes must be analyzed from a inter- and trans-disciplinary point of view, and not from specific perspectives; - The importance of social sciences is greatly underestimated. The specific findings are: - Research on intrusion motivation is crucial for the design of marker programs (as well as for the configuration of a repository); - System development has to be understood, not just the development of single elements; - Findings in semiotic sciences, message transmission and misinterpretation and misuse are decisive. In the discussion, the question was raised whether the repository itself may acts as a marker, for instance because of the fact that all advanced drills apparently have a radiation detector, or, additionally, by adding symbols on the walls of the shafts. Buser underlined that knowledge transfer and long-term societal issues raises a series of questions related to stability of societies, stability of social structures, evolution of laws and regulations, transfer

  2. Flexible and multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvester for self-powered human motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ook; Pyo, Soonjae; Oh, Yongkeun; Kang, Yunsung; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-03-01

    A flexible piezoelectric strain energy harvester that is responsive to multi-directional input forces produced by various human motions is proposed. The structure of the harvester, which includes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bump, facilitates the effective conversion of strain energy, produced by input forces applied in random directions, into electrical energy. The structural design of the PDMS bump and frame as well as the slits in the piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film provide mechanical flexibility and enhance the strain induced in the PVDF film under input forces applied at various angles. The amount and direction of the strain induced in PVDF can be changed by the direction of the applied force; thus, the generated output power can be varied. The measured maximum output peak voltage is 1.75, 1.29, and 0.98 V when an input force of 4 N (2 Hz) is applied at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and the corresponding maximum output power is 0.064, 0.026, and 0.02 μW, respectively. Moreover, the harvester stably generates output voltage over 1.4 × 104 cycles. Thus, the proposed harvester successfully identifies and converts strain energy produced by multi-directional input forces by various human motions into electrical energy. We demonstrate the potential utility of the proposed flexible energy harvester as a self-powered human motion sensor for wireless healthcare systems.

  3. Direct observation and theory of trajectory-dependent electronic energy losses in medium-energy ion scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, A; Parkinson, G S; Quinn, P D; Muñoz-Márquez, M A; Woodruff, D P; Grande, P L; Schiwietz, G; Bailey, P; Noakes, T C Q

    2009-03-06

    The energy spectrum associated with scattering of 100 keV H+ ions from the outermost few atomic layers of Cu(111) in different scattering geometries provides direct evidence of trajectory-dependent electronic energy loss. Theoretical simulations, combining standard Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic scattering trajectories with coupled-channel calculations to describe inner-shell ionization and excitation as a function of impact parameter, reproduce the effects well and provide a means for far more complete analysis of medium-energy ion scattering data.

  4. Portable Wind Energy Harvesters for Low-Power Applications: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedfakhreddin Nabavi; Lihong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting has become an increasingly important topic thanks to the advantages in renewability and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive study on contemporary portable wind energy harvesters has been conducted. The electrical power generation methods of portable wind energy harvesters are surveyed in three major groups, piezoelectric-, electromagnetic-, and electrostatic-based generators. The paper also takes another view of this area by gauging the required mechan...

  5. Fiscal 1999 survey report on long-term energy technological strategies and the like. Long-term energy technological strategy survey (Medium-term energy technological strategy survey); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa (chuki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Energy strategies to be implemented under the New Sunshine Program by around 2010 have been compiled, with nation's industrial technological strategies, long-term energy outlook, and the like taken into consideration. The present survey aims to work out medium-term energy technological strategies. In Chapter 2, by conducting studies on the state of energy strategies in the national industry technological strategies as primarily compiled, long-term energy supply and demand outlook, and the history so far of the New Sunshine Program, and social conditions surrounding energy/environmental technologies and energy conditions are arranged in order and then analyzed with a view to deriving social needs. In Chapter 3, in view of the derived social needs, medium-term energy technological strategies are broken down into strategic target details, based on the important regions and major and minor strategic targets of the national industry technological strategies. In Chapter 4, medium-term energy technological strategies are worked out. In Chapter 5, 'basic ideas,' 'measures for promoting technology development,' 'return of the fruits to society' are mentioned as the methods of realizing the strategies. In Chapter 6, surveys and researches are summarized, and future development is predicted. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1999 survey report on long-term energy technological strategies and the like. Long-term energy technological strategy survey (Medium-term energy technological strategy survey); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa (chuki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Energy strategies to be implemented under the New Sunshine Program by around 2010 have been compiled, with nation's industrial technological strategies, long-term energy outlook, and the like taken into consideration. The present survey aims to work out medium-term energy technological strategies. In Chapter 2, by conducting studies on the state of energy strategies in the national industry technological strategies as primarily compiled, long-term energy supply and demand outlook, and the history so far of the New Sunshine Program, and social conditions surrounding energy/environmental technologies and energy conditions are arranged in order and then analyzed with a view to deriving social needs. In Chapter 3, in view of the derived social needs, medium-term energy technological strategies are broken down into strategic target details, based on the important regions and major and minor strategic targets of the national industry technological strategies. In Chapter 4, medium-term energy technological strategies are worked out. In Chapter 5, 'basic ideas,' 'measures for promoting technology development,' 'return of the fruits to society' are mentioned as the methods of realizing the strategies. In Chapter 6, surveys and researches are summarized, and future development is predicted. (NEDO)

  7. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  8. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  9. Nuclear energy national plan. The directions for nuclear energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Nuclear energy is a key attaining an integrated solution for energy security and global warming issues. Under the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy Japan aims to (1) maintain the 30 to 40% or more share of nuclear energy on electricity generation up to 2030 and afterwards, (2) promote the nuclear fuel cycle and (3) commercialize the fast-breeder reactors. As for policies to realize the basic targets, the 'Nuclear Energy National Plan' was compiled in August 2006 as follows: (1) Investment to construct new nuclear power plants and replace existing reactors in an era of electric power liberalization, 2) Appropriate use of existing nuclear power plants with assuring safety as a key prerequisite, (3) Steady advancement of the nuclear fuel cycle and strategic reinforcement of nuclear fuel cycle industries, (4) Strategy to secure uranium supplied, (5) Early commercialization of the fast breeder reactor cycle, (6) Achieving and developing advanced, technologies, industries and personnel, (7) Assisting the Japanese nuclear industry in promoting the international development, (8) Involved in and/or creating international frameworks to uphold both nonproliferation and expansion of nuclear power generation, (9) Fostering trust between the sates and communities where plants are located by making public hearings and public relations highly detailed and (10) Steady promotion of measures for disposal of radioactive wastes. Implementation policies were presented in details in this book with relevant data and documents. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Basic survey project for Joint Implementation, etc., fiscal 1999. Survey of modernization of energy saving equipment at Southern Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a project was studied for the modernization of energy saving facilities at Southern Steel Co., Ltd. which is No. 2 iron/steel maker in Malaysia. Studies were made on scrap preheating equipment for electric furnace, direct hot charge rolling equipment (DHCR), and regenerative burner for billet heating furnace. The scrap preheating equipment recovers energy from the electric furnace exhaust gas, which saves energy of 70 kWh/t. The direct hot charge rolling equipment recovers the sensible heat of billets, of which energy saving of about 80 Mcal/t is expected. The generative burner, in which the ceramic heat exchanger is used, improves the heat recovery from exhaust gas by 20%. By adopting these technologies, an effect of energy saving of a total of 325 Mcal/t can be obtained. If the four major iron/steel making plants in Malaysia adopt the technologies, effects can be obtained of energy conservation of approximately 100,000 toe/y and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions by approximately 320,000 t-CO2/y. (NEDO)

  11. Directing energy transport in organic photovoltaic cells using interfacial exciton gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S Matthew; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-04-28

    Exciton transport in organic semiconductors is a critical, mediating process in many optoelectronic devices. Often, the diffusive and subdiffusive nature of excitons in these systems can limit device performance, motivating the development of strategies to direct exciton transport. In this work, directed exciton transport is achieved with the incorporation of exciton permeable interfaces. These interfaces introduce a symmetry-breaking imbalance in exciton energy transfer, leading to directed motion. Despite their obvious utility for enhanced exciton harvesting in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), the emergent properties of these interfaces are as yet uncharacterized. Here, directed exciton transport is conclusively demonstrated in both dilute donor and energy-cascade OPVs where judicious optimization of the interface allows exciton transport to the donor-acceptor heterojunction to occur considerably faster than when relying on simple diffusion. Generalized systems incorporating multiple exciton permeable interfaces are also explored, demonstrating the ability to further harness this phenomenon and expeditiously direct exciton motion, overcoming the diffusive limit.

  12. Direct observation of multistep energy transfer in LHCII with fifth-order 3D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Lambrev, Petar H; Wells, Kym L; Garab, Győző; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-07-31

    During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes in photosynthetic systems.

  13. Priority directions of the improvement of energy management at the enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakova, Galina; Izmaylova, Svetlana; Mottaeva, Angela; Karanina, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The relevance of article is caused by the fact that at the industrial enterprises pay little attention to the matters of energy saving or to the management of energy efficiency. The authors of the article defined that the potential of the increase in energy efficiency as well as the improvement of quality of strategic management at the enterprise, is connected with investment into the human capital. For the improvement of system of energy management, the key indicators of energy efficiency at the individual level are defined, the algorithm of the development of key indicators by means of which the energy efficiency of the human capital will be measured is developed, actions for support to the developed transitional strategy of power management are offered, positive results of formation of the human capital directed to increase in energy efficiency are designated.

  14. Optimizing Spectroscopic and Photometric Galaxy Surveys: Same-Sky Benefits for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Donnacha [University Coll. London; Lahav, Ofer [University Coll. London; Bridle, Sarah [Manchester U.; Jouvel, Stephanie [Barcelona, IEEC; Abdalla, Filipe B. [University Coll. London; Frieman, Joshua A. [Chicago U., KICP

    2015-08-21

    The combination of multiple cosmological probes can produce measurements of cosmological parameters much more stringent than those possible with any individual probe. We examine the combination of two highly correlated probes of late-time structure growth: (i) weak gravitational lensing from a survey with photometric redshifts and (ii) galaxy clustering and redshift space distortions from a survey with spectroscopic redshifts. We choose generic survey designs so that our results are applicable to a range of current and future photometric redshift (e.g. KiDS, DES, HSC, Euclid) and spectroscopic redshift (e.g. DESI, 4MOST, Sumire) surveys. Combining the surveys greatly improves their power to measure both dark energy and modified gravity. An independent, non-overlapping combination sees a dark energy figure of merit more than 4 times larger than that produced by either survey alone. The powerful synergies between the surveys are strongest for modified gravity, where their constraints are orthogonal, producing a non-overlapping joint figure of merit nearly 2 orders of magnitude larger than either alone. Our projected angular power spectrum formalism makes it easy to model the cross-correlation observable when the surveys overlap on the sky, producing a joint data vector and full covariance matrix. We calculate a same-sky improvement factor, from the inclusion of these cross-correlations, relative to non-overlapping surveys. We find nearly a factor of 4 for dark energy and more than a factor of 2 for modified gravity. The exact forecast figures of merit and same-sky benefits can be radically affected by a range of forecasts assumption, which we explore methodically in a sensitivity analysis. We show that that our fiducial assumptions produce robust results which give a good average picture of the science return from combining photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  15. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Pdensity recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density density density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Future directions for nuclear energy policy according to the changing circumstances surrounding energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ki

    2007-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of energy resources throughout the world has increased in geometrical progression, depleting the reserves of the fossil fuels including petroleum. It is predicted that the known reserves of the petroleum and the natural gas will be exhausted within 40 and 60 years, respectively. Massive consumption of energy resources has aggravated the quality of air and water, with the result that environmental pollution of the world has reached a critical stage Emission of green house gases such as carbon dioxide has caused global warming and climate change, endangering the sustainability of the life. Mainland China and East Asian countries pursuing rapid economic growth are expected to confront a shortage of energy in the near future, leading them to face difficulties in achieving expected economic growth

  17. The contribution of direct energy use for livestock breeding to the greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kythreotou, Nicoletta; Tassou, Savvas A.; Florides, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the estimation of the contribution of direct energy use to the greenhouse gases emissions of cattle, pig and poultry breeding in Cyprus. The energy consumption was estimated using the factors of 2034 MJ/cow, 2182 MJ/sow and 0.002797 MJ/bird. The greenhouse gases emissions for each animal species and energy source were estimated using emission factor of each greenhouse gas according to fuel type as proposed by the IPCC 2006 guidelines and for electricity according to national verified data from the Electricity Authority of Cyprus. Livestock breeding in Cyprus consumes electricity, diesel oil and LPG. The results obtained, show that the emissions from energy use in livestock breeding contribute 16% to the total agricultural energy emissions. Agricultural energy emissions contribute 0.7% to the total energy greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The three species of animal considered contribute 3% to their total livestock breeding emissions when compared with enteric fermentation and manure management, of which 2.6% is CO 2 . These results agree with the findings in available literature. The contribution of direct energy use in the greenhouse gases emissions of livestock breeding could be further examined with the influence of anaerobic digestion to the emissions. -- Highlights: → Energy use contribution to greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus livestock breeding. → Energy consumption estimated using 2.034 GJ/ cow, 2.182 GJ/ sow and 2.797 kJ/ bird. →Energy use in livestock breeding found to be 16% of agriculture energy emissions. → Energy use found to be 3% of total livestock breeding emissions. → 87% of the energy emissions is CO 2 .

  18. Costs of endometriosis in Austria: a survey of direct and indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prast, Johanna; Oppelt, Peter; Shamiyeh, Andreas; Shebl, Omar; Brandes, Iris; Haas, Dietmar

    2013-09-01

    The literature includes a wealth of medical data on endometriosis, but the economic significance of the condition has so far been neglected. An analysis of hospital costs for endometriosis in Austria was, therefore, carried out for economic purposes. Seventy-three patients with endometriosis were included in the study. A bottom-up approach was used to collect data on the average hospital costs of an endometriosis patient over a time period of 1 year. In addition, a prevalence approach was used that allows subsequent estimation of the total costs of endometriosis for the health-care system in Austria for that period. Retrospective questionnaire survey was conducted. The average annual costs of one case of endometriosis are 7,712, with 5,605.55 attributable to direct costs and 2,106.34 to indirect costs. This indicates an overall economic burden of 328 million. In-patient care (45 %) and loss of productivity (27 %) were identified as the major cost factors. The patients themselves pay for 13 % of the costs (through out-of-pocket payments). This study impressively demonstrates the financial burden on the economy and on each individually affected patient caused by the disease of endometriosis. The massive consumption of resources represents a high level of usage of the medical services provided. The question arises as to whether more timely diagnosis, followed by better-targeted treatment, might have the potential to reduce these costs. The overall economic burden of endometriosis in Austria is currently comparable with that of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Advanced directions of peaceful applications of nuclear energy in the Republic of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Application of nuclear energy is actual during last years due to depletion of organic sources of row materials. Therefore, each country develops the programs on peaceful application of nuclear energy and using alternative as well as other energy sources on the basis of the analysis of fuel-energy balance and energy demand state. The Republic of Azerbaijan has huge hydrocarbon resources and alternative energy sources. However, taking into account the fact that hydrocarbon resources can cover increasing energy demand at maximum 50-60 years and renewable energy sources can not meet large energy demand during near future then the discovering of advanced ways on peaceful application of nuclear energy is of great importance. Since the seventies of the twentieth century, wide spectrum of scientific researches on the discovering advanced ways on peaceful application of nuclear energy are carried out in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Among them it is necessary to mark the following directions: radiation modification of the properties of polymers, absorbents, catalysts, metals and alloys, semiconductors, dielectrics, ferroelectrics and various devices; radiation oil-chemistry processes; radiation polymerization; radiation-heterogeneous processes; atomic-hydrogen energy; scientific problems of radiation safety and nuclear security; discovering possibilities for using radiation technologies in the solution of environmental problems; radiation sciences of materials and radiation physics; radiation biology and medicine; application of isotope sources in medicine; application of isotope in oil-gas industry; application of isotope sources in radiography and different fields of technique

  20. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  1. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) customer satisfaction survey, 1997. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    the EREN Customer Satisfaction Survey 1997 was designed to follow up the results of the 1995-96 Surveys, enabling comparison to the 1995- 96 baseline, and to provide additional qualitative feedback about EREN. Both the 1995-96 and 1997 Surveys had these objectives: Identify and define actual EREN users; Determine the value or benefits derived from the use of EREN; Determine the kind and quality of services that users want; Determine the users` levels of satisfaction with existing services; Determine users` preferences in both the sources of service and means of delivery; and Establish continuous quality improvement measures. This report presents the methodology used, scope and limitations of the study, description of the survey instrument, and findings regarding demographics, technical capabilities, usage patterns, general use, importance of and satisfaction with resources, and additional information and comments.

  2. Petroleum substitution energy measuring analysis survey; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For analytical evaluation of effects of environmental protection measures, energy conservation measures, new energy promotion measures, etc., a very-long term energy supply/demand model was developed and used for a simulational study. The model is composed of the models of macro economics, secondary energy prices, new energy introduction, and energy supply/demand. The feature is that the amount of new energy introduction is measuringly analyzed based on the cost and market scale, and integratedly estimated in a frame of energy supply/demand of the whole Japan. As a result of the simulation, energy source as of 2030 is composed of coal (17%), oil (44%) and nuclear power (15%) in the case of the economic growth as viewed optimistically. Contrarily, in the case of it as viewed pesimistically, energy source is composed of coal (11%), oil (40%) and nuclear power (22%). CO2 emission is -12.4% in the case of the new energy promotion than in the standard case. 7 refs., 79 figs., 107 tabs.

  3. Weak lensing magnification in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Suchyta, E.; Huff, E. M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Aleksić, J.; Ponce, R.; Castander, F. J.; Hoyle, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of weak lensing magnification on galaxy number counts is studied by cross-correlating the positions of two galaxy samples, separated by redshift, using the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data set. This analysis is carried out for galaxies that are selected only by its photometric redshift. An extensive analysis of the systematic effects, using new methods based on simulations is performed, including a Monte Carlo sampling of the selection function of the survey.

  4. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Characterization of the Coldest Directly Imaged Exoplanet, GJ 504 b, and Evidence for Superstellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Apai, Dániel; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin R.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Freedman, Richard; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Lupu, Roxana; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R.; Marley, Mark; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Stone, Jordan; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Visscher, Channon; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ˜500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (˜1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (˜130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: Teff = 544 ± 10 K, g Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrophisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  5. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Syed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  6. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  7. Foreign Direct Investment and Energy Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghali, Siddig

    Middle East and North Africa countries have been criticized for failing to utilize foreign direct investment energy resources efficiently. The changing of energy resources environment of the past decades with its growing emphasis on the importance of imminent energy supply challenges require strategists to consider different types of energy resources investment to improve energy supply. One type of energy investment will show effectiveness and efficiency in utilizing foreign direct investment in exposing RE, fossil fuels, natural gas, and reducing CO2 emissions. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to utilize foreign direct investment to predict total primary energy supply in the Middle East and North Africa region between 1971 and 2013. The study was conducted using a sample size of 43 years of energy supply resources and foreign direct investment from 1971 to 2013, which includes all of the years for which FDI is available. RE potential may equip Middle East and North Africa countries with sustainable and clean electricity for centuries to come, as non-renewable energy resources may not meet the demands globally and domestically or environmentally. As demands for fossil fuels grow, carbon emissions will increase. RE may be a better option of CO 2 emissions sequestration and will increase electricity to rural areas without government subsidies and complex decision-making policies. RE infrastructure will reduce water desalinization costs, cooling systems, and be useful in heating. Establishing concentrated solar power may be useful for the region cooperation, negotiations, and integration to share this energy. The alternative sought to fossil fuels was nuclear power. However, nuclear power depends on depleting, non-renewable uranium resources. The cost of uranium will increase if widely used and the presence of a nuclear plant in an unstable region is unsafe. Thus, renewable energy as a long-term option is efficient. A nonlinear regression

  8. Survey on the awareness of Czechoslovak students on energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Jaroslav

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Information Centre in Prague took part in the international project surveying the knowledge and opinion of secondary school students. The survey was performed on the initiative of the Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization (JAERO). It took place in June 1992 simultaneously in seven countries: Japan, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Czechoslovakia. The survey was aimed at finding out the level of acquaintance of secondary school students with issues of the environment, and at determining the attitude of the young to nuclear power. In Czechoslovakia 1030 students aged between 15 and 18 took part in the survey. The questionnaire contained 17 basic questions and a number of more detailed questions. Because of the amount of evaluated answers not all results are given here. The complete evaluation of the survey was handed over to JAERO

  9. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: cross-correlation redshifts - methods and systematics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Vielzeuf, P.; Davis, C.; Cawthon, R.; Rau, M. M.; DeRose, J.; De Vicente, J.; Alarcon, A.; Rozo, E.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hoyle, B.; Miquel, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Roodman, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Möller, A.; O'Neill, C. R.; Sommer, N. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoormann, J. K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.

    2018-06-01

    We use numerical simulations to characterize the performance of a clustering-based method to calibrate photometric redshift biases. In particular, we cross-correlate the weak lensing source galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample with redMaGiC galaxies (luminous red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts) to estimate the redshift distribution of the former sample. The recovered redshift distributions are used to calibrate the photometric redshift bias of standard photo-z methods applied to the same source galaxy sample. We apply the method to two photo-z codes run in our simulated data: Bayesian Photometric Redshift and Directional Neighbourhood Fitting. We characterize the systematic uncertainties of our calibration procedure, and find that these systematic uncertainties dominate our error budget. The dominant systematics are due to our assumption of unevolving bias and clustering across each redshift bin, and to differences between the shapes of the redshift distributions derived by clustering versus photo-zs. The systematic uncertainty in the mean redshift bias of the source galaxy sample is Δz ≲ 0.02, though the precise value depends on the redshift bin under consideration. We discuss possible ways to mitigate the impact of our dominant systematics in future analyses.

  10. Quasar Accretion Disk Sizes With Continuum Reverberation Mapping From the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudd, D.; et al.

    2017-11-30

    We present accretion disk size measurements for 15 luminous quasars at $0.7 \\leq z \\leq 1.9$ derived from $griz$ light curves from the Dark Energy Survey. We measure the disk sizes with continuum reverberation mapping using two methods, both of which are derived from the expectation that accretion disks have a radial temperature gradient and the continuum emission at a given radius is well-described by a single blackbody. In the first method we measure the relative lags between the multiband light curves, which provides the relative time lag between shorter and longer wavelength variations. The second method fits the model parameters for the canonical Shakura-Sunyaev thin disk directly rather than solving for the individual time lags between the light curves. Our measurements demonstrate good agreement with the sizes predicted by this model for accretion rates between 0.3-1 times the Eddington rate. These results are also in reasonable agreement with disk size measurements from gravitational microlensing studies of strongly lensed quasars, as well as other photometric reverberation mapping results.

  11. Direct measurement of the free energy of aging hard sphere colloidal glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Rojman; Nienhuis, Bernard; Schall, Peter; Bonn, Daniel

    2013-06-21

    The nature of the glass transition is one of the most important unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. The difference between glasses and liquids is believed to be caused by very large free energy barriers for particle rearrangements; however, so far it has not been possible to confirm this experimentally. We provide the first quantitative determination of the free energy for an aging hard sphere colloidal glass. The determination of the free energy allows for a number of new insights in the glass transition, notably the quantification of the strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the free energy. A study of the local minima of the free energy reveals that the observed variations are directly related to the rearrangements of the particles. Our main finding is that the probability of particle rearrangements shows a power law dependence on the free energy changes associated with the rearrangements similar to the Gutenberg-Richter law in seismology.

  12. Survey of strategies for low-energy buildings in EU countries; Kortlaegning af strategier for lavenergibyggeri i EU lande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The overall objective of this task is to identify and analyze several European countries' approaches to regulate energy efficiency in new buildings. In addition, the study maps the initiatives established in relation to introduce voluntary low energy mechanisms at national level. As part of this work it has been a major goal to explore how individual countries are preparing the introduction of a ''nearly zero'' energy framework. The introduction of a ''nearly zero'' framework has been invoked via the new revised Building Directive (2010/31/EU) which requires that all new buildings are ''Nearly Zero'' by 31 December 2020, however, new public buildings must meet ''nearly zero'' requirement already by 31. December 2018. Finally, the survey also includes an examination of national and political conditions and current legislation on energy consumption in buildings. The countries in the survey are: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Britain, France, Switzerland and to a limited extent Ireland and Poland. The comparative analysis of the countries' efforts is presented in the main part of the report, and the individual country reports are presented in appendices. (LN)

  13. Cloud computing for energy management in smart grid - an application survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen, P; Ing, Wong Kiing; Danquah, Michael Kobina; Sidhu, Amandeep S; Abu-Siada, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The smart grid is the emerging energy system wherein the application of information technology, tools and techniques that make the grid run more efficiently. It possesses demand response capacity to help balance electrical consumption with supply. The challenges and opportunities of emerging and future smart grids can be addressed by cloud computing. To focus on these requirements, we provide an in-depth survey on different cloud computing applications for energy management in the smart grid architecture. In this survey, we present an outline of the current state of research on smart grid development. We also propose a model of cloud based economic power dispatch for smart grid. (paper)

  14. Feasibility of Traveling Wave Direct Energy Conversion of Fission Reaction Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; George, J. A.; Miley, G. H.; Scott, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fission fragment direct energy conversion has been considered in the past for the purpose of increasing nuclear power plant efficiency and for advanced space propulsion. Since the fragments carry electric charge (typically in the order of 20 e) and have 100 MeV-range kinetic energy, techniques utilizing very high-voltage DC electrodes have been considered. This study is focused on a different approach: the kinetic energy of the charged fission fragments is converted into alternating current by means of a traveling wave coupling scheme (Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter, TWDEC), thereby not requiring the utilization of high voltage technology. A preliminary feasibility analysis of the concept is introduced based on a conceptual level study and on a particle simulation model of the beam dynamics.

  15. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  16. The influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the directionally solidified structures in hypermonotectic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. B.; Curreri, P. A.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Various Cu-Pb-Al alloys were directionally solidified under 1-g conditions and alternating high-g/low-g conditions (achieved using NSAS's KC-135 aircraft) as a means of studying the influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the resulting microstructures. Directional solidification of low Al content alloys was found to result in samples with coarser more irregular microstructures than in alloys with high Al contents under all the gravity conditions considered. Structures are correlated with interfacial energies, growth rates, and gravitational levels.

  17. Proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The amended ''Directives concerning common rules for the internal markets in electricity and natural gas'', adopted in June 2003, organizes the future framework of electricity and gas, making all European consumers eligible, from 2004 onwards and at the latest by 2007 for the domestic sector, as well as integrating some components related to general interest services. Energie-Cites gives in this document its opinion and its expectations concerning this proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  18. Nonlinear Effects in Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Shields for Counter Directed Energy Weapon Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    employs the in- variance of the Maxwell equations under coordinate transformations to convert the free- space wave solutions in a coordinate... ENERGY WEAPON DEFENSE by Jacob D. Thompson June 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: James Luscombe Brett Borden Approved for public release; distribution is...2014 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN TRANSFORMATION OPTICS-BASED METAMATE- RIAL SHIELDS FOR COUNTER DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPON

  19. Efficiency calculations for the direct energy conversion system of the Cadarache neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype energy conversion system is presently in operation at Cadarache, France. Such a device is planned for installation on each six neutral beam injectors for use in the Tore Supra experiment in 1989. We present calculations of beam performance that may influence design considerations. The calculations are performed with the DART charged particle beam code. We investigate the effects of cold plasma, direct energy conversion and neutral beam production. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Syntrophic growth with direct interspecies electron transfer as the primary mechanism for energy exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Aklujkar, Muktak

    2013-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) through biological electrical connections is an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer as a mechanism for electron exchange in syntrophic cultures. However, it has not previously been determined whether electrons received via DIET yield energy...... dehydrogenase, the pilus-associated c-type cytochrome OmcS and pili consistent with electron transfer via DIET. These results suggest that electrons transferred via DIET can serve as the sole energy source to support anaerobic respiration....