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  1. OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: first-year operation and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fang; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Childress, M.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, D.; Castander, F. J.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Diehl, H. T.; Cunha, C. E.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Glazebrook, K.; Gschwend, J.; Hinton, S.; Jouvel, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A. G.; King, A. L.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lewis, G. F.; Lin, H.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Mould, J.; Nichol, R. C.; Norris, R. P.; O' Neill, C. R.; Ostrovski, F.; Papadopoulos, A.; Parkinson, D.; Reed, S.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Scalzo, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Scolnic, D.; Seymour, N.; Sharp, R.; Sobreira, F.; Sullivan, M.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Wilcox, H.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T.; Allam, S.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-L?vy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Covarrubias, R.; Crocce, M.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Walker, A. R.

    2015-07-29

    We present results for the first three years of OzDES, a six-year program to obtain redshifts for objects in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields using the 2dF fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. OzDES is a multi-object spectroscopic survey targeting multiple types of targets at multiple epochs over a multi-year baseline, and is one of the first multi-object spectroscopic surveys to dynamically include transients into the target list soon after their discovery. At the end of three years, OzDES has spectroscopically confirmed almost 100 supernovae, and has measured redshifts for 17,000 objects, including the redshifts of 2,566 supernova hosts. We examine how our ability to measure redshifts for targets of various types depends on signal-to-noise, magnitude, and exposure time, finding that our redshift success rate increases significantly at a signal-to-noise of 2 to 3 per 1-A° ngstrom bin. We also find that the change in signal-to-noise with exposure time closely matches the Poisson limit for stacked exposures as long as 10 hours.We use these results to predict the redshift yield of the full OzDES survey, as well as the potential yields of future surveys on other facilities such as 4MOST, PFS, and MSE. This work marks the first OzDES data release, comprising 15,327 redshifts. OzDES is on target to obtain over 30,000 redshifts over the six-year duration of the survey, including a yield of approximately 5,700 supernova host-galaxy redshifts.

  2. Awareness of households to the development of wind energy sites - Reporting on a survey; Receptivite des menages au developpement des sites eoliens. Rapport d'enquete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, M

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents in tables and diagrams the results of a survey involving 421 households in Switzerland, about their awareness to energy issues and, in particular, to all what regards wind energy and wind power plants. Globally, 80% of the persons asked for their opinion believe that electric power demand will continue to increase. 66% of them are in favour of increased use of renewable energy sources and would consequently agree with a 10% more expensive end-user energy price. 89% of the persons taking part to the survey approve the installation of wind energy farms in Switzerland. Moreover, statistics indicates that the households living in regions already equipped with wind farms are significantly more favorable to the creation of new wind energy sites than those not living in these regions. By the end of the day, it turns out that the main reasons for accepting wind energy are environmental concerns as well as the fear of being obliged to use nuclear power. [French] Ce rapport presente par des graphiques et des tableaux le resultat d'un sondage d'opinion aupres de 421 menages en Suisse, sur la sensibilite du public aux problemes de l'energie et plus particulierement sur sa perception de tout ce qui concerne l'energie du vent et son exploitation par l'implantation d'eoliennes. Globalement, 80% des menages pensent que la demande d'energie electrique va poursuivre sa croissance. 66% d'entre eux sont favorables au developpement des energies renouvelables et prets a accepter en consequence une augmentation du prix de l'energie allant jusqu'a 10%. 89% des personnes interrogees sont favorables au developpement des eoliennes en Suisse. De plus, la statistique montre de maniere significative que les menages des regions dans lesquelles sont deja implantes des sites eoliens sont plus favorables au developpement des eoliennes que les autres. Finalement, le respect de l'environnement et la crainte d'avoir a recourir a l'energie

  3. Awareness of households to the development of wind energy sites - Reporting on a survey; Receptivite des menages au developpement des sites eoliens. Rapport d'enquete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, M.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents in tables and diagrams the results of a survey involving 421 households in Switzerland, about their awareness to energy issues and, in particular, to all what regards wind energy and wind power plants. Globally, 80% of the persons asked for their opinion believe that electric power demand will continue to increase. 66% of them are in favour of increased use of renewable energy sources and would consequently agree with a 10% more expensive end-user energy price. 89% of the persons taking part to the survey approve the installation of wind energy farms in Switzerland. Moreover, statistics indicates that the households living in regions already equipped with wind farms are significantly more favorable to the creation of new wind energy sites than those not living in these regions. By the end of the day, it turns out that the main reasons for accepting wind energy are environmental concerns as well as the fear of being obliged to use nuclear power. [French] Ce rapport presente par des graphiques et des tableaux le resultat d'un sondage d'opinion aupres de 421 menages en Suisse, sur la sensibilite du public aux problemes de l'energie et plus particulierement sur sa perception de tout ce qui concerne l'energie du vent et son exploitation par l'implantation d'eoliennes. Globalement, 80% des menages pensent que la demande d'energie electrique va poursuivre sa croissance. 66% d'entre eux sont favorables au developpement des energies renouvelables et prets a accepter en consequence une augmentation du prix de l'energie allant jusqu'a 10%. 89% des personnes interrogees sont favorables au developpement des eoliennes en Suisse. De plus, la statistique montre de maniere significative que les menages des regions dans lesquelles sont deja implantes des sites eoliens sont plus favorables au developpement des eoliennes que les autres. Finalement, le respect de l

  4. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Collett, T. E.; Furlanetto, C.; Gill, M. S. S.; More, A.; Nightingale, J.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M.; Welch, B.; Zhang, Y.; Frieman, J. A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  5. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  6. The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, E.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a five-year optical imaging campaign with the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. DES performs a 5000 square degree survey of the southern sky in five optical bands (g,r,i,z,Y) to a depth of ~24th magnitude. Contemporaneously, DES performs a deep, time-domain survey in four optical bands (g,r,i,z) over 27 square degrees. DES exposures are processed nightly with an evolving data reduction pipeline and evaluated for image quality to determine if they need to be retaken. Difference imaging and transient source detection are also performed in the time domain component nightly. On a bi-annual basis, DES exposures are reprocessed with a refined pipeline and coadded to maximize imaging depth. Here we describe the DES image processing pipeline in support of DES science, as a reference for users of archival DES data, and as a guide for future astronomical surveys.

  7. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy – an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, Vinu; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Aleksic, J.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.

    2016-03-21

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from ‘Science Verification’, and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  8. DES13S2cmm: the first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Biswas, R.; Brown, P. J.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J. A.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Kessler, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Lidman, C.; March, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Sako, M.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F.; Allam, S. S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Carnero, A.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roe, N. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, L. D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 +/- 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (Type I). Using this redshift, we find M-U(peak) = -21.05(-0.09)(+0.10) for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low-metallicity (subsolar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log (M/M-circle dot) = 9.3 +/- 0.3), consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to 14 similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find that it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 d rest-frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2-0.3 mag between +25 and +30 d after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for 'standardizing' such supernovae, as is done with the more common Type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I-the radioactive decay of Ni-56, and a magnetar - and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 d in the rest frame of the supernova.

  9. The Dark Energy Survey and Operations: Years 1 to 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an operating optical survey aimed at understanding the accelerating expansion of the universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the 5000 sq-degree wide field and 30 sq-degree supernova surveys, the DES Collaboration built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square-degree, 570-Megapixel CCD camera that was installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DES has completed its third observing season out of a nominal five. This paper describes DES “Year 1” (Y1) to “Year 3” (Y3), the strategy, an outline of the survey operations procedures, the efficiency of operations and the causes of lost observing time. It provides details about the quality of the first three season's data, and describes how we are adjusting the survey strategy in the face of the El Niño Southern Oscillation

  10. First SN Discoveries from the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F.; Achitouv, I.; Ahn, E.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Alonso, D.; Amara, A.; Annis, J.; Antonik, M.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Armstrong, R.; Ashall, C.; Asorey, J.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Barbary, K.; Barkhouse, W.; Baruah, L.; Bauer, A.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, M.; Bender, R.; Benoist, C.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernardi, M.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R.; Bertin, E.; Beynon, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Biswas, R.; Blake, C.; Bloom, J. S.; Bocquet, S.; Brandt, C.; Bridle, S.; Brooks, D.; Brown, P. J.; Brunner, R.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Burkert, A.; Busha, M.; Campa, J.; Campbell, H.; Cane, R.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, M.; Carrasco-Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Carter, M.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Chen, Y.; Chiu, I.; Chue, C.; Clampitt, J.; Clerkin, L.; Cohn, J.; Colless, M.; Copeland, E.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Crittenden, R.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C.; da Costa, L.; d'Andrea, C.; Das, S.; Das, R.; Davis, T. M.; Deb, S.; DePoy, D.; Derylo, G.; Desai, S.; de Simoni, F.; Devlin, M.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Dolag, K.; Efstathiou, G.; Eifler, T.; Erickson, B.; Eriksen, M.; Estrada, J.; Etherington, J.; Evrard, A.; Farrens, S.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Ferreira, P. C.; Finley, D.; Fischer, J. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Furlanetto, C.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gelman, M.; Gerdes, D.; Giannantonio, T.; Gilhool, S.; Gill, M.; Gladders, M.; Gladney, L.; Glazebrook, K.; Gray, M.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R.; Gupta, R.; Gutierrez, G.; Habib, S.; Hall, E.; Hansen, S.; Hao, J.; Heitmann, K.; Helsby, J.; Henderson, R.; Hennig, C.; High, W.; Hirsch, M.; Hoffmann, K.; Holhjem, K.; Honscheid, K.; Host, O.; Hoyle, B.; Hu, W.; Huff, E.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; James, D.; Jarvis, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M.; Jouvel, S.; Kacprzak, T.; Karliner, I.; Katsaros, J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A.; Kim-Vy, T.; King, L.; Kirk, D.; Kochanek, C.; Kopp, M.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Kovacs, E.; Krause, E.; Kravtsov, A.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kunder, A.; Kuropatkin, N.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Leistedt, B.; Levi, M.; Lewis, P.; Liddle, A.; Lidman, C.; Lilly, S.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.; Lopez-Arenillas, C.; Lorenzon, W.; LoVerde, M.; Ma, Z.; Maartens, R.; Maccrann, N.; Macri, L.; Maia, M.; Makler, M.; Manera, M.; Maraston, C.; March, M.; Markovic, K.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J.; Marshall, S.; Martini, P.; Marti Sanahuja, P.; Mayers, J.; McKay, T.; McMahon, R.; Melchior, P.; Merritt, K. W.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Moore, T.; Mortonson, M.; Mosher, J.; Mould, J.; Mukherjee, P.; Neilsen, E.; Ngeow, C.; Nichol, R.; Nidever, D.; Nord, B.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R.; Old, L.; Olsen, J.; Ostrovski, F.; Paech, K.; Papadopoulos, A.; Papovich, C.; Patton, K.; Peacock, J.; Pellegrini, P. S. S.; Peoples, J.; Percival, W.; Perlmutter, S.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A.; Ponce, R.; Poole, G.; Pope, A.; Refregier, A.; Reyes, R.; Ricker, P.; Roe, N.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rooney, P.; Ross, A.; Rowe, B.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sabiu, C.; Saglia, R.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez, C.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Santiago, B.; Saro, A.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schubnell, M.; Seitz, S.; Senger, R.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Sheldon, E.; Sheth, R.; Smith, R. C.; Smith, M.; Snigula, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Song, J.; Soumagnac, M.; Spinka, H.; Stebbins, A.; Stoughton, C.; Suchyta, E.; Suhada, R.; Sullivan, M.; Sun, F.; Suntzeff, N.; Sutherland, W.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Sypniewski, A. J.; Szepietowski, R.; Talaga, R.; Tarle, G.; Tarrant, E.; Balan, S. Thaithara; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Ural, S.; Vikram, V.; Voigt, L.; Walker, A. R.; Walker, T.; Wechsler, R.; Weinberg, D.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wetzstein, M.; White, M.; Wilcox, H.; Wilman, D.; Yanny, B.; Young, J.; Zablocki, A.; Zenteno, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) report the discovery of the first set of supernovae (SN) from the project. Images were observed as part of the DES Science Verification phase using the newly-installed 570-Megapixel Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope by observers J. Annis, E. Buckley-Geer, and H. Lin. SN observations are planned throughout the observing campaign on a regular cadence of 4-6 days in each of the ten 3-deg2 fields in the DES griz filters.

  11. Embrace the Dark Side: Advancing the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchyta, Eric

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an ongoing cosmological survey intended to study the properties of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this dissertation, I present work of mine that has advanced the progress of DES. First is an introduction, which explores the physics of the cosmos, as well as how DES intends to probe it. Attention is given to developing the theoretical framework cosmologists use to describe the Universe, and to explaining observational evidence which has furnished our current conception of the cosmos. Emphasis is placed on the dark sector - dark matter and dark energy - the content of the Universe not explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. As its name suggests, the Dark Energy Survey has been specially designed to measure the properties of dark energy. DES will use a combination of galaxy cluster, weak gravitational lensing, angular clustering, and supernovae measurements to derive its state of the art constraints, each of which is discussed in the text. The work described in this dissertation includes science measurements directly related to the first three of these probes. The dissertation presents my contributions to the readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam); the name of this software is SISPI. SISPI uses client-server and publish-subscribe communication patterns to coordinate and command actions among the many hardware components of DECam - the survey instrument for DES, a 570 megapixel CCD camera, mounted at prime focus of the Blanco 4-m Telescope. The SISPI work I discuss includes coding applications for DECam's filter changer mechanism and hexapod, as well as developing the Scripts Editor, a GUI application for DECam users to edit and export observing sequence SISPI can load and execute. Next, the dissertation describes the processing of early DES data, which I contributed. This furnished the data products used in the first-completed DES science analysis, and contributed to improving the

  12. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Calibration of redMaGiC Redshift Distributions in DES and SDSS from Cross-Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawthon, R.; et al.

    2017-12-19

    We present calibrations of the redshift distributions of redMaGiC galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 data. These results determine the priors of the redshift distribution of redMaGiC galaxies, which were used for galaxy clustering measurements and as lenses for galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements in DES Y1 cosmological analyses. We empirically determine the bias in redMaGiC photometric redshift estimates using angular cross-correlations with Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) galaxies. For DES, we calibrate a single parameter redshift bias in three photometric redshift bins: $z \\in[0.15,0.3]$, [0.3,0.45], and [0.45,0.6]. Our best fit results in each bin give photometric redshift biases of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. To further test the redMaGiC algorithm, we apply our calibration procedure to SDSS redMaGiC galaxies, where the statistical precision of the cross-correlation measurement is much higher due to a greater overlap with BOSS galaxies. For SDSS, we also find best fit results of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. We compare our results to other analyses of redMaGiC photometric redshifts.

  13. The Dark Energy Survey First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will announce and highlight the main components of the first public data release (DR1) coming from the Dark Energy Survey (DES).In January 2016, the DES survey made available, in a simple unofficial release to the astronomical community, the first set of products. This data was taken and studied during the DES Science Verification period consisting on roughly 250 sq. degrees and 25 million objects at a mean depth of i=23.7 that led to over 80 publications from DES scientist.The DR1 release is the first official release from the main survey and it consists on the observations taken during the first 3 seasons from August 2013 to February 2016 (about 100 nights each season) of the survey which cover the entire DES footprint. All of the Single Epoch Images and the Year 3 Coadded images distributed in 10223 tiles are available for download in this release. The catalogs provide astrometry, photometry and basic classification for near 400M objects in roughly 5000 sq. degrees on the southern hemisphere with a approximate mean depth of i=23.3. Complementary footprint, masking and depth information is also available. All of the software used during the generation of these products are open sourced and have been made available through the Github DES Organization. Images, data and other sub products have been possible through the international and collaborative effort of all 25 institutions involved in DES and are available for exploration and download through the interfaces provided by a partnership between NCSA, NOAO and LIneA.

  14. The Dark Energy Survey Data Release 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We describe the first public data release of the Dark Energy Survey, DES DR1, consisting of reduced single epoch images, coadded images, coadded source catalogs, and associated products and services assembled over the first three years of DES science operations. DES DR1 is based on optical/near-infrared imaging from 345 distinct nights (August 2013 to February 2016) by the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4-m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. We release data from the DES wide-area survey covering ~5,000 sq. deg. of the southern Galactic cap in five broad photometric bands, grizY. DES DR1 has a median delivered point-spread function of g = 1.12, r = 0.96, i = 0.88, z = 0.84, and Y = 0.90 arcsec FWHM, a photometric precision of < 1% in all bands, and an astrometric precision of 151 mas. The median coadded catalog depth for a 1.95" diameter aperture at S/N = 10 is g = 24.33, r = 24.08, i = 23.44, z = 22.69, and Y = 21.44 mag. DES DR1 includes nearly 400M distinct astronomical objects detected in ~10,000 coadd tiles of size 0.534 sq. deg. produced from ~39,000 individual exposures. Benchmark galaxy and stellar samples contain ~310M and ~ 80M objects, respectively, following a basic object quality selection. These data are accessible through a range of interfaces, including query web clients, image cutout servers, jupyter notebooks, and an interactive coadd image visualization tool. DES DR1 constitutes the largest photometric data set to date at the achieved depth and photometric precision.

  15. DES J0454-4448: discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Becker, G. D.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Martini, P.; Ostrovski, F.; Rauch, M.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; da Costa, L. N.; D' Andrea, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Merritt, K.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = -26.5) quasar DES J0454-4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H I near zone size of 4.1+1.1-1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i-z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i-z and z-Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  16. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; Darnell, J.Anthony; Beldica, Cristina; Barkhouse, Wayne; Bertin, Emmanuel; Dora Cai, Y.; Daues, Gregory E.; Gower, Michelle; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; Jarvis, Michael; Lin, Huan

    2008-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent

  17. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Illinois U., Urbana; Barkhouse, Wayne; /North Dakota U.; Beldica, Cristina; /Illinois U., Urbana; Bertin, Emmanuel; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Dora Cai, Y.; /NCSA, Urbana; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Darnell, J.Anthony; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Daues, Gregory E.; /NCSA, Urbana; Jarvis, Michael; /Pennsylvania U.; Gower, Michelle; /NCSA, Urbana; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  18. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  19. Debiasing the Dark Energy Survey's Search for Trans-Neptunian Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Kevin; Gerdes, David

    2018-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is rich in transient detections of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). This has resulted in many newly detected TNOs. It is important to be mindful that astronomical surveys are intrinsically biased in their detections. Understanding a survey’s bias is necessary to understand the significance of any clustering in the orbital parameters of our detections. To quantify this bias, we examine the DES’s selection function for the detection of TNOs. To do so, we developed a survey simulator in Python. We generate clones of known TNOs with uniformly varied argument of perihelion, longitude of ascending node, and mean anomaly. We test the detectability of each clone based on the pointing location and limiting magnitude of each exposure in DES. Our preliminary results show that our simulator is functional. However, we do not yet have any conclusions about the DES’s bias, as we have not yet run the simulator on the entirety of DES for all of our TNOs.

  20. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Collett, T. E. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Furlanetto, C.; Nightingale, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gill, M. S. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); More, A. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti, E-mail: diehl@fnal.gov [Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia—LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification and Year 1 observations. The Science Verification data span approximately 250 sq. deg. with a median i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 23.0. The Year 1 data span approximately 2000 sq. deg. and have an i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 22.9. As these data sets are both wide and deep, they are particularly useful for identifying strong gravitational lens candidates. Potential strong gravitational lens candidate systems were initially identified based on a color and magnitude selection in the DES object catalogs or because the system is at the location of a previously identified galaxy cluster. Cutout images of potential candidates were then visually scanned using an object viewer and numerically ranked according to whether or not we judged them to be likely strong gravitational lens systems. Having scanned nearly 400,000 cutouts, we present 374 candidate strong lens systems, of which 348 are identified for the first time. We provide the R.A. and decl., the magnitudes and photometric properties of the lens and source objects, and the distance (radius) of the source(s) from the lens center for each system.

  1. Automated transient identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). et al.

    2015-08-20

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility.

  2. PreCam: A Precursor Observational Campaign for Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J. T.; Bailey, T.; Balbinot, E.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Burke, D. L.; Butner, M.; Camargo, J. I. B.; da Costa, L. A. N.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Estrada, J.; Fausti, A.; Gerke, B.; Guarino, V.; Head, H. H.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Lorenzon, W.; Maia, M. A. G.; Maki, L.; Marshall, J.; Nord, B.; Neilsen, E.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Park, D.; Peoples, J.; Rastawicki, D.; Rheault, J. -P.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Seitzer, P.; Smith, J. A.; Spinka, H.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2013-04-01

    PreCam, a precursor observational campaign supporting the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is designed to produce a photometric and astrometric catalog of nearly a hundred thousand standard stars within the DES footprint, while the PreCam instrument also serves as a prototype testbed for the Dark Energy Camera's hardware and software. This catalog represents a potential 100-fold increase in Southern Hemisphere photometric standard stars, and therefore will be an important component in the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey. We provide details on the PreCam instrument's design, construction, and testing, as well as results from a subset of the 51 nights of PreCam survey observations on the University of Michigan Department of Astronomy's Curtis-Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We briefly describe the preliminary data processing pipeline that has been developed for PreCam data and the preliminary results of the instrument performance, as well as astrometry and photometry of a sample of stars previously included in other southern sky surveys.

  3. DES Science Portal: II- Creating Science-Ready Catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausti Neto, Angelo; et al.

    2017-08-18

    We present a novel approach for creating science-ready catalogs through a software infrastructure developed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We integrate the data products released by the DES Data Management and additional products created by the DES collaboration in an environment known as DES Science Portal. Each step involved in the creation of a science-ready catalog is recorded in a relational database and can be recovered at any time. We describe how the DES Science Portal automates the creation and characterization of lightweight catalogs for DES Year 1 Annual Release, and show its flexibility in creating multiple catalogs with different inputs and configurations. Finally, we discuss the advantages of this infrastructure for large surveys such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. The capability of creating science-ready catalogs efficiently and with full control of the inputs and configurations used is an important asset for supporting science analysis using data from large astronomical surveys.

  4. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: The Photometric Data Set for Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Rykoff, E. S.; Gruendl, R. A.; Yanny, B.; Tucker, D. L.; Hoyle, B.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Davis, C.; de Vicente, J.; Diehl, H. T.; Gruen, D.; Hartley, W. G.; Leistedt, B.; Li, T. S.; Marshall, J. L.; Neilsen, E.; Rau, M. M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, J.; Troxel, M. A.; Wyatt, S.; Zhang, Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We describe the creation, content, and validation of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) internal year-one cosmology data set, Y1A1 GOLD, in support of upcoming cosmological analyses. The Y1A1 GOLD data set is assembled from multiple epochs of DES imaging and consists of calibrated photometric zero-points, object catalogs, and ancillary data products—e.g., maps of survey depth and observing conditions, star–galaxy classification, and photometric redshift estimates—that are necessary for accurate cosmological analyses. The Y1A1 GOLD wide-area object catalog consists of ∼ 137 million objects detected in co-added images covering ∼ 1800 {\\deg }2 in the DES grizY filters. The 10σ limiting magnitude for galaxies is g=23.4, r=23.2, i=22.5, z=21.8, and Y=20.1. Photometric calibration of Y1A1 GOLD was performed by combining nightly zero-point solutions with stellar locus regression, and the absolute calibration accuracy is better than 2% over the survey area. DES Y1A1 GOLD is the largest photometric data set at the achieved depth to date, enabling precise measurements of cosmic acceleration at z ≲ 1.

  5. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require the calibration of optical/NIR broadband b = grizY photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a “Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)” for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broadband survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial and time dependences of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. “Standard” passbands that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey are chosen. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude {m}b{std} in the standard system. This “chromatic correction” to the standard system is necessary to achieve subpercent calibrations and in particular, to resolve ambiguity between the broadband brightness of a source and the shape of its SED. The FGCM achieves a reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes {m}b{std} of stellar sources over the multiyear Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of σ =6{--}7 {mmag} per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the 5000 {\\deg }2 DES footprint to within σ =7 {mmag}. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than 5 {mmag} for main-sequence stars with 0.5< g-i< 3.0.

  6. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-12-28

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require calibration of optical/NIR broadband $b = grizY$ photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a "Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)" for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broad-band survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial- and time-dependence of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. "Standard" passbands are chosen that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ in the standard system. This "chromatic correction" to the standard system is necessary to achieve sub-percent calibrations. The FGCM achieves reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ of stellar sources over the multi-year Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of $\\sigma=5-6\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the $5000\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ DES footprint to within $\\sigma=7\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than $5\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ for main sequence stars with $0.5

  7. The Dark Energy Survey Data Processing and Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J. [Munich U.; Armstrong, Robert [Penn State U.; Bertin, Emmanuel [Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Daues, Gregory E. [NCSA, Urbana; Desai, Shantanu [Munich U.; Gower, Michelle [NCSA, Urbana; Gruendl, Robert [Illinois U., Urbana (main); Hanlon, William [Illinois U., Urbana (main); Kuropatkin, Nikolay [Fermilab; Lin, Huan [Fermilab; Marriner, John [Fermilab; Petravick, Don; Sevilla, Ignacio [Madrid, CIEMAT; Swanson, Molly [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Tomashek, Todd [NCSA, Urbana; Tucker, Douglas [Fermilab; Yanny, Brian [Fermilab

    2012-09-24

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5000 deg2 grizY survey reaching characteristic photometric depths of 24th magnitude (10 sigma) and enabling accurate photometry and morphology of objects ten times fainter than in SDSS. Preparations for DES have included building a dedicated 3 deg2 CCD camera (DECam), upgrading the existing CTIO Blanco 4m telescope and developing a new high performance computing (HPC) enabled data management system (DESDM). The DESDM system will be used for processing, calibrating and serving the DES data. The total data volumes are high (~2PB), and so considerable effort has gone into designing an automated processing and quality control system. Special purpose image detrending and photometric calibration codes have been developed to meet the data quality requirements, while survey astrometric calibration, coaddition and cataloging rely on new extensions of the AstrOmatic codes which now include tools for PSF modeling, PSF homogenization, PSF corrected model fitting cataloging and joint model fitting across multiple input images. The DESDM system has been deployed on dedicated development clusters and HPC systems in the US and Germany. An extensive program of testing with small rapid turn-around and larger campaign simulated datasets has been carried out. The system has also been tested on large real datasets, including Blanco Cosmology Survey data from the Mosaic2 camera. In Fall 2012 the DESDM system will be used for DECam commissioning, and, thereafter, the system will go into full science operations.

  8. Measuring Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Diversity Engagement Survey (DES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Sharina D.; Jordan, C. Greer; Allison, Jeroan J.; Fink Ogawa, Lisa M.; Castillo-Page, Laura; Conrad, Sarah; Nivet, Marc A.; Plummer, Deborah L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To produce a physician and scientific workforce capable of delivering high quality, culturally competent health care and research, academic medical centers must assess their capacity for diversity and inclusion and respond to identified opportunities. Thus, the Diversity Engagement Survey (DES) is presented as a diagnostic and benchmarking tool. Method The 22-item DES connects workforce engagement theory with inclusion and diversity constructs. Face and content validity were established based on decades of previous work to promote institutional diversity. The survey was pilot tested at a single academic medical center and subsequently administered at 13 additional academic medical centers. Cronbach alphas assessed internal consistency and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) established construct validity. Criterion validity was assessed by observed separation in scores for groups traditionally recognized to have less workforce engagement. Results The sample consisted of 13,694 individuals at 14 medical schools from across the U.S. who responded to the survey administered between 2011– 2012. The Cronbach alphas for inclusion and engagement factors (range: 0.68 to 0.85), CFA fit indices, and item correlations with latent constructs, indicated an acceptable model fit and that questions measured the intended concepts. DES scores clearly distinguished higher and lower performing institutions. The DES detected important disparities for black, women, and those who did not have heterosexual orientation. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the DES is a reliable and valid instrument for internal assessment and evaluation or external benchmarking of institutional progress in building inclusion and engagement. PMID:26466376

  9. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerji, M.; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Castander, F. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bertin, E.; Bosman, S. E.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gerdes, D.; Gschwend, J.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Ogando, R.; Pellegrini, P.; Reed, S.; Saglia, R.; Sanchez, C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J.; Bernstein, R.; Capozzi, D.; Childress, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Davis, T. M.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Findlay, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Honscheid, K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kim, A.; Koposov, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Lagattuta, D.; Lewis, J. R.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Peoples, J.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2014-11-25

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of ~4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a ~1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES+VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z ~ 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  10. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cross-Correlation Redshifts in the DES -- Calibration of the Weak Lensing Source Redshift Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.; et al.

    2017-10-06

    We present the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) weak lensing source galaxy redshift distributions from clustering measurements. By cross-correlating the positions of source galaxies with luminous red galaxies selected by the redMaGiC algorithm we measure the redshift distributions of the source galaxies as placed into different tomographic bins. These measurements constrain any such shifts to an accuracy of $\\sim0.02$ and can be computed even when the clustering measurements do not span the full redshift range. The highest-redshift source bin is not constrained by the clustering measurements because of the minimal redshift overlap with the redMaGiC galaxies. We compare our constraints with those obtained from $\\texttt{COSMOS}$ 30-band photometry and find that our two very different methods produce consistent constraints.

  11. The commercialization of decentralized energy systems (DES) in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, J.Y.; Navarro, L.B.; Abito, G.; Lim, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    PNOC-ERDC is implementing the project ''Commercialization of Decentralized Energy Systems or DES'' with assistance from the European Community. The project hopes to promote the utilization of DES technologies by providing financial and technical assistance to enterpreneurs engaged in the manufacture and/or distribution of DES technologies. At present, the DES project has provided loans totalling P17.9 million to 6 entrepreneurs. Technologies supported include photovoltaics, biogas and agricultural waste-fired dryers. (auth.). 2 tabs

  12. Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipp, N.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first three years of multi-band optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering $\\sim 5000$ sq. deg. to a depth of $g > 23.5$ with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of $< 1 \\%$. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of $\\sim 50$ kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched-filter in color-magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of eleven new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extra-tidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, as well as the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.

  13. SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Kuhlmann, S.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Crane, I.; Hufford, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Nugent, P. [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D' Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Finley, D. A.; Marriner, J.; Reis, R. R. R. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Jarvis, M. J. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, P.; Parkinson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey 2 Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Sako, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 203 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 deg{sup 2} search area in the griz filter set. We forecast (1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05 DES camera will significantly improve high-redshift color measurements. The redshift of each supernova with an identified host galaxy will be obtained from spectroscopic observations of the host. A supernova spectrum will be obtained for a subset of the sample, which will be utilized for control studies. In addition, we have investigated the use of combined photometric redshifts taking into account data from both the host and supernova. We have investigated and estimated the likely contamination from core-collapse supernovae based on photometric identification, and have found that a Type Ia supernova sample purity of up to 98% is obtainable given specific assumptions. Furthermore, we present systematic uncertainties due to sample purity, photometric calibration, dust extinction priors, filter-centroid shifts, and inter-calibration. We conclude by estimating the uncertainty on the cosmological parameters that will be measured from the DES supernova data.

  14. SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Kuhlmann, S.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Crane, I.; Hufford, T.; Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Nugent, P.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Finley, D. A.; Marriner, J.; Reis, R. R. R.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mukherjee, P.; Parkinson, D.; Sako, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 deg 2 search area in the griz filter set. We forecast (1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05 < z < 1.2 and (2) that the increased red efficiency of the DES camera will significantly improve high-redshift color measurements. The redshift of each supernova with an identified host galaxy will be obtained from spectroscopic observations of the host. A supernova spectrum will be obtained for a subset of the sample, which will be utilized for control studies. In addition, we have investigated the use of combined photometric redshifts taking into account data from both the host and supernova. We have investigated and estimated the likely contamination from core-collapse supernovae based on photometric identification, and have found that a Type Ia supernova sample purity of up to 98% is obtainable given specific assumptions. Furthermore, we present systematic uncertainties due to sample purity, photometric calibration, dust extinction priors, filter-centroid shifts, and inter-calibration. We conclude by estimating the uncertainty on the cosmological parameters that will be measured from the DES supernova data.

  15. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, P.; Sheldon, E.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective exploratory approach for future astronomical surveys or other extensive data sets with a sufficiently large user base. We also release open-source code of the web application and host an online demo version at http://des-exp-checker.pmelchior.net.

  16. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  17. New Science, New Media: An Assessment of the Online Education and Public Outreach Initiatives of The Dark Energy Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, R. C.; Romer, A. K.; Nord, B.

    2018-01-01

    We present a case study of the online education and public outreach (EPO) program of The Dark Energy Survey (DES). We believe DES EPO is unique at this scale in astronomy, as it evolved organically from scientists' volunteerism. We find that DES EPO online products reach 2,500 social media users on average per post; 94% of these users are predisposed to science-related topics. We find projects which require scientist participation and collaboration support are most successful when they capita...

  18. A Study of Quasar Selection in the Supernova Fields of the Dark Energy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie, S. S.; Martini, P.; Mudd, D.; Ostrovski, F.; Reed, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of quasar selection using the supernova fields of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We used a quasar catalog from an overlapping portion of the SDSS Stripe 82 region to quantify the completeness and efficiency of selection methods involving color, probabilistic modeling, variability, and combinations of color/probabilistic modeling with variability. In all cases, we considered only objects that appear as point sources in the DES images. We examine color selection methods based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mid-IR W1-W2 color, a mixture of WISE and DES colors (g - i and i-W1), and a mixture of Vista Hemisphere Survey and DES colors (g - i and i - K). For probabilistic quasar selection, we used XDQSO, an algorithm that employs an empirical multi-wavelength flux model of quasars to assign quasar probabilities. Our variability selection uses the multi-band χ"2-probability that sources are constant in the DES Year 1 griz-band light curves. The completeness and efficiency are calculated relative to an underlying sample of point sources that are detected in the required selection bands and pass our data quality and photometric error cuts. We conduct our analyses at two magnitude limits, i 85% for both i-band magnitude limits and efficiencies of >80% to the bright limit and >60% to the faint limit; however, the giW1 and giW1+variability methods give the highest quasar surface densities. The XDQSOz method and combinations of W1W2/giW1/XDQSOz with variability are among the better selection methods when both high completeness and high efficiency are desired. We also present the OzDES Quasar Catalog of 1263 spectroscopically confirmed quasars from three years of OzDES observation in the 30 deg"2 of the DES supernova fields. Finally, the catalog includes quasars with redshifts up to z ~ 4 and brighter than i = 22 mag, although the catalog is not complete up to this magnitude limit.

  19. The Dark Energy Survey instrument design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugher, B.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of ∼5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R and D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009

  20. The inelastic scattering of medium energy {alpha} particles; Sur la diffusion inelastique des particules {alpha} a moyenne energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crut, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The aim of this work is to find out what are the properties of the so-called 'anomalous states' in medium weight nuclei. These states preferentially excited in the inelastic scattering of medium energy charged particles have an excitation energy at about 4 MeV for nuclei with Z {<=} 29 and in the range 2-3 MeV for high Z nuclei. From a combination of angular distribution data in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 30 MeV {alpha} particles, and correlation data between inelastic {alpha} particles and deexcitation {gamma} rays, we show that for even-even nuclei, we can attribute spin 3 and parity minus to these 'anomalous states'. This is quite in agreement with the interpretation of these levels suggested by Lane as due to collective octupole oscillations. We give a resume of the theories used in the analysis of the data and a description of the experimental set-up. (author) [French] Le but de cette etude est de determiner les proprietes des niveaux dits 'anormalement excites' lors de la diffusion inelastique des particules chargees de moyenne energie sur des noyaux de masse moyenne et lourde. L'energie de ces niveaux est de l'ordre de 4 MeV pour les noyaux avec Z {<=} 29 et de 2 a 3 MeV pour les noyaux de Z plus eleve. De l'examen des courbes de distribution angulaire des particules {alpha} de 30 MeV diffusees elastiquement et inelastiquement, et de la correlation angulaire entre {alpha} excitant ces niveaux 'anormaux' et {gamma} de desexcitation, on deduit que, dans le cas des pair-pair, on peut attribuer a ces niveaux spin 3 et parite moins. Ceci renforce l'hypothese emise par Lane qui attribue ces niveaux a des oscillations octupolaires de la surface du noyau. On donne un apercu des theories utilisees dans l'analyse des resultats et une description des dispositifs experimentaux. (auteur)

  1. Role of LPG as an energy substitute in Algeria; Role des G.P.L. comme energie de substitution en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukadoum, Abdelhamid; Houghlaouene, Samir

    2010-09-15

    Algeria is a leader country in LPG industry. The availability of resources and the upstream production development efforts have oriented the large energy choices in terms of domestic market need satisfaction. LPG (propane and butane) plays a massive role in the change towards clean energy (case of LPG versus gas) and towards more practical energy (i.e. the case of bulk propane versus the packed butane, or versus natural gas). [French] L'Algerie est un pays leader dans l'industrie des GPL. La disponibilite des ressources et les efforts de developpement de la production en amont ont oriente les grands choix energetiques en matiere de satisfaction des besoins du marche domestique. En effet, les GPL (propane et butane) jouent un role majeur dans la substitution vers les sources d'energie propres (cas du GPL/C par rapport aux essences) et vers des energies plus commodes (par exemple le cas du propane vrac par rapport au butane conditionne, voire par rapport au gaz naturel).

  2. Energy of solution of rare gases in metals; Energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In order to calculate the energy of solution of rare gases in metals, a method which has given good results in the case of solid solutions in metals has been applied. Nevertheless, it was necessary for this, to know the compressibility of gases under conditions which are not feasible in a laboratory. H. Jensen has studied this compressibility in a precise way for the rare gases Ar, Kr, Xe. It has thus been possible to calculate the energy of solution of these gases in different metals. These calculations have been carried out most thoroughly for the case of uranium. (author) [French] Nous avons applique au calcul de l'energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux, une methode qui a donne de bons resultats dans le cas des solutions solides metalliques. Il fallait pour cela connaitre la compressibilite des gaz rares dans des conditions impossibles a realiser en laboratoire. Cette compressibilite a ete etudiee par H. Jensen de facon precise pour les gaz rares A, Kr, Xe. Nous avons pu, de ce fait, calculer les energies de dissolution de ces gaz dans les differents metaux. Les calculs ont ete faits plus completement dans le cas de l'uranium. (auteur)

  3. Energy of solution of rare gases in metals; Energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In order to calculate the energy of solution of rare gases in metals, a method which has given good results in the case of solid solutions in metals has been applied. Nevertheless, it was necessary for this, to know the compressibility of gases under conditions which are not feasible in a laboratory. H. Jensen has studied this compressibility in a precise way for the rare gases Ar, Kr, Xe. It has thus been possible to calculate the energy of solution of these gases in different metals. These calculations have been carried out most thoroughly for the case of uranium. (author) [French] Nous avons applique au calcul de l'energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux, une methode qui a donne de bons resultats dans le cas des solutions solides metalliques. Il fallait pour cela connaitre la compressibilite des gaz rares dans des conditions impossibles a realiser en laboratoire. Cette compressibilite a ete etudiee par H. Jensen de facon precise pour les gaz rares A, Kr, Xe. Nous avons pu, de ce fait, calculer les energies de dissolution de ces gaz dans les differents metaux. Les calculs ont ete faits plus completement dans le cas de l'uranium. (auteur)

  4. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Multi-Probe Methodology and Simulated Likelihood Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, E.; et al.

    2017-06-28

    We present the methodology for and detail the implementation of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) 3x2pt DES Year 1 (Y1) analysis, which combines configuration-space two-point statistics from three different cosmological probes: cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and galaxy clustering, using data from the first year of DES observations. We have developed two independent modeling pipelines and describe the code validation process. We derive expressions for analytical real-space multi-probe covariances, and describe their validation with numerical simulations. We stress-test the inference pipelines in simulated likelihood analyses that vary 6-7 cosmology parameters plus 20 nuisance parameters and precisely resemble the analysis to be presented in the DES 3x2pt analysis paper, using a variety of simulated input data vectors with varying assumptions. We find that any disagreement between pipelines leads to changes in assigned likelihood $\\Delta \\chi^2 \\le 0.045$ with respect to the statistical error of the DES Y1 data vector. We also find that angular binning and survey mask do not impact our analytic covariance at a significant level. We determine lower bounds on scales used for analysis of galaxy clustering (8 Mpc$~h^{-1}$) and galaxy-galaxy lensing (12 Mpc$~h^{-1}$) such that the impact of modeling uncertainties in the non-linear regime is well below statistical errors, and show that our analysis choices are robust against a variety of systematics. These tests demonstrate that we have a robust analysis pipeline that yields unbiased cosmological parameter inferences for the flagship 3x2pt DES Y1 analysis. We emphasize that the level of independent code development and subsequent code comparison as demonstrated in this paper is necessary to produce credible constraints from increasingly complex multi-probe analyses of current data.

  5. Energy storage. Possibilities of superconductors for high power discharges; Stockage d'energie. Possibilites des supraconducteurs en vue des decharges de grandes puissances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After briefly examining the various processes for energy storage and fast liberation, the author stresses the new possibilities of superconductors in this field. (author) [French] Apres un bref examen des differents procedes de stockage et de liberation rapide d'energie, l'auteur souligne les perspectives nouvelles qu'apportent les supraconducteurs dans ce domaine. (auteur)

  6. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  7. Revision of the law governing the energy industry; Neuregelung des Energierechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1993-11-03

    In its report on measures for safeguarding the competitiveness of the German industry, the Federal Government announced a number of reforms covering among others a revision of the regulatory framework governing the electricity and gas industry. Major goals in this context are deregulation and an enhancement of competition. The Federal Ministry of Economics prepared a draft plan for action addressing the need for an amendment of the Energy Management Act and the Act Against Restraints on Competition. Implementation of the measures given in the draft plan would create completely new conditions for the pipeline energy supply industry. (orig./HSCH) [Deutsch] Die Bundesregierung hat in ihrem Bericht zur Zukunftssicherung des Wirtschaftsstandorts Deutschland auch die Reform des Ordnungsrahmens fuer Strom und Gas angekuendigt. Ziel dieser Reform sollen Wettbewerb und Deregulierung sein. Das Bundeswirtschaftsministerium hat dazu auf Fachebene ein Konzept erarbeitet, das ein neues Energiewirtschaftsgesetz sowie eine Aenderung des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen umfasst. Das Konzept wuerde die leitungsgebundene Versorgungswirtschaft auf eine voellig neue Grundlage stellen. (orig./HSCH)

  8. Deep SOAR follow-up photometry of two Milky Way outer-halo companions discovered with Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, E.; Santiago, B.; Pieres, A.; Marshall, J. L.; Pace, A. B.; Kron, R.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Queiroz, A.; Balbinot, E.; Ponte, M. dal; Neto, A. Fausti; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Walker, A. R.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Flaugher, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new star cluster, DES 3, in the constellation of Indus, and deeper observations of the previously identified satellite DES J0222.7-5217 (Eridanus III). DES 3 was detected as a stellar overdensity in first-year Dark Energy Survey data, and confirmed with deeper photometry from the 4.1 metre Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope. The new system was detected with a relatively high significance and appears in the DES images as a compact concentration of faint blue point sources. We determine that DES 3 is located at a heliocentric distance of ≃ 76.2 kpc and it is dominated by an old (≃ 9.8 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≃ -1.84) population. While the age and metallicity values of DES 3 are comparable to typical globular clusters (objects with a high stellar density, stellar mass of ˜105M⊙ and luminosity MV ˜ -7.3), its half-light radius (rh ˜ 6.87 pc) and luminosity (MV ˜ -1.7) are more indicative of faint star cluster. Based on the angular size, DES 3, with a value of rh ˜ 0{^'.}31, is among the smallest faint star clusters known to date. Furthermore, using deeper imaging of DES J0222.7-5217 taken with the SOAR telescope, we update structural parameters and perform the first isochrone modeling. Our analysis yields the first age (≃ 12.6 Gyr) and metallicity ([Fe/H] ≃ -2.01) estimates for this object. The half-light radius (rh ≃ 11.24 pc) and luminosity (MV ≃ -2.4) of DES J0222.7-5217 suggest that it is likely a faint star cluster. The discovery of DES 3 indicates that the census of stellar systems in the Milky Way is still far from complete, and demonstrates the power of modern wide-field imaging surveys to improve our knowledge of the Galaxy's satellite population.

  9. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Fisica Teorica; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L.A.N. da; Gaia, M.A.G.; Ramos, B.; Ogando, R.; Makler, M. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 {<=} z {<=} 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat {Lambda}CDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of {approx} 20% and the cold dark matter with {approx} 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on {Omega}{sub baryon}, {Omega} c{sub dm}, n{sub s}, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with {approx} 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

  10. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y B [ed.

    2012-02-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2011, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations permettront de donner une premiere indication sur la trajectoire energie

  11. Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A.

    2016-01-01

    Shear peak statistics has gained a lot of attention recently as a practical alternative to the two-point statistics for constraining cosmological parameters. We perform a shear peak statistics analysis of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data, using weak gravitational lensing measurements from a 139 deg"2 field. We measure the abundance of peaks identified in aperture mass maps, as a function of their signal-to-noise ratio, in the signal-to-noise range 0 4 would require significant corrections, which is why we do not include them in our analysis. We compare our results to the cosmological constraints from the two-point analysis on the SV field and find them to be in good agreement in both the central value and its uncertainty. Lastly, we discuss prospects for future peak statistics analysis with upcoming DES data.

  12. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Methodology and Projections for Joint Analysis of Galaxy Clustering, Galaxy Lensing, and CMB Lensing Two-point Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannantonio, T.; et al.

    2018-02-14

    Optical imaging surveys measure both the galaxy density and the gravitational lensing-induced shear fields across the sky. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration used a joint fit to two-point correlations between these observables to place tight constraints on cosmology (DES Collaboration et al. 2017). In this work, we develop the methodology to extend the DES Collaboration et al. (2017) analysis to include cross-correlations of the optical survey observables with gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Using simulated analyses, we show how the resulting set of five two-point functions increases the robustness of the cosmological constraints to systematic errors in galaxy lensing shear calibration. Additionally, we show that contamination of the SPT+Planck CMB lensing map by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is a potentially large source of systematic error for two-point function analyses, but show that it can be reduced to acceptable levels in our analysis by masking clusters of galaxies and imposing angular scale cuts on the two-point functions. The methodology developed here will be applied to the analysis of data from the DES, the SPT, and Planck in a companion work.

  13. CALIBRATED ULTRA FAST IMAGE SIMULATIONS FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruderer, Claudio; Chang, Chihway; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Bergé, Joel; Gamper, Lukas, E-mail: claudio.bruderer@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-20

    Image simulations are becoming increasingly important in understanding the measurement process of the shapes of galaxies for weak lensing and the associated systematic effects. For this purpose we present the first implementation of the Monte Carlo Control Loops (MCCL), a coherent framework for studying systematic effects in weak lensing. It allows us to model and calibrate the shear measurement process using image simulations from the Ultra Fast Image Generator (UFig) and the image analysis software SExtractor. We apply this framework to a subset of the data taken during the Science Verification period (SV) of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We calibrate the UFig simulations to be statistically consistent with one of the SV images, which covers ∼0.5 square degrees. We then perform tolerance analyses by perturbing six simulation parameters and study their impact on the shear measurement at the one-point level. This allows us to determine the relative importance of different parameters. For spatially constant systematic errors and point-spread function, the calibration of the simulation reaches the weak lensing precision needed for the DES SV survey area. Furthermore, we find a sensitivity of the shear measurement to the intrinsic ellipticity distribution, and an interplay between the magnitude-size and the pixel value diagnostics in constraining the noise model. This work is the first application of the MCCL framework to data and shows how it can be used to methodically study the impact of systematics on the cosmic shear measurement.

  14. Comparing Dark Energy Survey and HST –CLASH observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431: implications for stellar mass versus dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmese, A.; Lahav, O.; Banerji, M.; Gruen, D.; Jouvel, S.; Melchior, P.; Aleksić, J.; Annis, J.; Diehl, H. T.; Hartley, W. G.; Jeltema, T.; Romer, A. K.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Suchyta, E.; Zhang, Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.

    2016-08-20

    We derive the stellar mass fraction in the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431 observed with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) during the Science Verification period. We compare the stellar mass results from DES (five filters) with those from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey (CLASH; 17 filters). When the cluster spectroscopic redshift is assumed, we show that stellar masses from DES can be estimated within 25 per cent of CLASH values. We compute the stellar mass contribution coming from red and blue galaxies, and study the relation between stellar mass and the underlying dark matter using weak lensing studies with DES and CLASH. An analysis of the radial profiles of the DES total and stellar mass yields a stellar-to-total fraction of f(star) = (6.8 +/- 1.7) x 10(-3) within a radius of r(200c) similar or equal to 2 Mpc. Our analysis also includes a comparison of photometric redshifts and star/galaxy separation efficiency for both data sets. We conclude that space-based small field imaging can be used to calibrate the galaxy properties in DES for the much wider field of view. The technique developed to derive the stellar mass fraction in galaxy clusters can be applied to the similar to 100 000 clusters that will be observed within this survey and yield important information about galaxy evolution.

  15. Joint measurement of lensing–galaxy correlations using SPT and DES SV data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, E.; Clampitt, J.; Giannantonio, T.; Dodelson, S.; Jain, B.; Huterer, D.; Bleem, L.; Crawford, T.; Efstathiou, G.; Fosalba, P.; Kirk, D.; Kwan, J.; Sánchez, C.; Story, K.; Troxel, M. A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Benson, B.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carlstrom, J.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Chown, R.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; de Haan, T.; Holder, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hou, Z.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Omori, Y.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Stark, A.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-07-04

    We measure the correlation of galaxy lensing and cosmic microwave background lensing with a set of galaxies expected to trace the matter density field. The measurements are performed using pre-survey Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification optical imaging data and millimetre-wave data from the 2500 sq. deg. South Pole Telescope Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. The two lensing–galaxy correlations are jointly fit to extract constraints on cosmological parameters, constraints on the redshift distribution of the lens galaxies, and constraints on the absolute shear calibration of DES galaxy-lensing measurements. We show that an attractive feature of these fits is that they are fairly insensitive to the clustering bias of the galaxies used as matter tracers. The measurement presented in this work confirms that DES and SPT data are consistent with each other and with the currently favoured Λ cold dark matter cosmological model. It also demonstrates that joint lensing–galaxy correlation measurement considered here contains a wealth of information that can be extracted using current and future surveys.

  16. Application of the Moessbauer effect to the study of the structure of transition metal complexes; Applications de l'effet Mossbauer a l'etude de la structure des complexes des metaux de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsymbal, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this survey, the structural investigations of transition metal complexes by the hyperfine interactions in the Moessbauer effect are described. The isomer shift provides a unique tool for estimating s electrons covalency in high spin complexes and one of the best pieces of evidence for the importance of bacle donation in low spin complexes. The electric field gradient deriving from quadrupole coupling measurements is correlated with the energy levels distribution of d orbitals in high spin complexes, whereas in low spin complexes it originates from the unbalanced d electrons. (authors) [French] Dans cette etude, nous decrivons les applications des interactions hyperfines dans l' effet Mossbauer a l'etude de la structure des complexes des metaux de transition. Le deplacement isomerique donne des informations tres utiles sur la covalence des electrons s dans les complexes a spin eleve et met en evidence d'une maniere nette l'importance du phenomene de 'bacle donation' dans les complexes a spin faible. Le gradient de champ electrique qui provient des mesures d'interaction quadripolaire est lie a la distribution des niveaux d'energie des orbitales d dans les complexes a spin eleve alors que dans les complexes a spin faible, il est provoque par des electrons d non apparies. (auteurs)

  17. Study of identification of AIJ/RPTES sites and the prospects for vulgarization of the solar energy systems in the Boucle du Mouhoun; Etude d'identification de sites AIJ/ RPTES et des perspectives de diffusion des systemes d'energie solaire dans la Boucle du Mouhoun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zougouri, Aboubacar; Ouedraogo, Mariam; Sawadogo, Xavier

    2000-04-15

    The energy needs of the populations in Burkina Faso are enormous and it is difficult to satisfy. The main source of energy is the heating wood. The demand for wood of heating is increasingly strong involves the environment degradation. Thus the Regional Program in the Traditional energy sector (RPTES) takes place to fight against deforestation and to promote the use of other energy sources such as photovoltaic solar systems and petroleum. The aim of this study is to determine the needs of the households, of the groupings and associations and of the institutions in energy. It is a question of determining the adequate strategy to promote the photovoltaic solar systems in rural environment in order to meet the requirements in Community lighting, lighting and conservation of the drugs in the health centres and in leisure. [French] Les besoins energetiques des populations au Burkina Faso sont enormes et difficile a satisfaire. La principale source d'energie demeure le bois de chauffe. La demande en bois de chauffe est de plus en plus forte entraine la degradation de la nature. C'est ainsi que le Programme Regional dans le secteur des Energies Traditionnelles (RPTES) intervient pour lutter contre la deforestation et promouvoir l'utilisation d'autres sources d'energie telles les systemes solaires photovoltaiques et le petrole. Cette etude vise a determiner la demande des menages, des groupements et associations ainsi que celle des institutions en matiere d'energie. Il s'agit de determiner la strategie adequate pour promouvoir les systemes solaires photovoltaiques en milieu rural afin de repondre aux besoins en eclairage communautaire, en eclairage et conservation des medicaments dans les centres de sante et en loisirs.

  18. Study of the low energy gamma transitions of molybdenum 99; Etude des transitions gamma de basse energie du molybdene 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravier, J.

    1959-07-01

    The study of the decay scheme of Mo{sup 99} has been performed on the magnetic iron-less and double focalization spectrograph of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lyon. Methods of internal and external conversion have been used. The intensities of the Mo{sup 99} sources used were not strong enough to determine the characteristics of the internal conversion accurately but were sufficient to precise the decay scheme at low energy. We have determined the internal conversion ratio for the transition of 180 KeV, we have got: 0.13 ± 0.03 which is not in agreement with the value given by a previous experiment based on γ-γ coincidence. Our method seems to be more reliable. We confirm the E2 feature of this transition and its 5/2+ spin. We have determined another important parameter for the 180 KeV de-excitation: the percentage of transitions that do not pass by the isomeric level but by the 140 KeV level is (6 ± 2)%, the isomeric level being at 142 KeV. The gamma spectra at low energy has been studied through the photoelectric effect in a lead converter [French] L'etude du schema de desintegration du Mo{sup 99} deja faite par differents auteurs a ete reprise par des methodes de conversion interne et externe, an moyen du spectrographe magnetique sans fer et a double focalisation de l'Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon. Apres avoir cherche les possibilites d'obtention de sources de haute activite specifique par separation isotopique Szilard-Chalmers sur des molybdates alcalins, le spectre de conversion interne a basse energie a ete mesure. Ainsi se trouverent etre determines les coefficients partiaux de conversion interne. Le spectre γ a basse energie a ete etudier au moyen de l'effet photoelectrique sur un convertisseur de plomb. Les coefficients de conversion interne et les intensites relatives des differentes transitions ont ete calcules moyennant certaines hypotheses. La comparaison entre les valeurs donnees par la theorie et l'experience des differentes

  19. DES Science Portal: Computing Photometric Redshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, Julia [LIneA, Rio de Janeiro

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge facing photometric surveys for cosmological purposes, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is the need to produce reliable photometric redshifts (photo-z). The choice of adequate algorithms and configurations and the maintenance of an up-to-date spectroscopic database to build training sets, for example, are challenging tasks when dealing with large amounts of data that are regularly updated and constantly growing. In this paper, we present the first of a series of tools developed by DES, provided as part of the DES Science Portal, an integrated web-based data portal developed to facilitate the scientific analysis of the data, while ensuring the reproducibility of the analysis. We present the DES Science Portal photometric redshift tools, starting from the creation of a spectroscopic sample to training the neural network photo-z codes, to the final estimation of photo-zs for a large photometric catalog. We illustrate this operation by calculating well calibrated photo-zs for a galaxy sample extracted from the DES first year (Y1A1) data. The series of processes mentioned above is run entirely within the Portal environment, which automatically produces validation metrics, and maintains the provenance between the different steps. This system allows us to fine tune the many steps involved in the process of calculating photo-zs, making sure that we do not lose the information on the configurations and inputs of the previous processes. By matching the DES Y1A1 photometry to a spectroscopic sample, we define different training sets that we use to feed the photo-z algorithms already installed at the Portal. Finally, we validate the results under several conditions, including the case of a sample limited to i<22.5 with the color properties close to the full DES Y1A1 photometric data. This way we compare the performance of multiple methods and training configurations. The infrastructure presented here is an effcient way to test several methods of

  20. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 10th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 10e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y.B. (ed.)

    2011-01-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2010. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives. [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2010, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations

  1. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y.B. (ed.)

    2012-02-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2011, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations

  2. Estimation of the energy needs; Estimation des besoins energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, [Electricite de France (EDF), Dir. General des Etudes de Recherches, 75 - Paris (France)

    1955-07-01

    The present report draws up the balance on the present and estimable energy consumption for the next twenty years. The present energy comes mainly of the consumption of coal, oil products and essentially hydraulic electric energy. the market development comes essentially of the development the industrial activity and of new applications tributary of the cost and the distribution of the electric energy. To this effect, the atomic energy offers good industrial perspectives in complement of the energy present resources in order to answer the new needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport dresse le bilan sur la consommation energetique actuelle et previsionnelle pour les vingt prochaines annees. L'energie actuelle provient principalement consommation de charbon, de produits petroliers et d'energie electrique essentiellement hydraulique. l'evolution du marche provient essentielement du developpement l'activite industriel et de nouvelles applications tributaire du cout et de la distribution de l'energie electrique. A cet effet, l'energie atomique offre de bonne perspectives industrielles en complement des sources actuelles energetiques afin de repondre aux nouveaux besoins. (M.B.)

  3. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  4. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: the impact of galaxy neighbours on weak lensing cosmology with IM3SHAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuroff, S.; Bridle, S. L.; Zuntz, J.; Troxel, M. A.; Gruen, D.; Rollins, R. P.; Bernstein, G. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Huff, E. M.; Kacprzak, T.; Krause, E.; MacCrann, N.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Kirk, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; DES Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We use a suite of simulated images based on Year 1 of the Dark Energy Survey to explore the impact of galaxy neighbours on shape measurement and shear cosmology. The HOOPOE image simulations include realistic blending, galaxy positions, and spatial variations in depth and point spread function properties. Using the IM3SHAPE maximum-likelihood shape measurement code, we identify four mechanisms by which neighbours can have a non-negligible influence on shear estimation. These effects, if ignored, would contribute a net multiplicative bias of m ˜ 0.03-0.09 in the Year One of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y1) IM3SHAPE catalogue, though the precise impact will be dependent on both the measurement code and the selection cuts applied. This can be reduced to percentage level or less by removing objects with close neighbours, at a cost to the effective number density of galaxies neff of 30 per cent. We use the cosmological inference pipeline of DES Y1 to explore the cosmological implications of neighbour bias and show that omitting blending from the calibration simulation for DES Y1 would bias the inferred clustering amplitude S8 ≡ σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.5 by 2σ towards low values. Finally, we use the HOOPOE simulations to test the effect of neighbour-induced spatial correlations in the multiplicative bias. We find the impact on the recovered S8 of ignoring such correlations to be subdominant to statistical error at the current level of precision.

  5. The history of energy industry law in Germany. With particular emphasis on the development of the Energy Act (EnWG) and current proposals for reform under discussion; Zur Entwicklung des Energierechts in Deutschland. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes und der aktuellen Reformdiskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeddinck, U.

    1995-11-01

    The paper describes the history and development of the regulatory framework governing the energy industry and the reasons why this legislation has been creating an organisational framework of the power industry in Germany with some strikingly peculiar features. The core structure and the essential aspects of the Energy Act (EnWG) are discussed in detail, followed by a survey of relevant cartel laws and the regime of franchise agreements and franchise duties. The amendments made in response to the oil crisis in the early seventies are mentioned, and current trends and proposals for reform are outlined. The Annex contains material illustrating a number of significant developments and issues in the history of the energy industry law, with brief explanations. The bibliography also lists publications of interest to readers wishing to get more insight into ongoing debates about problems posed by energy industry law, and proposed reforms. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag zeichnet die Entstehung und Veraenderung des rechtlichen Ordnungsrahmens nach, der fuer die derzeitige eigentuemliche Organisation der deutschen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft verantwortlich ist. Im Mittelpunkt steht das EnWG mit seinem Grundmuster. Darueberhinaus werden die einschlaegigen kartellrechtlichen Vorschriften und das Konzessionsabgabenrecht vorgestellt. Weiter wird die Reaktion des Gesetzgebers auf die dramatische Oelkrise zu Beginn der siebziger Jahre deutlich. Schliesslich wird der gegenwaertige Stand der Novellierungsbemuehungen skizziert. Die im Anhang enthaltenen Materialien veranschaulichen einige markante Punkte der energierechtlichen Entwicklung. Sie sind jeweils mit einer kurzen Erlaeuterung versehen. Das Literaturverzeichnis enthaelt auch Veroeffentlichungen zur aktuellen Diskussion, die dem interessierten Leser den vertieften Einstieg in dieses Problemfeld moeglich machen.

  6. Optimizing Spectroscopic and Photometric Galaxy Surveys: Same-Sky Benefits for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Donnacha [University Coll. London; Lahav, Ofer [University Coll. London; Bridle, Sarah [Manchester U.; Jouvel, Stephanie [Barcelona, IEEC; Abdalla, Filipe B. [University Coll. London; Frieman, Joshua A. [Chicago U., KICP

    2015-08-21

    The combination of multiple cosmological probes can produce measurements of cosmological parameters much more stringent than those possible with any individual probe. We examine the combination of two highly correlated probes of late-time structure growth: (i) weak gravitational lensing from a survey with photometric redshifts and (ii) galaxy clustering and redshift space distortions from a survey with spectroscopic redshifts. We choose generic survey designs so that our results are applicable to a range of current and future photometric redshift (e.g. KiDS, DES, HSC, Euclid) and spectroscopic redshift (e.g. DESI, 4MOST, Sumire) surveys. Combining the surveys greatly improves their power to measure both dark energy and modified gravity. An independent, non-overlapping combination sees a dark energy figure of merit more than 4 times larger than that produced by either survey alone. The powerful synergies between the surveys are strongest for modified gravity, where their constraints are orthogonal, producing a non-overlapping joint figure of merit nearly 2 orders of magnitude larger than either alone. Our projected angular power spectrum formalism makes it easy to model the cross-correlation observable when the surveys overlap on the sky, producing a joint data vector and full covariance matrix. We calculate a same-sky improvement factor, from the inclusion of these cross-correlations, relative to non-overlapping surveys. We find nearly a factor of 4 for dark energy and more than a factor of 2 for modified gravity. The exact forecast figures of merit and same-sky benefits can be radically affected by a range of forecasts assumption, which we explore methodically in a sensitivity analysis. We show that that our fiducial assumptions produce robust results which give a good average picture of the science return from combining photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  7. Analyse de l'évolution et modélisation des besoins énergétiques français. Application du modèle ABEL à des scénarios contrastés aux horizons 2000 et 2020 Evolutionary Analysis and Modeling of French Energy Needs. Applying the ABEL Model to Contrasting Scenarios for the Horizons 2000 and 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncato J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Devant l'enchérissement du pétrole, les pays industrialisés à faibles ressources énergétiques fossiles nationales devront recourir dans le futur à d'autres formes d'énergie (nucléaire, charbon, solaire. La transformation de ces énergies primaires en vecteurs commercialisables est caractérisée par des coûts d'investissement élevés. Cela impose de rechercher le meilleur taux d'utilisation des équipements face à une demande fortement modulée. L'étude de tels systèmes énergétiques procède en deux étapes : analyse des besoins en énergie, puis optimisation des équipements depuis le niveau de production jusqu'à l'utilisation. L'objet de cette communication est de présenter un modèle d'étude de la consommation (ABEL, qui s'appuie sur une analyse du système socio-économique national expliquant la formation et l'évolution des besoins d'énergie. Cette analyse aboutit à la construction de modèles de simulation des consommations d'énergie par secteur. Cette modélisation rend compte des variations saisonnières des besoins. Un modèle macro-économique de cohérence traduit les relations entre niveaux d'activité des différents secteurs, de façon à éviter des distorsions grossières dans une projection à long terme. Des scénarios permettent de simuler diverses hypothèses de développement économique et social. Faced with increasing oil prices, the industrialized countries with smail national fossil energy resources will have to look to other types of energy in the future (nuclear energy, coal, solar energy. The transformation of such primary energy sources into marketable carriers is characterized by high investment costs. This means that the best utilization factor for equipment will have to be sought after in the face of highly modulated demand. A survey of such energy systems is made in two steps: (a analyzing energy needs, and (b optimizing equipment all the way from initial production to end use. The aim of

  8. Measurements of the charge exchange and dissociation cross-sections of the H{sub 2}+ ion in a wide energy range; Mesures des sections efficaces d'echange de charge et de dissociation des ions H{sub 2}{sup +} dans une large gamme d'energie (25 - 250 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidini, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The dissociation, ionisation, and charge exchange cross-sections of molecular hydrogen ions H{sub 2}{sup +} passing through various gases, have been measured as a function of the energy of the ions. The energy range studied was from 25 to 250 keV. The reaction products, analysed by a magnetic field according to their e/m ratio, are collected on scintillation detectors. Two methods have made it possible to separate the various reactions leading to the formation of particles having the same e/m ratio. The first separates the particles according to their energy, the other selects those arriving simultaneously on two different detectors. The results show a large variation in the charge exchange cross-section with the energy of the H{sub 2}{sup +} ions. The variations in the dissociation and ionisation cross-sections are less pronounced. For a given energy, the values of the cross-sections increase with the atomic weight of the target particles. These measurements have been extended to the case of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions passing through a target of charged particles. Preliminary results show an increase in the cross-sections as compared to the preceding case. Finally the scattering of the reaction products has been studied; this scattering is due to the fact that the molecules formed during a reaction are in an unstable state and the nuclei or atoms diverge from each other. (author) [French] Les sections efficaces de dissociation, d'ionisation et d'echange de charge d'ions hydrogene moleculaires H{sub 2}{sup +} traversant differents gaz, ont ete mesurees en fonction de l'energie des ions. La gamme d'energie exploree est comprise entre 25 et 250 keV. Les produits de reactions, analyses suivant leur rapport e/m par un champ magnetique, sont recus sur des detecteurs a scintillations. Deux methodes ont permis de separer les diverses reactions conduisant a la formation de particules ayant meme rapport e/m. L'une classe les particules secondaires en energie, l'autre selectionne

  9. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  10. Neutron Dosimetry and Irradiation of Solids; Dosimetrie des neutrons et irradiation des solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perriot, G; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Results of work at C.E.A. from 1958 to 1960 are reviewed. The possibilities offered by classical dosimetry methods are discussed. The tests which led to the utilization, for fast neutron dosimetry, of resistivity variations induced in solid W by such neutrons are described. Experimental W irradiation results led to a definition of neutron efficiency which describes the relations between neutron energy and their effects on materials. Possibilities offered by detectors which make use of radiation damage and are sensitive to neutrons at keV energies were explored. In other work, the principal French reactors were classified according to their ability to produce damage in materials such as W. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport on a presente les resultats essentiels de travaux qui ont ete effectues de 1958 a 1980 par des chercheurs du CEA issus de differents services. En meme temps qu'une revue des possibilites offertes a l'epoque par les methodes classiques de dosimetrie (utilisation des detecteurs par activation), on a decrit les essais qui devaient permettre d'utiliser, a la dosimetrie les neutrons rapides, les variations de resistivite qu'ils creent dans un corps solide (tungstene). L'irradiation du tungstene a montre l'importance qu'il y avait a definir 'l'efficacite' des neutrons, c'est-a-dire leur aptitude plus ou moins grande, selon leur energie, a creer des defauts dans les materiaux. L'efficacite d'un emplacement d'irradiation se trouvant liee au spectre neutronique, on a vu les difficultes qu'il y avait a utiliser les detecteurs par activation des qu'on n'avait plus affaire a un spectre en 1/E ou de fission et on a pu entrevoir les possibilites offertes par les detecteurs utilisant la creation des defauts qui repondent a tous les neutrons d'energies, superieures a quelques keV. Enfin, on a classe les principaux types de Piles Francaises selon leur aptitude a creer plus ou moins rapidement des dommages dans des materiaux comme le tungstene. (auteur)

  11. Joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering: Methodology and forecasts for Dark Energy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Krause, E.; Dodelson, S.; Jain, B.; Amara, A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large-scale structure. Anticipating a near future application of this analysis to Dark Energy Survey (DES) measurements of galaxy positions and shapes, we develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting the joint analysis of small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing and large-scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects being subdominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degeneracies necessitate the detailed joint modeling of the galaxy sample that we employ. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the Universe, conservatively/optimistically constraining the growth function to 7.9%/4.8% with its first-year data that cover over 1000 square degrees, and to 3.9%/2.3% with its full five-year data that will survey 5000 square degrees, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  12. Power Analysis of Energy Efficient DES Algorithm and Implementation on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thind, Vandana; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have done power analysis ofData Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm using Xilinx ISE software development kit. We have analyzed the amount of power utilized by selective components on board i.e., FPGA Artix-7, where DES algorithm is implemented. The components taken into consider......In this work, we have done power analysis ofData Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm using Xilinx ISE software development kit. We have analyzed the amount of power utilized by selective components on board i.e., FPGA Artix-7, where DES algorithm is implemented. The components taken...... into consideration areclock power, logic power, signals power, IOs power, leakage powerand supply power (dynamic and quiescent). We have used four different WLAN frequencies (2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 4.9GHz, and 5.9 GHz) and four different IO standards like HSTL-I, HSTL-II, HSTL-II-18, HSTL-I-18 for power analysis. We have...... achieved13-47% saving in power at different frequencies and withdifferent energy efficient HSTL IO standard. We calculated the percentage change in the IO power with respect to the mean values of IO power at four different frequencies. We notified that there is minimum of -37.5% and maximum of +35...

  13. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  14. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations; Texte Des Accords Conclus Entre L'Agence Et L'Organisation Des Nations Unies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-30

    The texts of the following agreements and supplementary agreements between the Agency and the United Nations are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. A. Agreement Governing the Relationship Between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; B. Protocol Concerning the Entry into Force of the Agreement between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; II. Administrative Arrangement Concerning the Use of the United Nations Laissez-Passer by Officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency; and III. Agreement for the Admission of the International Atomic Energy Agency into the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund [French] Le texte des accords et des accords additionnels ci-apres, conclus entre l'Agence et l'Organisation des Nations Unies, est reproduit dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Membres de l'Agence. A.Accord regissant les relations entre l'Organisation des Nations Unies et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique; B.Protocole relatif a l'entree en vigueur de l'accord conclu entre l'Organisation des Nations Unies et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique; II.Dispositions administratives concernant l'utilisation du laissez-passer de l'Organisation des Nations Unies par les fonctionnaires de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique; III.Accord en vue de l'admission de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique a la Caisse commune des pensions du personnel des Nations Unies.

  15. Energy policies of Poland: 1994 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This survey, conducted in co-operation with the Polish Government as a follow-up to the 1990 IEA Survey of Energy Policies of Poland, is intended to support Polish authorities responsible for designing measures and setting targets for energy policy. Another purpose is to report on progress made since 1990 in adapting the Polish energy sector to the requirements of a market economy. The survey documents and analyses recent developments in energy supply and demand, the energy pricing situation as of late 1994, Poland's energy supply security, the structure of the energy industries and the evolving relationship between the Government, public enterprises and private companies in the energy sector. It also looks at developments and initiatives in energy end-use efficiency and outlines the considerable environmental problems caused by energy production and use. The analysis points to areas where there is a need for further measures, comments on the Government's present policies and makes recommendations for the future. (authors). 41 figs., 51 tabs

  16. Factors and uncertainties in the profitability of using nuclear energy in desalination of water; Facteurs et incertitudes de la rentabilite du recours a l'energie nucleaire dans le dessalement des eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Lievre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    One of the economic advantages of nuclear energy consists of the small proportional element in its cost structure. Economies of scale favour the nuclear station as compared with the conventional thermal one, and when the demand for electricity and heat, in particular for desalination, are sufficient, nuclear energy may, subject to certain conditions, prove advantageous. The object of this paper is to discuss the validity of the conclusions reached according to the hypotheses adopted. In the first part, the different kind of uncertainties connected with technical, economic and financial data (the various transmission coefficients, the life of equipment according to the choice of materials, changes in prices, the form of price functions and interest rates), and with the various constraints, are examined and discussed. In the second part the uncertainties connected with the method of optimisation used and the criterion of selection adopted are examined and discussed. It is shown thereby that it is usually extremely difficult to assume absolutely the competitiveness, or conversely the non-competitiveness, of using nuclear energy in the desalination of water, and that a large number of aspects have to be carefully examined. (author) [French] On sait que l'un des avantages economiques de l'energie nucleaire reside dans la faible part proportionnelle dans la structure de son cout. Les economies d'echelle favorisent le nucleaire par rapport au thermique classique, et lorsque les demandes d'electricite et de chaleur, notamment pour le dessalement, sont suffisantes on peut envisager favorablement, sous certaines hypotheses, le recours a l'energie nucleaire. L'objet de cette communication est de discuter la validite des conclusions auxquelles on parvient selon les hypotheses envisagees. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie et on discute les differentes sortes d'incertitudes, liees aux donnees techniques, economiques et financieres (les divers coefficients de transmission, les

  17. Effect of high energy electrons on the skin and on the underlying tissues of the rabbit. A clinical and histological study; Effets des electrons de haute energie sur la peau et les tissus sous-jacents du lapin. Etude clinique et histologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, G; Vialettes, H; Adnet, J J; Court, L; Masse, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The authors consider in this report the effects of high-energy electrons on rabbit teguments and on the underlying tissues after a single high dose irradiation. After briefly considering the mechanism of interaction between the electrons and matter as a function of their energy, the authors describe the dosimetry carried out, as a function of the irradiation device. The animal received surface doses of 5700 to 22100 rads in the thigh; the electron energy varied from 21 to 30 MeV. A clinical study was carried out over a period of nine months with a view to following the evolution of the damage and the functional degradation of the underlying tissues. A histological study of the induced damage was made after a second irradiation using 30 MeV electrons to produce doses of 16400 rads. Interesting observations were made concerning the damage caused to muscular and nerve tissues. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient, dans ce rapport, les effets des electrons de haute energie sur les teguments du lapin et les tissus sous-jacents apres une irradiation unique a dose elevee. Apres un rappel du mecanisme de l'interaction des electrons avec la matiere en fonction de leur energie, la dosimetrie realisee est exposee en fonction du dispositif d'irradiation. Les animaux ont recu, au niveau de la cuisse, des doses en surface de 5700 a 22100 rads; les energies des electrons vont de 21 a 30 MeV. Une etude clinique des lesions, observees pendant 9 mois, decrit leur evolution ainsi que les alterations fonctionnelles des tissus sous-jacents. Une etude histologique des lesions induites a ete realisee au cours d'une seconde experience pour des doses de 16400 rads avec des electrons de 30 MeV. D'interessantes observations ont ete faites concernant les lesions des tissus musculaires et nerveux. (auteurs)

  18. Use of superconductors for storage and discharge of electrical energy; L'utilisation des supraconducteurs pour le stockage et la decharge de l'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    After recalling the elementary properties which led to superconductors being used for generating very strong magnetic fields, as well as the methods used to attain the required very low temperatures in practice, the author presents in its elementary form the principle of storage and liberation of energy. A more detailed analysis of the successive charging, trapping, storage and discharge operations shows up the different aspects of the problem and is followed by a review of the very small amount of research published up to now and also by a presentation of the original work which has been carried out in this field. It is already possible to use superconducting materials as they are (i.e. although their characteristics have been adjusted with a view only to obtain very strong magnetic fields). Much more will be obtained from superconductors when they have been correctly adapted to this new very promising application to the storage and discharge of electrical energy. (authors) [French] Rappelant les proprietes elementaires qui avaient conduit a utiliser les supraconducteurs pour engendrer des champs mangetiques intenses, ainsi que les moyens utilises pour atteindre pratiquement les tres basses temperatures necessaires, l'auteur presente sous sa forme elementaire le principe du stockage et de la liberation de l'energie. Une analyse plus detaillee des operations successives de charge, piegeage, stockage et decharge de l'energie, faisant apparaitre differents aspects du probleme, permet de faire le point sur les rares travaux connus a ce jour et de presenter le travail original qui a ete effectue dans ce domaine. On peut deja exploiter les materiaux supraconducteurs tels qu'ils sont (c'est-a-dire malgre que leurs caracteristiques n'aient ete ajustees qu'en vue de realiser des champs magnetiques intenses). On obtiendra encore bien davantage des supraconducteurs lorsqu'ils auront ete correctement adaptes a cette nouvelle application pleine de promesses que representent le

  19. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M; Lacourly, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  20. Survey of Public Understanding on Energy Resources including Nuclear Energy (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Song, Sun-Ja

    2007-01-01

    Women in Nuclear-Korea (WINK) surveyed the public understanding on various energy resources in early September 2006 to offer the result for establishment of the nuclear communication policy. The reason why this survey includes other energy resources is because the previous works are only limited on nuclear energy, and also aimed to know the public's opinion on the present communication skill of nuclear energy for the public understanding. The present study is purposed of having data how public understands nuclear energy compared to other energies, such as fossil fuels, hydro power, and other sustainable energies. The data obtained from this survey have shown different results according to the responded group; age, gender, residential area, etc. Responded numbers are more than 2,000 of general public and university students. The survey result shows that nuclear understanding is more negative in women than in men, and is more negative in young than older age

  1. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  2. The energy outlook in China-Minutes from the seminar organised by the Centre Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Meritet, S.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the seminars that are organised on a regular basis, the Centre de Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres has devoted, on the 2. of June, a day to China, its energetics outlook and the resulting economic and geopolitical challenges. (authors)

  3. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  4. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  5. Contribution to the study of the diffusion {alpha}-proton for {alpha} particles of 3,1 and 5,3 MeV; Contribution a l'etude de la diffusion {alpha}-proton pour des particules {alpha} d'energie comprise entre 3,1 et 5,3 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhla, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    The diffusion of the particles has by the light cores that present a weak gate of potential, must permit the survey of the nuclear strengths. Some authors, studying the distribution in energy of the protons given out by a hydrogenated target submitted to a bombardment has variable energy, signal that this distribution has a structure of groups. We tried to reproduce experiences of diffusion {alpha}-proton, in order to verify the existence of the groups of signaled protons in the previous works. However in spite of finer experimental conditions, we had recovered any group structures in the distribution of the protons. This work permits to conclude that there is not a resonance in the {alpha}-proton diffusion for included energies between 3,1 and 5,3 MeV. The absence of resonances confirms the existence of the fundamental level of {sup 5}Li above in the neighborhood of 1,8 MeV {sup 4}He + {sup 1}H. (M.B.) [French] La diffusion des particules a par les noyaux legers qui presentent une faible barriere de potentiel, doit permettre l'etude des forces nucleaires. certains auteurs, etudiant la distribution en energie des protons emis par une cible hydrogenee soumise a un bombardement a d'energie variable, signalent que cette distribution a une structure de groupes. Nous avons essaye de reproduire les experiences du type diffusion {alpha}-proton, afin de verifier l'existence des groupes de protons signales dans les travaux anterieurs. Cependant malgre des conditions experimentales plus fines, nous n'avons retrouve aucunce structure de groupe dans la distribution des protons. Ce travail permet de conclure qu'il n'y a pas de resonance dans la diffusion {alpha}-proton pour des energies comprises entre 3,1 et 5,3 MeV. L'absence de resonances confirme l'existence du niveau fondamental de {sup 5}Li au voisinage de 1,8 MeV au-dessus de {sup 4}He + {sup 1}H. (M.B.)

  6. Systematic Biases in Weak Lensing Cosmology with the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuroff, Simon [Manchester U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis sets out a practical guide to applying shear measurements as a cosmological tool. We first present one of two science-ready galaxy shape catalogues from Year 1 of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y1), which covers 1500 square degrees in four bands $griz$, with a median redshift of $0.59$. We describe the shape measurement process implemented by the DES Y1 imshape catalogue, which contains 21.9 million high-quality $r$-band bulge/disc fits. In Chapter 3 a new suite of image simulations, referred to as Hoopoe, are presented. The Hoopoe dataset is tailored to DES Y1 and includes realistic blending, spatial masks and variation in the point spread function. We derive shear corrections, which we show are robust to changes in calibration method, galaxy binning and variance within the simulated dataset. Sources of systematic uncertainty in the simulation-based shear calibration are discussed, leading to a final estimate of the $1\\sigma$ uncertainties in the residual multiplica tive bias after calibration of 0.025. Chapter 4 describes an extension of the analysis on the Hoopoe simulations into a detailed investigation of the impact of galaxy neighbours on shape measurement and shear cosmology. Four mechanisms by which neighbours can have a non-negligible influence on shear measurement are identified. These effects, if ignored, would contribute a net multiplicative bias of $m \\sim 0.03 - 0.09$ in DES Y1, though the precise impact will depend on both the measurement code and the selection cuts applied. We use the cosmological inference pipeline of DES Y1 to explore the cosmological implications of neighbour bias and show that omitting blending from the calibration simulation for DES Y1 would bias the inferred clustering amplitude $S_8 \\equiv \\sigma_8 (\\omegam /0.3)^{0.5}$ by $1.5 \\sigma$ towards low values. Finally, we use the Hoopoe simulations to test the effect of neighbour-induced spatial correlations in the multiplicative bias. We find the cosmo logical

  7. Detection of high energy gamma radiations with liquid rare gases as scintillators; Detection des rayonnements Gamma de grande energie avec les gaz rares liquides comme scintillateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Phan Xuan

    1965-11-25

    This research thesis reports the study of a sensor based on a liquid scintillator for the detection of high energy (10 to 30 MeV) gamma radiations. The scintillator is a liquefied argon or xenon rare gas. The author first studies the process of energy transfer from the particle to the sensing medium. He addresses the different involved elements and phenomena: electromagnetic radiations (Compton Effect, photoelectric effect, pair production, and total gamma absorption), charged particles (braking radiation, collisions) and application to gamma spectrometry. He describes and discusses the scintillation mechanisms (scintillation of organic and inorganic materials), the general characteristics of scintillators (impurities, converters), and then reports the practical realisation of the sensor. Results are presented and discussed [French] Dans ce travail, nous nous proposons d'etudier une technique. Il s'agit d'un detecteur a scintillateur liquide pour la detection des rayonnements gamma energiques (10 a 30 MeV). Le scintillateur utilise est un gaz rare liquefie argon ou xenon. Nous examinerons d'abord les processus de transfert de l'energie de la particule au milieu detecteur puis les mecanismes de scintillation en general pour pouvoir exploiter au mieux les phenomenes favorables. Nous presenterons ensuite la realisation pratique du detecteur. Ses qualites (et defauts) trouveront leur place dans la fin de ce memoire. Bien qu'a l'heure actuelle, par la methode de Kyropoulos, on puisse faire pousser des gros cristaux d'iodure de sodium, l'utilisation des 'gaz rares' liquefies comme scintillateurs est, grace a la brievete de la scintillation, tres utile lorsqu'on recherche un fort taux de comptage (jusqu'a 10 impulsions par seconde) ou lorsqu'on veut resoudre certains problemes de coincidence. Les cristaux NaI(Tl) de grandes dimensions sont d'un montage facile mais leur manipulation requiert beaucoup de precautions du fait qu'ils supportent tres mal les chocs thermiques

  8. The redMaPPer Galaxy Cluster Catalog From DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E. S. [et al.

    2016-04-29

    We describe updates to the redMaPPer algorithm, a photometric red-sequence cluster finder specifically designed for large photometric surveys. The updated algorithm is applied to $150\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ of Science Verification (SV) data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 photometric data set. The DES SV catalog is locally volume limited, and contains 786 clusters with richness $\\lambda>20$ (roughly equivalent to $M_{\\mathrm{500c}}\\gtrsim10^{14}\\,h_{70}^{-1}\\,M_{\\odot}$) and 0.2 < $z$ <0.9. The DR8 catalog consists of 26311 clusters with 0.08 < $z$ < 0.6, with a sharply increasing richness threshold as a function of redshift for $z\\gtrsim 0.35$. The photometric redshift performance of both catalogs is shown to be excellent, with photometric redshift uncertainties controlled at the $\\sigma_z/(1+z)\\sim 0.01$ level for $z\\lesssim0.7$, rising to $\\sim0.02$ at $z\\sim0.9$ in DES SV. We make use of $Chandra$ and $XMM$ X-ray and South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zeldovich data to show that the centering performance and mass--richness scatter are consistent with expectations based on prior runs of redMaPPer on SDSS data. We also show how the redMaPPer photo-$z$ and richness estimates are relatively insensitive to imperfect star/galaxy separation and small-scale star masks.

  9. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; Amara, A.; Leistedt, B.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S. L.; Bruderer, C.; Busha, M. T.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Childress, M. J.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, T. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Kacprzak, T.; King, A.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; O’Neill, C. R.; Palmese, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Refregier, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Uddin, S.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods { annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-U fig simulations, skynet, and tpz { are analysed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we also construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evalu-ated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-zs. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0:3 < z < 1:3, we construct three tomographic bins with means of z = {0.45; 0.67,1.00g}. These bins each have systematic uncertainties δz ≲ 0.05 in the mean of the fiducial skynet photo-z n(z). We propagate the errors in the redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approx. 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalog. We also found that further study of the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, contained levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0:05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  10. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?; Dekarbonisierung des deutschen Energiesystems durch sinkenden oder steigenden Stromverbrauch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [German] Spaetestens seit der Veroeffentlichung des Entwurfs zum ''Klimaschutzplan 2050'' und des ''Gruenbuch Energieeffizienz'' ist klar, dass die Bundesregierung auf die Elektrifizierung des Waerme- und Verkehrssektors setzt, um den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in diesen Sektoren zu steigern. Dieser Schritt ist nicht unumstritten und stellt einen Paradigmenwechsel in Wissenschaft und Politik dar, denn auf einmal rueckt die Senkung des Bruttostromverbrauchs in den Hintergrund. Es gilt jetzt, klar zu trennen zwischen dem herkoemmlichen Stromverbrauch, der weiterhin auf Energieeinspar- und -effizienzpotenziale hin untersucht werden muss, und dem neuen, hier Koppelstrom genannten Stromverbrauch, welcher in Kauf genommen wird, um die Ziele der Energiewende zu erreichen. Da die Betrachtung der Energiewende als rein nationales Projekt zu kurz greift, verdienen moegliche

  11. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  12. Energie des particules émises après explosion coulombienne de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ةﺪﯾﺪﺷ ﺔﯿﻧﺎﺛﻮﺘﻤﻓ تارﺰﯿﻟ . Résumé. L'étude des clusters métalliques de Sodium (Na), contenant 5.103 atomes par agrégat, soumis à des champs laser femtosecondes intenses a conduit à une forte énergie d'excitation qui peut être l'origine des électrons de fortes énergies, des ions énergétiques de hautes charges ou des ...

  13. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: A Precise H0 Measurement from DES Y1, BAO, and D/H Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2017-11-01

    We combine Dark Energy Survey Year 1 clustering and weak lensing data with Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) experiments to constrain the Hubble constant. Assuming a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model with minimal neutrino mass ($\\sum m_\

  14. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  15. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  16. Studying dark energy with galaxy cluster surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; O'Shea, Brian; Evrard, August E.; Bialek, John; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys provide a powerful means of studying the density and nature of the dark energy. The redshift distribution of detected clusters in a deep, large solid angle SZE or X-ray survey is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state. Accurate constraints at the 5% level on the dark energy equation of state require that systematic biases in the mass estimators must be controlled at better than the ∼10% level. Observed regularity in the cluster population and the availability of multiple, independent mass estimators suggests these precise measurements are possible. Using hydrodynamical simulations that include preheating, we show that the level of preheating required to explain local galaxy cluster structure has a dramatic effect on X-ray cluster surveys, but only a mild effect on SZE surveys. This suggests that SZE surveys may be optimal for cosmology while X-ray surveys are well suited for studies of the thermal history of the intracluster medium

  17. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de detecteurs, une etude systematique des

  18. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d

  19. Discovery of a z = 0.65 post-starburst BAL quasar in the DES supernova fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudd, Dale; Martini, Paul; Tie, Suk Sien; Lidman, Chris; McMahon, Richard; Banerji, Manda; Davis, Tamara; Peterson, Bradley; Sharp, Rob; Seymour, Nicholas; Childress, Michael; Lewis, Geraint; Tucker, Brad; Yuan, Fang; Abbot, Tim; Abdalla, Filipe; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Camero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Carretero, Jorge; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, Thomas; Eifler, Tim; Finley, David; Flaugher, Brenna; Glazebrook, Karl; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; Gutierrez, Gaston; Hinton, Samuel; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolav; Macaulay, Edward; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Miquel, Ramon; Ogando, Ricardo; Plazas, Andres; Riel, Kevin; Sanchez, Eusebio; Santiago, Basillio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Robert C.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Uddin, Syed; Walker, Alistair; Zhang, Bonnie

    2017-03-23

    We present the discovery of a z=0.65 low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar in a post-starburst galaxy in data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and spectroscopy from the Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES). LoBAL quasars are a minority of all BALs, and rarer still is that this object also exhibits broad FeII (an FeLoBAL) and Balmer absorption. This is the first BAL quasar that has signatures of recently truncated star formation, which we estimate ended about 40 Myr ago. The characteristic signatures of an FeLoBAL require high column densities, which could be explained by the emergence of a young quasar from an early, dust-enshrouded phase, or by clouds compressed by a blast wave. The age of the starburst component is comparable to estimates of the lifetime of quasars, so if we assume the quasar activity is related to the truncation of the star formation, this object is better explained by the blast wave scenario.

  20. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de

  1. Sun - the energy of the 21. century. Strategies for cost reduction in solar cells; Sonne - Die Energie des 21. Jahrhunderts. Strategien zur Kostensenkung von Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The document comprises 2 sections with 20 contributions each. Subjects: 1. Solar energy, power for the 21st century,; 2. Strategies for cost reduction in solar cells. [German] Das Document behandelt in zwei Bloeken und mit 20 Betraegen die folgenden Themen: 1. Die ''Sonne'' als die Energie des 21. Jahrhunderts und 2. Strategien zur Kostensenkung von Solarzellen. (orig.)

  2. Energy and the deregulated marketplace 1998 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In this comprehensive survey of the energy and deregulated marketplace, 911 respondents indicate how deregulation will impact their business. Well organized for easy reference this published survey report provides answers on how companies will procure electricity and natural gas, and what criteria will be used in their decision process. The results presented also illustrate effect of real time pricing on the procurement of energy equipment. Readers will be able to see whether companies are delaying the purchase of energy efficiency equipment as a result of deregulation, as well as what current trends are developing in the use of energy services and performance contracting. The performance and overall cost effectiveness of various types of energy efficient equipment is also rated by respondents, and the results of existing installations is reported. Responses are broken down and can be assessed by respondent categories, including utility, energy supplier, energy user, power marketer, ESCO, equipment supplier, and consultant. This survey report offers a valuable tool for all companies whose business and marketing strategies are impacted by deregulation

  3. Cross-correlation redshift calibration without spectroscopic calibration samples in DES Science Verification Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C.; Rozo, E.; Roodman, A.; Alarcon, A.; Cawthon, R.; Gatti, M.; Lin, H.; Miquel, R.; Rykoff, E. S.; Troxel, M. A.; Vielzeuf, P.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2018-06-01

    Galaxy cross-correlations with high-fidelity redshift samples hold the potential to precisely calibrate systematic photometric redshift uncertainties arising from the unavailability of complete and representative training and validation samples of galaxies. However, application of this technique in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) is hampered by the relatively low number density, small area, and modest redshift overlap between photometric and spectroscopic samples. We propose instead using photometric catalogues with reliable photometric redshifts for photo-z calibration via cross-correlations. We verify the viability of our proposal using redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to successfully recover the redshift distribution of SDSS spectroscopic galaxies. We demonstrate how to combine photo-z with cross-correlation data to calibrate photometric redshift biases while marginalizing over possible clustering bias evolution in either the calibration or unknown photometric samples. We apply our method to DES Science Verification (DES SV) data in order to constrain the photometric redshift distribution of a galaxy sample selected for weak lensing studies, constraining the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions to a statistical uncertainty of Δz ˜ ±0.01. We forecast that our proposal can, in principle, control photometric redshift uncertainties in DES weak lensing experiments at a level near the intrinsic statistical noise of the experiment over the range of redshifts where redMaPPer clusters are available. Our results provide strong motivation to launch a programme to fully characterize the systematic errors from bias evolution and photo-z shapes in our calibration procedure.

  4. Wind energy survey in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind energy survey made for one country in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia) using mean wind speed data obtained from meteorological observations. The paper also presents reasons for expecting the calculated energy estimates to be potentially useful around most of the sites considered in the study.

  5. Energy policies of Hungary: 1995 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Great progress has been made towards adapting the energy sector of the Hungarian economy to perform effectively in an increasingly market oriented economy since the last IEA Survey in 1991. This new report reviews progress in restructuring energy industries and developments in energy markets, privatisation policy and regulatory arrangements. it also examines issues of energy supply security and environmental protection. Analysis of energy supply and demand is based on the most authoritative data available and the Survey concludes with a series of recommendations designed to further achievement of the Government's energy policy objectives. The Government is applauded for building emergency oil stocks in line with IEA policy and for progress in industrial restructuring and price reform. At the same time the need to complete price reforms to schedule is underlined and the Government is urged to complete regulatory arrangements well ahead of the planned privatisation of gas and electricity industries to ensure success. (authors). 60 tabs

  6. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  7. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumagnac, M. T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Kirk, D.; Sevilla, I.; Bertin, E.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Annis, J.; Busha, M. T.; Da Costa, L. N.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Jarvis, M.; Lin, H.; Percival, W. J.; Santiago, B. X.; Sabiu, C. G.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wolz, L.; Yanny, B.

    2015-04-14

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the gravitational weak lensing and large-scale structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by point spread function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use principal component analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multiparameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20 per cent for stars and by up to 12 per cent for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  8. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta[Energie renouvelable ; Zone rurale ; Gaz biologique ; Energie solaire ; Sechoir solaire]; Seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies nouvelles en zone rurale du 24 mars au3 avril 1980 a Reo, Haute Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    volume of transport much more reduced. Mastering these new technologies will help fight efficiently against desertification, and fruits and vegetables rotting. [French] L'acces a l'energie par toutes les populations reste une des preoccupations du Gouvernement de Haute Volta (Burkina Faso). C'est ainsi que sous l'egide de la Communaute Economique de l Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO), de l'Agence Canadienne de Developpement International et du Mouvement Scout, un seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies renouvelables en zone rurale y a ete organise. Il s'agit pour les participants venus de plusieurs pays, d'apprendre a mettre en pratique, l'utilisation des energies nouvelles telles la cuisiniere a feu ferme, le gaz biologique, le chauffe- eau solaire et le sechoir solaire. L'adoption de ces nouvelles sources d'energie par les populations permettrait de pallier les problemes de desertification lies au deboisement intensif dans le pays. Tous les participants a cette rencontre sont donc sensibilises pour qu'ils apportent leur contribution et celle des populations de leurs terroirs respectifs pour une meilleure conservation des ressources naturelles disponibles. Cela passe aussi par la construction de cuisinieres a feu ferme qui permettent d'avoir deux sources d'energie. Ce type de foyer est d'une construction facile et utilisable seulement trois jours apres. Il permet d'eviter la perte d'energie qui caracterisait le foyer traditionnel (pres de 95% de perte d'energie) ; ce qui revient a consommer moins de bois tout en assurant un rendement de l'ordre de 60 a 70%. Il s'est agi pour les participants aux travaux de s'initier a l'installation de gaz suivant des modeles chinois et indien . Ils ont donc ete inities a la realisation des technologies de production de gaz biologique a travers la maitrise du schema de principe du procede de fermentation discontinue. De meme, ils ont acquis le savoir- faire sur les techniques de mise en place du chauffe- eau solaire par insolateur et du

  9. Extreme Variability Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Shen, Yue; Morganson, Eric; Liu, Xin; Banerji, M.; McMahon, R. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2018-02-20

    We perform a systematic search for long-term extreme variability quasars (EVQs) in the overlapping Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and 3-Year Dark Energy Survey (DES) imaging, which provide light curves spanning more than 15 years. We identified ~1000 EVQs with a maximum g band magnitude change of more than 1 mag over this period, about 10% of all quasars searched. The EVQs have L_bol~10^45-10^47 erg/s and L/L_Edd~0.01-1. Accounting for selection effects, we estimate an intrinsic EVQ fraction of ~30-50% among all g<~22 quasars over a baseline of ~15 years. These EVQs are good candidates for so-called "changing-look quasars", where a spectral transition between the two types of quasars (broad-line and narrow-line) is observed between the dim and bright states. We performed detailed multi-wavelength, spectral and variability analyses for the EVQs and compared to their parent quasar sample. We found that EVQs are distinct from a control sample of quasars matched in redshift and optical luminosity: (1) their UV broad emission lines have larger equivalent widths; (2) their Eddington ratios are systematically lower; and (3) they are more variable on all timescales. The intrinsic difference in quasar properties for EVQs suggest that internal processes associated with accretion are the main driver for the observed extreme long-term variability. However, despite their different properties, EVQs seem to be in the tail of a continuous distribution of quasar properties, rather than standing out as a distinct population. We speculate that EVQs are normal quasars accreting at relatively low accretion rates, where the accretion flow is more likely to experience instabilities that drive the factor of few changes in flux on multi-year timescales.

  10. Radiosensitivity of chlorella after medium energy accelerated electron irradiation; Radiosensibilite des chlorelles aux electrons acceleres de moyenne energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, J C [commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The survival curves (capability of multiplication) of chlorella pyrenoidosa after irradiations can be used for soft electrons (0.65 and 1 MeV), hence penetrating into only 2 to 4 millimeters of water: the algae are laying on porous membranes and the doses are calculated from the power of the electron beam measured by the electric current on a metallic target or by Fricke's dosimetry. With these techniques, it is showed and discussed the part of anoxia in the radioprotection (magnitude or reduction of the dose calculated from the slope of survival curves: 2.5 ) that is more important than the restoration studied by the fractionation of the dose. The 0.65 and 1 MeV electrons have a biologic effect lesser than 180 keV X-rays (RBE - relative biological efficiency - calculated on the slope of survival curves is 0.92 in aerated irradiation, 0.56 in the deoxygenated irradiation). (author) [French] Les courbes de survie clonale (capacite de multiplication) de chlorella pyrenoidosa apres irradiation sont realisables meme avec des electrons peu energetiques (0.65 et 1 MeV), donc peu penetrants, par l'irradiation d'algues deposees sur membrane filtrante et grace au calcul de la dose a partir de l'energie du faisceau mesure par le courant que celui-ci cree dans une cible metallique ou par dosimetrie de Fricke. Par ces techniques, on a montre et discute le role de l'anoxie dans la radioprotection des chlorelles (facteur de reduction de la dose calcule sur la pente des courbes de survie de 2.5) qui est plus important que le pouvoir de restauration etudie par le fractionnement de la dose. Les electrons utilises ont un effet biologique moins grand que les rayons X de 180 keV (l'efficacite biologique relative - EBR - calculee sur la pente des courbes de survie est de 0.9 en presence d'air, 0.6 en presence d'azote)

  11. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J; Levret, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  12. Current algebra; Algebre des courants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( {delta}I = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [French] La premiere partie de ce cours (trois premiers chapitres), traite des generalites concernant l'algebre de courants. Apres une definition rapide des courants faibles et un rappel de leurs proprietes (hypothese V-A, conservation du courant vecteur, regles de selection, courant axial partiellement conserve,...), l'on introduit l'algebre de Gell-Mann SU (3) x SU (3), et discute les proprietes generales de l'Hamiltonien faible non leptonique. Les chapitres IV a IX sont consacres a des applications importantes de l'algebre des courants. En premier lieu l'on demontre la formule de Adler et Weisberger, par deux methodes differentes, celle dite du repere de moment infini et celle des singularites proches. Cette derniere est seule utilisee dans la suite. Puis, l'on traite successivement les problemes suivants: desintegrations semi-leptoniques des mesons K et des hyperons, theoreme de Kroll-Ruderman, desintegrations non leptoniques des mesons

  13. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  14. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  15. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: The Impact of Galaxy Neighbours on Weak Lensing Cosmology with im3shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuroff, S.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We use a suite of simulated images based on Year 1 of the Dark Energy Survey to explore the impact of galaxy neighbours on shape measurement and shear cosmology. The hoopoe image simulations include realistic blending, galaxy positions, and spatial variations in depth and PSF properties. Using the im3shape maximum-likelihood shape measurement code, we identify four mechanisms by which neighbours can have a non-negligible influence on shear estimation. These effects, if ignored, would contribute a net multiplicative bias of $m \\sim 0.03 - 0.09$ in the DES Y1 im3shape catalogue, though the precise impact will be dependent on both the measurement code and the selection cuts applied. This can be reduced to percentage level or less by removing objects with close neighbours, at a cost to the effective number density of galaxies $n_\\mathrm{eff}$ of 30%. We use the cosmological inference pipeline of DES Y1 to explore the cosmological implications of neighbour bias and show that omitting blending from the calibration simulation for DES Y1 would bias the inferred clustering amplitude $S_8\\equiv \\sigma_8 (\\Omega _\\mathrm{m} /0.3)^{0.5}$ by $2 \\sigma$ towards low values. Finally, we use the hoopoe simulations to test the effect of neighbour-induced spatial correlations in the multiplicative bias. We find the impact on the recovered $S_8$ of ignoring such correlations to be subdominant to statistical error at the current level of precision.

  16. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P; Chantelot, S; Moisson, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  17. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P.; Chantelot, S.; Moisson, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  18. Assessment of the potential of the Mainfranken region, northern Bavaria, for underground storage of geothermal energy; Erkundung des regionalen Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (UTEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, R; Heinrichs, G; Udluft, P [Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Geologie, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Ebert, H P; Fricke, J [Abt. Waermedaemmung/Waermetransport, Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V., Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The following paper presents a research project that is planned as a cooperation of the Geological Institute, University of Wuerzburg and the Bavarian Center of Applied Energy Research. In this project the potentials for underground thermal energy storage will be investigated in the region of Mainfranken, Northern Bavaria (Main = the river `Main`, Franken = Franconia). All aspects of underground storage will be studied with respect to the specific geographical and geological situation of the area. The study will provide a detailed map of possible storage sites, from which several case studies and at least one demonstration projects will result. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird ein Forschungsprojekt vorgestellt, das gemeinsam vom Institut fuer Geologie der Universitaet Wuerzburg und dem Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung in Bayern geplant wird. Ziel des Projekts ist die Erkundung des Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (Nordbayern). Alle Aspekte der Untergrundspeicherung werden regionalspezifisch betrachtet. Neben der Erstellung differenzierter Karten geeigneter Standorte sind Fallstudien und Demonstrationsprojekte in Planung. (orig.)

  19. Sustainable Energy Survey. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This report shows the results of a quick survey of current developments in the Dutch sustainable energy market. The companies and organizations, which are all members of the branch organizations under the umbrella of the Duurzame Energie Koepel, were interviewed about their situation in relation to the credit crisis and their vision on what is needed to put a halt to (further) slumping in the sustainable energy branch and in fact to promote the growth in turnover and employment. [nl

  20. La demande de bois-énergie à Ouagadougou : esquisse d’évaluation de l’impact physique et des échecs des politiques de prix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukary Ouedraogo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à évaluer non seulement la demande de bois-énergie de la ville de Ouagadougou, l’impact de cette demande sur le patrimoine forestier de l’aire d’approvisionnement de cette ville, mais aussi l’esquisse d’une évaluation des échecs des politiques de prix du bois-énergie. Les méthodes d’évaluation de la consommation de cette source d’énergie sont passées en revue au regard des conditions d’offre de la ressource et des données existantes sur la demande de cette ressource. Les données sur les inventaires forestiers de l’aire d’approvisionnement de Ouagadougou en bois-énergie, ainsi que des enquêtes sur les ménages et les artisans ont permis d’estimer la consommation de Ouagadougou en bois-énergie et son impact sur l’épuisement des ressources forestières du pays.This paper aims at evaluating not only the wood-energy demand of Ouagadougou, the physic impact of this city wood energy consumption on the forest of its provisioning area, together with the causes of wood-energy price policy failures. The evaluation’s methods of wood energy consumption are reviewed in comparison with the resource supply conditions and the availability on data of wood resource demand. The data on the forest inventories of the wood-energy provisioning surface of Ouagadougou, as well as investigations into the households and the craftsmen allows estimating the consumption of Ouagadougou in wood-energy and its impact on the forest resources’ depletion. some complementary analysis have been done on the main causes of wood energy price policy failures.

  1. Evaluating the implementation of the energy consumption labelling ordinance. Executive summary; Evaluierung zur Umsetzung der Energieverbrauchskennzeichnungsverordnung (EnVKV). Kurzfassung des Abschlussberichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Kling, N.; Mannsbart, W.; Stoeckle, F.

    2001-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the present degree of compliance with the Energy Consumption Labelling Ordinance for large household appliances in Germany in an empirical inventory. Concrete proposals to improve the degree of compliance with Directive among manufacturers and retailers were to be elaborated based on this inventory and the analysis of possible deficiencies in implementation and and their causes. A further objective of the study was to examine whether there was an increase in the share of appliance sales in the highest efficiency classes, so as to be able to judge the success of the measures provided in the Directive in accordance with the underlying energy and environmental objective of further reducing energy consumption in households. Furthermore, experience of other European countries in implementing the EU Directive was to be considered. (orig./CB) [German] Die wesentliche Zielsetzung der Untersuchung war es, den bisherigen Befolgungsgrad der Energieverbrauchskennzeichnungsverordnung fuer Haushaltsgrossgeraete in Deutschland mittels einer empirischen Bestandsaufnahme zu pruefen. Ausgehend von dieser Bestandsaufnahme und der Analyse moeglicher Umsetzungsdefizite und ihrer Ursachen sollten konkrete Vorschlaege zur Verbesserung des Befolgungsgrades der Verordnung bei Herstellern und im Handel erarbeitet werden. Als weitere Zielsetzung war auch der Aspekt einer Erhoehung des Anteils der verkauften Geraete in den sparsamsten Effizienzklassen zu beruecksichtigen bei der Beurteilung des Erfolgs der Massnahmen im Sinne der energie- und umweltpolitischen Zielsetzung, den Energieverbrauch in Haushalten weiter zu vermindern. Die Erfahrungen anderer europaeischer Laender bei der Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie sollten dabei beruecksichtigt werden. (orig./CB)

  2. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J.; Levret, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  3. Analysis of FFAG accelerators and the evolution of circular accelerators; L'analyse des accelerateurs FFAG et l'evolution des accelerateurs circulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laslett, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; [Iowa State Univ., U.S. Office of Naval Research, Dept. of Physics and Institute for Atomic Research, Ames (United States)

    1961-07-01

    After rapidly comparing circular machines with the linear accelerator and the reasons for the choice of an annular high energy and very high intensity accelerator, recent problems concerning accelerator theory are discussed, with emphasis on their physical character. The FFAG principle. The limit of the energy of FFAG cyclotron. The setting-up and interpreting of mean energy of focusing terms for a spiral FFAG synchrotron. The limiting amplitude stable near the non-linear resonance 2Q{sub z} = Q{sub r}, as well as the linear coupling resonance of Walkinshaw 2Q{sub z} = Q{sub r}. The crossed-beam accelerator. The 40 MeV electron model of MURA. Two other parts deal with linear and non-linear methods of injection and extraction using a variable disturbance applied to the magnetic field, as well as to collective effects. The interaction of the beam with the accelerating cavities and the walls. The modification of the phase oscillation equation. The influence of the beams' high frequency fields on the Nielsen longitudinal instability. (author) [French] Apres une comparaison rapide des machines circulaires avec l'accelerateur lineaire et une motivation du choix en faveur d'un accelerateur circulaire de haute energie et tres haute intensite, des problemes recents de la theorie des accelerateurs sont discutes, en insistant sur leur contenu physique. Le principe FFAG. La limitation en energie des cyclotrons FFAG. L'etablissement et l'interpretation des termes de la force moyenne de focalisation d'un synchrotron FFAG spirale. L'amplitude de limite stable a proximite de la resonance non-lineaire Q{sub r} = N/3, ainsi que la resonance lineaire de couplage de Walkinshaw 2Q{sub z} = Q{sub r}. L'accelerateur a faisceaux croises. Le modele a electrons de 40 MeV du MURA. Deux autres chapitres sont consacres a des methodes lineaires et non-lineaires d'injection et d'extraction a l'aide d'une perturbation variable appliquee au champ magnetique, ainsi qu'aux effets collectifs. L

  4. Modelling energy and non-energy substitution: A brief survey of elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the degree of substitution between energy and non-energy inputs is the key for any evaluation of environmental and energy policies. Yet, given the variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises as to which measure would be most appropriate. Apparently, Allen's elasticities of substitution have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. In line with , this paper argues that cross-price elasticities are preferable for many practical purposes. This conclusion is based on a survey of classical substitution measures, such as those from Allen, Morishima, and McFadden. The survey highlights the fact that cross-price elasticities are their essential ingredients. - Highlights: → Given the large variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises as to which measure would be most appropriate. Apparently, Allen's elasticities of substitution have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. → In line with , this paper argues that cross-price elasticities are preferable for many practical purposes. → This conclusion is based on a survey of classical substitution measures, such as those from Allen, Morishima, and McFadden. → The survey also highlights the fact that cross-price elasticities are their essential ingredients.

  5. On the interactions between carbon monoxide and transition metals; Contribution a l'etude des interractions de l'oxyde de carbone et des metaux de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degras, D E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-12-01

    The sticking of carbon monoxide on surface atoms of transition metals is a collective phenomenon: according to the adsorption process period which is considered, this phenomenon may be formally described either by the Elovich equation or essentially from a steric point of view. The process rate depends upon the nature of the metal, the carbon monoxide pressure the temperature and the population densities of the induced and fundamental energy levels of the gas-solid bond. At least one of these induced levels tends to disappear with increasing time. For a localised adsorption and taking into account the surface Rayleigh waves, the analysis of the surface entropy yields the so-called iso-kinetic temperature for thermal desorption. This temperature is correlated with the cohesive energy of the metal surface atoms. Finally, it is shown that the interactions of a low energy electron bean with adsorbed molecules - reflection and energy exchange, desorption, ionization or dissociative ionization are strongly dependent on the energy levels of the gas-solid bond and the relative populations of these levels. (author) [French] La capture des molecules d'oxyde de carbone par les atomes de surface des metaux de transition est un phenomene collectif: il peut etre decrit formellernent soit par l'equation d'Elovich, soit a partir de considerations purement steriques suivant la periode envisagee dans l'evolution du processus d'adsorption. Cette evolution est determinee par la nature du metal, la pression d'oxyde de carbone, la temperature et la densite des populations des niveaux fondamental et induits de la liaison. L'un au moins de ceux-ci tend a disparaitre avec le temps. L' etude de l'entropie du complexe de surface a partir des ondes de Rayleigh en adsorption localisee permet de retrouver theoriquernent la temperature dite isocinetique dans la dissociation thermique de ce complexe. Cette temperature depend de la cohesion des atomes rnetalliques de surface. Enfin l'interaction d

  6. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  7. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  8. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clustering and Weak Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present cosmological results from a combined analysis of galaxy clustering and weak gravitational lensing, using 1321 deg$^2$ of $griz$ imaging data from the first year of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y1). We combine three two-point functions: (i) the cosmic shear correlation function of 26 million source galaxies in four redshift bins, (ii) the galaxy angular autocorrelation function of 650,000 luminous red galaxies in five redshift bins, and (iii) the galaxy-shear cross-correlation of luminous red galaxy positions and source galaxy shears. To demonstrate the robustness of these results, we use independent pairs of galaxy shape, photometric redshift estimation and validation, and likelihood analysis pipelines. To prevent confirmation bias, the bulk of the analysis was carried out while blind to the true results; we describe an extensive suite of systematics checks performed and passed during this blinded phase. The data are modeled in flat $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM cosmologies, marginalizing over 20 nuisance parameters, varying 6 (for $\\Lambda$CDM) or 7 (for $w$CDM) cosmological parameters including the neutrino mass density and including the 457 $\\times$ 457 element analytic covariance matrix. We find consistent cosmological results from these three two-point functions, and from their combination obtain $S_8 \\equiv \\sigma_8 (\\Omega_m/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.783^{+0.021}_{-0.025}$ and $\\Omega_m = 0.264^{+0.032}_{-0.019}$ for $\\Lambda$CDM for $w$CDM, we find $S_8 = 0.794^{+0.029}_{-0.027}$, $\\Omega_m = 0.279^{+0.043}_{-0.022}$, and $w=-0.80^{+0.20}_{-0.22}$ at 68% CL. The precision of these DES Y1 results rivals that from the Planck cosmic microwave background measurements, allowing a comparison of structure in the very early and late Universe on equal terms. Although the DES Y1 best-fit values for $S_8$ and $\\Omega_m$ are lower than the central values from Planck ...

  9. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Redshift distributions of the weak lensing source galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, B.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We describe the derivation and validation of redshift distribution estimates and their uncertainties for the galaxies used as weak lensing sources in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 cosmological analyses. The Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code is used to assign galaxies to four redshift bins between z=0.2 and 1.3, and to produce initial estimates of the lensing-weighted redshift distributions $n^i_{PZ}(z)$ for bin i. Accurate determination of cosmological parameters depends critically on knowledge of $n^i$ but is insensitive to bin assignments or redshift errors for individual galaxies. The cosmological analyses allow for shifts $n^i(z)=n^i_{PZ}(z-\\Delta z^i)$ to correct the mean redshift of $n^i(z)$ for biases in $n^i_{\\rm PZ}$. The $\\Delta z^i$ are constrained by comparison of independently estimated 30-band photometric redshifts of galaxies in the COSMOS field to BPZ estimates made from the DES griz fluxes, for a sample matched in fluxes, pre-seeing size, and lensing weight to the DES weak-lensing sources. In companion papers, the $\\Delta z^i$ are further constrained by the angular clustering of the source galaxies around red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts at 0.15

  10. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Redshift distributions of the weak lensing source galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, B.; Gruen, D.; Bernstein, G. M.; Rau, M. M.; De Vicente, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Gaztanaga, E.; DeRose, J.; Troxel, M. A.; Davis, C.; Alarcon, A.; MacCrann, N.; Prat, J.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Childress, M.; Davis, T. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gatti, M.; Glazebrook, K.; Gschwend, J.; Hinton, S. R.; Hoormann, J. K.; Kim, A. G.; King, A.; Kuehn, K.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; Macaulay, E.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; Mudd, D.; Möller, A.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Rollins, R. P.; Roodman, A.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sharp, R.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Varga, T. N.; Vielzeuf, P.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Busha, M. T.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.; Yanny, B.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We describe the derivation and validation of redshift distribution estimates and their uncertainties for the populations of galaxies used as weak lensing sources in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 cosmological analyses. The Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code is used to assign galaxies to four redshift bins between z ≈ 0.2 and ≈1.3, and to produce initial estimates of the lensing-weighted redshift distributions n^i_PZ(z)∝ dn^i/dz for members of bin i. Accurate determination of cosmological parameters depends critically on knowledge of ni but is insensitive to bin assignments or redshift errors for individual galaxies. The cosmological analyses allow for shifts n^i(z)=n^i_PZ(z-Δ z^i) to correct the mean redshift of ni(z) for biases in n^i_PZ. The Δzi are constrained by comparison of independently estimated 30-band photometric redshifts of galaxies in the COSMOS field to BPZ estimates made from the DES griz fluxes, for a sample matched in fluxes, pre-seeing size, and lensing weight to the DES weak-lensing sources. In companion papers, the Δzi of the three lowest redshift bins are further constrained by the angular clustering of the source galaxies around red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts at 0.15 < z < 0.9. This paper details the BPZ and COSMOS procedures, and demonstrates that the cosmological inference is insensitive to details of the ni(z) beyond the choice of Δzi. The clustering and COSMOS validation methods produce consistent estimates of Δzi in the bins where both can be applied, with combined uncertainties of σ _{Δ z^i}=0.015, 0.013, 0.011, and 0.022 in the four bins. Repeating the photo-z proceedure instead using the Directional Neighborhood Fitting (DNF) algorithm, or using the ni(z) estimated from the matched sample in COSMOS, yields no discernible difference in cosmological inferences.

  11. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ↔ NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux

  12. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  13. Effets des rayonnements de haute energie sur le cristallin de la souris

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paola, M; Bianchi, M; Bianchi, M no 1; Baarli, J no 1; Di Paola, M no 1

    1973-01-01

    L'opacification du cristallin après irradiation par des neutrons et d'autres rayonnements ionisants a été largement étudiée, vu l'importance de telles recherches en radioprotection et la possibilité offerte par ce système d'analyser les effets produits par de petites doses de rayonnement. Les neutrons de haute énergie sont d'un intéret particulier pour la radioprotection près des accélérateurs et dans l'espace, mais jusqu'à présent les études ont été limitées aux neutrons d'énergie inférieur à 14 MeV. L'opacification du cristallin chez la souris, après irradiation par des neutrons de 400 MeV produits par le Synchro-Cyclotron du CERN, a été étudiée. Le valeurs d'E.B.R. ont été déterminées par comparaison avec des rayons X de 250 kV. Une breve discussion des résultats obtenus est inclue dans la présentation.

  14. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  15. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  16. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  17. Comparaison des effets du microcrédit, de la téléphonie mobile et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Comparaison des effets du microcrédit, de la téléphonie mobile et de la formation sur les microentreprises appartenant à des femmes en Inde. Par leur nombre, les microentreprises dominent le monde des affaires dans les pays en développement. En Inde, d'après des statistiques récentes de la National Sample Survey ...

  18. THE DIFFERENCE IMAGING PIPELINE FOR THE TRANSIENT SEARCH IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marriner, J.; Finley, D. A.; Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Childress, M.; Yuan, F. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Canada); Covarrubias, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); D’Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Papadopoulos, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Fischer, J.; Sako, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Goldstein, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gupta, R. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kuehn, K. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Marcha, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Smith, M.; Sullivan, M., E-mail: kessler@kicp.uchicago.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-15

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg{sup 2} fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, z passbands with a cadence of about 1 week. The observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functions are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ∼130 detections per deg{sup 2} per observation in each band, of which only ∼25% are artifacts. Of the ∼7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ∼30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. The DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 “shallow” fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ∼23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our 2

  19. Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ( Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder : Lepidoptera, Cossidae). Implications dans la stratégie de protection de la cacaoculture en Côte d'Ivoire.

  20. The energy sector between the two poles of the free market system and the public service obligations. Potential and limitations of state control, with an emphasis on the act for reform of the energy industry law (ENG) and the EU Internal Market Directive; Der Energiesektor zwischen Marktwirtschaft und oeffentlicher Aufgabe. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen staatlicher Steuerung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Gesetzes zur Neuregelung des Energiewirtschaftsrechts und des Europarechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, F.

    2000-07-01

    In Part A of the book it will be brought out that despite differing conceptual starting points and despite state control's way of working, there is no alternative to legal control. In co-operative models and consensual solutions in those states with private sector service providers, which exist in diverse forms in the energy sector, too, the law operates as a framework or regulatory warning, or it has a reserve function. An end to state control is not linked to that because the state remains responsible for the achievement of the goals the notification ans definition of which it undertakes as a public duty. The results found are discussed and confirmed in Part B of the book in connection with the reform of the legal framework of the energy industry (the German act named ENG). In Part C of the book it will be shown to what extent legal constitutional limitations stand in the way of state control in the energy sector. (orig./CB) [German] Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wird staatliche Steuerung durch Recht an Beispielen des Energiesektors untersucht, wobei insbesondere Fragen des Wirkens und der Erscheinungsformen staatlicher Steuerung sowie die Auswirkungen der Veraenderung staatlicher Steuerung auf die Rolle des Staates und auf das Verhaeltnis von Staat und Gesellschaft im Vordergrund stehen. Im zweiten Teil werden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der europarechtlichen Regelungen die Moeglichkeiten, rechtliche Grenzen und Maengel staatlicher Steuerung im bisherigen System der Elektrizitaetsversorgung in Deutschland dargestellt, da Reformen, um dem Steuerungsanspruch des Staates gerecht zu werden, diesezu beachten haben. Es wird u.a. untersucht, inwieweit Entstaatlichungsstrategien im Rahmen der Reformen im Energiesektor Anwendung finden. Im dritten Teil werden die verfassungsrechtlichen Restriktionen untersucht. (orig./CB)

  1. Coordination des installations et survey dans les zones experimentales impératifs de collaboration et de flexibilité

    CERN Document Server

    Gayde, JC; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    La section TS/SU-EM fournit les informations géométriques de formes, dimensions et positions des infrastructures des cavernes et des détecteurs des expériences LHC. Elle intervient à toutes les étapes de construction et ses opérations sont dépendantes des autres chantiers, des entreprises en particulier, et de la configuration changeante des lieux. Les travaux de TS/SU-EM dans les cavernes LHC font donc partie des multiples tâches que TS/LEA a pour mandat de coordonner et gérer. Bien que défini et planifié, le moment exact des interventions est souvent connu sous des délais courts, la méthodologie et les ressources devant alors être adaptées et prêtes au moment décidé. De plus, la section intervient souvent pour des opérations de contrôle de dernière minute par définition non programmées. Une communication permanente et directe entre SU et LEA a été établie pour assurer les échanges indispensables au bon déroulement du projet. Ses formes et moyens seront présentés ici.

  2. Ontario Energy Board 2005 survey of stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted among members of the Ontario Energy Board's (OEB) various stakeholder groups in order to measure the Board's performance and to help the Board identify areas for improvement in the way it operates. The survey included telephone interviews with consumer groups, advocacy groups, the energy sector, electricity and gas distributors, financial organizations as well as other stakeholders. The topics addressed in the survey were key energy issues and priority issues; the perceived role of the OEB; the OEB strengths and weaknesses; the importance of various OEB functions; the overall performance of the OEB; an evaluation of OEB communication with industry and consumers; an evaluation of service quality; and, awareness and participation in regulatory policy initiatives. Respondents used a 10-point scale in their evaluation. This report presented the main findings and their interpretations. Major stakeholders identified electricity supply issues and the price of electricity as being the most important energy issues facing Ontario. This report also presented the detailed findings for questions regarding the lack of generator capacity, policy stability, the coal phase out program, electricity blackouts, conservation, electricity restructuring and investment. The major finding of the survey was an overall increase in satisfaction with the OEB's performance. It was suggested that the OEB can improve in timeliness and providing consumer information. The major areas of strength were found to be its professionalism in conducting hearings and the fairness of the Board's decisions and regulations. tabs

  3. Public opinion survey on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of a public opinion survey on energy, conducted by Prime Minister's Office from November 26 to December 2, 1980, are described. Of the sampling of 5,000 adults throughout the nation, 4,113 replied the questions. The contents are as follows: awaraness of energy conservation, projection of the future of nuclear power, uneasiness about nuclear power, and energy policies. Concerning the major power generation system of the future, 47% of the people mentioned nuclear energy, followed by 18% mentioned solar energy. As to the future share of nuclear power, 38% favored its increase, 28% its maintaining at the current level, and only 5% wanted its decrease. About the feeling of uneasiness, 56% felt uneasiness and 44% were secure, making it clear that the uneasiness has not yet been eliminated. (J.P.N.)

  4. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay; Formation des scientifiques et des techniciens au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' waeated (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author)Fren. [French] Les besoins considerables actuels et previsibles en chercheurs et scientifiques necessites par l'avevement de l'energie nucleaire imposaient au Commissariat a I'Energie atomique un effort particulier pour augmenter la formation quantitative et qualitative des scientifiques. Les moyens les plus divers ont ete mis en oeuvre: 1- Creation de l'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires par decret de la Presidence du Conseil et de l'Education Nationale en date du 18.6.57. Cet Institut d'Enseignement Superieur (250 etudiants) donne des cours en: genie atomique, mecanique quantique, theorie et technique des Accelerateurs de particules, metallurgie speciale, radiobiologie

  5. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Unité de Recherche des Matériaux et des Energies Renouvelables (U.R.M.E.R). Université Abou –Baker Belkaid B.p : 119 Tlemcen 13000 Algerie. 2. Unité de Développement de la Technologie Du Silicium. UDTS, BP 399, Alger, Algérie. Accepté le : 08/06/2011. صخلم. داوﻣﻟا نﻣ ﻲﺗﻟا ﺔﺻﺎﺧو ،ﺔﻋﺎﻧﺻ يأ رﯾوطﺗ ﻲﻓ ﺎﯾﺳﯾﺋر ﻼﻣﺎﻋ ةرﯾﺧﻷا تاوﻧﺳﻟا ...

  6. Etude de la performance des radars hautes-frequences CODAR et WERA pour la mesure des courants marins en presence partielle de glace de mer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamli, Emna

    Les radars hautes-frequences (RHF) mesurent les courants marins de surface avec une portee pouvant atteindre 200 kilometres et une resolution de l'ordre du kilometre. Cette etude a pour but de caracteriser la performance des RHF, en terme de couverture spatiale, pour la mesure des courants de surface en presence partielle de glace de mer. Pour ce faire, les mesures des courants de deux radars de type CODAR sur la rive sud de l'estuaire maritime du Saint-Laurent, et d'un radar de type WERA sur la rive nord, prises pendant l'hiver 2013, ont ete utilisees. Dans un premier temps, l'aire moyenne journaliere de la zone ou les courants sont mesures par chaque radar a ete comparee a l'energie des vagues de Bragg calculee a partir des donnees brutes d'acceleration fournies par une bouee mouillee dans la zone couverte par les radars. La couverture des CODARs est dependante de la densite d'energie de Bragg, alors que la couverture du WERA y est pratiquement insensible. Un modele de fetch appele GENER a ete force par la vitesse du vent predite par le modele GEM d'Environnement Canada pour estimer la hauteur significative ainsi que la periode modale des vagues. A partir de ces parametres, la densite d'energie des vagues de Bragg a ete evaluee pendant l'hiver a l'aide du spectre theorique de Bretschneider. Ces resultats permettent d'etablir la couverture normale de chaque radar en absence de glace de mer. La concentration de glace de mer, predite par le systeme canadien operationnel de prevision glace-ocean, a ete moyennee sur les differents fetchs du vent selon la direction moyenne journaliere des vagues predites par GENER. Dans un deuxieme temps, la relation entre le ratio des couvertures journalieres obtenues pendant l'hiver 2013 et des couvertures normales de chaque radar d'une part, et la concentration moyenne journaliere de glace de mer d'autre part, a ete etablie. Le ratio des couvertures decroit avec l'augmentation de la concentration de glace de mer pour les deux types

  7. Santé des adolescents et des jeunes au Burkina Faso : état des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'est agi d'une étude évaluative ayant utilisé une revue documentaire associée à une interview des acteurs clés et un atelier de validation et d'identification des interventions pertinentes pour un plan stratégique national. La situation de la santé des adolescents et des jeunes est caractérisée par des grossesses précoces ...

  8. US business and the energy crisis: a survey of managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefalas, A G [Univ. of Georgia, Athens; Mehra, S

    1979-09-01

    Although there seems to be an uncomfortably clear consensus among academic and other researchers that energy availability, accessibility, and affordability can no longer be taken for granted, most governments seem to have great difficulty in devising an energy policy that will solve the energy crisis or at least clarify the energy confusion. In 1974, barely a year after the 1973 oil embargo, a survey was conducted of US executives, asking them to comment about the severity of the energy situation and its impact upon their organizations. The results were published in the September 1976 issue of Energy Policy. Last November, five years since the 1973 experience, the survey was repeated, with production and inventory control personnel. This article presents a comparison of the two surveys.

  9. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  10. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  11. Energy Policies of Slovenia. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA survey was carried out at the request of the Government of Slovenia in order to assist the Government in defining and meeting energy policy objectives. Since its independence in 1991, Slovenia has made considerable progress in establishing a market-oriented energy sector. The report analyses developments in energy supply and demand, the restructuring of the coal and electricity industries, nuclear safety, and progress in energy efficiency and environmental protection. It contains energy production and consumption data as well as supply and demand projections. The report includes recommendations on removing distortions in energy prices, on increasing security of supply and on measures to improve the environment. (author). 21 figs., 41 tabs

  12. Comparison of the linear bias models in the light of the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A.; Basilakos, S.; Plionis, M.

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of the linear and scale independent bias, based on the most popular dark matter bias models within the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology, is confronted to that of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Applying a χ2 minimization procedure between models and data, we find that all the considered linear bias models reproduce well the LRG bias data. The differences among the bias models are absorbed in the predicted mass of the dark-matter halo in which LRGs live and which ranges between ˜6 × 1012 and 1.4 × 1013 h-1 M⊙, for the different bias models. Similar results, reaching however a maximum value of ˜2 × 1013 h-1 M⊙, are found by confronting the SDSS (2SLAQ) Large Red Galaxies clustering with theoretical clustering models, which also include the evolution of bias. This later analysis also provides a value of Ωm = 0.30 ± 0.01, which is in excellent agreement with recent joint analyses of different cosmological probes and the reanalysis of the Planck data.

  13. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list...... is limitedexclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separatedinto broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the categorythought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  14. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  15. Cross-correlation of gravitational lensing from DES Science Verification data with SPT and Planck lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, D.; Omori, Y.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Larsen, P.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Crawford, T. M.; Dodelson, S.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Holder, G.; Jain, B.; Kacprzak, T.; Lahav, O.; MacCrann, N.; Nicola, A.; Refregier, A.; Sheldon, E.; Story, K. T.; Troxel, M. A.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Roodman, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Simard, G.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.

    2016-03-10

    We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photometric redshift uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. Significant intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes would increase the cross-correlation signal inferred from the data; we calculate a value of $A = 1.08 \\pm 0.36$ for DES$\\times$SPT when we correct the observations with a simple IA model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation, given the size of the statistical uncertainties and the significant impact of systematic errors, particularly IAs. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.

  16. Fiscal 1999 survey report on long-term energy technological strategies and the like. Long-term energy technological strategy survey (Medium-term energy technological strategy survey); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa (chuki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Energy strategies to be implemented under the New Sunshine Program by around 2010 have been compiled, with nation's industrial technological strategies, long-term energy outlook, and the like taken into consideration. The present survey aims to work out medium-term energy technological strategies. In Chapter 2, by conducting studies on the state of energy strategies in the national industry technological strategies as primarily compiled, long-term energy supply and demand outlook, and the history so far of the New Sunshine Program, and social conditions surrounding energy/environmental technologies and energy conditions are arranged in order and then analyzed with a view to deriving social needs. In Chapter 3, in view of the derived social needs, medium-term energy technological strategies are broken down into strategic target details, based on the important regions and major and minor strategic targets of the national industry technological strategies. In Chapter 4, medium-term energy technological strategies are worked out. In Chapter 5, 'basic ideas,' 'measures for promoting technology development,' 'return of the fruits to society' are mentioned as the methods of realizing the strategies. In Chapter 6, surveys and researches are summarized, and future development is predicted. (NEDO)

  17. Confronting the sound speed of dark energy with future cluster surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hannestad, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that, in combin......Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that......, in combination with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations from Planck, cluster surveys such as that in the ESA Euclid project will be able to determine a time-independent w with subpercent precision. Likewise, if the dark energy sound horizon falls within the length scales probed by the cluster survey......, then c_s^2 can be pinned down to within an order of magnitude. In the course of this work, we also investigate the process of dark energy virialisation in the presence of an arbitrary sound speed. We find that dark energy clustering and virialisation can lead to dark energy contributing to the total...

  18. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  19. UV-luminous, star-forming hosts of z ˜ 2 reddened quasars in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethers, C. F.; Banerji, M.; Hewett, P. C.; Lemon, C. A.; McMahon, R. G.; Reed, S. L.; Shen, Y.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; CarrascoKind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first rest-frame UV population study of 17 heavily reddened, high-luminosity [E(B - V)QSO ≳ 0.5; Lbol > 1046 erg s-1] broad-line quasars at 1.5 VISTA Hemisphere Survey and UKIDSS Large Area Survey data, from which the reddened quasars were initially identified. We demonstrate that the significant dust reddening towards the quasar in our sample allows host galaxy emission to be detected at the rest-frame UV wavelengths probed by the DES photometry. By exploiting this reddening effect, we disentangle the quasar emission from that of the host galaxy via spectral energy distribution fitting. We find evidence for a relatively unobscured, star-forming host galaxy in at least 10 quasars, with a further three quasars exhibiting emission consistent with either star formation or scattered light. From the rest-frame UV emission, we derive instantaneous, dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) in the range 25 < SFRUV < 365 M⊙ yr-1, with an average SFRUV = 130 ± 95 M⊙ yr-1. We find a broad correlation between SFRUV and the bolometric quasar luminosity. Overall, our results show evidence for coeval star formation and black hole accretion occurring in luminous, reddened quasars at the peak epoch of galaxy formation.

  20. Wind Energy literature survey no. 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  1. Wind Energy literature survey no. 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list...... is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  2. Wind energy literature survey no. 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals, including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  3. Study of the radiation around a high energy accelerator. Production and scattering of cascade neutrons; Etude du rayonnement autour d'un accelerateur de haute energie. Production et diffusion des neutrons de cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardy-Joubert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    The cascade induced in protective screens by a 3 GeV proton beam has been studied using activation detectors; the results have been compared with the cosmic neutron spectrum in the atmosphere. A study of the secondary neutron spectrum has made, it possible to obtain the distribution of the dose and to determine the maximum permissible fluxes expressed in terms of the energy, taking into account all the daughter products present. The dose calculated has been checked experimentally. The proportion of cascade neutrons has been studied using the idea of an imaginary source. The parameters which have to be introduced into the general equations to take into account scattering in the the air have been determined. (author) [French] La cascade induite dans les ecrans de protection par un faisceau de protons de 3 GeV a ete etudiee au moyen de detecteurs a activation et la comparaison a ete faite avec le spectre des neutrons cosmiques dans l'atmosphere. L'etude du spectre des neutrons secondaires a permis de preciser la distribution de la dose et de determiner les flux maximaux admissibles qui sont exprimes en fonction de l'energie, en tenant compte de l'ensemble des descendants presents. La dose calculee a ete verifiee experimentalement. La propagation des neutrons de cascade a ete etudiee en introduisant la notion de source fictive. Les parametres a introduire dans les equations generales pour rendre compte de la diffusion dans l'air ont ete determines. (auteur)

  4. Tombes et cimetières éthiopiens : des rois, des saints, des anonymes1

    OpenAIRE

    Derat, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-01

    L’histoire des tombes et cimetières éthiopiens, dans la longue durée, en est encore à ses balbutiements. Si les tombes des saints et des rois nous sont un peu mieux connus grâce à des textes témoignant à la fois des enjeux entourant les sépultures de ces personnages hors du commun et des soins apportés à leur inhumation, en revanche, les cimetières ordinaires échappent encore largement à l’enquête, en grande partie parce que le commun des mortels est inhumé dans l’anonymat et dans un grand dé...

  5. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Face à ce constat, le défi de la recherche serait la détermination du niveau actuel de contamination des légumes feuilles et des eaux du barrage et celui de l'État serait l'initiation de programmes de sensibilisation des producteurs par rapport à une gestion plus rigoureuse des pesticides. Mots-clés : pratiques paysannes, ...

  6. Galaxy bias from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data: combining galaxy density maps and weak lensing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Pujol, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.; Bacon, D.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-04-15

    We measure the redshift evolution of galaxy bias from a magnitude-limited galaxy sample by combining the galaxy density maps and weak lensing shear maps for a $\\sim$116 deg$^{2}$ area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. This method was first developed in Amara et al. (2012) and later re-examined in a companion paper (Pujol et al., in prep) with rigorous simulation tests and analytical treatment of tomographic measurements. In this work we apply this method to the DES SV data and measure the galaxy bias for a magnitude-limited galaxy sample. We find the galaxy bias and 1$\\sigma$ error bars in 4 photometric redshift bins to be 1.33$\\pm$0.18 (z=0.2-0.4), 1.19$\\pm$0.23 (z=0.4-0.6), 0.99$\\pm$0.36 ( z=0.6-0.8), and 1.66$\\pm$0.56 (z=0.8-1.0). These measurements are consistent at the 1-2$\\sigma$ level with mea- surements on the same dataset using galaxy clustering and cross-correlation of galaxies with CMB lensing. In addition, our method provides the only $\\sigma_8$-independent constraint among the three. We forward-model the main observational effects using mock galaxy catalogs by including shape noise, photo-z errors and masking effects. We show that our bias measurement from the data is consistent with that expected from simulations. With the forthcoming full DES data set, we expect this method to provide additional constraints on the galaxy bias measurement from more traditional methods. Furthermore, in the process of our measurement, we build up a 3D mass map that allows further exploration of the dark matter distribution and its relation to galaxy evolution.

  7. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...

  8. Mécanique des sols et des roches

    CERN Document Server

    Vullier, Laurent; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des sols et la mécanique des roches sont des disciplines généralement traitées séparément dans la littérature. Pour la première fois, un traité réunit ces deux spécialités, en intégrant également les connaissances en lien avec les écoulements souterrains et les transferts thermiques. A la fois théorique et pratique, cet ouvrage propose tout d'abord une description détaillée de la nature et de la composition des sols et des roches, puis s'attache à la modélisation de problèmes aux conditions limites et présente les essais permettant de caractériser les sols et les roches, tant d'un point de vue mécanique qu'hydraulique et thermique. La problématique des sols non saturés et des écoulements multiphasiques est également abordée. Une attention particulière est portée aux lois de comportement mécanique et à la détermination de leurs paramètres par des essais in situ et en laboratoire, et l'ouvrage offre également une présentation détaillée des systèmes de classi...

  9. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    foreign students. 8- Annexe: list of courses, practical work, pile projects drawn up by the 1957 students. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Les raisons de sa creation. L'electricite de France et l'industrie interessee par le developpement de l'Energie atomique ont demande au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique de former des ingenieurs capables d'etudier des projets de piles et de diriger leur construction. 2- Recrutement et Droits d'inscription. Les demandes d'inscription ont toujours depasse les possibilites. Cette annee, les cours sont suivis par 74 eleves permanents, dont 20 etrangers, et une centaine d'auditeurs libres. Tous les elevont deja ingenieurs ou nantis de grades universitaires eleves. Droit d'inscription: 250 000 F pour les eleves, 125 000 F pour les auditeurs. 3- Organisation de l'Enseignement. II comprend deux options: physique et chimie et dans chaque option: une centaine de conferences, une trentaine de travaux pratiques, des stages dans les services, l'etude d'un projet de reacteur par un groupe de 4 ou 5 eleves. L'ensemble occupe l'annee universitaire du 1 novembre au 14 juillet. 4- Sanction. Un examen final combinant les notes de deux epreuves theoriques, des travaux pratiques, du stage, et du projet conduit a un diplome d'ingenieur en genie atomique. Il n'est pas cree en realite de nouveaux ingenieurs; une mention nouvelle est seulement ajoutee a un diplome deja acquis. Les resultats ont toujours ete excellents. Le pourcentage des echecs est tres faible. 5- Placement des Diplomes. Ils reviennent tous dans leurs industries d'origine qui ont paye leurs salaires et les droits d'inscription en se privant de leurs services pendant les neuf mois de duree des cours. 6- Creations analogues. Un cours analogue a ete cree au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Tandis que celui de SACLAY s'adresse plus specialement aux ingenieurs deja en fonctions, celui de Grenoble est, en principe, destine aux jeunes ingenieurs sortant des ecoles. 7- Conclusion. L

  10. Survey of the actual state of energy consumption in the residential/commercial sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to energy demand in the business field, the paper conducted a questionnaire survey of the actual state and preparation of the existing literature and data. The purpose is to make the consumption structure and trend clear and to make it useful for the development/introduction of new energy and petroleum substitution energy in the future. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `office buildings` decreased from 227.0 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1990 survey to 179.5 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1995 survey. The energy type shifted from petroleum to electricity and gas. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `wholesale/retail` slightly decreased from 360.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 342.7 Mcal/{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. The energy type showed the same trend as in the case of office buildings. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `restaurants` increased from 573.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. As energy type, electricity increased while gas remarkably decreased. 55 refs., 155 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Nuclear energy center site survey reactor plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 required the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to make a nuclear energy center site survey (NECSS). Background information for the NECSS report was developed in a series of tasks which include: socioeconomic inpacts; environmental impact (reactor facilities); emergency response capability (reactor facilities); aging of nuclear energy centers; and dry cooled nuclear energy centers

  12. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  13. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; McLean, Ian S.; Ramsay, Suzanne K.; Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Angstadt, Robert; Takami, Hideki; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; Briones, Jorge; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Campa, Juila; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco; Castilla, Javier; Cease, Herman; Chappa, Steve; Chi, Edward C.; da Costa, Luis; DePoy, Darren L.; Derylo, Gregory; de Vincente, Juan; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Estrada, Juan; Eiting, Jacob; Elliott, Anne E.; Finley, David A.; Flores, Rolando; Frieman, Josh; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gerdes, David; Gladders, Mike; Guarino, V.; Gutierrez, G.; Grudzinski, Jim; Hanlon, Bill; Hao, Jiangang; Holland, Steve; Honscheid, Klaus; Huffman, Dave; Jackson, Cheryl; Jonas, Michelle; Karliner, Inga; Kau, Daekwang; Kent, Steve; Kozlovsky, Mark; Krempetz, Kurt; Krider, John; Kubik, Donna; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve E.; Kuk, Kevin; Lahav, Ofer; Langellier, Nick; Lathrop, Andrew; Lewis, Peter M.; Lin, Huan; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Martinez, Gustavo; McKay, Timothy; Merritt, Wyatt; Meyer, Mark; Miquel, Ramon; Morgan, Jim; Moore, Peter; Moore, Todd; Neilsen, Eric; Nord, Brian; Ogando, Ricardo; Olson, Jamieson; Patton, Kenneth; Peoples, John; Plazas, Andres; Qian, Tao; Roe, Natalie; Roodman, Aaron; Rossetto, B.; Sanchez, E.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Scarpine, Vic; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Ricardo; Schmitt, Richard; Schubnell, Mike; Schultz, Kenneth; Selen, M.; Serrano, Santiago; Shaw, Terri; Simaitis, Vaidas; Slaughter, Jean; Smith, R. Christopher; Spinka, Hal; Stefanik, Andy; Stuermer, Walter; Sypniewski, Adam; Talaga, R.; Tarle, Greg; Thaler, Jon; Tucker, Doug; Walker, Alistair R.; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wester, William; Woods, Robert J.; Worswick, Sue; Zhao, Allen

    2012-09-24

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  14. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (ρ, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ρ: a group with very low ρ (ρ 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ρ may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.

  15. Fiscal 1999 survey report on long-term energy technological strategies and the like. Long-term energy technological strategy survey (Medium-term energy technological strategy survey); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa (chuki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Energy strategies to be implemented under the New Sunshine Program by around 2010 have been compiled, with nation's industrial technological strategies, long-term energy outlook, and the like taken into consideration. The present survey aims to work out medium-term energy technological strategies. In Chapter 2, by conducting studies on the state of energy strategies in the national industry technological strategies as primarily compiled, long-term energy supply and demand outlook, and the history so far of the New Sunshine Program, and social conditions surrounding energy/environmental technologies and energy conditions are arranged in order and then analyzed with a view to deriving social needs. In Chapter 3, in view of the derived social needs, medium-term energy technological strategies are broken down into strategic target details, based on the important regions and major and minor strategic targets of the national industry technological strategies. In Chapter 4, medium-term energy technological strategies are worked out. In Chapter 5, 'basic ideas,' 'measures for promoting technology development,' 'return of the fruits to society' are mentioned as the methods of realizing the strategies. In Chapter 6, surveys and researches are summarized, and future development is predicted. (NEDO)

  16. Wind Energy literature survey no. 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  17. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  18. Wind Energy literature survey no. 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  19. Wind energy literature survey no. 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  20. Wind Energy literature survey no. 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  1. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  2. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems, along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  3. Wind energy literature survey no. 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  4. Wind energy literature survey no. 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  5. Wind energy literature survey no. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  6. Wind Energy literature survey no. 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  7. Wind Energy literature survey no. 22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  8. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  9. Wind Energy literature survey no. 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  10. Wind Energy literature survey no. 29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  11. Wind Energy literature survey no. 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  12. Wind Energy literature survey no. 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and so on. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  13. Wind Energy literature survey no. 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  14. Wind Energy literature survey no. 27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  15. Wind Energy literature survey no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  16. Wind Energy literature survey no. 26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  17. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2017 ... ... de Biochimie et Immunologie Appliquée, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Biologiques, Alimentaires et .... l'intoxication des agriculteurs et des consommateurs, ... source d'alimentation en eau et au pouvoir d'achat des.

  18. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Is the cooling of coils of pulsed accelerators profitable?; Le refroidissement des bobines des accelerateurs pulses est-il avantageux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyret, G.; Parain, J.; Schnuriger, J. C.

    1960-05-15

    In this report, the authors recall how metal resistivity decreases at low temperatures, and give some indications about the power and price of cryogenic installations. They report the study of the cooling of coils in accelerators displaying an alternate gradient with a 15 GeV energy, with or without a magnetic circuit in iron. They establish that cooling does not result in a decrease in the cost price for an hour of operation. They also state that it is not even sure that this cooling would result in a dimension reduction while increasing the maximum achievable induction [French] On rappelle comment la resistivite des metaux diminue aux basses temperatures, et on donne des indications sur la puissance et le prix des installations cryogeniques. On etudie le refroidissement des bobines d'accelerateurs a gradient alterne d'une energie de 15 GeV, avec ou sans circuit magnetique en fer; on trouve que le refroidissement ne permet pas de diminuer le prix de revient de l'heure de fonctionnement; il n'est meme pas sur qu'il puisse permettre de reduire les dimensions en elevant l'induction maximum realisable. L'idee de refroidir les bobines sans fer jusqu'a la temperature de l'air liquide est ancienne: Jean Perrin des 1907, puis Charly Fabry en 1910 l'avaient deja proposee. Recemment, cette idee est revenue a l'actualite: en 1958, R.F. Post a suggere de l'appliquer a la production de champs intenses en vue du confinement des plasmas thermonucleaires; en 1959, N.C. Christofilos a publie un projet d'accelerateur refroidi a 80 deg. K. Nous voulons examiner l'interet de refroidir les bobines d'un accelerateur, d'une part pour augmenter l'induction maximum (dans le cas de machines sans fer) et d'autre part pour diminuer l'importance de l'alimentation electrique. Cet examen est precede de generalites sur le refroidissement des bobines, generalites qui s'appliquent d'ailleurs a tous les champs magnetiques. Les trois metaux etudies sont ceux retenus comme les meilleurs par Post: le

  20. Renewable energy in Dutch households. An online survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mors, B.; Both, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the title survey was to find out how households in the Netherlands can be interested and involved in the use of renewable energy, in particular biomass, wind power and solar energy [nl

  1. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  2. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Basic survey for energy consumption rationalization and cooperative project on energy conservation seminar; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa oyobi sho energy seminar kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    A survey was conducted of Myanmar's energy-consuming industries for exploring the feasibility of introducing practical energy conservation techniques and facilities to this country and for collecting basic data for the implementation of the project in the future. On the other hand, some lecturers were dispatched to an energy conservation seminar which was held in cooperation with the Government of Myanmar. Visited during the basic survey were (1) the Kyan Gin plant of Myanmar Ceramic Enterprise representing Myanmar's cement making industry, (2) the Thanlyin plant of Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's oil refining industry, and (3) the Siftong plant of Myanmar Paper and Chemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's paper making industry. In the study of energy conservation measures for which stabilization of operation through reinforced facility maintenance and management were required, it was concluded that much time was necessary before Japan's advanced energy conservation technologies might be introduced into Myanmar. Three to six propositions were presented to each of the three plants. At the seminar, the importance of energy conservation promoting measures and the results of the basic survey were introduced to the audience. A lecture meeting was also held to familiarize some participants with NEDO-DB (Database of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). (NEDO)

  3. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people's energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  4. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people`s energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  5. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations sont elements de la serie h_{p,q}= [ (p(m+2)-qm)^2-4] /(8m(m+2)) ou p,q et m sont

  6. Study of the propagation of fast neutrons in water, by Monte-Carlo methods; Etude de la propagation des neutrons rapides dans l'eau par des methodes de Monte-Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P; Lattes, R; Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    We have studied the propagation in water of neutrons from mono-directional plane sources with energies ranging from 300 keV to 19,66 MeV, placed in an infinite water medium. The exact paths of a number of neutrons are determined, taking into account the microscopic sections, assuming that inelastic collisions of the neutrons on oxygen are absorptions, and neglecting the loss of energy by elastic collisions on oxygen. The neutron lifetimes have been made use of to study the propagation of neutrons from fission sources, Po-Be, Po-B and Ra-Be, as well as the reflection of fast neutrons on a semi-infinite water medium. We have taken complete account of the first collision in order to improve the precision of the results. The calculations were carried out by Mrs J. VASSEUR and Mr A. GUILLOU. (author)Fren. [French] Nous etudions la propagation dans l'eau des neutrons a partir de sources planes monodirectionnelles dont les energies sont repartis de 300 keV a 19,66 MeV, placees dans un milieu infini d'eau. Nous determinons les trajectoires exactes d'un certain nombre de neutrons en tenant compte des sections microscopiques, en supposant que les chocs inelastiques des neutrons sur l'oxygene sont des absorptions, et en negligeant la perte d'energie par chocs elastiques sur l'oxygene. Les vies de neutrons ont ete exploitees pour etudier la propagation des neutrons a partir de sources de fission, Po-Be, Po-B et Ra-Be, ainsi que la reflexion des neutrons rapides sur un milieu semi-infini d'eau. On a tenu compte integralement du premier choc pour ameliorer la precision des resultats. Les calculs ont ete effectues par Mme J. VASSEUR et M.A. GUILLOU. (auteur)

  7. Energy and communal patrimony - 2012 survey. Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, Bruno; Lestage, Christophe; Rozo, Ariane; Bisson, Nicolas; Pouillot, Jean-Pierre; Tessier, Philippe; Belon, Daniel; Caron, Clotilde

    2014-06-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of a study based on a survey on energy consumption and expenditures directly paid by local communities, the built patrimony, public lighting and vehicle fuel, the electricity consumptions and expenditures of drinking water stations, sewage treatment plants and waste treatment plants. The survey has been performed among more than 1600 towns and communities of more than 500 inhabitants in metropolitan France and overseas territories. The considered built patrimony comprises schools, swimming pools, other sport facilities, administrative buildings, social and cultural facilities, and other various facilities. The report indicates key figures for 2012 in terms of global assessment, main consumer sectors, buildings, public lighting, vehicle fuel, actions for energy management, and renewable energies. The evolution of consumptions and expenditures is then analysed (evolution of main indicators, market shares of energies in buildings)

  8. Table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{rho}) for A = 1 to 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm); Table des energies des particules chargees en fonction de la rigidite magnetique (B{rho}) pour A = 1 a 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{sub {rho}}) is presented. Particles p, d, t, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++}. Values of B{sub {rho}}: 100 to 1200 kG.cm by steps of 0.5 kG.cm. Values of energies are given in keV. (author) [French] Nous presentons une table des energies de protons, deutons, tritons, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++} en fonction de leur rigidite magnetique (B{sub {rho}}). Les valeurs de B{sub {rho}} sont comprises entre 100 et 1200 kG.cm par pas de 0.5 kG.cm. Les valeurs des energies sont donnees en keV. (auteur)

  9. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity and Stellar-Mass Functions since $z=1$ with the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, D.; et al.

    2017-07-27

    We present the first study of the evolution of the galaxy luminosity and stellar-mass functions (GLF and GSMF) carried out by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the COMMODORE galaxy catalogue selected from Science Verification images. This catalogue is made of $\\sim 4\\times 10^{6}$ galaxies at $0DES GSMF agrees especially with those measured for the GAlaxy Mass Assembly and the PRism MUlti-object Survey out to $z\\sim1$. At $0.2

  10. Fiscal 1999 survey report on survey of long-term strategy on energy technology. Long-term energy technological strategy survey (Long-term energy technological strategy survey); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa (choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To enhance still more effectively the research and development of energy-related/environmental technologies, research and development strategies have to be worked out from a long-term view point and policy resources such as investment in research and development should be optimally distributed after clarifying and defining the course to follow toward the achievement of research and development goals. This project aims to conduct studies, and to show the course to follow in the future, towards the establishment of a long-term energy technological strategy by investigating energy systems for around 2050, interim energy systems at the intermediate stage, and innovative energy technologies for realizing such energy systems. In Chapter 1, the position of the survey and its purpose and prerequisites are shown. In Chapter 2, the history of social and economic conditions surrounding energy/environmental technologies and of energy situation up to the present time is compiled, and the outlook is analyzed and predicted. In Chapter 3, formulation of a long-term energy technological strategy is discussed. In Chapter 5, how to embody such a strategy is shown. (NEDO)

  11. Utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excréta et des eaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les responsables de ce projet piloteront l'application et l'adaptation des principes directeurs relatifs à l'utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excreta et des eaux grises en agriculture et en aquaculture (Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture), que ...

  12. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    1Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou Bénin. Email : cgbemavo@yahoo.fr. 2Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Centre de Recherches Agricoles d'Agonkanmey (CRA-A),. Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, Eau et Environnement (LSSEE).

  13. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  14. Le statut vitaminique des individus et des populations…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Comme le souligne un récent rapport du Haut comité de santé publique, le statut vitaminique des individus et des populations demeure une question d’actualité. Si les études ne révèlent plus de signes évocateurs de carence, au plus des problèmes de déficiences pour certains groupes à risque, des interrogations, demeurent malgré le contexte d’abondance, concernant la couverture des besoins, laquelle pourrait s’avérer inférieure aux valeurs considérées comme satisfaisantes.

  15. Application des TIC à l'atténuation des effets des catastrophes dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Amérique centrale est souvent aux prises avec des inondations et des ... (SIG) et de traitement des images, afin de cartographier les dangers et de modéliser les ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill.

  16. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on energy use evaluation systems; 1999 nendo energy shiyo hyoka system chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present survey and study relate to the medium to long term policies for technological development of energy and environment related technologies, and are intended to develop a system that can evaluate the importance, feasibility, expected realization time, and expected cost of the technologies, including their synergetic effects. The survey and study are intended to provide clear guidelines for planning the technological development policies on which of the technological development should be promoted in what ways, based on the evaluation given by the use of the system. The report describes in Section 1 to adopt two types of approaches of a 'technology map' and a 'network chart evaluation system' to achieve the goal. Section 2, after describing the results of surveys on the past study cases of technology evaluation, describes that the present approach has new features that are different from conventional ones. Section 3 states the results of surveys on the basic technologies to prevent global warming, and shows cases of preparing maps that notice on energy flows. Section 4 relates to network chart evaluating methods. Section 5 describes the results of surveys that have been made in relation with chronological progress of the technological development, in preparation for surveys to be made in the coming fiscal years. (NEDO)

  17. Study of the fluctuations of the partial and total radiative widths by neutron capture resonance method; Etude des fluctuations des largeurs radiatives partielles et totales par la capture des neutrons de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, V D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    Radiative capture experiments by neutron time-of-flight methods have been made for following studies: distribution of partial radiative widths, effects of correlation between different radiative transitions, fluctuations of total radiative widths {gamma}{sub {gamma}} from resonance to resonance, variation of {gamma}{sub {gamma}} with number of mass and the search for the existence of potential capture. Also, some other experiments with the use of neutron capture gamma-rays spectra have been investigated. (author) [French] Par la capture des neutrons de resonance dont les energies sont selectionnees a l'aide de la technique du temps de vol, differents types d'experiences ont ete realisees concernant les etudes des distributions des largeurs radiatives partielles, des effets de correlation entre differentes voies de desexcitation, de la fluctuation des largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} de resonance a resonance, de la variation de la quantite {gamma}{sub {gamma}} en fonction du nombre de masse et de la mise en evidence de l'existence du processus de capture potentielle. Quelques autres applications de l'emploi du spectre de rayons gamma ont egalement ete presentees. (auteur)

  18. Stability of tubular plasma; Stabilite des plasmas tubulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The Triax and the inverse pinch configuration are, in the magnetohydrodynamic approximation, interesting from the point of view of stability. These discharges are studied with the help of now well-established theories; the method of modes, the energy variation principal and Suydam's criterion. A comparison is made with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les configurations Triax et de striction inverse sont dans l'approximation magneto-hydrodynamique, interessantes au point de vue de la stabilite. Ces decharges sont etudiees a l'aide des theories maintenant classiques; methode des modes, principe variationnel d'energie et critere de Suydam. Une confrontation est faite avec les resultats experimentaux. (auteur)

  19. Review of avoidance reactions of tropical fish to a survey vessel = Revue des réactions d'évitement des poissons tropicaux au passage d'un navire de prospection

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlotto, François; Fréon, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    Les réactions des poissons pélagiques tropicaux au passage d'un navire de recherches sont décrites en fonction de l'impact qu'elles peuvent avoir sur les résultats des prospections acoustiques. Deux composantes principales sont décrites : déplacement du poisson latéralement ou en plongée, et situation dans les trois dimensions. Une description empirique des influences des divers stimuli d'un navire sur les poissons est proposée : les trois stimuli pris en compte sont le bruit, l'éclairement d...

  20. La gestion des résultats des entreprises innovantes

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse s’intéresse à la gestion des résultats dans le cadre des entreprises innovantes. Elle est constituée de trois articles. Dans le premier, il s’agit d’examiner si les résultats des entreprises innovantes sont gérés et si le stade de développement des innovations influence cette gestion des résultats. Il apparaît que les résultats des entreprises innovantes sont gérés à la hausse. Cette gestion ne semble intervenir qu’au cours de l’activité d’innovation (c’est-à-dire lorsque les entr...

  1. Etude des erreurs d'estimation des populations par la méthode des captures successives (DeLURY, 2 captures et des captures-recaptures (PETERSEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURENT M.

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available L'estimation des populations naturelles par capture-recapture et par captures successives est souvent entachée d'erreur car, dans de nombreux cas, l'hypothèse fondamentale d'égalité des probabilités de captures pour tous les individus dans le temps et dans l'espace n'est pas respectée. Dans le cas des populations de poissons envisagés ici, les captures ont lieu par la pêche électrique. On a pu chiffrer l'ordre de grandeur des erreurs systématiques faites sur l'estimation des peuplements, en fonction des conditions particulières, biotiques et abiotiques, des différents milieux inventoriés.

  2. Electrical properties of molecular crystals; Proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [French] Cette etude bibliographique resume les proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires: structure des cristaux moleculaires, mecanismes de transport et d'excitation des porteurs de charge et differences avec les semiconducteurs mineraux. Les principaux resultats sur la conductibilite electrique des cristaux moleculaires les plus etudies y sont exposes, ainsi que les proprietes optiques et photoelectriques de ces cristaux. Enfin les differents types de mesures electriques utilisees sont passees en revue ainsi que les limites de chaque methode. (auteur)

  3. Electrical properties of molecular crystals; Proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [French] Cette etude bibliographique resume les proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires: structure des cristaux moleculaires, mecanismes de transport et d'excitation des porteurs de charge et differences avec les semiconducteurs mineraux. Les principaux resultats sur la conductibilite electrique des cristaux moleculaires les plus etudies y sont exposes, ainsi que les proprietes optiques et photoelectriques de ces cristaux. Enfin les differents types de mesures electriques utilisees sont passees en revue ainsi que les limites de chaque methode. (auteur)

  4. A MegaCam Survey of Outer Halo Satellites. I. Description of the Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Côté, Patrick; Santana, Felipe A.; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D.; Oyarzún, Grecco A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2018-06-01

    We describe a deep, systematic imaging study of satellites in the outer halo of the Milky Way. Our sample consists of 58 stellar overdensities—i.e., substructures classified as either globular clusters, classical dwarf galaxies, or ultra-faint dwarf galaxies—that are located at Galactocentric distances of R GC ≥ 25 kpc (outer halo) and out to ∼400 kpc. This includes 44 objects for which we have acquired deep, wide-field, g- and r-band imaging with the MegaCam mosaic cameras on the 3.6 m Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope and the 6.5 m Magellan-Clay telescope. These data are supplemented by archival imaging, or published gr photometry, for an additional 14 objects, most of which were discovered recently in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the scientific motivation for our survey, including sample selection, observing strategy, data reduction pipeline, calibration procedures, and the depth and precision of the photometry. The typical 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes for our MegaCam imaging—which collectively covers an area of ≈52 deg2—are g lim ≃ 25.6 and r lim ≃ 25.3 AB mag. These limits are comparable to those from the coadded DES images and are roughly a half-magnitude deeper than will be reached in a single visit with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Our photometric catalog thus provides the deepest and most uniform photometric database of Milky Way satellites available for the foreseeable future. In other papers in this series, we have used these data to explore the blue straggler populations in these objects, their density distributions, star formation histories, scaling relations, and possible foreground structures.

  5. Energy Policies of Ukraine. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Few countries in the world have a more precarious energy situation than Ukraine. A heavy dependence on oil and gas imports, inefficiently-mined coal, and unsafe unsafe nuclear power have left the country vulnerable to energy supply disruptions. Despite some positive moves to restructure the energy sector, Ukraine has not charted a course toward the adoption of a market-oriented, long term energy strategy. This IEA report takes an in-depth look at recent developments and additional steps needed to move Ukraine's energy sector through the difficult transition process, including: a redefinition of the government's energy role; a shift toward market-led business practices in oil and gas production, oil refining and marketing, coal mining and distribution, electricity generation, and gas and power distribution; improved energy security through more diversified energy imports, reliance on domestic coal, and after use of nuclear energy; and a drive to conserve energy and minimise energy waste, in tandem with energy price liberation. Included in this IEA survey are revised data on Ukraine's energy demand, supply, trade and prices. The study offers policy makers and private companies a better understanding of the energy risks and trade-off facing Ukraine in the years ahead. (author). 28 figs., 47 tabs., 8 appends., 8 charts., 3 maps

  6. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  7. Importance économique du transport dans les contraintes énergétiques internationales. Le cas des hydrocarbures Economic Importance of Transportation in International Energy Constraints. the Case of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masseron J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les nombreuses prévisions publiées pour tenter d'estimer l'offre et la demande d'énergie d'ici la fin du XX' siècle montrent qu'il est nécessaire d'examiner les conditions de transport à grande distance de l'ensemble des ressources énergétiques. Le présent article tente, à partir des scenarios des besoins énergétiques mondiaux, d'analyser à quelles conditions pratiques seront soumis les échanges. L'auteur passe successivement en revue les différents moyens de transport pour chaque type d'énergie et les problèmes qui s'y rattachent. En particulier, il montre l'interdépendance des diverses formes de transport et souligne l'absence d'une véritable coopération dans les échanges internationaux d'énergie. The numerous published forecosts attempting to estimate the supply and demand for energy between now and the end of the 20th century show that an examination must be made of long-distance transportation conditions thot will govern exchanges. The present article is based on scenarios for worldwide energy needs and attempts to onalyze the practical conditions that will govern exchanges. A review is made of different means of transportation for each type of energy and the problems they entail. In porticular, the article shows the interdependence of different forms of transportation and emphasizes the absence of any veritable coopération in international energy exchanges.

  8. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Study of elementary mechanisms of creep in uranium as a function of temperature (150 deg. to 760 deg. C) by activation energy measurements; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de deformation par fluage de l'uranium en fonction de la temperature (de 150 deg. a 760 deg. C) par la mesure des energies d'activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Creep tests were carried out on single crystals and polycrystalline specimens of uranium in both the {alpha} and {beta} phases over the temperature range 150 - 760 deg. C. The determination of the activation energy for creep and the study of its variation with temperature made it possible to distinguish various temperature ranges in which one or more elementary mechanisms govern deformation. Micrographic observations after creep and the study of the variation of creep-rate with load support the conclusions. The creep behavior of single crystals is identical with that of polycrystalline material below 325 deg. C. From 325 deg. C to one upper limiting temperature whose value depends on the purity and previous history of the metal, the creep deformation of uranium is controlled by cross-slip. From this limiting temperature up to 520 deg. C, the creep of uranium involves two independent mechanisms operating simultaneously, the movement of screw dislocation by cross-slip and the climbing of edge dislocations out of their slip plane. Between 520 deg. C and the {alpha} - {beta} transformation temperature creep in polycrystals is governed by the climb of edge dislocations out of their slip planes, by a pile up mechanism in the case of primary creep and by dipole annihilation in the case of secondary creep. In single crystals creep is dependent on the climb of edge dislocations into pre-existent sub-boundaries and their subsequent rearrangement within these boundaries. In the {beta} phase the creep of polycrystals is governed by the diffusional climb of edge dislocations. Between 450 and 630 deg. C small alloy additions of molybdenum modify the creep characteristics of uranium although the deformation mechanisms involved are analogous to those in the pure metal. (author) [French] Des essais de fluage a diverses temperatures comprises entre 150 et 760 deg. C ont ete effectues sur des polycristaux et des monocristaux d'uranium, en phase {alpha} et en phase {beta}. La

  11. Determination for energy response and directionality of neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Xie Jianlun; Su Jingling

    1992-01-01

    The energy response and directionality of neutron survey meter type MK7 and 2202D are determined. The reactor thermal column beam, reactor filtered beams (6 eV, 24.4 keV and 144 keV), 226 Ra-Be, 241 Am-Be, 252 Cf and its moderated sources are used for the measurement. The results shows: the survey meters are influenced obviously by the direction; the response of middle-energy region is large, the energy response of 2202D is better than MK7

  12. Erhöhung der Reproduzierbarkeit des Spritzgießprozesses durch verbesserte Plastifizierkonzepte

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiqing

    2010-01-01

    Aufgrund des stets steigenden Wettbewerbs sind Spritzgießverarbeiter gezwungen, die Reproduzierbarkeit des Spritzgießprozesses kontinuierlich zu erhöhen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden zwei Ansätze zur Erhöhung der Reproduzierbarkeit des Spritzgießprozesses vorgestellt. Um die Schwankung der in das Plastifiziersystem zuzuführenden Energie zu minimieren, soll die Dissipationsenergie während der Plastifizierphase geregelt werden. Die Schneckenantriebsleistung und die Plastifizier...

  13. About the problem of the delays between particles belonging to the cosmic radiation; Sur le probleme des retards entre des particules appartenant au rayonnement cosmique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozinski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    After having examined briefly the problem of the delays who can appear between particles of high energy, issued of a same mother particle, we studied in a more details the case of the loaded particles, loosing their energy by ionization. The delay that settles between two particles of mass M belonging to this last species is defined by the difference between the times that they take to do the same distance. In the vacuum, the delays can reach any values. But, when the particles diffuse themselves in a middle absorbing, the delays stretch toward a definite limit whatever the initial energies of the particles is. One demonstrates that the maximum delay is given by ({delta}t){sub max} {approx_equal} 0,6 E{sub 0} / cK{sub min}, where E{sub 0} = Mc{sup 2} represents the energy to the rest of the particle and K{sub min} the minimum loss of energy by cm of course in the given middle. For example, in the case of the protons crossing different absorbing surroundings, the values of ({delta}t){sub max} for air (Tpn), water, the Al and the Pb are respectively equal to 8,3.10{sup -6}, 9,7.10{sup -9}, 45.10{sup -9} and 1,6 10{sup -9} dry. The corresponding values of ({delta}t){sub max} for the electrons, are the order of 10{sup -9} dry for air and the order of 10{sup -12} dry for the condensed surroundings. It results that, if the particles belonging has a sheaf demonstrated between them of the superior delays to those that are indicate, the fact would constitute a sufficient proof of the existence of heavy particles to the breast of the sheaf. Otherwise, the relation that joins ({delta}t){sub max} to the mass M could act as basis to a method of mass spectrography of the big energy particles. (author) [French] Apres avoir examine succintement le probleme des retards qui peuvent apparaitre entre des particules de grande energie, issues d'une meme particule mere, on etudie d'une facon plus detaillee le cas des particules chargees, ne perdant leur energie que par ionisation. Le

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of a calorimetric technique for measuring energy deposition in materials caused by complex pile irradiation; Etude theorique et experimentale d'une technique calorimetrique de mesure des depots d'energie dans les materiaux dus au rayonnement complexe de pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, P; Sciers, P; Droulers, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    Calorimetric methods may be used to measure gamma fluxes greater than 10{sup 6} r/h near the cores of swimming pool reactors. The theory, design, and properties of isothermal calorimeters are discussed, and experimental results obtained with two types are presented. Measurement of energy deposition in materials and the long term integration of energy depositions are other uses of these devices. Results of measurements on heat deposition in steel and water are given. Fluxes were also measured. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie traite de la theorie des calorimetres isothermes mis en oeuvre au C.K.N. Grenoble. La puissance deposee dans le calorimetre par les flux de rayonnement echauffe celui-ci. L'echauffement est mesure a l'aide d'un thermocouple. On montre que l'on a ainsi une mesure absolue de cette puissance. Une deuxieme partie traite de l'etude experimentale de: deux types d'appareils utilises: leur construction, les resultats experimentaux, leurs utilisations. Trois de celles-ci sont particulierement interessantes: - la mesure des hauts flux gamma, - la mesure du depot d'energie dans les materiaux, - l'integration pendant une longue duree des depots d'energie (un modele de calorimetre a fonctionne a ce jour 2 500 heures et a integre 9 x 10 puissance 10 rads gamma et 6 x 10 puissance 18 neutrons rapides). La troisieme partie est consacree a l'etude des qualites de l'appareil: robustesse, fidelite, precision, sensibilite, gamme de mesure. Enfin dans la derniere partie sont decrites deux applications de la methode calorimetrique a la mesure du depot d'energie dans un acier special et dans l'eau. (auteurs)

  15. L'intégration des accélérateurs du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Chemli, S; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    L?intégration du LHC a ouvert des perspectives pour une gestion plus complète des accélérateurs du CERN. La base de données LAYOUT a permis d'assurer la continuité des phases de définition optique du projet, d'intégration 3D et de contrôles de conformité des installations. Les scans et modélisations 3D en couches des installations réalisées constituent un outil déterminant pour la préparation des interventions dans le cadre des procédures de sécurité ALARA. Il est proposé de reproduire cette méthodologie pour les nouveaux projets comme pour les accélérateurs existants. La mise à jour de l'anneau SPS dans LAYOUT semble être la priorité. La base de données SURVEY contient déjà une vue d'ensemble des accélérateurs, chaque composant étant référencé dans le Système de Coordonnées du CERN, selon les définitions théoriques "sources" au 1/100 mm. Base pour l'alignement, elle stocke également les positions réelles des machines. Elle complète ainsi l'information linéaire de LAY...

  16. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on energy conservation in chief industries in ASEAN countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With objectives to understand ASEAN countries for their current situation in energy consumption in the typical factories and businesses in their chief industries, prepare appropriate advices on energy saving methods, and establish energy inspection means, surveys were carried out working with experts in the ASEAN countries. In the workshop held in Singapore in November 2000, the textile factory, Arab-Malaysia Development Berhad was selected for Malaysia, on which the survey was performed from January 15 through 19, 2001. Energy saving proposals were submitted based on the survey results. For Indonesia, the paper and pulp mill, P.T. Kertas Leces (Persoro) Pulp Paper Mill was selected, on which the survey was performed from January 22 through 26, 2001. Based on the survey results, the energy saving means and their effects, necessary investment amount, and amortization period were prepared. For Brunei, the cement factory, Butra Djajanti Cement SDN BHD was surveyed, whereas improvements of the facilities were proposed. (NEDO)

  17. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolez, Patricia

    supraconductrice qui restent fixes a l'interface coeur-enveloppe, et le revetement en alliage d'argent. L'interet d'une methode calorimetrique par rapport a la technique electrique, plus rapide, plus sensible et maintenant fiable, reside dans la possibilite de realiser des mesures de pertes ac dans des environnements complexes, reproduisant la situation presente par exemple dans un cable de transport d'energie ou dans un transformateur. En particulier, la superposition d'un courant dc en plus du courant ac habituel nous a permis d'observer experimentalement, pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance, un comportement particulier des pertes ac en fonction de la valeur du courant dc decrit theoriquement par LeBlanc. Nous avons pu en deduire la presence d'un courant d'ecrantage Meissner de 16 A, ce qui nous permet de determiner les conditions dans lesquelles une reduction du niveau de pertes ac pourrait etre obtenue par application d'un courant dc, phenomene denomme "vallee de Clem".

  18. Mapping and simulating systematics due to spatially varying observing conditions in DES science verification data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Elsner, F.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Amara, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially varying depth and the characteristics of observing conditions, such as seeing, airmass, or sky background, are major sources of systematic uncertainties in modern galaxy survey analyses, particularly in deep multi-epoch surveys. We present a framework to extract and project these sources of systematics onto the sky, and apply it to the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to map the observing conditions of the Science Verification (SV) data. The resulting distributions and maps of sources of systematics are used in several analyses of DES–SV to perform detailed null tests with the data, and also to incorporate systematics in survey simulations. We illustrate the complementary nature of these two approaches by comparing the SV data with BCC-UFig, a synthetic sky catalog generated by forward-modeling of the DES–SV images. We analyze the BCC-UFig simulation to construct galaxy samples mimicking those used in SV galaxy clustering studies. We show that the spatially varying survey depth imprinted in the observed galaxy densities and the redshift distributions of the SV data are successfully reproduced by the simulation and are well-captured by the maps of observing conditions. The combined use of the maps, the SV data, and the BCC-UFig simulation allows us to quantify the impact of spatial systematics on N(z), the redshift distributions inferred using photometric redshifts. We conclude that spatial systematics in the SV data are mainly due to seeing fluctuations and are under control in current clustering and weak-lensing analyses. However, they will need to be carefully characterized in upcoming phases of DES in order to avoid biasing the inferred cosmological results. Finally, the framework presented here is relevant to all multi-epoch surveys and will be essential for exploiting future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will require detailed null tests and realistic end-to-end image simulations to correctly interpret the deep, high

  19. Technological learning in energy-environment-economy modelling: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli-Brahmi, Sondes

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview and a critical analysis of the technological learning concept and its incorporation in energy-environment-economy models. A special emphasis is put on surveying and discussing, through the so-called learning curve, both studies estimating learning rates in the energy field and studies incorporating endogenous technological learning in bottom-up and top-down models. The survey of learning rate estimations gives special attention to interpreting and explaining the sources of variability of estimated rates, which is shown to be mainly inherent in R and D expenditures, the problem of omitted variable bias, the endogeneity relationship and the role of spillovers. Large-scale models survey show that, despite some methodological and computational complexity related to the non-linearity and the non-convexity associated with the learning curve incorporation, results of the numerous modelling experiments give several new insights with regard to the analysis of the prospects of specific technological options and their cost decrease potential (bottom-up models), and with regard to the analysis of strategic considerations, especially inherent in the innovation and energy diffusion process, in particular the energy sector's endogenous responses to environment policy instruments (top-down models)

  20. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  1. Diagrams of the variations in the free energy of formation of metallic compounds (1960); Diagrammes de variations d'energie libre de formation des composes metalliques (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R; Loriers, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The variations in the standard free energy {delta}G produced during the formation of the principal simple metallic compounds have been calculated as a function of the temperature from recently published data, and are presented in convenient diagram form. Their usefulness in metallurgy is illustrated by some possible applications. (author) [French] Les variations d'energie libre standard {delta}G intervenant lors de la formation des principaux composes metalliques simples ont ete calculees, en fonction de la temperature, d'apres les donnees recentes de la litterature et rassemblees sous forme de diagrammes d'utilisation commode. Leur interet certain en metallurgie est concretise par quelques exemples d'applications possibles. (auteur)

  2. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, 3 He, 4 He, and lithium ions

  3. EFFET DES TRAITEMENTS THERMIQUES SUR LA REACTION ENTRE DES COUCHES MINCES DE TITANE ET DES SUBSTRATS EN ACIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Slimani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Des couches minces du titane pur ont été déposées avec la méthode de pulvérisation cathodique sur des substrats en acier, type FF80 K-1 contenants ~1% mass. en carbone. La réaction entre les deux parties du système substrat-couche mince est activée avec des traitements thermiques sous vide dans l’intervalle de températures de 400 à900°Cpendant 30 minutes. Les Spectres de diffraction de rayons x confirment l’inter- diffusion des éléments  chimiques du système résultants la formation et la croissance des nouvelles phases en particulier le carbure binaire TiC ayant des caractéristiques thermomécaniques importantes. L’analyse morphologique des échantillons traités  avec le microscope électronique à balayage (MEB montre l’augmentation du flux de diffusion atomique avec la température de recuit, notamment la diffusion du manganèse et du fer vers la surface libre des échantillons aux températures élevées provoquant la dégradation des propriétés mécaniques des revêtements contrairement au premiers stades d’interaction où on a obtenu des bonnes valeurs de la microdureté.

  4. Exploring propositions about perceptions of energy security: An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor; Jain Bambawale, Malavika; Brown, Marilyn A.; Fátima Cardoso, Terezinha de; Nurbek, Sayasat; Suleimenova, Gulimzhan; Li Jinke; Xu Yang; Jain, Anil; Alhajji, A.F.; Zubiri, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how energy users from government, industry, civil society, and academia perceive of energy security challenges. It also analyzes how demographic characteristics influence such perceptions, and how geography, economic structure, modes of domestic energy production, and culture shape energy security priorities. Its primary source of data is a four-part survey distributed in seven languages (English, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, German, and Japanese) to 2167 respondents in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Kazakhstan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United States. These countries were selected because they represent a mix of urban and rural populations, developed and developing economies, import- and export-oriented energy trading flows, communist and capitalist societies, liberalized and state-owned energy markets, and small and large geographic sizes. The survey results are used to test four propositions about energy security related to the education, age, occupation, and gender of respondents, as well five propositions about national energy priorities and the interconnected attributes of security of supply, energy efficiency, energy research and development, energy trade, diversification and decentralization, affordability, environmental quality, climate change, and energy governance.

  5. Energy transition: future of the planet or expensive utopia? The truths of the Cour des Comptes report of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansily, Jean-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    While providing in appendix an article published by four politicians concerned by the evolution of the relationship between the French society and sciences and techniques, an article on the difficult situation of a Danish leader company of the wind energy sector (Vestas), and the general conclusions of a report by the French Cour des Comptes (Court of Audit) on the French policy of development of renewable energies, the author first highlight some elements published in this last report regarding energy consumption sources, CO 2 emissions, electricity prices for households and for industries in France and in other European countries, and French and European objectives of renewable energy production. The author more particularly discusses these last objectives which he considers as being unrealistic and expensive, notably because of a lack of economic growth which may last long. He therefore considers nuclear energy as a good solution as it does not emit any CO 2 , and is far less expensive than renewable energies which he calls random energies

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) conducted December 7--11, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PETC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PETC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site Survey activities at PETC. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the Plan's results will be incorporated into the PETC Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 64 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. Study of the fluctuations of the partial and total radiative widths by neutron capture resonance method; Etude des fluctuations des largeurs radiatives partielles et totales par la capture des neutrons de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, V.D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    Radiative capture experiments by neutron time-of-flight methods have been made for following studies: distribution of partial radiative widths, effects of correlation between different radiative transitions, fluctuations of total radiative widths {gamma}{sub {gamma}} from resonance to resonance, variation of {gamma}{sub {gamma}} with number of mass and the search for the existence of potential capture. Also, some other experiments with the use of neutron capture gamma-rays spectra have been investigated. (author) [French] Par la capture des neutrons de resonance dont les energies sont selectionnees a l'aide de la technique du temps de vol, differents types d'experiences ont ete realisees concernant les etudes des distributions des largeurs radiatives partielles, des effets de correlation entre differentes voies de desexcitation, de la fluctuation des largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} de resonance a resonance, de la variation de la quantite {gamma}{sub {gamma}} en fonction du nombre de masse et de la mise en evidence de l'existence du processus de capture potentielle. Quelques autres applications de l'emploi du spectre de rayons gamma ont egalement ete presentees. (auteur)

  8. A literature survey on energy-growth nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the recent progress in the literature of energy consumption-economic growth and electricity consumption-economic growth causality nexus. The survey highlights that most empirical studies focus on either testing the role of energy (electricity) in stimulating economic growth or examining the direction of causality between these two variables. Although the positive role of energy on growth has become a stylized fact, there are some methodological reservations about the results from these empirical studies. A general observation from these studies is that the literature produced conflicting results and there is no consensus neither on the existence nor on the direction of causality between energy consumption (electricity consumption) and economic growth. As a policy implication, to avoid from conflicting and unreliable results, the authors may use the autoregressive distributed lags bounds test, two-regime threshold co-integration models, panel data approach and multivariate models including new variables (such as: real gross fixed capital formation, labor force, carbon dioxide emissions, population, exchange rates, interest rates, etc.). Thus, the authors should focus more on the new approaches and perspectives rather than by employing usual methods based on a set of common variables for different countries and different intervals of time.

  9. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et potentielle de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif au bien-être des jeunes et des femmes en Côte d'Ivoire, au Burkina Faso et au Kenya. Après un état des lieux de la pratique de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif dans chacun des pays ciblés, l'équipe de recherche étudiera son incidence sur ...

  10. Natural Gas Storage Seismic Monitoring Suivi sismique des stockages de gaz naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J.L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IFP Energies nouvelles, CGGVeritas and GDF Suez have conducted together, since 1980, a series of seismic monitoring experiments in order to detect and follow the movements of the gas plume in natural gas geologic storages. Surface and well seismic surveys were carried out at different stages of the storage life. Permanent receiver arrays have been set down in wells. Permanent sources have been designed. Sources and receivers have been used to follow continuously the storage cycle during several years, providing time measurement accuracy within a tenth of a millisecond. Gas intrusion into an aquifer leads to an increase in the arrival times of reflections beneath the storage reservoir and to a variation of the reflection amplitudes at top and bottom of the reservoirs. Progressive variations of the seismic parameters may be followed during the initial infill period. Further movements of the gas plume with the annual in/out cycles are more difficult to follow, because of the simultaneous presence of gas and water in the pores. Arrival time variations of some tenths of a millisecond may be detected and measured. Saturations, using accurate picking of the arrival times, can be estimated in favourable cases. Because of the higher density of carbon dioxide, when stored in a supercritical phase, sensitivity of the seismic parameters, velocity, density and acoustic impedance to saturation variations will be about twice smaller for CO2 storages than it is for methane. IFP Energies nouvelles, la CGGVeritas et GDF Suez ont mené ensemble, depuis 1980, de nombreuses expériences de monitoring sismique afin de détecter et de suivre les mouvements du gaz dans des stockages géologiques de gaz naturel. Des acquisitions ont été réalisées à différents stades de la vie du stockage tant en sismique de surface qu’en sismique de puits. Des antennes de récepteurs permanentes ont été construites et implantées dans des puits. Des sources permanentes ont

  11. Neutron cooling and cold-neutron sources (1962); Refroidissement des neutrons et sources de neutrons froids (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacrot, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Intense cold-neutron sources are useful in studying solids by the inelastic scattering of neutrons. The paper presents a general survey covering the following aspects: a) theoretical considerations put forward by various authors regarding thermalization processes at very low temperatures; b) the experiments that have been carried out in numerous laboratories with a view to comparing the different moderators that can be used; c) the cold neutron sources that have actually been produced in reactors up to the present time, and the results obtained with them. (author) [French] Des sources intenses de neutrons froids sont utiles pour l'etude des solides par diffusion inelastique des neutrons. On presente une revue d'ensemble: a) des considerations theoriques faites par divers auteurs sur les processus de thermalisation a tres basse temperature; b) des experiences faites dans de nombreux laboratoires pour comparer les divers moderateurs possibles; c) des sources de neutrons froids effectivement realisees dans des piles a ce jour, et des resultats obtenus avec ces sources. (auteur)

  12. Part 1: The detection of criticality accidents in the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Part 2: The Burst Slug Detection; 1. partie: la detection des accidents de criticite au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. 2. partie.: la detection des ruptures de gaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debrie, G; Lavie, J; Planque, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In all installations where fissionable materials are handled in quantities virtually greater than the critical mass, there exists permanent risk of accidental nuclear excursion entailing a serious irradiation hazard to the personnel, in spite of all the precautions that might be taken. Immediate detection followed by rapid evacuation greatly limits the risks of irradiation due to the fission products or to the sustained nuclear reaction. The necessity for a suitable equipment for the detection of accidents of criticality is imposed by the fact that the physical phenomena accompanying a nuclear, excursion are insufficient to follow the alarm, and may lead to confusion. Taking into account the accidents which have occurred and the role expected from a detector, we choose a dose integration device for the detecting probe proper, and a system based on the coincidence of several information to trigger the alarm. At the demand of the Commission des Masses Critiques, the minimal physical and electronic features required to obtain a very reliable system with minimal risk of false alarm has been established. These features are described in some detail. The equipment constructed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique on the basis of these recommendations has been tested systematically under actual conditions of nuclear excursions at the Health Physics Research Reactor of the National Laboratory at Oak Ridge. These tests have served to determine two types of detection probes which will be described: a photomultiplier and a semiconductor probe. Finally the authors present an example of a complete unit for the detection of criticality accidents in an installation for the processing of fissile material. B - The evolution of the installations for burst slug detection (BSD) in french reactors. The main part of the effort in the field of the Burst Slug Detection has been orientated on the large gas-cooled reactors where the problem of bursts slugs is associated with the economics

  13. Water-surface profiles of Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Philip J.; Appel, David H.

    1966-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken as a part of the cooperative program with the Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, the City of Des Moines, and the U.S. Geological Survey.  The purpose of this report is twofold:

  14. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hamann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes...... vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies...... alone. We consider also the survey's potential to measure dark energy perturbations in models wherein the dark energy is parameterised as a fluid with a nonstandard non-adiabatic sound speed, and find that in an optimistic scenario in which w_0 deviates by as much as is currently observationally allowed...

  15. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  16. A survey of some solar energy retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report briefly describes a survey of some solar energy retrofits, such as solar heaters and Trombe walls, that can be easily adapted into existing buildings belonging to the Department. With their relatively high cost, commercial solar heaters ha...

  17. Models of the Strongly Lensed Quasar DES J0408-5354

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnello, A.; et al.

    2017-02-01

    We present gravitational lens models of the multiply imaged quasar DES J0408-5354, recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint, with the aim of interpreting its remarkable quad-like configuration. We first model the DES single-epoch $grizY$ images as a superposition of a lens galaxy and four point-like objects, obtaining spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and relative positions for the objects. Three of the point sources (A,B,D) have SEDs compatible with the discovery quasar spectra, while the faintest point-like image (G2/C) shows significant reddening and a `grey' dimming of $\\approx0.8$mag. In order to understand the lens configuration, we fit different models to the relative positions of A,B,D. Models with just a single deflector predict a fourth image at the location of G2/C but considerably brighter and bluer. The addition of a small satellite galaxy ($R_{\\rm E}\\approx0.2$") in the lens plane near the position of G2/C suppresses the flux of the fourth image and can explain both the reddening and grey dimming. All models predict a main deflector with Einstein radius between $1.7"$ and $2.0",$ velocity dispersion $267-280$km/s and enclosed mass $\\approx 6\\times10^{11}M_{\\odot},$ even though higher resolution imaging data are needed to break residual degeneracies in model parameters. The longest time-delay (B-A) is estimated as $\\approx 85$ (resp. $\\approx125$) days by models with (resp. without) a perturber near G2/C. The configuration and predicted time-delays of J0408-5354 make it an excellent target for follow-up aimed at understanding the source quasar host galaxy and substructure in the lens, and measuring cosmological parameters. We also discuss some lessons learnt from J0408-5354 on lensed quasar finding strategies, due to its chromaticity and morphology.

  18. Calculation of the energy of particles emitted by the reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He and D (d,p) T; Calcul de l'energie des particules emises par les reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He et D (d,p) T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oria, M; Sorriaux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    With a view to ease the work of research workers using 150 kV electrostatic accelerators, we have calculated the energy and the emission angle of particles emitted during the reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. The results are classified in tables and arranged according to the acceleration energy of the deuterons. Since the energies considered are relatively low we have limited our study to the non-relativistic domain; this simplification results in a maximum energy variation with respect to the real energy values of 1 per cent. We give also two curves representing the variations in the total cross-sections for the reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He and D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (authors) [French] De facon a faciliter la tache des experimentateurs utilisant des accelerateurs electrostatiques de 150 kV, nous avons calcule l'energie et l'angle d'emission des particules emises lors des reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. Les resultats ont ete classes dans des tableaux, et ordonnes en fonction de l'energie d'acceleration des deuterons. Les energies considerees etant relativement peu elevees, nous avons limite notre etude au domaine non relativiste, cette simplification n'entraine qu'une variation maximale de 1 pour cent sur les valeurs reelles des energies. Nous avons joint a ce calcul deux courbes representant la variation des sections efficaces totales des reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He et D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (auteurs)

  19. Prise en charge des urgences au service d'accueil des urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: La prise en charge des patients dans les services d'accueil des urgences est une des meilleures vitrines d'un système de santé. En Afrique subsaharienne, la gestion des urgences se heurte à des difficultés humaines et matérielles. Le but de ce travail était d'évaluer les difficultés de prise en charge au Service ...

  20. Public Opinion Survey - Energy, The Present and The Future, 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Matijevic, M.; Jecmenica, R.; Duckic, P.; Lebegner, J.

    2016-01-01

    During the year 2015 the Department of Applied Physics of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb conducted a public opinion survey entitled 'Energy - The Present and the Future' among student population of 1115 individuals. The tested population consisted of the University of Zagreb six faculties' students: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, the Faculty of Science, and the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. The questions in the survey covered several different energy issues, including the present and the future energy resources, the acceptability of different fuel type power plants, the environmental protection and global warming, the radioactivity, the radioactive waste issues, reliable information sources, and position of participants towards climate change issues, as well as European Union and Croatian goals set for the year 2020. The basic results of survey analysis for nuclear oriented questions, as well as the comparison of results of the current survey with the results of the similar surveys conducted in the academic years 2007/08, and 2012/2013, are reported in this paper. Participants generally express high level of formal environmental awareness. However, their choices and attitudes are in a contradiction to claimed eco-orientation, as well as to the scientific facts. The discrepancies are particularly noticeable in parts of the survey dealing with the nuclear energy and the nuclear power plants. The participants are also demonstrating lack of knowledge on nuclear issues especially regarding radioactive waste management, as well as economics and operational safety of nuclear power plants. (author).

  1. The Effects of Halo Assembly Bias on Self-Calibration in Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-08-07

    Self-calibration techniques for analyzing galaxy cluster counts utilize the abundance and the clustering amplitude of dark matter halos. These properties simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the cluster observable-mass relation. It was recently discovered that the clustering amplitude of halos depends not only on the halo mass, but also on various secondary variables, such as the halo formation time and the concentration; these dependences are collectively termed 'assembly bias'. Applying modified Fisher matrix formalism, we explore whether these secondary variables have a significant impact on the study of dark energy properties using the self-calibration technique in current (SDSS) and the near future (DES, SPT, and LSST) cluster surveys. The impact of the secondary dependence is determined by (1) the scatter in the observable-mass relation and (2) the correlation between observable and secondary variables. We find that for optical surveys, the secondary dependence does not significantly influence an SDSS-like survey; however, it may affect a DES-like survey (given the high scatter currently expected from optical clusters) and an LSST-like survey (even for low scatter values and low correlations). For an SZ survey such as SPT, the impact of secondary dependence is insignificant if the scatter is 20% or lower but can be enhanced by the potential high scatter values introduced by a highly-correlated background. Accurate modeling of the assembly bias is necessary for cluster self-calibration in the era of precision cosmology.

  2. Connaissances, attitudes et pratiques des prestataires de santé des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... des prestataires interrogés avaient respectivement une bonne connaissance des facteurs de risque et des moyens de dépistage. Les signes évocateurs et les examens complémentaires nécessaires au diagnostic du cancer du sein étaient connus par 15,3 % des prestataires. La définition du cancer du sein et les moyens ...

  3. The structure of para-toluidine by X-ray and neutron diffraction; Etude de la structure de la para-toluidine par la diffraction des rayons X et des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertinotti, A.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-12-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of para-toluidine has been solved by X-ray and neutron diffraction counter techniques. The molecules are arranged in the form of infinite chains in the crystal, each molecule being linked to two neighbours by hydrogen bonds. The presence of the H bonds makes clear the difference in the melting points between para-toluidine and benzene hydrocarbons of related symmetry and molecular weight. Their direction accounts for the (001) cleavage and the growth anisotropy of crystals from supersaturated vapour phase. A structure-seeking method by computer has been elaborated, using lattice energy calculations applied to molecules treated as rigid bodies and making use of a simplex method for function minimization without calculation of derivatives. The way the available information is handled allows to increase the range of convergence, as shown in the case of para-toluidine. (author) [French] La structure cristalline et moleculaire de la para-toluidine a ete resolue a l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X et des neutrons. L'analyse a revele que la structure presentait un encha ement particulier des molecules, liees entre elles par des ponts hydrogene. La presence des liaisons rend compte de l'elevation du point de fusion de la para-toluidine par rapport a celui des carbures benzeniques de symetrie et de poids moleculaires voisins. La direction des liaisons explique le clivage facile (001) des cristaux obtenus par fusion et l'anisotropie de croissance des cristaux en phase vapeur. Une methode de recherche de structures par ordinateur a ete elaboree, faisant usage du concept d'energie reticulaire applique aux molecules considerees comme rigides et faisant appel a une methode de simplexe pour la minimisation des fonctions sans calcul de derivees. La maniere dont est exploitee l'information disponible permet d'accro re, comme cela est montre dans le cas de la para-toluidine, l'etendue du domaine de

  4. The structure of para-toluidine by X-ray and neutron diffraction; Etude de la structure de la para-toluidine par la diffraction des rayons X et des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertinotti, A L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-12-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of para-toluidine has been solved by X-ray and neutron diffraction counter techniques. The molecules are arranged in the form of infinite chains in the crystal, each molecule being linked to two neighbours by hydrogen bonds. The presence of the H bonds makes clear the difference in the melting points between para-toluidine and benzene hydrocarbons of related symmetry and molecular weight. Their direction accounts for the (001) cleavage and the growth anisotropy of crystals from supersaturated vapour phase. A structure-seeking method by computer has been elaborated, using lattice energy calculations applied to molecules treated as rigid bodies and making use of a simplex method for function minimization without calculation of derivatives. The way the available information is handled allows to increase the range of convergence, as shown in the case of para-toluidine. (author) [French] La structure cristalline et moleculaire de la para-toluidine a ete resolue a l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X et des neutrons. L'analyse a revele que la structure presentait un encha ement particulier des molecules, liees entre elles par des ponts hydrogene. La presence des liaisons rend compte de l'elevation du point de fusion de la para-toluidine par rapport a celui des carbures benzeniques de symetrie et de poids moleculaires voisins. La direction des liaisons explique le clivage facile (001) des cristaux obtenus par fusion et l'anisotropie de croissance des cristaux en phase vapeur. Une methode de recherche de structures par ordinateur a ete elaboree, faisant usage du concept d'energie reticulaire applique aux molecules considerees comme rigides et faisant appel a une methode de simplexe pour la minimisation des fonctions sans calcul de derivees. La maniere dont est exploitee l'information disponible permet d'accro re, comme cela est montre dans le cas de la para-toluidine, l'etendue du domaine de convergence. (auteur)

  5. L'energie du moustique

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le dernier accelerateur de particules du CERN, le LEP, produisait des faisceaux d'electrons de 100 GeV chacun. Le LHC, qui accelere des faisceaux de protons, leur communiquera une energie de 7 TeV chacun. Une energie a la fois colossale et derisoire. Un TeV represente a peu pres l'energie cinetique d'un moustique (1/2 page).

  6. Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.

  7. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  8. Usages des TIC et socialisation professionnelle des enseignants-chercheurs

    OpenAIRE

    Lavielle-Gutnik, Nathalie; Massou, Luc

    2013-01-01

    En prenant appui sur une nouvelle analyse des données recueillies dans l’enquête Tec-Meus (2008-2011, MSH Lorraine) sur la place accordée par des enseignants-chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) dans leur activité d’enseignement, nous souhaitons nous focaliser dans cet article sur la compréhension des processus de socialisation professionnelle en jeu dans leur usage déclaré des TIC. Par socialisation professionnelle, nous e...

  9. Public Opinion Survey-Energy-The Present and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejic Bach, M.; Pevec, D.; Bace, M.; Trontl, K.; Jecmenica, R.; Matijevic, M.; Lebegner, J.

    2008-01-01

    During the academic year 2007/08 the Department of Applied Physics of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing conducted a public opinion survey entitled 'Energy - The Present and the Future' among student population of 1439 individuals age 18-20. The tested population consisted of the University of Zagreb nine faculties' students: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing - 367 students, the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology - 149 students, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology - 118 students, the Faculty of Civil Engineering - 102 students, the Faculty of Philosophy - 100 students, the Faculty of Science - 50 students, the Medical School - 217 students, the School of Dental Medicine - 108 students, and the Faculty of Economics and Business - 228 students. The questions in the survey covered several different energy issues, including the present and the future energy resources, the acceptability of different fuel type power plants, the environmental protection and global warming, the radioactivity, the waste issues, as well as reliable information sources. The basic results of survey analysis for nuclear oriented questions are reported in this paper. Although participants expressed high level of formal environmental awareness, their choices and attitudes are in a contradiction to claimed eco-orientation, as well as to the scientific facts. The discrepancies are particularly noticeable in parts of the survey dealing with the nuclear energy and the nuclear power plants. The radioactive waste management, proved to be a potential stumbling-stone for the entire nuclear program. The participants are demonstrating deep lack of knowledge which results in the radioactive waste management becoming the main source of fear from the nuclear technology in general. A very disturbing attitude is a belief that the nuclear energy is non-economic, environmentally unacceptable and operationally unsafe source of energy. Such an attitude

  10. A survey in Latin America;Survey of atomic energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    An eight-member mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Brazil and Venezuela last summer to survey their atomic energy needs and the conditions that may have a bearing on the fulfilment of these needs. The head of the mission and two members also visited Argentina to make a study in a more restricted sphere. While the mission's work in Brazil and Venezuela covered all aspects of atomic energy development, the investigations in Argentina were concerned specifically with the exploration, mining and processing of nuclear raw materials. The members of the mission held extensive discussions with the national authorities in charge of atomic energy development who acquainted them with their plans and the progress of work already undertaken. The IAEA experts also visited different centres of work to gain a first-hand knowledge of conditions and needs. They were thus able to advise the national authorities on lines of further development and assist them in formulating requests for technical assistance from the Agency. The information contained in the mission's reports may serve as a broad guide to the present state and future needs of atomic energy development in the three countries

  11. Evaluer des études de gestion des entreprises : combiner des éléments principales avec des éléments pratiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennink, B.J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluer la recherche de gestion demande une combinaison des critères classiques et des critères pratiques. Par cette combinaison il est possible de trouver une réponse cerrecte concernant la validité et l'effet de la recherche. Dans cet article nous allons décrire comment une combinaison des

  12. Aspects des Onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biologiques et évolutifs des onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais. Méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive menée de mars 2011 à mars 2014 dans l'unité de dermatologie de l'hôpital général de Douala (HGD), incluant des patients chez lesquels le diagnostic d'onychomycose avait été posé.

  13. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments; Application des chargeurs solaires aux appareils de prospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [French] L'utilisation de piles classiques presente certains inconvenients. C'est pourquoi, dans tous les appareils de prospection, les piles fournissant des tensions elevees ont ete remplacees au fur et a mesure par des alimentations a base de transistors, utilisant des sources d'energie moins encombrantes. Toutefois, il faut tout de meme avoir des tensions faibles et l'utilisation de ces piles entraine dans les pays chauds ou humides une consommation disproportionnee par rapport aux services rendus. C'est pourquoi l'emploi de l'energie solaire presente de reels avantages. Cet expose decrit, apres un rappel de notion de base sur les semi-conducteurs, une batterie solaire a base de selenium qui a ete realisee par la Societe des freins et signaux Westinghouse. (auteur)

  14. Architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information libres, phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information libres, phase II (OASIS II) - Renforcement des capacités dans l'ensemble de l'Afrique. Sur presque tout le continent africain, la prestation des services de santé est limitée en raison des maigres ressources disponibles et de la charge de morbidité de plus en plus ...

  15. La Consommation énergétique des ménages à La Réunion : vers un retour à l’autonomie par le biais des énergies renouvelables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Garde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie l’évolution de la Consommation énergétique des ménages à La Réunion entre 1980 et 2005, en mettant l’accent sur le domaine de la consommation domestique d’électricité. Il montre que cet espace, autonome sur un plan énergétique au début des années 1980, a connu une dépendance de plus en plus forte vis-à-vis des approvisionnements en ressources fossiles durant les deux dernières décennies, sous la pression des mutations démographiques, économiques et sociologiques engagées. Depuis le début des années 2000, sous l’impulsion des politiques publiques, essentiellement fiscales, La Réunion s’engage dans le développement des énergies renouvelables, essentiellement le photovoltaïque, en s’affichant en tête des régions françaises et européennes dans la maîtrise de cette production énergétique.This article aims at studying the evolution of the domestic consumption of energy in Reunion island between 1980 and 2005 (electricity consumption. It shows that this area which reached its energetic autonomy at the beginning of the 80’s has known a strong dependency from fossil resources for the last two decades, due to the increasing pressures of demographic, economic and sociological factors. Since the beginning of the 2000’s, as a result of public policies impulsion (mainly fiscal policies, Reunion island has developed the use of renewable resources (essentially photovoltaic. It tends to be now one of the first French and European regions mastering this energy production process.

  16. User-needs study for the 1993 residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-24

    During 1992, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducted a user-needs study for the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Every 3 years, the RECS collects information on energy consumption and expenditures for various classes of households and residential buildings. The RECS is the only source of such information within EIA, and one of only a few sources of such information anywhere. EIA sent letters to more than 750 persons, received responses from 56, and held 15 meetings with users. Written responses were also solicited by notices published in the April 14, 1992 Federal Register and in several energy-related publications. To ensure that the 1993 RECS meets current information needs, EIA made a specific effort to get input from policy makers and persons needing data for forecasting efforts. These particular needs relate mainly to development of the National Energy Modeling System and new energy legislation being considered at the time of the user needs survey.

  17. Characteristics of the Biological Effects and the RBE of High Energy Protons; Caracteristiques des Effets Biologiques et EBR des Protons de Haute Energie; Osobennosti biologicheskogo dejstviya i obeh protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Caracteristicas de los Efectos Biologicos y de la EBR de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' ev, Ju. G.; Darenskaja, N. G.; Domshlak, M. M.; Lebedinskij, A. V.; Nefedov, Ju. G.; Ryzhov, N. I.

    1964-03-15

    The characteristics of the biological effects of high-energy protons (120, 240 and 510 MeV) were studied in experiments on mice, rats and dogs. It was shown that together with a certain resemblance or identity in radiation damage due to the effects of X-rays and protons, there were certain differences in the case of proton irradiation. In the proton irradiation of dogs the haemorrhagic syndrome was more pronounced. Haemorrhage appeared earlier in the animals and was more abundant. A difference was found in proton RBE levels for small animals (rats, mice) and large animals (dogs). This difference is quite large and equals respectively 0.7 and 1.0 * 1.15. Some considerations are presented in the report on the cause of these differences. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les caracteristiques des effets biologiques des protons de haute energie (120, 240 et 510 MeV) au cours d'experiences sur des souris, des rats et des chiens. Ils montrent que si les dommages causes par les rayons X et les protons presentent une certaine ressemblance ou des caracteres identiques, on observe des differences dans le cas de l'irradiation par les protons. Chez les chiens exposes aux protons, le syndrome hemorragique etait plus prononce. L'hemorragie s'est manifestee plus tot chez ces animaux et etait plus abondante. Les auteurs ont decele une difference dans l*EBRdes protons pour les petits animaux (rats, souris) et pour les grands animaux (chiens). Cette difference etait importante: 0,7 dans le premier cas et de 1,0 a 1,15 dans le second cas. On trouve dans le memoire quelques considerations sur la cause de ces differences. (author) [Spanish] Los autores estudiaron las caracteristicas de los efectos biologicos de los protones de elevada energia (120, 240 y 510 MeV) mediante experimentos con ratones, ratas y perros. Comprobaron que a pesar de ciertas semejanzas en las radiolesiones causadas por los rayos X y los protones, los efectos de estos ultimos acusan algunas diferencias. El

  18. Measurement of the production of K{sup +} mesons by protons in nuclei (1960); Mesure de la production des mesons K{sup +} par des protons dans les noyaux (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teiger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    K{sup +} mesons produced by the internal proton beam of Saturne have been identified by means of scintillation and Cerenkov counters. The production cross sections are given per target nucleus measured at a laboratory angle of 35 deg. as well as the cross section relative to {pi}{sup +} mesons of the same momentum for: - incident protons of kinetic energy between 1.3 and 2.8 GeV, - targets of C, Cu and Pb, - K{sup +} produced with kinetic energies between 0.45 and 0.65 GeV. From these results we have tried to deduce the importance of indirect production by intermediate {pi} mesons with respect to direct production by proton-nucleon collisions. (author) [French] Au moyen de detecteurs a scintillations et a rayonnement Cerenkov, on a identifie les mesons lourds K{sup +} produits par les protons du faisceau interne de 'Saturne'. On donne les sections efficaces de production, par noyau cible, mesurees a 35 deg. dans le laboratoire, ainsi que les sections efficaces relatives par rapport aux mesons {pi}{sup +} de meme impulsion pour: - des protons incidents d'energie cinetique entre 1,3 GeV et 2,8 GeV, - des cibles de C, de Cu et de Pb, - des K{sup +} produits avec des energies cinetiques entre 0,45 et 0,65 GeV. De ces resultats, on a essaye de deduire l'importance de la production indirecte, par mesons {pi} intermediaires, par rapport a la production directe dans un choc proton-nucleon. (auteur)

  19. Inflammatory lesions of the brainstem and the cerebellopontine angle; Entzuendungen des Hirnstamms und des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Jaeger, L. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2006-03-15

    Inflammatory lesions of the brainstem and the cerebellopontine angle are often critical for the patient, because crucial neuronal and vascular structures are found in this region. The patient's prognosis mainly depends on rapid identification of the inflammation site and the radiological evaluation of the inflammation pathogenesis to develop therapeutic strategies. Therefore, cross-sectional imaging is complementary to laboratory and CSF analysis as well as biopsies. This article gives a survey of inflammatory lesions of the brainstem and the cerebellopontine angle. (orig.) [German] Entzuendliche Erkrankungen des Hirnstamms und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels stellen nicht selten eine kritische Situation fuer den Patienten dar, da in diesen Regionen wichtige neuronale Strukturen und Gefaesse verlaufen. Die Prognose und das weitere therapeutische Vorgehen haengen entscheidend von einer schnellen Diagnose der Entzuendungslokalisation sowie einer bildmorphologischen Einordnung der Entzuendungspathogenese ab. Folglich ergaenzt die Schnittbildgebung entscheidend die Liquoranalyse, die Biopsie und die Laboruntersuchungen. In diesem Artikel soll eine Uebersicht ueber die verschiedenen entzuendlichen Veraenderungen des Hirnstamms und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels gegeben werden. (orig.)

  20. L'exode des cerveaux et le renforcement des capacités en Afrique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 févr. 2011 ... Ce phénomène ébranle les assises économiques et politiques de bien des pays africains. ... le défi consiste à recruter ces cerveaux. ... des missions africaines, des organisations non gouvernementales et des groupes de la diaspora réunis pour parler de l'exode des cerveaux en Afrique et des stratégies à ...

  1. Influence de l'occupation des terres sur la dynamique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de la présente étude est d'évaluer l'impact de mise en culture, des pâturages, des jachères et l'influence des villages sur la dynamique des communautés végétales de la commune de ..... mais il n'y a que peu de recrutement. Au-delà de cinq ans, taille et phytovolume diminuent, témoignant du vieillissement de la ...

  2. A survey on human behavior towards energy efficiency for office worker in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Green environment has become an important topic around the world. This campaign can be realized if everybody understands and shares similar objectives on managing energy in an efficient way. This paper will present and analyse the survey on energy usage by office workers in Malaysia. The survey will focus on the workers in government sector. In social science surveys, it is important to support the tested data for a project. For issues related to human behaviour we must compare with real situations to verify the tested data and the results in energy monitoring system. The energy monitoring system will improve energy usage efficiency for the basic human activities in different situations and environments.

  3. Spectra theory for nuclei with closed shells (1962); Theorie des spectres des noyaux a couches completes (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    second approximation which alone leads to a region of optimum agreement identical for both carbon and oxygen. An excellent general agreement is obtained with the known spectra of these two nuclei. The importance of higher order terms in the calculation of the 3{sup -} and 5{sup -} collective states for calcium 40 is demonstrated; furthermore it is possible to explain these levels only by the second approximation. Certain forecasts are made using the effective forces thus found. (author) [French] On applique une theorie unifiee des spectres des noyaux a couches completes, fondee sur les excitations elementaires particule-trou de ces systemes, a l'etude du carbone 12, de l'oxygene i6 et du calcium.40. Deux approximations sont utilisees. La premiere consiste a diagonaliser l'interaction residuelle a deux corps dans un sous-espace limite de configurations a une particule et un trou. Sa validite repose sur l'energie importante exigee pour l'excitation d'une paire particule-trou. La seconde approximation consiste a resommer la sous-serie infinie des diagrammes particule-trou. Elle est equivalente a la methode de Hartree-Fock dependante du temps ou a la methode des Quasi-Bosons. Son domaine de validite, dans le cas nucleaire, n'est pas bien compris. Les diagrammes sommes sont preponderants a la limite des fortes densites, alors que la densite nucleaire est de l'ordre de l'unite. La violation des Principe de Pauli, dans cette approximation, n'est justifiee que si le nombre de paires excitees est petit par rapport au nombre d'etats de particule disponibles; or, dans les noyaux legers les degenerescences des couches sont petites. Neanmoins cette approximation qui postule l'existence d'un champ nucleaire moyen, lentement variable dans le temps par rapport aux periodes des nucleons a le merite d'etre self-consistante, de donner des etats propres orthogonaux a l'etat non physique du centre de masse et d'ameliorer le calcul des regles de somme. Pour determiner et limiter le role de la

  4. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; et al.

    2015-08-04

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses $\\lesssim 20\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ annihilating via the $b\\bar{b}$ or τ(+)τ(-) channels.

  5. Technical and Economic Potential of Distributed Energy Storages for the Integration of Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Trier, Daniel; Hansen, Kenneth

    Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role decentral...... indicate that sector coupling along with an intelligent choice of distributed energy storage technologies can enable the integration of large shares of fluctuating renewable energy in an energy efficient and cost-effective way.......Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role...... decentralised energy storages (DES) should play in integrating fluctuating renewable energy sources. The technical and economic potential for DES solutions is quantified using energy system modelling, and it is identified which DES technologies have the largest total (technical and economic) potential. For this...

  6. GENOMIQUE ET LIPIDES Génomique et métabolisme des lipides des plantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delseny Michel

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Il existe dans les bases de données publiques une énorme quantité de séquences d’ADN dérivées de plantes, et notamment la séquence complète du génome d’Arabidopsis thaliana, une plante modèle pour les oléagineux, proche parente du colza. Ces données constituent une ressource importante non seulement pour la compréhension de métabolisme lipidique et de sa régulation, mais aussi pour la sélection et le développement de variétés nouvelles d’oléagineux produisant davantage d’huiles ou des huiles de composition nouvelle. Cette abondance de séquences peut être exploitée, en utilisant les recherches d’homologies, pour identifier les gènes, pour obtenir des informations sur leur fonction, comme pour repérer des gènes candidats codant des fonctions nouvelles. L’analyse de ces bases de données a révélé que la majeure partie des gènes codant des enzymes impliquées dans le métabolisme lipidique appartient à des petites familles multigéniques, reflétant la diversification des fonctions des isoformes. Une analyse du catalogue des ADNc séquencés en aveugle reflète les niveaux d’expression des différents gènes et fournit un aperçu des régulations des flux au travers des voies métaboliques conduisant à la biosynthèse des lipides de réserve. La disponibilité de mutants et de lignées transgéniques d’Arabidopsis et le développement de puces à ADN qui permettent l’analyse simultanée de plusieurs milliers de gènes conduiront à une meilleure compréhension des facteurs qui régulent le métabolisme des huiles dans les graines. Une telle connaissance facilitera la manipulation de la composition des huiles et des quantités produites dans les graines.

  7. Coincidence measurements with the use of detectors measuring the energy of the radiances (proportional meters and scintillation counter); Mesures de coincidences avec utilisation de detecteurs mesurant l'energie des rayonnements (compteurs proportionnels et compteur a scintillations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartory, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    In the setting of the realization of a set of installations permitting of the measures of coincidences between sorted radiances according to their energies, an installation understanding a proportional counter and a scintillation counter has been constructed and optimized. It has been used to do some measures of coincidences between X{sub K} photons and photons {gamma} issued at the time of the radioactive transformation of the selenium 75 (electronic capture). The efficiency of the proportional meter has been determined roughly. Besides, a proportional counter of solid angle neighboring of 4{pi} was able to achieve measures of coincidences while only doing one selection of amplitudes: indeed, the simultaneity of the detection of two radiances appear by an impulse whose amplitude is the sum of the amplitudes of the impulses resulting from each of the studied radiations. This method, applied to the coincidences between X-rays, permitted to bring the information on the diagram of decay of the arsenic 73. Besides, the coefficient of internal conversion of a consecutive transition to this decay has been valued. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de la realisation d'une serie de montages permettant des mesures de coincidences entre rayonnements tries d'apres leurs energies, un montage comprenant un compteur proportionnel et un compteur a scintillations a ete construit et mis au point. Il a ete utilise pour effectuer quelques mesures de coincidences entre photons X{sub K} et photons {gamma} emis lors de la transformation radioactive du selenium 75 (capture electronique). L'efficacite du compteur proportionnel a ete approximativement determinee. De plus, un compteur proportionnel d'angle solide voisin de 4{pi} a pu etre utilise pour realiser des mesures de coincidences en n'effectuant qu'une selection d'amplitudes: en effet, la simultaneite de la detection de deux rayonnements se manifeste par une impulsion dont l'amplitude est la somme des amplitudes des impulsions

  8. Public Opinion Survey - Energy - The Present and the Future - 2009/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.

    2010-01-01

    During the academic year 2009/10 the Department of Applied Physics of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing conducted a public opinion survey entitled 'Energy - The Present and the Future' among student population of 622 individuals age 18-20 (413 male students, 202 female students, and 7 students without the answer on gender question). The tested population consisted of the University of Zagreb four faculties' students: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, the Faculty of Civil Engineering. The questions in the survey covered several different energy issues, including the present and the future energy resources, the acceptability of different fuel type power plants, the environmental protection and global warming, the radioactivity, the waste issues, as well as reliable information sources. The basic results of survey analysis for nuclear oriented questions, as well as the comparison of results of the current survey with the results of the similar survey conducted in the academic year 2007/08, are reported in this paper. Participants generally express high level of formal environmental awareness. However, their choices and attitudes are in a contradiction to claimed eco-orientation, as well as to the scientific facts. The discrepancies are particularly noticeable in parts of the survey dealing with the nuclear energy and the nuclear power plants. The participants are also demonstrating lack of knowledge on nuclear issues especially regarding radioactive waste management, as well as economics and operational safety of nuclear power plants.(author).

  9. Des dispositions responsables à prendre pour la protection des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En considérant l'effet néfaste des maladies, des parasites, du changement climatique et d'autres facteurs environnementaux (les OGM par exemple) sur la survie des abeilles, la baisse de leurs populations dans certaines parties du monde ne saurait être attribuée aux seules pesticides. En plus, l'impact de ces derniers sur ...

  10. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  11. Comportement des polluants des eaux pluviales urbaines en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    développement et la croissance des organismes vivant dans l'eau et particulièrement les micro- organismes. Le suivi des températures enregistrées oscille entre 9 et 16°C dans les trois sites d'observation durant la période ... de la lumière du soleil. Le site C est bien aéré et .... Effets de différents modes de gestion des eaux ...

  12. Energy survey in the New Zealand dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, V T; Shannon, D V

    1977-12-25

    An in-depth report on energy consumption in the New Zealand dairy industry for 1974--75 shows that a reduction in fuel consumption per unit of production has occurred when compared with two previous surveys (1954--55 and 1964--65). The increase in thermal efficiency of dairy processing was due mainly to the use of hot water heating systems in milk-treatment stations, the increased capacity of butter and cheese factories, increased thermal efficiency in skim milk drying and casein manufacture, increased efficiency in boiler plants, and higher drying air temperature achieved with the use of indirect oil- and gas-fired air heaters and liquid-phase air heating systems. Total energy consumed by the industry by type is tabulated. Recommendations to the industry following the survey are listed. (MCW)

  13. Caractérisation des plantes médicinales à flavonoïdes des marchés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les espèces guinéo-congolaises sont les plus abondantes et le mode de dissémination majoritaire des diaspores est la zoochorie. Les plantes à flavonoïdes les plus utilisées sont : Combretum micranthum, Aloe vera, Ageratum conyzoïdes et Cylicodiscus gabonensis. Elles rentrent dans le traitement de 73 maladies parmi ...

  14. DES/CCHP: The best utilization mode of natural gas for China’s low carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yajun; Xia, Yan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, through the analysis of the great challenges faced by China’s energy industry in the development of low carbon economy, it is advisable that China increase the proportion of natural gas (NG) in primary energy as the main strategy of energy conservation and CO 2 reduction in the advancement of industrialization and urbanization. In the near future, NG will become one of the major energy suppliers for new towns and industrial parks, and work for electric peak shaving when used in distributed energy system/combined cold, heat and power (DES/CCHP). However, as an efficient approach to improve the energy utilization efficiency, DES/CCHP cannot only increase the current energy efficiency from 33% to 50.3% (the world’s average), but also reduce the cost of terminal supplies of power, cold, steam and hot water. It will become one of the most important means to control CO 2 emissions in the next 20 years, and is essential to China’s low carbon industrialization and urbanization. - Highlights: ► China’s high economic growth has lead to a huge amount of carbon emissions. ► Climate change calls for a low carbon economy in China. ► The pressure of carbon emission reduction requires China reduce the excessive dependency on coal and oil. ► Natural gas used in distributed energy system/combined cold, heat and power (NG DES/CCHP) is low in carbon emission. ► NG DES/CCHP is the optimal energy supplier for a low carbon economy in China.

  15. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  16. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  17. La cire cuticulaire des grains de raisin et des feuilles de la vigne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. RADLER

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available Je voudrais parler ici des recherches que j'ai effectuées dans le cadre d'un programme de recherches de l'Organisation australienne de recherches (C.S.I.R.O.. Ce sont des recherches sur la structure, la composition chimique et le rôle de la cire cuticulaire des grains de raisins et des feuilles. Ces recherches ont été effectuées principalement lors de l'étude des problèmes relatifs au séchage des raisins pour la production des raisins. Cependant, l'importance de la cire cuticulaire ne se limite pas seulement au séchage des raisins, car elle concerne aussi l'œnologie et les problèmes de la conservation des raisins de table. Je pense donc que mon exposé peut présenter pour vous un certain intérêt.

  18. Contribution to the experimental study of excited levels of some light nuclei by using the method of angular correlation of internal conversion pairs and monopolar pairs; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de niveaux excites de quelques noyaux legers par la methode des Correlations angulaires des paires de conversion interne Et des paires monopolaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, Raymond

    1950-07-01

    In a first part, the author presents a brief theory of angular correlations of internal conversion pairs and monopolar pairs, and indicates the complete formulations which are used to compute all the angular correlations corresponding to the performed experiments. In a second part, he describes a beta spectrometer, outlines factors which govern the energy resolving power, and the peculiarity of summation of two pulses proportional to the energy of the electron and positron which build up an internal pair. In a third part, the author reports experiments of angular correlations, indicates the shapes of monopolar spectra for different angles between electron and positron emission directions, determines the multipolarity of gamma radiations from the first excited levels of {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C, and gives the angular moments, parity and isobaric spin of two excited levels of the {sup 12}C [French] Dans la premiere partie de notre travail, nous exposons une theorie sommaire des correlations angulaires des paires de conversion interne et des paires monopolaires. A la fin de cette premiere partie sont indiquees les formules completes, qui nous ont servi a calculer pratiquement toutes les correlations angulaires correspondant a nos experiences. Dans la deuxieme partie, nous decrivons un spectrometre beta a scintillation. Nous insistons surtout sur les elements qui determinent le pouvoir de resolution en energie et sur la particularite de sommation de deux impulsions proportionnelles a l'energie de l'electron et du positron formant une paire interne. Dans la troisieme partie, nous exposons nos experiences de correlations angulaires. Nous avons repris une mesure precise de la correlation angulaire des paires monopolaires provenant du niveau 6,05 Mev de l'Oxygene 16. Il nous a ete egalement possible de donner l'allure des spectres monopolaires pour differents angles formes par les directions d'emission de l'electron et du positron. Nous avons determine par la methode des

  19. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  20. statut de la matiere organique des cambisols et des lixisols sous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    L'étude vise à évaluer la matière organique des Cambisols et des Lixisols sous formations naturelles de longue durée en zone climatique nord-soudanienne et à établir, les relations entre ... sont supérieures à celles des sols des zones sahélienne et sud-soudanienne. ... globale a eu une corrélation positive avec le pH.

  1. New determination of the vapour pressures of the isotopes of neon; Nouvelles determinations des tensions de vapeur des isotopes du neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-03-15

    We have undertaken an experimental reinvestigation of the vapor pressures of the neon isotopes over the temperature range 16.30-30.1 deg. K. Measurements were made by differential manometry in a Giauque-Johnston type cryostat modified for temperature stability. The New sample contained 99.9 % Ne{sup 20} and the Ne{sup 22} sample contained 72,2 % Ne{sup 22}. Extrapolation to pure Ne{sup 20} and Ne{sup 22} can be made with sufficient accuracy by the use of Raoult's law. Our results are in substantial agreement with those of Keesom and Haantjes. At 20 deg. K, where the scatter in our data is an order of magnitude smaller than in the data of Keesom and Haantjes, we find In P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 0}}/P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 2}} is 6 % larger than the smoothed line given by them. For solid neon, our data can be represented to a high accuracy by a Debye harmonic lattice with {theta}{sub D} (Ne{sup 20}) = 74.6 deg. K. The result may be compared with the value obtained by Henshaw from the Debye-Waller temperature factor, {theta}{sub D} = 73 deg. K, and with the recent calculation of the zero point energy of Ne by Bernardes, from which he obtains {theta}{sub D} 8E{sub {theta}}/9R = 73 deg.. K. (author) [French] On a construit un appareillage dont le principe est derive de celui des instruments decrits par GIAUQUE et EGAN ou par H.L. JOHNSTON qui a permis d'etendre le domaine des mesures de tension de vapeur des isotopes du Neon entre 16,30 et 32 deg. K environ. Le rapport des pressions extremes atteintes est ainsi multiplie par plus de 40 pour le neon ordinaire qui servait de reference et de thermometre. L'appareil, adapte en particulier au travail sous pressions elevees, permet, de plus, de travailler sur de relativement petites quantites totales de gaz - environ 500 cm{sup 3} suffisent dans l'intervalle de pression evoque. La stabilite de temperature obtenue peut etre tres bonne surtout lorsque l'on travaille dans la phase liquide; dans ce cas, les variations totales de

  2. New determination of the vapour pressures of the isotopes of neon; Nouvelles determinations des tensions de vapeur des isotopes du neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-03-15

    We have undertaken an experimental reinvestigation of the vapor pressures of the neon isotopes over the temperature range 16.30-30.1 deg. K. Measurements were made by differential manometry in a Giauque-Johnston type cryostat modified for temperature stability. The New sample contained 99.9 % Ne{sup 20} and the Ne{sup 22} sample contained 72,2 % Ne{sup 22}. Extrapolation to pure Ne{sup 20} and Ne{sup 22} can be made with sufficient accuracy by the use of Raoult's law. Our results are in substantial agreement with those of Keesom and Haantjes. At 20 deg. K, where the scatter in our data is an order of magnitude smaller than in the data of Keesom and Haantjes, we find In P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 0}}/P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 2}} is 6 % larger than the smoothed line given by them. For solid neon, our data can be represented to a high accuracy by a Debye harmonic lattice with {theta}{sub D} (Ne{sup 20}) = 74.6 deg. K. The result may be compared with the value obtained by Henshaw from the Debye-Waller temperature factor, {theta}{sub D} = 73 deg. K, and with the recent calculation of the zero point energy of Ne by Bernardes, from which he obtains {theta}{sub D} 8E{sub {theta}}/9R = 73 deg.. K. (author) [French] On a construit un appareillage dont le principe est derive de celui des instruments decrits par GIAUQUE et EGAN ou par H.L. JOHNSTON qui a permis d'etendre le domaine des mesures de tension de vapeur des isotopes du Neon entre 16,30 et 32 deg. K environ. Le rapport des pressions extremes atteintes est ainsi multiplie par plus de 40 pour le neon ordinaire qui servait de reference et de thermometre. L'appareil, adapte en particulier au travail sous pressions elevees, permet, de plus, de travailler sur de relativement petites quantites totales de gaz - environ 500 cm{sup 3} suffisent dans l'intervalle de pression evoque. La stabilite de temperature obtenue peut etre tres bonne surtout lorsque l'on travaille dans la phase liquide; dans ce cas, les

  3. Combining a survey approach and energy and indoor environment auditing in historic buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Dalewski, Mariusz; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an approach where a survey study is combined with energy and indoor environment auditing in the built environment. The combination of methods presented in this paper is one way to obtain a wider perspective on the indoor environment and energy use and also let...... this research project. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of energy and indoor environment auditing and standardized occupant surveys. Findings – The main findings in the paper are related to the good agreement between results from standardized occupant surveys and physical measurements...

  4. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  5. Thermodynamic Aspects of Supercritical Fluids Processing: Applications of Polymers and Wastes Treatment Aspects thermodynamiques des procédés mettant en oeuvre des fluides supercritiques : applications aux traitements des polymères et des déchets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslin P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid processes are of increasing interest for many fields : in supercritical fluid separation (petroleum-chemistry separation and purification, food industry and supercritical fluid chromatography (analytical and preparative separation, determination of physicochemical properties; as reaction media with continuously adjustable properties from gas to liquid (low-density polyethylene, waste destruction, polymer recycling; in geology and mineralogy (volcanoes, geothermal energy, hydrothermal synthesis; in particle, fibber and substrate formations (pharmaceuticals, explosives, coatings; in drying materials (gels. This paper presents the unusual physicochemical properties of supercritical fluids in relation to their engineering applications. After a short report of fundamental concepts of critical behavior in pure fluids, we develop in more details the tunable physicochemical properties of fluid in the supercritical domain. The second part of this paper describes the engineering applications of supercritical fluids relevant of chemical reactions and polymer processing. Each application presentation is divided in two parts : the first one recalls the basic concepts including general background, physicochemical properties and the second one develops the engineering applications relevant of the advocated domain. La mise en Suvre des fluides supercritiques est d'un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines : pour la séparation (séparation et purification en pétrochimie, industrie alimentaire et la chromatographie par fluides supercritiques (séparation analytique et préparatoire, détermination des propriétés physicochimiques, comme milieux réactifs aux propriétés continûment ajustables allant du gaz au liquide (polyéthylène de faible densité, élimination des déchets, recyclage des polymères, en géologie et en minéralogie (volcanologie, énergie géothermique, synthèse hydrothermique, dans la formation des particules

  6. The recommissioning of Montreal's Palais des Congres; Le recommissioning du Palais des congres de Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Palais des Congres, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Deschamps, J.F. [Pageau Morel et Associes, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    An addition was constructed onto the Palais des Congres building in Montreal in 2002. When the energy performance of the newly recommissioned building failed to meet the expectations of the construction contractor, an Energy Savings Commission was created with a mandate was to reduce energy consumption by 25 per cent over a 3 to 5 year time period, representing a savings of $500,000 per year. The objective was to make advantageous changes that would not compromise occupant comfort or interior air quality. The Committee identified areas of possible improvements in the building's heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Improvements in lighting systems and humidity control were also investigated. The Committee identified necessary upgrades and evaluated the changes in terms of technical feasibility, financial profit and sustainability. The Committee was also responsible for acquiring the authorization needed to proceed with the investment and implement change. This paper listed the energy saving measures along with the associated savings in electricity and natural gas. It also listed the associated reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The energy saving measures undertaken by the Committee were based on 3 fundamental principles which included turning off equipment that was not being used in different areas of the building; optimizing the energy use of equipment; and, replacing or modifying inefficient equipment. In November 2005, the Palais des Congres hosted the Energy Efficiency Week, during which time it made use of CANMET's Diagnostic Agent for Building Operators (DABO) software package to achieve energy savings. A program aimed at training employees in energy efficiency was also implemented and feedback on key issues was acquired. Hydro-Quebec also contributed $25,000 towards the energy analysis performed by the Committee. The objective of saving $500,000 in energy costs over a 3 to 5 year period was met. 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Évaluation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre des filières de traitement et de valorisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées

    OpenAIRE

    Reverdy, A.L.; Pradel, M.

    2011-01-01

    / Ce rapport présente l'inventaire des différentes consommations énergétiques, en consommables et des GES pour chaque poste de traitement et de valorisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées.

  8. Periodical public opinion survey on nuclear energy. Inhabitants living in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Tsutida, Shouji; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (Fukushima accident) has brought about a great change in many people's perceptions about nuclear power plant safety. When discussing future energy options for Japan, it is important to have a full grasp of the attitude of a large number of people towards nuclear energy. The Atomic Energy Society of Japan has conducted annual questionnaire survey of 500 adults who live within 30 kilometers of Tokyo Station. The aim of this survey is to assess trends in public attitude towards nuclear energy. The authors that designed the questionnaire entries of this survey have been managing questionnaire data as members of the Data Management Working Group under the Social and Environmental Division of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. We confirmed the change in public attitude towards nuclear energy through this periodical survey after the Fukushima accident. In particular, public concerns about the use of nuclear energy increased after the Fukushima accident, and many people have raised doubts over the use of nuclear energy in the future. (author)

  9. Assessment of Systematic Chromatic Errors that Impact Sub-1% Photometric Precision in Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. S. [et al.

    2016-05-27

    Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1-2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes, when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the systematic chromatic errors caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane, can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We compare the calculated systematic chromatic errors with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. We also find that the errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for stars at certain redshifts.

  10. Survey of EPA facilities for solar thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. V.; Overly, P. T.; Bell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facility combinations were ranked on the basis of greatest cost effectiveness.

  11. Public Opinion Survey - Energy - The Present and the Future - 2012/2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, Kresimir; Pevec, Dubravko; Matijevic, Mario; Jecmenica, Radomir; Lebegner, Josip

    2014-01-01

    During the academic year 2012/13 the Department of Applied Physics of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb conducted a public opinion survey entitled 'Energy- The Present and the Future' among student population of more than 950 individuals. The tested population consisted of the University of Zagreb five faculties' and one polytechnic school's students: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, the Faculty of Civil Engineering, the Faculty of Science, and the Polytechnic of Zagreb. The questions in the survey covered several different energy issues, including the present and the future energy resources, the acceptability of different fuel type power plants, the environmental protection and global warming, the radioactivity, the waste issues, reliable information sources, and position of participants towards climate change issues, , as well as European Union and Croatian goals set for the year 2020. The basic results of survey analysis for nuclear oriented questions, as well as the comparison of results of the current survey with the results of the similar surveys conducted in the academic years 2007/08 and 2009/2010, are reported in this paper. Participants generally express high level of formal environmental awareness. However, their choices and attitudes are in a contradiction to claimed eco-orientation, as well as to the scientific facts. The discrepancies are particularly noticeable in parts of the survey dealing with the nuclear energy and the nuclear power plants. The participants are also demonstrating lack of knowledge on nuclear issues especially regarding radioactive waste management, as well as economics and operational safety of nuclear power plants. (authors)

  12. Renforcement de l'autonomie des collectivités au moyen des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra au ministère des Communications et des Technologies de l'information de l'Égypte ainsi qu'au fonds spécial réservé aux TI de consolider le modèle actuel des clubs de TI en Égypte, par l'entremise de services d'assistance sur demande, d'activités de formation à l'intention du personnel des ...

  13. L' approche des options stratégiques des acteurs dans i' etude des relations tu travail

    OpenAIRE

    López Pino, Carmen Marina

    2011-01-01

    Faire une analyse de la proposition analytique développée par le MIT (Masachussetts Institute of Tecnology) inspirée du concept des options stratégiques pour I' objet de cet article. En premier lieu, les sujets traités seront la problematique des relations du travail et les découvertes fondamentales des différentes recherches de I' equipe du MIT. Après, I' étude fait une courte présentatión sur I' approche des systémes de Dunlop dont I' èquipe cherche améliorer. Ensuite, sont présentés...

  14. Survey of the actual energy consumption in the commercial/residential sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted of the actual energy consumption in the business sector (schools, hotels/inns, hospitals, and other service business) in fiscal 1996, and was put together with the survey conducted in the past in order to clarify the structure and trend of energy consumption in the commercial/residential sector. The survey was aimed at making basic data for the development/introduction of the petroleum substituting energy including future new energy. The consumption unit requirement of a school total was 84.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, that of a hotel/inn total was 455.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, and that of a hospital total was 400.2 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year. The energy consumption for business use was summarized. The consumption unit requirement of restaurants was the largest, 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, and that of schools was the smallest. In office building business and wholesale/retailing business, electricity is largely used mostly for illumination, power, etc. In restaurants, gas is largely used mostly for its own use including cooking. In schools, energy use for space heating was the largest, but was almost the same as that in office buildings in terms of the amount. 179 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Glossaire des sigles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABM Anti-ballistic missile = Missile antimissile balistique AGM Air-to-ground missile = Missile air-sol AIEA Agence Internationale de l’Energie Atomique ALCM Air-launched cruise missile = Missile de croisière air-sol ANSEA Association des Nations du Sud-Est asiatique ANT* Arme nucléaire tactique ASAT Anti-satellite = Arme antisatellite ASW Anti-submarine warfare = Guerre anti-sous-marine AWACS Airborne warning and control system = Système aérien de contrôle et d’alerte BMD Ballistic missile d...

  16. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  17. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey : summary report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecteau, V.; Hulan, I.; McNabb, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-06-15

    A survey was conducted on the energy consumption of Canada's commercial and institutional sectors. The primary purpose was to improve the understanding of various aspects of energy consumption in these sector and to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions that seek to achieve greater energy efficiency and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Energy intensity data was presented by energy source and region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and, accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio. In 2005, the commercial and institutional establishments consumed 1.04 billion gigajoules, nearly double the annual consumption of all private households in Ontario. The total energy intensity was 1.54 GJ per square metre. The lowest energy rating was found in social assistance establishments, while the highest energy rating was in food services and drinking places, followed by hospitals. Quebec and the Atlantic provinces had the lowest energy intensity levels, while the Prairie provinces had the highest energy intensity rate. The survey included data on the age of establishments; the energy sources used for space heating cooling and water heating; establishment spending on energy consumption; and, the use of auxiliary equipment. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Libération des acides gras par autolyse enzymatique des triglycérides des graines oléoprotéagineuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibert Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras produits par hydrolyse chimique des lipides des plantes sont des matériaux de base pour l’industrie des biocarburants, des lubrifiants, des plastiques, des détergents et également des adjuvants de préparations commerciales d’herbicides. Cependant les procédés actuels de production des acides gras sont hautement polluants et coûteux en énergie. Dans ce travail nous développons un nouveau procédé de production des acides gras mettant en œuvre des plantes génétiquement modifiées. Nous avons introduit dans le tabac, retenu comme plante modèle, une construction génétique comprenant un gène de lipase (de la levure Geotrichum candidum sous le contrôle d’un promoteur graine spécifique (promoteur AtEm1 d’Arabidopsis thaliana. Ce promoteur devrait permettre l’expression du gène de lipase au niveau de l’axe embryonnaire tandis que les lipides s’accumulent dans les corps lipidiques des cotylédons. Dans ces conditions, les lipides de la graine devraient être séparés de la lipase par une compartimentation tissulaire et ne pas interférer. Après broyage des graines on peut penser que la mise en contact des lipides et de la lipase conduira à la libération d’acides gras. Plusieurs transformants ont été produits par transfert de gène à l’aide d’Agrobacterium tumefaciens, quelques-uns d’entre eux exprimant, comme attendu, la lipase dans leurs graines. Trois clones (2, 19 et 43 présentent une activité lipase significative et ont été retenus pour des études complémentaires. Cependant l’activité enzymatique observée est faible et certains clones présentent un défaut de compartimentation entre l’enzyme et les lipides se traduisant par la production d’acides gras dans la graine intacte. Lorsque les graines du clone 43 sont broyées dans un tampon, des acides gras sont produits dans le milieu réactionnel, validant le procédé imaginé. De nouvelles constructions réalisées, soit

  19. Portable Wind Energy Harvesters for Low-Power Applications: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyedfakhreddin; Zhang, Lihong

    2016-07-16

    Energy harvesting has become an increasingly important topic thanks to the advantages in renewability and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive study on contemporary portable wind energy harvesters has been conducted. The electrical power generation methods of portable wind energy harvesters are surveyed in three major groups, piezoelectric-, electromagnetic-, and electrostatic-based generators. The paper also takes another view of this area by gauging the required mechanisms for trapping wind flow from ambient environment. In this regard, rotational and aeroelastic mechanisms are analyzed for the portable wind energy harvesting devices. The comparison between both mechanisms shows that the aeroelastic mechanism has promising potential in producing an energy harvester in smaller scale although how to maintain the resonator perpendicular to wind flow for collecting the maximum vibration is still a major challenge to overcome for this mechanism. Furthermore, this paper categorizes the previously published portable wind energy harvesters to macro and micro scales in terms of their physical dimensions. The power management systems are also surveyed to explore the possibility of improving energy conversion efficiency. Finally some insights and research trends are pointed out based on an overall analysis of the previously published works along the historical timeline.

  20. Application of the geophysical and geochemical methods to the research for uranium; Application a la recherche de l'uranium des methodes geophysiques et geochimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangloff, A M; Collin, C R; Grimbert, A; Sanselme, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Since 1954, at the Commissariat a l'energie atomique, geophysics and geochemistry have been added to routine geological surveying and radiometric observations. Geophysical prospecting reveals the tectonic structures linked with French uranium deposits and gives an idea of favorable zones. Geochemistry adds to the geophysical indirect methods further details on the distribution of uranium traces in the soils. This method is direct and specific. Uranium assay in waters and alluvial deposits find its use in preliminary exploration. (author) [French] Depuis 1954, au CEA, a l'observation geologique directe et aux mesures radiometriques, sont venues s'ajouter des methodes relevant de la geophysique et de la geochimie. La prospection geophysique apporte des precisions sur les structures tectoniques auxquelles sont lies les gisements d'uranium fran is et sur la notion de zones favorables. Aux methodes indirectes de la geophysique, la prospection geochimique ajoute des precisions sur la repartition de l'uranium en traces dans les sols, cette methode est directe et specifique. Le dosage de l'uranium dans les eaux et les alluvions trouve son application dans la prospection de reconnaissance. (auteur)

  1. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  2. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    CERN Document Server

    Basse, Tobias; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in a fiducial LambdaCDM cosmology, a number that is quite conservative compared with existing estimates because of our choice of model parameter space and analysis method, but still represents a factor of 3 to 8 improvement over using either CMB+galaxy clustering+cosmic shear data, or CMB+cluster mass function alone. We consider also the survey's potential to measure dark energy perturbations in models wherein the dark ene...

  3. Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des populations rurales pour un developpement durable au Benin: etude de cas. ... Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ...

  4. Rôle des germes parasites des bactéries pathogènes dans l'autoépuration des eaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUELIN A.

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available Existence dans les eaux polluées de germes parasites qui s'attaquent aux bactéries pathogènes. Le pouvoir bactéricide des eaux polluées dû, en grande partie à la présence dans ces eaux de différents représentants des germes parasites. Possibilité d'application pratique des germes parasites pour l'assainissement des eaux polluées.

  5. Study of {gamma}'s in Naiade; Etude des gamma de Naiade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millot, J P; Rastoin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following a study of the gamma sources, the flux of gamma of different energies in the swimming pool is investigated. The biological dose can thus be obtained by calculation, and compared with the results given by photographic plates. The influence of photoneutrons is estimated by calculation, and research is being carried out on their influence on the thermal neutron flux curve on the axis of the uranium plate, with the plate emitting neutrons and with the plate protected by boral. (author) [French] Apres l'etude des sources de gamma, l'on etudie le flux de gamma de differentes energies dans la piscine. La dose biologique peut etre obtenue ainsi par le calcul et comparee avec les resultats donnes par les plaques photographiques. L'influence des photoneutrons est estimee par le calcul et l'on recherche leur influence sur la courbe de flux de neutrons thermiques sur l'axe de la plaque d'uranium, la plaque emettant des neutrons et la plaque protegee par du boral. (auteur)

  6. 76 FR 68720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Geophysical Survey in the Western... conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the western tropical Pacific Ocean... Science Foundation (NSF), and ``Environmental Assessment of a Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey by the...

  7. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  8. Improving Weak Lensing Mass Map Reconstructions using Gaussian and Sparsity Priors: Application to DES SV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, N.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Lanusse, F.; Starck, J.-L.; Leonard, A.; Kirk, D.; Chang, C.; Baxter, E.; Kacprzak, T.; Seitz, S.; Vikram, V.; Whiteway, L.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Avila, S.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; De Vicente, J.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartley, W. G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoyle, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; March, M.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Mapping the underlying density field, including non-visible dark matter, using weak gravitational lensing measurements is now a standard tool in cosmology. Due to its importance to the science results of current and upcoming surveys, the quality of the convergence reconstruction methods should be well understood. We compare three methods: Kaiser-Squires (KS), Wiener filter, and GLIMPSE. KS is a direct inversion, not accounting for survey masks or noise. The Wiener filter is well-motivated for Gaussian density fields in a Bayesian framework. GLIMPSE uses sparsity, aiming to reconstruct non-linearities in the density field. We compare these methods with several tests using public Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data and realistic DES simulations. The Wiener filter and GLIMPSE offer substantial improvements over smoothed KS with a range of metrics. Both the Wiener filter and GLIMPSE convergence reconstructions show a 12% improvement in Pearson correlation with the underlying truth from simulations. To compare the mapping methods' abilities to find mass peaks, we measure the difference between peak counts from simulated ΛCDM shear catalogues and catalogues with no mass fluctuations (a standard data vector when inferring cosmology from peak statistics); the maximum signal-to-noise of these peak statistics is increased by a factor of 3.5 for the Wiener filter and 9 for GLIMPSE. With simulations we measure the reconstruction of the harmonic phases; the phase residuals' concentration is improved 17% by GLIMPSE and 18% by the Wiener filter. The correlation between reconstructions from data and foreground redMaPPer clusters is increased 18% by the Wiener filter and 32% by GLIMPSE.

  9. Effets des extraits vegetaux sur la dynamique de populations des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude se propose de trouver une alternative de l'utilisation des pesticides chimiques en testant l'effet insecticide des extraits aqueux des feuilles de Hyptis suaveolens, graines de Ricinus communis et de Azadirachta indica contre les ravageurs du niébé en conditions de champ en utilisant le cyperméthrine ...

  10. Results in pion proton scattering near the higher resonances (1961); Resultats pour la diffusion des mesons pi par les protons dans le domaine des hautes resonances (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk-Vairant, P; Valladas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We present briefly the available Information on the total cross sections for pion proton scattering in the energy region from 400 MeV to 1.5 GeV. We also have collected all results on total cross sections for particular channels like elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and charge exchange. Using new results on the total cross section for neutral events, we have plotted separately the cross section for elastic and for inelastic scattering in the T = 1/2 state. (authors) [French] On presente brievement les donnees connues concernant la section efficace totale pour la diffusion des mesons pi par les protons dans le domaine d'energie de 400 MeV a 1,5 GeV. On a egalement rassemble tous les resultats concernant les sections efficaces totales pour des canaux particuliers: diffusion elastique, diffusion inelastique et echange de charge. En partant des nouveaux resultats sur la section efficace pour la diffusion elastique et inelastique dans l'etat T = 1/2. (auteurs)

  11. Integration of the nuclear energy among the production facilities of energy in France; Integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en france

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Taranger, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The present report gives an overview of the present facilities of energy productions in France and their perspectives. the electric production comes for half about power stations hydraulics and for half of thermal power stations. However due to the increase of the energy consumption, France is particularly interested by the atomic energy that appears to bring a supply in due time to the hydraulics and to limit a development of the thermal power stations to which the natural resources of France in classic fuel would not permit to cope presumably. The integration of the nuclear plants to the other production facilities will make itself gradually according to the evolution of the energy needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport donne un apercu des moyens actuels de productions energetiques en France et de ses perspectives. la production electrique provient pour moitie environ de centrales hydraulique et pour moitie de centrales thermiques. Cependant face a l'augmentation de la consommation energetique, la France est tres particulierement interessee par l'energie atomique qui parait devoir apporter en temps utile la releve a l'hydraulique et limiter un developpement des centrales thermiques auxquels les ressources naturelles de la France en combustible classique ne permettraient vraisemblablement pas de faire face. L'integration des centrales nucleaires aux autres moyens de production se fera graduellment en fonction de l'evolution des besoins energetiques. (M.B.)

  12. La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des économies locales plus vigoureuses. 08 juin 2016. Image. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'. Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'Hyderabad, en Inde. Keenara ...

  13. Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du tabac en Argentine, en Bolivie et au Chili. Partout en Amérique du Sud, les adultes et les enfants font une grande consommation de tabac. Un nouveau projet de recherche se penchera sur les avantages et les limites des stratégies de fixation des prix et de ...

  14. Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises dans le service de pneumo-phtysiologie au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo de ... Logistical support represented by material support, drug supply, cleaning of premises, and littering occupied respectively 100%, 91%, 42% and 73%.

  15. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  16. A survey of energy policy priorities in the United States: Energy supply security, economics, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Dawn K.; Hines, Valerie A.; Jordan, Matthew W.; Stoltz, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Security, environment, and economic concerns are commonly identified as three major objectives of energy policy. State and federal governments have set aggressive targets for carbon emissions reductions and for alternative fuel use and increased vehicle efficiency to reduce petroleum consumption. Moreover, jobs creation and GDP growth are often cited as key drivers for energy policies. Previous studies on energy policy decision-making have examined the process for developing and evaluating options using multi-criteria decision analysis tools. In addition, energy opinion polls have either elicited preferences between two goals or whether the public supports a specific policy action. In this article, we report results from a survey of 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy across the goals of energy supply security, environment and climate, and economics and job creation. The majority favor policymaking that is balanced across all three. Security and economic concerns increase with age for male respondents, whereas environment is the highest priority for females regardless of age. Unlike previous surveys that target the general public and focus on a particular objective or technology, these results provide an example of eliciting a portfolio allocation across multiple energy policy goals from targeted constituents. - Highlights: • We surveyed 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy. • The paper addresses direct elicitation of energy policy goal portfolio allocation for a large set of energy stakeholders. • The majority of respondents favor policymaking balanced across multiple goals. • We observed differences in priorities based on age and gender. • Respondents expressed a tension in allocating across goals that are interrelated

  17. Photovoltaic industry in France in 2013. French version of the report written for the photovoltaic program of the International Energy Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2014-06-01

    This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaic energy for the year 2013. This report provides a comprehensive review of photovoltaic activities in France in 2013. It describes the current state of the PV market, including French authorities' support measures and economic aspects. It gives an account of PV industry with key manufacturers and operators as well as R and D programmes. The data contained in the report concern the year 2013. The main sources of information used for the report are the following: data produced by the French Observation and statistics office (SOeS, Service de l'observation et des statistiques), ADEME's reports and studies, reports and studies produced by the Syndicat des energies renouvelables (SER) and by ENERPLAN union, publications Systemes solaires, reports by Observatoire des energies renouvelables (Observer), Plein Soleil magazine, web sites (institutional, photovoltaic.info, L'echo du solaire, etc.), data from equipment suppliers, company publications and press releases, corporate strategy flyers and contacts with professionals in the sector

  18. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Increased water demand in and around Windom led the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, local water suppliers, and Cottonwood County, to study the hydrology of aquifers in the Des Moines River Valley near Windom. The study area is the watershed of a 30-kilometer (19-mile) reach of the Des Moines River upstream from Windom.

  19. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  20. Remind of the classification of some known isomeric transitions; Rappel de la classification des transitions isomeriques connues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R; Levi, C; Papineau, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    Relations of Berthelot (model of the liquid drop) and of Weisskopf (odd core to 'single' proton), between l'energie of a transition and her 'partial period' of emission of a {alpha} photon, are represented by easily usable diagrams. These relations are compared to the empiric relations for a certain number of groups of transitions. With regard to the M4 transitions, a rectification is given to the mode of treatment of the experimental results who had been proposed by Goldhaber and SUNYAR (1951). A test of systematic has been done, concerning the energy of isomeric transitions (grouping around some energies, variation of the nature, and of the energy of the transitions with Z, N and A). (author) [French] Les relations de Berthelot (modele de la goutte liquide) et de Weisskopf (noyau impair a proton ''celibataire''), entre l'energie d'une transition et la ''periode partielle'' d'emission d'un photon {alpha}, sont representees par des graphiques facilement utilisables. Ces relations sont comparees aux relations empiriques pour un certain nombre de groupes de transitions. En ce qui concerne les transitions M4, une rectification est donnee au mode de traitement des resultats experimentaux qui avait ete propose par GOLDHABER et SUNYAR (1951). Un essai de systematique a ete effectue, concernant l'energie des transitions isomeriques (groupement autour de certaines energies, variation de la nature et de l'energie des transitions avec Z, N et A). (auteur)

  1. Utilisation des mousses et des pâtes syntactiques pour combler les lacunes des poteries archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bechoux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Filling potteries missing parts with plaster raises now complex problems during the de-restoration treatments. Ceramics restorers have recurrently questions on the use of plaster in the field of archaeological ceramics restoration. Some researches point to the choice of other filling materials. At the present time other methods can be devised by proposing plaster replacement by a lightened composite material: syntactic foams and pastes.Le comblement des lacunes des poteries à partir du plâtre pose actuellement des problèmes complexes lors des traitements de dérestauration. Les restaurateurs de céramiques s'interrogent de manière récurrente sur l'utilisation du plâtre dans le domaine de la restauration des céramiques archéologiques. Des recherches s'orientent vers le choix d'autres matériaux d'obturation. Actuellement, d'autres méthodes peuvent être mises en place en proposant le remplacement du plâtre par un matériau composite allégé, les mousses et les pâtes syntactiques.

  2. Développer le leadership dans des villes de l'Amérique latine et des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Développer le leadership dans des villes de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes dans le contexte des changements climatiques. En raison des changements climatiques, de la croissance démographique et de l'urbanisation rapide non planifiée, les villes des pays en développement sont à la fois le principal déclencheur des ...

  3. La Question de L'impunité des Auteurs de Violations des Droits de L'homme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria dos Remédios Fontes Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail pretend faire reflechir à propos de la question de l'impunite des autorites de L'Etat face aux violations des droits de l'homme. On abordera cet egard: a le role de I'amnistie ble complicite des autoritesadministratives c la lenteur des procedures judicieuse.     L'analyse de cette question montre qui L'impunite des responsables des violations des droits de l'homme fait peser une menace sur I'ensemble du systeme de protection universelle des droits de l'homme.          On peut on conduire qu 'aucune societe que aspire à la democratie et ala justice ne peut se construire sur I'amoralite des crimes impunis et I'amnesie officielle.

  4. Membrane fluidization by alcohols inhibits DesK-DesR signalling in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaňousová, Kateřina; Beranová, Jana; Fišer, Radovan; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Malgorzata; Matyska Lišková, Petra; Cybulski, Larisa; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Konopásek, Ivo

    2018-03-01

    After cold shock, the Bacillus subtilis desaturase Des introduces double bonds into the fatty acids of existing membrane phospholipids. The synthesis of Des is regulated exclusively by the two-component system DesK/DesR; DesK serves as a sensor of the state of the membrane and triggers Des synthesis after a decrease in membrane fluidity. The aim of our work is to investigate the biophysical changes in the membrane that are able to affect the DesK signalling state. Using linear alcohols (ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol) and benzyl alcohol, we were able to suppress Des synthesis after a temperature downshift. The changes in the biophysical properties of the membrane caused by alcohol addition were followed using membrane fluorescent probes and differential scanning calorimetry. We found that the membrane fluidization induced by alcohols was reflected in an increased hydration at the lipid-water interface. This is associated with a decrease in DesK activity. The addition of alcohol mimics a temperature increase, which can be measured isothermically by fluorescence anisotropy. The effect of alcohols on the membrane periphery is in line with the concept of the mechanism by which two hydrophilic motifs located at opposite ends of the transmembrane region of DesK, which work as a molecular caliper, sense temperature-dependent variations in membrane properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  6. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Origin

    plante, effectuée pour la première fois, a révélé la présence des alcaloïdes, des flavonoïdes, des tanins catéchiques, des terpènes, des coumarines et des composés cyanogénétiques. Quant aux saponines et les quinones libres, ils sont présents chez les fleurs et absents chez les feuilles. La caractérisation des molécules.

  7. Portable Wind Energy Harvesters for Low-Power Applications: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedfakhreddin Nabavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become an increasingly important topic thanks to the advantages in renewability and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive study on contemporary portable wind energy harvesters has been conducted. The electrical power generation methods of portable wind energy harvesters are surveyed in three major groups, piezoelectric-, electromagnetic-, and electrostatic-based generators. The paper also takes another view of this area by gauging the required mechanisms for trapping wind flow from ambient environment. In this regard, rotational and aeroelastic mechanisms are analyzed for the portable wind energy harvesting devices. The comparison between both mechanisms shows that the aeroelastic mechanism has promising potential in producing an energy harvester in smaller scale although how to maintain the resonator perpendicular to wind flow for collecting the maximum vibration is still a major challenge to overcome for this mechanism. Furthermore, this paper categorizes the previously published portable wind energy harvesters to macro and micro scales in terms of their physical dimensions. The power management systems are also surveyed to explore the possibility of improving energy conversion efficiency. Finally some insights and research trends are pointed out based on an overall analysis of the previously published works along the historical timeline.

  8. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  9. Measure of the efficiency of a long counter of Hanson's type and use of this counter for the survey of the slow neutrons coming from the reactor of Chatillon; Mesure de l'efficacite d'un long compteur du type Hanson et utilisation de ce compteur a l'etude des neutrons lents sortant de la pile de Chatillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    A detection device of fast neutrons of efficiency almost independent of the energy of the neutrons has been achieved. It efficiency has been measured in absolute value for groups of neutrons of different energies. This device allowed to get some indications on the energy composition of the neutrons leaving from the reactor of Chatillon. (author) [French] Un dispositif de detection de neutrons rapides d'efficacite pratiquement independante de l'energie des neutrons a ete realise. Son efficacite a ete mesuree en valeur absolue pour des groupes de neutrons de diverses energies. Ce dispositif a permis obtenir quelques indications sur la composition energetique des neutrons sortant de la pile de Chatillon. (auteur)

  10. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted November 30 through December 4, 1987. In addition, the preliminary findings of the Laramie Project Office (LPO) Survey, which was conducted as part of the METC Survey on January 25 through 29, 1988, are presented in Appendices E and F. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with METC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at METC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities at METC. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the METC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey METC. 60 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on best practices of energy conservation for buildings in south-east Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys were performed to provide the ASEAN countries with technical assistance so that smooth promotion will be implemented on the energy conservation awards system for commercial buildings in the countries. This system has been newly established by the ASEAN Center for Energy (ACE) to suppress the energy consumption in commercial buildings, for which 11 candidates were proposed from among six countries. The EGCO Tower in Bangkok, Thailand, and the Revenue House in Singapore were selected. Japan has provided the building energy inspection technologies used in Japan, and performed the surveys on these two buildings. The surveys were performed from December 12 through 14, 2000 on the EGCO Tower, and from January 29 through 31, 2001 on the Revenue House. The surveys included checks on application forms for the buildings, measurement and analysis of energy consumption by using different measuring devices, inspection of the actual energy conservation activities done in the buildings, reports on the survey results, proposals on energy conservation promoting means, and provision of appendix materials for energy conservation. (NEDO)

  12. L'accumulation des métaux lourds au niveau des cultures : Cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le Bassin de Sebou présente une importance socio-économique pour le Maroc. En effet, il est sujet de diverses utilisations ; eau potable, eau d'irrigation et eau industrielle. Toutefois, ce bassin subit des pressions multiples, notamment par la pollution métallique. Considérant le risque de bioaccumulation des métaux par ...

  13. Operation optimization of a distributed energy system considering energy costs and exergy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Somma, M.; Yan, B.; Bianco, N.; Graditi, G.; Luh, P.B.; Mongibello, L.; Naso, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation optimization model of a Distributed Energy System (DES). • Multi-objective strategy to optimize energy cost and exergy efficiency. • Exergy analysis in building energy supply systems. - Abstract: With the growing demand of energy on a worldwide scale, improving the efficiency of energy resource use has become one of the key challenges. Application of exergy principles in the context of building energy supply systems can achieve rational use of energy resources by taking into account the different quality levels of energy resources as well as those of building demands. This paper is on the operation optimization of a Distributed Energy System (DES). The model involves multiple energy devices that convert a set of primary energy carriers with different energy quality levels to meet given time-varying user demands at different energy quality levels. By promoting the usage of low-temperature energy sources to satisfy low-quality thermal energy demands, the waste of high-quality energy resources can be reduced, thereby improving the overall exergy efficiency. To consider the economic factor as well, a multi-objective linear programming problem is formulated. The Pareto frontier, including the best possible trade-offs between the economic and exergetic objectives, is obtained by minimizing a weighted sum of the total energy cost and total primary exergy input using branch-and-cut. The operation strategies of the DES under different weights for the two objectives are discussed. The operators of DESs can choose the operation strategy from the Pareto frontier based on costs, essential in the short run, and sustainability, crucial in the long run. The contribution of each energy device in reducing energy costs and the total exergy input is also analyzed. In addition, results show that the energy cost can be much reduced and the overall exergy efficiency can be significantly improved by the optimized operation of the DES as compared with the

  14. Contrôle des Circuits Auxiliaires des PFW (arrêt machines 2002/2003)

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2003-01-01

    Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d aimant et constituées d un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et pick-up brasés sur les enroulements). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique de l aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Chaque année, pendant l arrêt machine, on vérifie si les caractéristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des résistances des boucles de tours, résistances entre pick-up et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vérifiées. Dans cette note, on ne relèvera que les PFW ayant des défauts (valeurs hors tolérances, boucles ouvertes ou en court-circuit, déf...

  15. Evaluation as a function of age of the effective energy absorbed in any gram ({epsilon}/m) of organs except the gastrointestinal tract by the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate food and the environment; Evaluation en fonction de l'age des individus de l'energie effective delivree a l'unite de masse ({epsilon}/m) des organes autres que le tractus gastro-intestinal par les principaux radionuclides susceptibles de contaminer la chaine alimentaire et le milieu ambiant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In order to evaluate internal radiation doses it is necessary to know the effective energy dissipated in any gram of the organ of reference, which depends, for any radionuclide, on the physical energy (E) absorbed in the body organ, on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), on the relative damage factor (n) and on the mass of the organ (m). This effective energy may be evaluated as a function of the size and of the mass of the organs, from birth to adult age. This work is done for the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate the food and the environment, it concerns 44 nuclides from {sup 3}H to {sup 242}Cm. (author) [French] L'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne exige la connaissance de l'energie effective delivree a chaque gramme de l'organe considere, qui depend, pour chaque radionuclide, de l'energie physique (E) absorbee dans l'organe, de l'efficacite biologique relative (EBR), du facteur de dommage relatif (n), de la masse de l'organe (m). Cette energie peut etre evaluee en fonction des dimensions et de la masse des organes, de la naissance a l'age adulte. Ce travail est effectue pour les principaux radionuclides susceptibles de contaminer la chaine alimentaire et le milieu ambiant, 44 isotopes sont traites du tritium au {sup 242}Cm.

  16. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the industry in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.; Mercanti, A.; Poggi, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the italian industry. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The energy intensive sectors and the great industries have represented the nucleus of survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  17. Nuclear energy center site survey: fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Background information for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey is presented in the following task areas: economics of integrated vs. dispersed nuclear fuel cycle facilities, plutonium fungibility, fuel cycle industry model, production controls and failure contingencies, environmental impact, waste management, emergency response capability, and feasibility evaluations

  18. Portable Wind Energy Harvesters for Low-Power Applications: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedfakhreddin Nabavi; Lihong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting has become an increasingly important topic thanks to the advantages in renewability and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive study on contemporary portable wind energy harvesters has been conducted. The electrical power generation methods of portable wind energy harvesters are surveyed in three major groups, piezoelectric-, electromagnetic-, and electrostatic-based generators. The paper also takes another view of this area by gauging the required mechan...

  19. Energy transfer moments in thermalization; Les moments dei transfert d'energie en thermalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soule, J L; Pillard, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    For all moderators of the 'incoherent gaussian' type, it is possible to calculate, at any temperature, the energy transfer moments as a function of the incident energy without having to use the differential sections. Integral formulae are derived for the integral cross-section, the first and the second moment, which make it possible to tabulate directly these three functions in a few minutes calculation on IBM 7094, for the most part models proposed in the literature for the common moderators. (authors) [French] Pour tous les moderateurs de type 'incoherent gaussien' on peut calculer, a n'importe quelle temperature, les moments de transfert d'energie en fonction de l'energie incidente, sans passer par l'intermediaire des sections differentielles. On developpe des formules integrales pour la section efficace integrale, le premier et le second moment, qui permettent de tabuler directement ces trois fonctions en quelques minutes de calcul sur IBM 7094, pour la plupart des modeles proposes dans la litterature pour les moderateurs usuels. (auteurs)

  20. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Surveys and studies on patents and information (Surveys on information about new energy technology development); 1978 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu joho chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes the surveys on information about new energy technology development in fiscal 1978 in the Sunshine Project. The present fiscal year performed the surveys on the United States and France as the main subjects. For the solar energy development in the United States, surveys were made on power generation using solar heat, solar cells, difference in ocean temperatures, satellites, biomass, and solar energy air conditioning systems. Geothermal energy development was also surveyed. For coal energy, surveys were done on coal liquefaction, gasification, high-temperature gas turbines and MHD power generation. The U.S. energy policy has various kinds of cards. For the solar energy development in France, heat conversion and photo-cell conversion systems were surveyed, while the authorities take development promotion measures on solar heat conversion system under the judgement that this is the only contributor to the new energy development. Surveys were performed on trends in biomass as the biological energy conversion means of the solar energy. Geothermal energy is being advanced of development following that for the solar energy. Surveys were made also on power generation systems using wind power, wave power and difference in ocean temperatures. This paper dwells also on waste heat utilization, cogeneration, and heat pumps as examples for energy conservation means. (NEDO)

  1. Exploring Milkyway Halo Substructures with Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, our understanding of the Milky Way has been improved thanks to large data sets arising from large-area digital sky surveys. The stellar halo is now known to be inhabited by a variety of spatial and kinematic stellar substructures, including stellar streams and stellar clouds, all of which are predicted by hierarchical Lambda Cold Dark Matter models of galaxy formation. In this dissertation, we first present the analysis of spectroscopic observations of individual stars from the two candidate structures discovered using an M-giant catalog from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The follow-up observations show that one of the candidates is a genuine structure which might be associated with the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure, while the other one is a false detection due to the systematic photometric errors in the survey or dust extinction in low Galactic latitudes. We then presented the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) – a five-year, 5,000 deg2 optical imaging survey in the Southern Hemisphere. The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l ~ 285° and b ~ -60° and the Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ. The EriPhe overdensity has a cloud-like morphology and the extent is at least ~ 4 kpc by ~ 3 kpc in projection, with a heliocentric distance of about d ~ 16 kpc. The EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the previously-discovered Virgo overdensity and Hercules-Aquila cloud. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~ 120° and may share a common origin. In addition to the scientific discoveries, we also present the work to improve the photometric calibration in DES using auxiliary calibration systems, since the photometric errors can cause false detection in first the halo substructure. We present a detailed description of the two

  2. Contribution des TICs à l'abandon des mutilations génitales ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Contribution des TIC à l'abandon des MGF en Afrique de l'Ouest francophone : rôle des jeunes citoyennes; rapport technique no. 5 (rapport technique final), 18 octobre 2008 - 31 mars 2009. Download PDF. Related content. New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all. A new website ...

  3. utilisation des donnees pour l'evaluation de l'heterogeneite des sols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    étude a permis de caractériser l'hétérogénéité des sols ferrallitiques, à travers sa couleur. Mots-clés : Couleur ... ainsi qu'à l'application des recommandations des doses de fertilisant. ..... de « système sol » en zone de contact forêt- savane du ...

  4. FY 2000 report on the survey of new energy policies by developing countries. Survey of collection/analysis of information on effective energy utilization, etc.; 2000 nendo tojokoku no shin energy seisaku ni kakawaru chosa hokokusho. Energy yuko riyo nado joho shushu bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of effectively introducing technologies for new energy/energy conservation in developing countries, the paper arranged the policies, systems and organizations in relation to new energy in developing countries. Survey was made of the following two fields: 1) new energy in developing countries; 2) situation of new energy introduction in developing countries (India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines and China). In 2), about India, for example, survey was made on the following: outline of the new energy policy, regulation for new energy promotion and law specifying concrete measures, departments in charge/promotion organizations for new energy, system and setup for new energy promotion, numerical target of new energy introduction, support from developed countries including the E.U. and the U.S. and the effects, support from international organizations including the World Bank and UNDP and the effects, the country's main industries related to new energy, the government's policy for the domestic production, outline of the use of India's biomass project, etc. (NEDO)

  5. ASSESSMENT OF SYSTEMATIC CHROMATIC ERRORS THAT IMPACT SUB-1% PHOTOMETRIC PRECISION IN LARGE-AREA SKY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Boada, S.; Mondrik, N.; Nagasawa, D. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Tucker, D.; Annis, J.; Finley, D. A.; Kent, S.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bernstein, G. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); James, D. J.; Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2016-06-01

    Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is both stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past and current surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1%–2% by calibrating the survey’s stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors (SCEs) using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We first define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the SCEs caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We then compare the calculated SCEs with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput from auxiliary calibration systems. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. Moreover, we calculate such SCEs for Type Ia supernovae and elliptical galaxies and find that the chromatic errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for

  6. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The object of this report is to give technical information about high density concretes which have become very important for radiation biological shielding. The most generally used heavy aggregates (barytes, ilmenite, ferrophosphorus, limonite, magnetite and iron punching) to make these concretes are investigated from the point of view prospecting and physical and chemical characteristics. At first, a general survey of shielding concretes is made involving the study of components, mixing and placing methods, then, a detailed investigation of some high density concretes: barytes concrete, with incorporation of iron punching or iron shot, ferrophosphorus concrete, ilmenite concrete and magnetite concrete, more particularly with regard to grading and mix proportions and testing process. To put this survey in concrete form, two practical designs are described such as they have been carried out at the Saclay Nuclear Station. Specifications are given for diverse concretes and for making the proton-synchrotron 'Saturne' shielding blocks. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour objet de donner des precisions techniques au sujet des betons a haute densite qui ont pris une grande importance pour la protection biologique contre les rayonnements. Les agregats lourds les plus couramment utilises (barytine, ilmenite, ferrophosphore, limonite, magnetite et riblons) pour la fabrication de ces betons, sont examines du point de vue prospection et caracteristiques physiques et chimiques. On procede d'abord a une etude generale des betons de protection comprenant l'etude des constituants, de la confection et de la mise en place, ensuite, a un examen detaille de quelques betons a haute densite: betons a base de barytine, avec incorporation de riblons ou de grenaille de fonte, betons au ferrophosphore, a base d'ilmenite ou de magnetite, notamment en ce qui concerne la granulometrie, la composition, le dosage et les processus d'essais. Pour concretiser ces etudes, deux applications pratiques

  7. Energy Systems Training Programs and Certifications Survey White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thirumaran, Kiran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guo, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Compressed air system, industrial refrigeration system, chilled water system, pump system, fan system, steam system, process heating system, and combined heat and power system are the major industrial energy systems. By helping enhance knowledge and skills of workforce, training and certification programs on these systems are essential to improve energy efficiency of manufacturing facilities. A literature survey of currently available training and certification programs on these systems was conducted.

  8. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Seismic Survey in the Eastern... low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is... funding provided by the National Science Foundation, a low-energy marine seismic survey. NMFS reviewed SIO...

  9. Fast liberation of energy stored using superconductors; Liberation rapide d'energie stockee au moyen de supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, G; Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After a rapid description of the circumstances in which they first thought of using superconducting materials for the storage and liberation of energy, the authors examine, in comparison to condensers, the energy densities which can thus be stored, the methods used for introducing this energy into the superconducting circuit and for trapping it, and the law governing the discharge of this energy into a purely dissipative impedance. This leads to a derivation of the expression for the energy yield which depends on the characteristics of the switch used for opening the superconducting circuit. An experimental study has been made of a superconducting switch with a view to understanding the various parameters. As a result of this analysis, transitions of this switch, over the whole of its mass, were obtained for periods of a few microseconds, and energy yields close to unity were obtained. The obtention of fast discharges is now no longer a technological problem. (authors) [French] Rappelant tres brievement les circonstances dans lesquelles ont pris naissance leurs premieres idees d'utilisation des materiaux supraconducteurs pour le stockage et la liberation d'energie les auteurs examinent, par rapport aux condensateurs, les densites d'energie que l'on peut ainsi stocker, les methodes utilisables pour introduire cette energie dans le circuit supraconducteur et pour la pieger, la loi de decharge de cette energie dans une impedance purement dissipative. Ceci conduit a l'expression du rendement en energie. Ce rendement depend des caracteristiques de l'interrupteur qui sert a ouvrir le circuit supraconducteur. Le cas de l'interrupteur supraconducteur a ete analyse experimentalement de facon a en degager les differents parametres. La suite de cette analyse, des transitions de l'interrupteur, dans la totalite de sa masse, ont ete obtenues dans des temps de quelques microsecondes permettant des rendements en energie se rapprochant de l'unite. L'obtention de decharges rapides

  10. Les lexiques des jeunes dans les discours écrits des blogs : pour une approche descriptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Paulina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available S’il ne faut pas confondre ce qui est appelé communément « langage SMS » et « langage des jeunes », nous avancerons toutefois que les pratiques langagières écrites des jeunes sur les supports modernes de communication, et notamment dans les blogs, présentent des particularités encore peu étudiées. Les traits observables les plus saillants sont ceux de la morphologie graphique, mais il n’en reste pas moins que certains jeunes utilisent des lexiques particuliers dans les blogs qui méritent une attention particulière. Nous nous proposons donc d’étudier les différents lexiques utilisés par des jeunes de 12 à 22 ans dans les blogs de la plateforme skyrock.com aux niveaux de sa diversité, de ses usages sémantiques variable d’un scripteur à l’autre pour un même mot, et de ses particularités morphosyntaxiques. En effet, nous observerons des lexiques divers allant des lexiques perçus comme relevant des cités à des lexiques perçus comme étant « branchés-jeunes », ou encore à des lexiques propres aux supports modernes de communication. Ainsi, nous analyserons des lexiques variés dans leurs usages écrits tels que bolos, bédave, gérer, ouf, tigen, ou encore des lexiques empruntés tels que mouv, full, etc., ainsi que des emplois particuliers de séquences autonomes comme lol. Quelques questions périphériques complèteront notre analyse telle que celles qui concerne l’influence des usages lexicaux entre pairs et le savoir partagé, la distinction de différentes communautés en fonction des lexiques utilisés, ou encore la variabilité des représentations graphiques d’un même mot.

  11. Contenu énergétique des alcools d'origine fossile ou biomasse Energy Content of Alcohols of Fossil Or Biomass Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En utilisant une méthode basée sur le contenu énergétique, défini comme étant la quantité d'énergie mise en oeuvre dans le processus de fabrication depuis la matière première jsuqu'au produit considéré, on compare les filières de production basées sur des matières premières soit d'origine fossile, soit d'origine biomasse. Ces filières peuvent être utilisées pour produire les divers alcools que sont le méthanol, l'éthanol et le butanol. II est montré, qu'en l'état actuel des technologies de fabrication, la comparaison énergétique est très en faveur de la filière matière première renouvelable qui fait apparaître un gain énergétique qui varie suivant les cas étudiés entre 0,1 et 1,5 tep par tonne de produit. Production routes based on raw materials from either fossil or biomass origin are compared using a method based on the energy content, which is defined as being the amount of energy implemented in the manufacturing process starting with the raw material and going to the product being considered. These routes can be used to produce different alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. Given the current state of manufacturing technologies, this article shows that an energy comparison is highly in favor of the renewable raw-material route which shows an energy gain that varies, according to the cases examined, between 0. 1 and 1. 5 tOE per ton of product.

  12. 2002/03 public opinion survey 'Nuclear Energy - the Present and the Future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Gergeta, K.

    2003-01-01

    During the years 2000 and 2002 the Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network carried out public opinion surveys among student population of around 650 individuals age 18-20. The results of the surveys suggested the necessity of a more active involvement of nuclear experts in high school education. Croatian Young Generation Network decided to prepare brochures on different subjects concerning nuclear energy and distribute them to high school students, primarily third and fourth graders. To be able to evaluate the influence of distributed materials, fresh reference data are needed. Therefore, a traditional public opinion survey 'Nuclear Energy - the Present and the Future' has been carried out among faculty student population. (author)

  13. Contrôle des circuits auxiliaires des P.F.W. (arret machine 2004/2006)

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2005-01-01

    Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d’aimant et constituées d’un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et “pick-up” brasés sur les enroulements principaux). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique de l’aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Chaque année, pendant l’arrêt machine, on vérifie si les caractéristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des résistances des boucles de tours, résistances entre “pick-up” et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vérifiées. Dans cette note, on ne relèvera que les PFW ayant des défauts (valeurs hors tolérances, ...

  14. Etat des lieux des soins de premier recours des malades mentaux à Antananarivo : étude rétrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakohariliva, Hasina Andrianarivony; Rafehivola, Imisanavalona Hanitrinihaja; Raobelle, Evah Norotiana; Raharivelo, Adeline; Rajaonarison, Bertille Hortense

    2018-01-01

    Résumé Religion et guérisseurs traditionnels occupent encore une place prépondérante dans la prise en charge des maladies mentales à Madagascar. Ainsi, nous nous sommes fixés comme objectif d'établir un état des lieux sur les soins de premier recours des malades mentaux. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective descriptive s'étalant sur une période de 16 mois allant de janvier 2014 en avril 2015 au sein du service de psychiatrie du CHU de Befelatanana à Antananarivo. La prévalence des psychoses était de 25%. Le genre féminin (53%), l'ethnie merina (77%), les étudiants (45%), le niveau d'étude secondaire (40%), les célibataires (72%), la religion protestante (45%), ainsi que le niveau socio-économique moyen (57,5%) étaient prédominants. Dans les paramètres cliniques, le mode de début brutal (52%), le premier recours à la religion (40%), la présence d'antécédents des cas similaire (90%), étaient majoritaires. La schizophrénie était la pathologie la plus rencontrée dans la moitié des cas. Le délai d'amélioration en cas de traitement religieux et traditionnels était dans la moitié des cas de plus de 10 jours d'hospitalisation. Les patients ayant reçu une prise en charge psychiatrique en premier recours, étaient améliorés dans 75 % cas en moins de 10jours. Le retard du recours aux soins psychiatriques est une réalité à Madagascar qui aggrave le pronostic des psychoses. PMID:29632623

  15. Opinion survey on energy and climate in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    This issue comments the results of a survey on the opinion of French people on the reality of climate change (for the whole population and with respect to age), on the opinion of French people on nuclear energy (in relationship with the opinion on climate change, globally in terms of benefit or drawback with evolution of the opinion since 1994), on the feeling of having suffered from the cold during the winter of 2012-2013, on the dwelling temperature in winter, and on the opinion on energy price

  16. Some Results of the Research Work on the Biological Effect of Neutrons and Protons; Quelques Resultats des Etudes sur les Effets Biologiques des Neutrons et des Protons; Nekotorye itogi izucheniya biologicheskogo dejstviya nejtronov i protonov; Algunos Resultados del Estudio de los Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones y Protones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalev, Ju. I. [Institut Biofiziki AMN SSSR, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1964-03-15

    The author correlates and analyses the experimental data obtained over the past two or three years regarding the biological effects of neutrons and high-energy protons, and shows that it is a matter of prime concern for present-day radiobiology to investigate the relative biological effectiveness of the various types of radiation under various irradiation conditions and the reasons for the qualitative differences in their effect on the animal organism. Attention is drawn to the need for more research into the combined effect of various types of radiation and other agents. Specific examples are cited to demonstrate the main progress achieved in studying the prophylaxis of radiation injury induced by neutrons or high-energy protons and to show the contribution such research can make towards understanding the specific way in which various types of radiation act. (author) [French] L'auteur generalise les resultats des recherches experimentales qui ont ete faites au cours des deux ou trois dernieres annees sur les effets biologiques des neutrons et protons de haute energie. Il montre qu'une des taches importantes de la radiobiologie moderne est d'etudier a la fois l'efficacite biologique relative des divers types de rayonnements dans des conditions d'irradiation differentes et les differences qualitatives que presente leur action sur l'organisme vivant. Le memoire souligne qu'il est indispensable de developper les recherches sur l'effet combine des divers facteurs: rayonnements et autres. En partant d'exemples concrets, l'auteur expose les principaux resultats des recherches-sur la prophylaxie des radiolesions provoquees par les neutrons et les protons de haute energie; il montre egalement a quel point ces travaux sont necessaires pour mieux comprendre le caractere specifique de l'e ffet des divers types de rayonnements. (author) [Spanish] En esta memoria se generalizan los resultados de los estudios experimentales efectuados en los ultimos dos o tres anos en materia de

  17. Utility survey on nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.F.; Bauman, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the large U.S. utilities were surveyed by telephone and mail on questions concerning nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers (NECs). The main purpose of the survey was for guidance of ERDA's NEC program. The questions covered the following topics: availability of sites; impact of environmental and other restraints; plans for development of multi-unit sites; interest in NEC development; interest in including fuel-cycle facilities in NECs; and opinions on the roles desired for the state and Federal governments in power plant siting. The main conclusion of the survey was that, while many utilities were considering multiple-unit sites of 2 to 5 units, none were planning larger energy centers at the present time. However, several expressed interest in NECs as a long-range future development

  18. Public opinion survey 'Nuclear energy - the present and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matani, R.; Lebegner, J.; Jurkovi, I.-A.; Prah, M.

    2000-01-01

    As a part of Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network efforts in improving relations with the general public, a survey on nuclear energy issues among a student population (18-22 years old) has been planned. The survey, although somewhat modified, is based on a similar one that has been conducted at high schools as a part of organized educational program by the Museum of Technical Sciences and Hrvatska Elektroprivreda. Preliminary results show a positive altitude among the student population when it comes to nuclear power plants. As it can be seen from the obtained data (preliminary analysis), this opinion is mostly built on student awareness of nuclear power plants as a clean energy source. (authors)

  19. Data processing in gamma spectrometry. Application to the decay schemes study; Traitement des informations en spectrometrie gamma application a l'etude de schemas de desintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement d' electronique generale, service d' instrumentation nucleaire

    1968-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the processing of the data issued from a gamma spectrometer, and its applications to the decay schemes study. The mathematical analysis of the full energy peaks, in connection with the very good resolution of semi-conductor detectors, leads to a very accurate determination of the energies. The resolution of complex spectra by the least squares method, completed by a spectra generating process, allows the calculation of branching ratios. Then, the handling of the two dimensional experiments permits the coincidence exam. For each of these methods, the calculation principle, then the systematics tests realized in order to prove their validity and to determine their application ranges as well as some experimental results appropriate to illustrate their possibilities, are presented. The energies of some nuclides, frequently used as standards have been thus measured and the decay schemes of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 110m}Ag determined precisely. (author) [French] Cette these est consacree aux methodes de traitement des informations issues d'un spectrometre {gamma}, et a leur application a l'etude des schemas de desintegration: l'analyse mathematique des pics d'absorption totale, conjuguee avec l'excellent pouvoir de resolution des detecteurs semi-conducteurs, conduit a une determination tres precise des energies. La decomposition des spectres complexes par la methode des moindres carres, completee par un procede de generation de spectres, autorise le calcul des rapports de branchement. Enfin le depouillement des experiences biparametriques permet l'examen des coincidences. Pour chacune de ces methodes, on expose le principe des calculs et les essais systematiques effectues afin d'eprouver leur validite et de definir leurs domaines d'application, ainsi que quelques resultats experimentaux propres a illustrer leurs possibilites. Les energies de quelques isotopes utilises couramment comme etalons ont ainsi ete mesurees, et les schemas de

  20. Accès à l'eau : des solutions techniques et sociales aident des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à la modélisation par ordinateur faisant appel à des techniques de pointe et à la consultation des collectivités, l'organisme bolivien Agua Sustentable a trouvé des solutions politiques à des conflits qui auraient pu s'avérer désastreux au sujet de l'accès à l'eau. Cet organisme de recherche subventionné par le CRDI a ...

  1. Le Débat des semences

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Solutions pour les lois nationales régissant le contrôle des ressources génétiques et des ...... des pouvoirs) qui reconnaissent, dans une certaine mesure, les droits de gestion collectifs des ...... documentés, les performances physiques, etc.

  2. Improving Weak Lensing Mass Map Reconstructions using Gaussian and Sparsity Priors: Application to DES SV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, N.; et al.

    2018-01-26

    Mapping the underlying density field, including non-visible dark matter, using weak gravitational lensing measurements is now a standard tool in cosmology. Due to its importance to the science results of current and upcoming surveys, the quality of the convergence reconstruction methods should be well understood. We compare three different mass map reconstruction methods: Kaiser-Squires (KS), Wiener filter, and GLIMPSE. KS is a direct inversion method, taking no account of survey masks or noise. The Wiener filter is well motivated for Gaussian density fields in a Bayesian framework. The GLIMPSE method uses sparsity, with the aim of reconstructing non-linearities in the density field. We compare these methods with a series of tests on the public Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data and on realistic DES simulations. The Wiener filter and GLIMPSE methods offer substantial improvement on the standard smoothed KS with a range of metrics. For both the Wiener filter and GLIMPSE convergence reconstructions we present a 12% improvement in Pearson correlation with the underlying truth from simulations. To compare the mapping methods' abilities to find mass peaks, we measure the difference between peak counts from simulated {\\Lambda}CDM shear catalogues and catalogues with no mass fluctuations. This is a standard data vector when inferring cosmology from peak statistics. The maximum signal-to-noise value of these peak statistic data vectors was increased by a factor of 3.5 for the Wiener filter and by a factor of 9 using GLIMPSE. With simulations we measure the reconstruction of the harmonic phases, showing that the concentration of the phase residuals is improved 17% by GLIMPSE and 18% by the Wiener filter. We show that the correlation between the reconstructions from data and the foreground redMaPPer clusters is increased 18% by the Wiener filter and 32% by GLIMPSE. [Abridged

  3. Des vitraux par milliers… Bilan d’un inventaire : le recensement des vitraux anciens de la France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Gatouillat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Recensement des vitraux anciens de la France sera bientôt achevé, conduit dans le cadre du ministère de la Culture depuis 1972 et intégré aux missions de l’Inventaire général depuis 1979. Cet inventaire méthodique et exhaustif est régulièrement publié dans des ouvrages conçus comme des instruments de travail qui visent à apporter au monde de la recherche une documentation précise, critique et présentée avec objectivité, sur toutes les œuvres de ce domaine patrimonial, sans hiérarchie. Ce recensement fait émerger une multiple et inépuisable matière à réflexion, qui alimente des problématiques communes à d’autres disciplines de l’histoire de l’art (usages techniques, questions de la commande artistique, de la diffusion des formes, etc.. Un retour sur la documentation accumulée et sur les travaux qui se sont ajoutés au fil de l’expérience permet d’apprécier l’évolution du champ scientifique que constitue le vitrail, qui a beaucoup gagné en participant d’une vision élargie.Soon will be completed the Recensement des vitraux anciens de la France, France’s general inventory of stained-glass windows from the Middle Ages to the end of the Ancien Régime, which has been carried out since 1972 under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture, in charge since 1979 of the Inventaire général. The results of this methodical and exhaustive inventory are published at regular intervals in works which are designed as tools for research, providing precise critical documentation covering all the works in this particular field of the national heritage, objectively and without hierarchical judgement. The survey work has drawn attention to stained–glass windows as an extremely rich and varied source, informing problematics shared by other disciplines in art history (technical usages, problems relating to artistic patronage, to the diffusion of forms, etc. An overview of the documentation accumulated over the years

  4. Performances de ponte et qualité des oeufs des poules pondeuses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les performances de ponte et la qualité des oeufs de 216 poules pondeuses ISA Brown âgées de 21 semaines ont été déterminées en les alimentant avec des rations contenant des feuilles séchées de manioc (Manihot esculenta, Crantz). Pendant douze semaines, trois groupes de 72 poules chacun (réparties en trois ...

  5. Freins et leviers à la diversification des cultures : étude au niveau des exploitations agricoles et des filières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynard Jean-Marc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La diversification des cultures est souvent présentée comme un levier d’action pour accroître la durabilité des systèmes de production agricoles. Bien raisonnée, elle favorise en effet une réduction de l’usage d’intrants extérieurs à l’exploitation – pesticides, engrais, eau – et des nuisances environnementales associées à leur utilisation excessive. À l’inverse, la simplification des systèmes de culture engagée depuis plus de 40 ans s’est accompagnée d’un recours croissant aux intrants. Cependant, malgré son intérêt pour les systèmes de production en termes de durabilité écologique mais aussi économique (répartition des risques, et son inscription dans divers plans et dispositifs incitatifs, la diversification des cultures progresse peu. Les ministères en charge de l’agriculture et de l’environnement ont donc commandé à l’INRA une étude visant à identifier les freins à la diversification des cultures en France et les leviers mobilisables, par les pouvoirs publics notamment, pour la favoriser. L’hypothèse de travail est que ces freins relèvent du fonctionnement global du système agro-industriel, et de la capacité de développement de filières valorisant les cultures de diversification. L’étude a examiné un certain nombre de cas représentatifs de la diversité des filières et notamment de leurs modes d’organisation, qui déterminent la coordination et l’engagement des acteurs économiques impliqués dans le développement d’une culture de diversification.

  6. Contribution to the study of collective states of heavy nuclei by means of coulomb excitation; Contribution a l'etude des etats collectifs des noyaux lourds par excitation coulombienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-06-15

    The following nuclei were excited by protons of 5 MeV maximum energy: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. The reduced probabilities of the various transitions were deduced from the coulomb excitation cross-section measurements. For some even-even nuclei two 2 + levels were excited. The properties of the excited levels are interpreted in terms of the collective model. (author) [French] Au moyen de protons d'energie inferieure a 5 MeV, l'excitation coulombienne des noyaux suivants a ete etudiee: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. La mesure de la section efficace d'excitation coulombienne a permis de deduire les -probabilites reduites des diverses transitions observees. Dans certains noyaux pair-pair, deux niveaux de caractere 2 + ont ete excites. L'interpretation de ces niveaux en termes de niveaux de rotation et de niveaux de vibration a l'aide du modele collectif est discutee. En particulier, la variation des proprietes de ces niveaux avec la deformation nucleaire permet de fixer des limites a la validite des diverses hypotheses entrant dans le modele collectif. (auteur)

  7. Impact écotoxicologique de mélanges de pesticides sur des fonctions microbiennes des sols : apport d’une prise en compte écologique dans l’évaluation des risques

    OpenAIRE

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Rouard, Nadine; Cheviron, Nathalie; Grondin, Virginie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    L’utilisation de pesticides permet d’assurer la qualité de la production végétale mais elle contribue à la contamination des sols et des eaux et produit des effets sur des organismes noncibles. L’évaluation des risques requièrent actuellement une meilleure prise en compte des effets des pesticides sur le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Or, les démarches et indicateurs classiques manquent de représentativité écologique. La fonction microbienne de biodégradation des pesticides est essentielle c...

  8. Mesure de la masse volumique des particules des eaux résiduaires urbaines : protocole et évaluation des incertitudes

    OpenAIRE

    RUBAN, Gwenaël; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2004-01-01

    La connaissance de la masse volumique des particules des eaux résiduaires urbaines est intéressante notamment pour l'étude de leur traitement par décantation ainsi que des relations entre concentrations en matières en suspension et paramètres optiques (turbidimétrie).Une étude des différentes méthodes de mesure de la masse volumique appliquées aux eaux résiduaires a été effectuée par G. Chebbo (1992). Il en a conclu que le pycnomètre à gaz type Beckman est le seul appareil donnant satisfactio...

  9. Problèmes entomologiques en replantation des palmeraies et des cocoteraies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariau Dominique

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available C’est aux alentours de la vingt-cinquième année que l’on envisage de replanter une palmeraie. C’est en effet vers cet âge que commencent à se poser des problèmes de récolte en raison de la taille des palmiers. En un quart de siècle, l’amélioration génétique aura suffisamment fait de progrès pour escompter un gain de production de l’ordre de 20%. Enfin, dans certaines situations, plusieurs maladies ont pu affecter les vieilles palmeraies. Avec de 15 à 25% d’arbres manquants, principalement lorsque ceux-ci se présentent sous la forme de taches, une diminution de la production se fait nettement sentir. Cela peut, par exemple, être le cas avec les maladies de la fusariose en Afrique de l’Ouest, lorsque la palmeraie n’a pas été plantée avec du matériel végétal tolérant, ou du ganoderma en Malaisie. Le renouvellement des cocoteraies se fait avec un espace de temps beaucoup plus long. En effet, la récolte des noix peut se faire au sol et la hauteur des cocotiers n’est donc pas un facteur limitant. Par ailleurs, la majorité des cocoteraies étant sous la forme de petites plantations villageoises, les agriculteurs rechignent toujours à abattre leurs cocotiers, même si des semences potentiellement plus productives leurs sont proposées. Ce sont les raisons pour lesquelles les cocoteraies de 50 ans et plus représentent la règle. L’abattage d’une plantation de palmiers à huile ou de cocotiers constitue naturellement un changement brutal de l’environnement, ce qui a des conséquences importantes notamment sur l’entomofaune, parmi laquelle des ravageurs majeurs ainsi que leurs ennemis naturels.

  10. Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    ... détermineront les interventions devant absolument faire partie de la formation des travailleurs de santé communautaire. Cela pourrait comprendre des régimes de vitamines prénatals et des billets de transport à des établissements de santé pour le dépistage de troubles d'hypertension ou d'infection au VIH, entre autres.

  11. Isolement et identification des levures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOMERCQ

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available La fermentation du moût de raisin est assurée par les levures qui se trouvent sur la pellicule du raisin, sur les rafles, et aussi, par celles qui envahissent le matériel de vendange et de vinification dès que la récolte est commencée. L'apparition deLa fermentation du moût de raisin est assurée par les levures qui se trouvent sur la pellicule du raisin, sur les rafles, et aussi, par celles qui envahissent le matériel de vendange et de vinification dès que la récolte est commencée. L'apparition des signes de la fermentation est spontanée. La fermentation est rapide dans la majorité des cas, si elle devient trop violente et que la température s'élève dangeureusement, il faut la « canaliser », la calmer. Des accidents peuvent se produire; des arrêts de fermentation laissant des sucres non fermentés pouvant être attaqués par d'autres microorganismes, des développements de levures formant des substances nuisibles à la qualité; par la suite, il s'agit d'obtenir la stabilité du vin, en particulier, éviter les refermentations des vins doux. L'étude de ces problèmes nécessite une étude préliminaire, celle des levures responsables de la fermentation alcoolique du jus de raisin, qui ne peut être faite que sur des cultures pures, isolées au préalable à l'aide de prélèvements soigneusement réalisés.s signes de la fermentation est spontanée. La fermentation est rapide dans la majorité des cas, si elle devient trop violente et que la température s'élève dangeureusement, il faut la « canaliser », la calmer. Des accidents peuvent se produire; des arrêts de fermentation laissant des sucres non fermentés pouvant être attaqués par d'autres microorganismes, des développements de levures formant des substances nuisibles à la qualité; par la suite, il s'agit d'obtenir la stabilité du vin, en particulier, éviter les refermentations des vins doux. L'étude de ces problèmes nécessite une étude pr

  12. Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'initiative Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique (ISMEA) cherche à améliorer la santé des mères, des nouveau-nés et des enfants en ... Cette initiative de 36 millions de dollars sur sept ans – financée conjointement par les Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada, Affaires mondiales Canada et le ...

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs

  14. Use of the helium-3 proportional counter for neutron spectrometry; Utilisation du compteur proportionnel a helium 3 pour la spectrometrie des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialettes, H; Le Thanh, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Up to now, two methods have been mainly used for neutron spectrometry near nuclear installations: - photographic emulsion spectrometry - the so-called, 'multisphere' technique spectrometry. The first method, which is fairly difficult to apply, has a threshold energy of about 500 keV; this is a big disadvantage for an apparatus which has to be used for spectrometry around nuclear installations where the neutron radiation is very much degraded energetically. The second method does not suffer from this disadvantage but the results which it yields are only approximate. In order to extend the energy range of the neutron spectra studied with sufficient accuracy the use of a helium-3 proportional counter has been considered. This report presents the principles of operation of the helium-3 spectrometer, and the calculation methods which make it possible to take into account the two main effects tending to deform the spectra obtained: - energy absorption by the walls of the counter, - energy loss of the incident neutrons due to elastic collisions with helium-3 nuclei. As an example of the application, the shape of the neutron spectrum emitted by a polonium-lithium source is given; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. (authors) [French] Jusqu'ici deux methodes ont ete utilisees principalement pour la spectrometrie des neutrons autour des installations nucleaires: - la spectrometrie par emulsions photographiques - la spectrometrie par la technique dite des multispheres. La premiere methode, d'un emploi assez delicat presente un seuil en energie d'environ 500 keV qui est un obstacle serieux a la spectrometrie autour des installations nucleaires ou le rayonnement neutronique est tres degrade en energie. La deuxieme methode ne presente pas cet inconvenient mais les resultats qu'elle permet d'obtenir ne sont qu'approches. Pour etendre la gamme d'energie des spectres de neutrons etudies avec une precision suffisante, l'utilisation du

  15. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the tertiary sector in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the tertiary sector. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The economic energy intensive activities have represented the nucleus of the survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  16. The role of energy-related consultancy in increasing the energy performance in small and mid-sized enterprises. Feedback analysis of a survey among SMEs and energy consultants in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Final report to the Ministry of environment and transport of Baden-Wuerttemberg; Die Rolle der Energieberatung bei der rationellen Energienutzung in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen. Auswertung einer Umfrage unter kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen und Energieberatern in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Endbericht an das Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, C. (comp.); Gruber, E.; Weigert, K.

    2000-10-01

    The small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs) have to cope with typical shortcomings due to tight technical, financial, or human resources, in attempts to implement energy performance improvement measures in their shops. As a rule, none of the persons employed has the time to qualify for and perform the functions of an energy efficiency specialist. This is why consultancy by external specialists is the adequate solution (when doubts about the cost efficiency and general usefulness of such services have been removed). The document contains the important aspects of a survey carried out in order to gather information about availability of consultancy services for SMEs in the producing sector, and available experience and results. The survey covers about 50 enterprises of the mechanical engineering and printer's shop branches, as well as about 50 consulting firms in Baden-Wuerttemberg. (orig./CB) [German] In kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen existieren eine Reihe von technischen, oekonomischen und einstellungsbedingten Hemmnissen bei der Umsetzung von Massnahmen der rationellen Energienutzung. Aufgrund der geringen Mitarbeiterzahl gibt es in diesen Unternehmen in der Regel niemanden, der fuer Fragen der rationellen Energienutzung zustaendig ist und moegliche Einsparmassnahmen verfolgt. Gerade fuer kleinere Unternehmen ist daher die Inanspruchnahme externer Energiefachleute sinnvoller als der kostenintensive Aufbau von eigenem Know-how. Allerdings werden Energieberatungen u. a. aus Kostengruenden und Zweifel am Nutzen haeufig nicht in Anspruch genomen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden das Angebot von und Erfahrungen mit Energieberatungen fuer kleine und mittlere Unternehmen des produzierenden Gewerbes untersucht. Dazu wurden auch Fragen zum Umfeld, vor allem zur Wirkung und Ueberwindung von Hemmnissen in den Betrieben und zur Bereitschaft zur Durchfuehrung von Massnahmen rationeller Energienutzung beruecksichtigt. Ziel der Arbeit war es, einen Einblick in den

  17. Analyse des caractéristiques structurelles et des performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    28 févr. 2014 ... performances technico-économiques de la riziculture irriguée en Côte d' .... en nous basant sur les prix des intrants et des produits en vigueur au cours ..... la recherche et de la vulgarisation et le transfert de technologies ; (2) ...

  18. Enquête de satisfaction des restaurants

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Comité de surveillance des restaurants L’Association du personnel est représentée dans plusieurs comités dont le Comité de surveillance des restaurants (CSR) qui a pour mandat : de donner son avis sur toute question relative à la politique générale de l’Organisation en matière de restauration sur le site, y compris en ce qui concerne les termes et l’attribution des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants ; de définir dans le cadre des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants, les prestations correspondant aux besoins et, dans la mesure du possible, aux désirs du personnel ; de surveiller les prestations des restaurants, y compris en ce qui concerne la qualité et la préparation des produits ; de négocier avec les concessionnaires des restaurants au sujet des tarifs et de surveill...

  19. Challenge of the energy in Lebanon: Analysis and synthesis of the survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    The article is a survey conducted by the students of the ESIB Saint Joseph University within the ministry of Industry and petroleum, ministry of Hydraulic and Electrical resources and the Central Administration of statistics in Lebanon. The survey presents the primary and secondary energy, its sectorial production and consumption. Tables and figures describe the essential socio-economic indicators of energy, primary and secondary consumption of energy in 1995. Sectorial distribution of final energy in 1995 per habitant, imported products and varieties as gasoline, gasoil, fuel oil etc....Charts for imported petroleum products, percentage of electric production between hydraulic and thermal energy are also included. Tarification of the EDL, prices of electricity per consumer and estimation of EDL of electricity per GWH are also described. Combustion of energy in Lebanon is a main source of air pollution by emitting substances as follows: 15 Ktonnes of dust, 80 Kt of SO 2 and 40 Kt of CO 2 per year

  20. Contraintes d'adoption des technologies de gestion de la fertilite des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La baisse de fertilité des sols, l'une des principales contraintes du secteur agricole au Togo, sévit encore plus dans la riziculture irriguée où les terres sont exploitées chaque année sans jachère. Face à cette situation, diverses solutions comme les technologies de gestion de la fertilité des sols ont été proposées.

  1. contraintes d'adoption des technologies de gestion de la fertilite des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La baisse de fertilité des sols, l'une des principales contraintes du secteur agricole au Togo, sévit encore plus dans la riziculture irriguée où les terres sont exploitées chaque année sans jachère. Face à cette situation, diverses solutions comme les technologies de gestion de la fertilité des sols ont été proposées.

  2. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  3. Public opinion survey 'Nuclear energy - the present and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prah, M.; Jurkovic, I.-A.; Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    As a part of Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network efforts in improving relations with the general public, a survey on nuclear energy issues among a student population (18-22 years old) has been planned. The survey, although somewhat modified, is based on a similar one that has been conducted at high schools as a part of organized educational program by the Museum of Technical Sciences and Hrvatska Elektroprivreda. (authors)

  4. Public opinion survey 'Nuclear energy - the present and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkovic, I.-A.; Jecmenica, R.; Prah, M.; Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2000-01-01

    As a part of Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network efforts in improving relations with the general public, a survey on nuclear energy issues among a student population (18-22 years old) has been planned. The survey, although somewhat modified, is based on a similar one that has been conducted at high schools as a part of organized educational program by the Museum of Technical Sciences and Hrvatska Elektroprivreda. (author)

  5. Contribution to the phenomenological study of two-body reactions at high energy; Contribution a l'etude phenomenologique des reactions a deux corps a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A phenomenological model suited for the description of arbitrary two-body reactions at high energies is presented and applied to the analysis of {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon scattering.The idea is that the Regge-pole model does not take into account the whole content of the unitarity relation and has to be modified, as is currently done in one-particle exchange models, so that it may include absorptive corrections.In terms of a rather economical set of free parameters,we obtain a satisfactory agreement with all available data, including the recent evidence for a nonvanishing polarization in {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n reaction. We then reinterpret our parametrization of the amplitudes in terms of poles and branch points in the complex angular-momentum plane for the crossed channel. (author) [French] Un modele phenomenologique adapte a la description des reactions a deux corps a haute energie est presente et applique a l'analyse des diffusions {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon. L'idee essentielle est que le modele d'echange de poles de Regge ne tient pas compte du contenu total de la relation d'unitarite et doit etre modifie, comme cela a ete propose dans le cas de l'echange de particules, de facon a tenir compte de corrections de type absortif. Au moyen d'un ensemble relativement economique de parametres libres nous obtenons un accord satisfaisant avec tous les resultats disponibles, y compris l'existence recemment mise en evidence d'une polarisation non nulle dans la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n. Nous interpretons notre fa n d'ecrire les amplitudes au moyen de poles et de points de branchement dans le plan complexe du moment angulaire pour la voie croisee. (auteur)

  6. Data processing in gamma spectrometry. Application to the decay schemes study; Traitement des informations en spectrometrie gamma application a l'etude de schemas de desintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement d' electronique generale, service d' instrumentation nucleaire

    1968-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the processing of the data issued from a gamma spectrometer, and its applications to the decay schemes study. The mathematical analysis of the full energy peaks, in connection with the very good resolution of semi-conductor detectors, leads to a very accurate determination of the energies. The resolution of complex spectra by the least squares method, completed by a spectra generating process, allows the calculation of branching ratios. Then, the handling of the two dimensional experiments permits the coincidence exam. For each of these methods, the calculation principle, then the systematics tests realized in order to prove their validity and to determine their application ranges as well as some experimental results appropriate to illustrate their possibilities, are presented. The energies of some nuclides, frequently used as standards have been thus measured and the decay schemes of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 110m}Ag determined precisely. (author) [French] Cette these est consacree aux methodes de traitement des informations issues d'un spectrometre {gamma}, et a leur application a l'etude des schemas de desintegration: l'analyse mathematique des pics d'absorption totale, conjuguee avec l'excellent pouvoir de resolution des detecteurs semi-conducteurs, conduit a une determination tres precise des energies. La decomposition des spectres complexes par la methode des moindres carres, completee par un procede de generation de spectres, autorise le calcul des rapports de branchement. Enfin le depouillement des experiences biparametriques permet l'examen des coincidences. Pour chacune de ces methodes, on expose le principe des calculs et les essais systematiques effectues afin d'eprouver leur validite et de definir leurs domaines d'application, ainsi que quelques resultats experimentaux propres a illustrer leurs possibilites. Les energies de quelques isotopes utilises couramment comme etalons ont ainsi ete

  7. Terre des Lasers: the new Aquitaine outreach and communication center in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prulhiere, Jean Paul; Sarger, Laurent

    2009-06-01

    The competitive cluster "Route des Lasers" has been labeled by the French Government in July 2005. In this context, it has launched in September 2005, in cooperation with Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and Regional Council a project involving scientific exhibitions, called "Terre des Lasers ®", in order to create an exhibition and an area of communication and science discovery or a very large target (public, school, industry) in the fields of optics, lasers, optronics and imaging. This initiative is part of the strategy of the "Route des Lasers" center which aims to promote technologies developed in the areas of photonics, targeting in particular children and teenagers and their awareness for this particular industrial and scientific topic.

  8. De la problématique des articles synopsis dans la compilation des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autrement dit, au Gabon l'attention doit porter sur l'utilisation des articles synopsis dans la compilation des dictionnaires, en vue de refléter dans ses ouvrages la diversité linguistique et culturelle de ce pays. Ceci est d'autant plus vrai que l'utilisation des articles synopsis ne dépend aucunement de la typologie du ...

  9. Evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats ont montré que les méthodes de gestion de l'enherbement ont .... Le contrôle des adventices en riziculture irriguée a principalement .... mesurer la hauteur des plantes et la longueur ..... Performance agronomique du Sys- tème de ...

  10. Vacuum welding of metals; Soudage des metaux sous vide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J A; Briola, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This new welding process has been developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in France. The edges of the work-pieces are melted by the impact of an electron beam produced by an electron gun. Welding is carried out in a vacuum of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -8} mm of mercury. The welding machine consists, diagrammatically, of: a) a metal enclosure in which a vacuum is produced; b) a cathode for electron emission, a high-voltage generator for accelerating these electrons, a focusing device; c) a mechanical device for moving (rotating) the work-piece. Advantages of the process: 1) possible welding of highly oxidizable metals (e.g. zirconium); 2) fabrication of high-vacuum-sealed metal containers; 3) production of very deeply penetrated welds. Therefore, this new process is particularly advantageous for atomic power applications, the fabrication of electron tubes and, more generally, for all industries in which very special metals are used. (author) [French] Ce procede de soudage a ete recemment mis au point au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique en France (CEA). Il consiste a utiliser, pour fondre les levres des pieces a souder, l'impact d'un faisceau d'electrons produit par un canon a electrons. Le soudage s'effectue sous un vide de 10{sup -4} a 10{sup -8} mm de mercure. La machine a souder se compose schematiquement: a) d'une enceinte metallique ou l'on fait le vide; b) d'une cathode emettant des electrons, d'un generateur H.T. permettant d'accelerer ces electrons d'un dispositif de focalisation; c) d'un dispositif mecanique permettant le deplacement (rotation) de la piece a souder. Avantages de ce procede: 1) possibilite de souder les metaux tres oxydables (exemple: zirconium); 2) realisation de 'containers' metalliques fermes sous vide pousse; 3) obtention de profondeurs de soudures considerables. Ce nouveau procede est donc particulierement interessant pour l ' energie atomique, la fabrication des tubes electroniques et, en general, toutes les industries

  11. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l

  12. Contrôle des Circuits Auxiliaires des P.F.W. (arrêt machine 2003/2004)

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2004-01-01

    Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d'aimant et constituées d'un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et des circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et "pick-up" brasés sur les enroulements principaux). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique del'aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Chaque année, pendant l'arrêt machine, on vérifie si les caractéristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures de résistances des boucles de tours, résistances entre "pick-up" et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vérifiées. Dans cette note, on ne relèvera que les PFW ayant des défauts (valeurs hors tolérances, boucles ouvertes ...

  13. Comprendre les besoins en ressources végétales des populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traitement de l'asthme à Kisangani et ses environs (Province Orientale, R. D.. Congo). Annales des. Sciences,. Université Officielle de Bukavu, 1(1):. 63-68. Maregesi S, Ngassapa O, Pieters L, Vlietinck. A. 2007. Ethnopharmacological survey of the Bunda district, Tanzania: Plants used to treat infectious diseases. Journal.

  14. Performances des équipements utilisés en liaison froide en liaison froide en restauration hospitalière - Suivi des températures des entrées froides

    OpenAIRE

    Rosset , Philippe; Morelli , Elisabeth; Noël , Véronique; Poumeyrol , Gérard

    2007-01-01

    La restauration hospitalière présente un système de distribution des repas qui lui est spécifique : assemblage des denrées préparées et constitution des plateaux-repas dans un local dédié (dit d'allotissement) ; transport des plateaux-repas vers les unités de soins dans des enceintes mobiles permettant le maintien au froid des denrées consommées froides et la remise en température des aliments à consommer chauds. La présente étude concerne le suivi des températures de hors-d'œuvre dans trois ...

  15. Contribution to {pi}{sup +}p inelastic scattering at incoming pion energies near 1 GeV; Contribution a la diffusion inelastique {pi}{sup +}p pour des energies du {pi} incident voisines de 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deler, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    Results on {pi}{sup +}p scattering at 810 and 1300 MeV incoming kinetic energy are presented. In the three-body final states ({pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p or {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n) the N{sup *}{sub 33} production is strongly dominant. At 1300 MeV one also observes the {rho}, N{sup *}{sub 1/2} {sub 3/2} and N{sup *}{sub 1/2} {sub 5/2} productions. The difficulty in correctly separating these channels demands trying a more general analysis, taking simultaneously into account several processes (N{sup *}{pi}, {rho}N,...). A generalized isobaric model is discussed. Assuming the interaction of particles by pairs, we can carry out a partial wave analysis of the three body final state reactions. The expansion of the differential cross section in spherical harmonics for data between 600 and 1460 MeV (compilation of data from different laboratories) leads to a simple discussion of the angular effects for different parts of the Dalitz plot. A partial wave analysis has been made below 1 GeV. The reaction p {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} is correctly explained by considering only the N{sup *}{sub 33} production. The different partial waves are in agreement with the elastic phase shift analysis, except for the wave SD1 (corresponding to the elastic wave S31) which is found to be small. Therefore, the S31 resonance appears weakly coupled to the N{sup *}{sub 33}-{pi} channel. (author) [French] Les resultats de la mesure de la diffusion {pi}{sup +}p pour des energies cinetiques du {pi} incident egales a 810 MeV et 1300 MeV sont presentes. Dans les reactions a trois corps, {pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p ou {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n, la production de l'isobare 3/2 3/2 est fortement dominante. A 1300 MeV, on observe egalement la production du {rho} et des isobares 1/2 3/2 et 1/2 5/2. L'impossibilite de separer correctement ces differentes productions demande de chercher a effectuer l'analyse des donnees sous une forme plus generale permettant de tenir compte

  16. Choice of optimum size of installations for dual-purpose production of desalted water and electricity, using nuclear power; Le dimensionnement optimum des installations de production mixte d'eau sessalee et d'electricite faisant intervenir l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-07-01

    The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author) [French] Le probleme est presente en introduisant la notion de courbes de demande d'eau et d'electricite, ce qui permet d'aboutir a un partage rationnel des couts de revient entre eau et electricite dans ]e cadre d'un marche. L'objet de l'etude est, a partir des principes de l'economie classique, de donner des criteres objectifs de selection des dimensions des installations et des techniques de dessalement et d'en deduire une methode normative de tarification des deux produits lies: eau et electricite, en collant autant que possible a la structure de la demande. Ces criteres sont en particulier, soit le maximum de benefice de l'exploitant, soit le maximum de satisfaction des utilisateurs, c'est-a-dire la realisation d

  17. Les étudiants ont la parole : typologie des caractéristiques des activités technologiques de langue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Peters

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cet article présente une recherche qualitative s’appuyant sur une analyse de construits (Kelly, 1995 réalisée auprès de 71 étudiants inscrits dans des cours de français langue seconde dans cinq universités canadiennes. Les objectifs poursuivis par cette recherche sont d’une part, de réaliser un recensement d’activités technologiques de langue tels que les étudiants les ont utilisées dans leurs cours de français et d’autres part, d’établir une catégorisation des caractéristiques de ces activités. Tout en s’inspirant de certains aspects de modèles existant (Chamberland, Lavoie, et Marquis, 1996; Burnett (2000; Poellbhuber et Boulanger (2001; Perrault (2003; Cantin (2008, cet article propose une typologie de six grands types d’activités basée sur sept continuums bipolaires. Cette typologie de caractéristiques présente des profils différents pour chaque type d’activité et offre des retombées pédagogiques avantageuses pour les professeurs de langue. This paper presents the results of a qualitative construct analysis (Kelly, 1995 survey conducted with 71 students enrolled in French as a second language courses at five Canadian universities. The objectives of this research are to conduct a census of language technological activities that students have used in their French classes and to categorize their characteristics. A typology of six major types of activities based on seven bipolar continua is proposed. This typology presents different profiles for each type of activity and provides educational tools for language teachers. The typology draws on some aspects of existing models from Chamberland, Lavoie, and Marquis (1996, Burnett (2000, Poellbhuber and Boulanger (2001, Perrault (2003 and Cantin (2008.

  18. Decontamination of surfaces (1961); La decontamination des surfaces (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The continued expansion of atomic Energy has led the S.C.R.G.R. to extend simultaneously the recovery of materials contaminated by use in radio-active media. The importance of this aspect of atomic Energy was not immediately obvious to those concerned but is now fully recognized due to the cost of the materials and installations, and also to the time required for the construction of special equipment for the C.E.A. Another very important reason is the dangers associated with the handling of contaminated material. The S.C.R.G.R. attacked this problem from the point of view of these dangers. It later became apparent to the users, once the decontamination methods had proved their worth, that the process presented advantages from the material and cost-saving point of view. (author) [French] Le developpement toujours croissant de l'Energie atomique a conduit le S.C.R.G.R. a developper parallelement la recuperation des materiels contamines par leur emploi en milieu radioactif. Cet aspect de l'Energie atomique n'est pas apparu des le debut aux utilisateurs mais s'est tres vite impose etant donne, d'une part, le cout des installations et du materiel, d'autre part le temps necessaire a la fabrication d'un materiel special aux travaux du C.E.A., enfin et surtout, les risques associes a la manipulation d'un materiel contamine. Les risques seuls ont ete pris comme point de depart a l'examen de ce probleme par le S.C.R.G.R. puis avec le temps, les methodes de decontamination ayant fait leur preuve, les utilisateurs ont alors apercu les aspects materiels et la rentabilite de la decontamination. (auteur)

  19. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING THE RELATIVE VELOCITIES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS IN PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS USING THE KINETIC SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, Ryan; Schmidt, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We consider the prospects for measuring the pairwise kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal from galaxy clusters discovered in large photometric surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We project that the DES cluster sample will, in conjunction with existing mm-wave data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT), yield a detection of the pairwise kSZ signal at the 8σ-13σ level, with sensitivity peaking for clusters separated by ∼100 Mpc distances. A next-generation version of SPT would allow for a 18σ-30σ detection and would be limited by variance from the kSZ signal itself and the residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) signal. Throughout our analysis, we assume photometric redshift errors that wash out the signal for clusters separated by ∼<50 Mpc; a spectroscopic survey of the DES sample would recover this signal and allow for a 26σ-43σ detection, and would again be limited by kSZ/tSZ variance. Assuming a standard model of structure formation, these high-precision measurements of the pairwise kSZ signal will yield detailed information on the gas content of the galaxy clusters. Alternatively, if the gas can be sufficiently characterized by other means (e.g., using tSZ, X-ray, or weak lensing), then the relative velocities of the galaxy clusters can be isolated, thereby providing a precision measurement of gravity on 100 Mpc scales. We briefly consider the utility of these measurements for constraining theories of modified gravity.

  20. Vers une meilleure comprehension des savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires des enseignants ou Ie paradigme retrouve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Martineau

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available eet article se veut essentieUement un travail de synthese sous la forme d 'une breve revue de litterature au sujet des savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires en enseignement. Plus specifiquement, il vise a determiner queUes sont les principales conclusions qui se degagent de la lecture des recherches empiriques sur les savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires des enseignants des ordres d'enseignement primaire et secondaire. Il propose donc une classification des differentes dimensions constitutives du rapport entre les savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires et la pratique enseignante. Les resultats mis au jour permettent d 'une part, d'identifier les facteurs qui entrainent des differences dans les connaissances disciplinaires et curriculaires des enseignants et d'autre part, de mieux saisir comment ces connaissances de l'enseignant peuvent influencer en retour sa pratique.

  1. Contrôle hormonal des caractéristiques des fibres musculaires après la naissance

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Listrat, Anne; Picard, Brigitte

    1998-01-01

    Après la naissance, la croissance et les propriétés contractiles et métaboliques des fibres musculaires sont soumises à une régulation endocrinienne complexe. A l’exception des glucocorticoïdes, la plupart des hormones présente une action anabolique sur le tissu musculaire. Leur influence sur les caractéristiques des fibres est cependant très différente. Ainsi, les hormones somatotropes affectent peu la composition en fibres des muscles. La GH, comme l’IGF-1, régulerait cependant l’expression...

  2. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey report on development and utilization of alternative energies for oil in Pacific region; 2000 nendo Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted, with environmental matters taken into consideration, for building an information gathering infrastructure for the countries in the Pacific region, capable of promptly and accurately collecting and offering energy related information. Conducted in this fiscal year were regular data gathering, review of oil supply and demand and alternative energy supply and demand in the Pacific region, on-site survey of alternative energy development and utilization in Vietnam, quarterly analyses of trend of energy demand, and the like. The supply of primary energy in the Pacific region increased by 2.3% per year in the period 1980 through 1998. The rate of increase was the lowest with oil, and the highest with hydroelectricity, atomic power, and recoverable energies such as geothermal energy. The Vietnamese Government is promoting its efforts to develop power sources by use of recoverable energies for farm village electrification. Efforts are being earnestly exerted to develop its rich natural gas resources and it is expected that there will be a remarkable achievement in the use of alternative energies due to an increase in natural gas consumption. In the field of data collection, various data were registered with the database. (NEDO)

  3. Application of mathematical methods to the investigation of uranium deposits; Application des methodes mathematiques a l'etude des gisements d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formery, P; Ziegler, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    It may be considered approximately that grades, widths and accumulations (grade-width products), in french uranium deposits are distributed according to a lognormal law. This property associated to KRIGE'S and de WIGE'S formulae make a powerful tool in ore deposits surveys. The correlation between radioactivities and grades is realized, in logarithmic coordinates, through a straight line the properties of which are analysed in the paper. MATHERON'S recent works, in association with data of classical statistics and the above mentioned formulae make possible to complete the ore reserves evaluation by computing the accuracy. Statistical methods applied to ore deposits have given birth to a parameter which is as important as the mean grade for characterisation of deposits: the absolute dispersion. (author) [French] On peut considerer en premiere approximation que les teneurs, les puissances et les accumulations se distribuent dans les gisements fran is d'uranium suivant une loi log normale. Cette propriete, associee aux hypotheses de De WIGE et de KRIGE, constitue un puissant instrument d'etude des gisements. La correspondance des radioactivites et des teneurs s'effectue, en coordonnees bilogarithmiques, par une droite dont on etudie les proprietes. Grace aux travaux recents de MATHERON, associes aux donnees de la statistique classique ainsi qu'aux hypotheses enumerees plus haut, il est possible de completer le calcul des reserves d'un gisement par une evaluation de l'erreur commise. Les methodes statistiques ont fait apparaitre un parametre aussi important pour caracteriser un gisement, que la teneur moyenne: la dispersion absolue. (auteur)

  4. Modélisation des propriétés diélectriques des nanocomposites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans ce travail, nous nous intéressons aux propriétés diélectriques dans le domaine des micro-ondes (2.45, 9.50 et 35 GHz) des composites constitués des inclusions de noir de carbone dans une matrice résine époxyde. Nous avons utilisé deux types de carbone : le monarch 700 et le sterling, dont les diamètres des ...

  5. Civili, langue des Baloango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavoungou, Paul Achille; Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    , Congo, Angola, etc.) issus de la décolonisation. Il présente de façon succincte quelques phénomènes historiques, phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, homonymiques et analogiques de la langue. Des faits sémantiques des emprunts linguistiques y sont également décrits dans le cadre des changements...

  6. 16th World energy congress - No all clear signal; 16. Weltenergiekongress: Keine Entwarnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabeck, A.

    1995-11-07

    The future organisation of the global energy supply was the central theme of the 16th Congress of the World Energy Council, which was held from 8 to 13 October 1995 in Tokyo. Under the basic theme ``Energy for our common world - what will the future ask for us`` ecological and development policy aspects were also included in the discussion of energy policy. Because of these relationships and the importance of the subject also for the future of the German mining industry Glueckauf is reproducing below two publications issued in connection with the World Energy Conference. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zukuenftige Gestaltung der globalen Energieversorgung war Kernthema des 16. Kongresses des Weltenergierates, der vom 8. bis 13. Oktober 1995 in Tokio stattfand. Unter dem Leitmotiv ``Energy for our common world - what will the future ask of us`` wurden gerade auch oekologische und entwicklungspolitische Aspekte in die energiepolitische Diskussion einbezogen. Aufgrund dieser Zusammenhaenge und der Bedeutung dieser Thematik auch fuer die Zukunft der deutschen Bergbauindustrie, gibt GLUeCKAUF nachfolgend zwei Veroeffentlichungen zur Weltenergiekonferenz im Wortlaut wieder: Zum einen eine Presseinformation des Deutschen Nationalen Komitees des Weltenergierates vom 12. Oktober 1995 mit dem Titel ``Fortschritte; aber noch keine Entwarnung`` und zum anderen ein Statement von Dipl.-Kfm. Guenter Meyhoefer, Vorstandsvorsitzender des Eschweiler Bergwerks-Vereins AG, Herzogenrath, Generalbevollmaechtigter der Ruhrkohle AG, Essen, und Vizepraesident des Gesamtverbands des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Essen. (orig.)

  7. Cloud computing for energy management in smart grid - an application survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen, P; Ing, Wong Kiing; Danquah, Michael Kobina; Sidhu, Amandeep S; Abu-Siada, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The smart grid is the emerging energy system wherein the application of information technology, tools and techniques that make the grid run more efficiently. It possesses demand response capacity to help balance electrical consumption with supply. The challenges and opportunities of emerging and future smart grids can be addressed by cloud computing. To focus on these requirements, we provide an in-depth survey on different cloud computing applications for energy management in the smart grid architecture. In this survey, we present an outline of the current state of research on smart grid development. We also propose a model of cloud based economic power dispatch for smart grid. (paper)

  8. Comment constituer et traiter des corpus issus des médias sociaux à l’aide des CAQDAS? NVivo : un instrument pour l’analyse des discours numériques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Giovannipaolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Avec l’apparition des médias sociaux, le chercheur en Sciences Humaines et Sociales a vu s’ouvrir des possibilités de création de corpus à partir des données disponibles en ligne. Le risque dans ces modalités de création de corpus est de créer de grandes bases de données difficilement gérables avec les outils traditionnels et surtout dans le cadre d’une recherche qualitative. Pour cette raison, il semble important de mobiliser des outils numériques pour l’aide à la recherche. Ces logiciels sont appelés CAQDAS. Cette contribution montre comment les utiliser pour une enquête de terrain en ligne ou numérique afin d’organiser et d’analyser un corpus. Ce corpus est constitué en vue d’une analyse des discours produits dans le contexte professionnel de la radio utilisant les nouveaux médias.

  9. Ontario Business Survey Program on energy : impacts of power failure on Ontario businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario Chamber of Commerce conducted a survey for its members between August 19-23, 2003 to determine the impact of the massive power failure that took place on August 14, 2003. This paper presents the results of the survey which are based on a total of 929 respondents across Ontario. The primary businesses that participated in the survey were: manufacturing, service, technology, commercial, retail, automotive, steel, forestry, and resource businesses. 78 per cent of the respondents replied that the power disruption had a negative impact on their business. 48 per cent of the respondents were without power for 11-24 hours. 65 per cent of the businesses did not have a blackout contingency plan in place, but 63 per cent responded that they will likely develop a plan for future power failures. The survey also asked business members how they would rate the federal, provincial and municipal government's response to the emergency. The participants ranked the top 3 actions that governments can take to prevent future outages as follows: (1) review possible changes to the interconnected grid system, (2) ensure sufficient supply within Ontario, and (3) invest in alternative forms of energy such as solar and wind power. Other recommendations were to implement a sliding scale of energy pricing to reflect the true cost of energy. It was suggested that tax incentives should be offered to encourage energy conservation and the use of alternative energy sources. 2.6 per cent of the respondents suggested that excess energy should not be sold to neighbouring jurisdictions. 1 tab., 6 figs

  10. Ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales anti hémorroïdaires des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-12-31

    Dec 31, 2015 ... but est de valoriser la médecine à base des plantes dans le traitement des pathologies ... médicinales anti hémorroïdaires et le coût réduit des recettes serait pour les populations démunies, ...... l'Afrique, Unesco/Aetfat/Unso.

  11. Table des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tableaux Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels japonais entre 1860 et 1945… 19 Histoire, tourisme et hôtellerie en Corée depuis les années 1870… 59-60 Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels chinois depuis 1863… 84 Les hôtels de luxe et leurs capacités d’hébergement en Corée en 2000… 103 Les flux de personnes suscités par les hôtels « super luxe » de Séoul en 2000… 105 L’activité des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999 (en wons)… 106 Propriété et gestion des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999…. 110 La c...

  12. La recherche en action : des solutions locales, des effets durables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) appuie la production et l'application de connaissances qui améliorent de façon notable la situation des habitants des pays en développement.

  13. Facebook-ing and the Social Generation: A New Era of Language Learning Facebook et la génération des medias sociaux – Une nouvelle ère pour l'apprentissage des langues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Blattner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the use of Facebook (FB as a social networking tool in an intermediate French class. After reviewing the available studies on FB in language instruction, we analyze surveys that were administered to students as well as student FB posts. We look at the potential benefits of social media, specifically FB, and discuss its impact on foreign language learning. We aim to address how FB is being used in the language classroom, how students respond to the integration of this social networking site in courses, the attitudes of higher education foreign language learners towards FB, as well as the role of FB in new learning spaces and with today's learners. An analysis of survey data suggests that students respond in a positive manner toward the use of FB in education and highlights some differences in the way FB is used in both personal and academic settings.Dans cet article nous examinons l'usage de Facebook (FB comme outil de réseautage social dans une classe de français de niveau intermédiaire. Nous passons en revue les études disponibles sur FB dans l'enseignement des langues, puis nous analysons des enquêtes faites auprès d'étudiants ainsi que des messages postés par des étudiants. Nous examinons les bénéfices potentiels des médias sociaux, en particulier de FB, et discutons son impact sur l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère. Notre but est de voir comment FB est actuellement utilisé en classe de langue, comment les étudiants réagissent à l'intégration de ce site de réseautage social dans un cours, quelles sont les attitudes des apprenants de langue étrangère de l'enseignement supérieur envers FB, et également d'envisager le rôle de FB dans les nouveaux espaces d'apprentissage et avec les apprenants d'aujourd'hui. Une analyse des données des enquêtes suggère que les étudiants réagissent positivement à l'utilisation pédagogique de FB et met en valeur certaines différences entre la mani

  14. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  15. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Pour 60 % des 100 000 membres de la National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), le tabac est la seule et unique source de revenus. Les cultivateurs de tabac, au Malawi ...

  16. À l’aube des dieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Semonsut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available De l’avis même des préhistoriens, la Préhistoire assiste à la naissance du sentiment religieux. Cette religion des origines, quelle image en ont les Français ? Telle est la question que cet article aborde à partir de l’étude des manuels scolaires et des œuvres de fiction (littérature, cinéma et bande dessinée de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle. Si l’enseignement et la fiction n’accordent pas la même place à ce thème, en revanche tous deux font des préhistoriques des polythéistes adorant le soleil, construisant des mégalithes et prenant le plus grand soin de leurs morts. Ce mélange d’obscurantisme et de vraie spiritualité n’a qu’un but : montrer que notre espèce ne pouvait être que victorieuse dans ce combat qu’est l’humanisation.

  17. Disentangling dark energy and cosmic tests of gravity from weak lensing systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Bean, Rachel; Kirk, Donnacha; Bridle, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    We consider the impact of key astrophysical and measurement systematics on constraints on dark energy and modifications to gravity on cosmic scales. We focus on upcoming photometric ‘stage III’ and ‘stage IV’ large-scale structure surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts survey, the Euclid survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Wide Field Infra-Red Space Telescope (WFIRST). We illustrate the different redshift dependencies of gravity modifications compared to intrinsic alignments, the main astrophysical systematic. The way in which systematic uncertainties, such as galaxy bias and intrinsic alignments, are modelled can change dark energy equation-of-state parameter and modified gravity figures of merit by a factor of 4. The inclusion of cross-correlations of cosmic shear and galaxy position measurements helps reduce the loss of constraining power from the lensing shear surveys. When forecasts for Planck cosmic microwave background and stage IV surveys are combined, constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter and modified gravity model are recovered, relative to those from shear data with no systematic uncertainties, provided fewer than 36 free parameters in total are used to describe the galaxy bias and intrinsic alignment models as a function of scale and redshift. While some uncertainty in the intrinsic alignment (IA) model can be tolerated, it is going to be important to be able to parametrize IAs well in order to realize the full potential of upcoming surveys. To facilitate future investigations, we also provide a fitting function for the matter power spectrum arising from the phenomenological modified gravity model we consider.

  18. Clean energy, renewable energies; Energie propre, energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This document is the compilation of the 4 issues of the 'energie propre - energie renouvelables' newsletter published by the regional energy agency of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (ARENE). Each issue is a technical file presenting a particular facility or installation: the pico-hydraulic power plant of the Allos lake (Mercantour, French Alps), the 'Chute de la Guerche' and 'Chute de Chastillon' hydraulic power plant exploited by the Isola town; the pico-hydraulic power plant of the drinkable water network of Hameau des Agnielles village, the direct solar thermal floor. (J.S.)

  19. La maison des mathématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  20. Survey of particle codes in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    In the spring of 1976, the Fusion Plasma Theory Branch of the Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy conducted a survey of all the physics computer codes being supported at that time. The purpose of that survey was to allow DMFE to prepare a description of the codes for distribution to the plasma physics community. This document is the first of several planned and covers those types of codes which treat the plasma as a group of particles

  1. Contribution to the study of vacancies in silver and uranium (1962); Contribution a l'etude des lacunes dans l'argent et l'uranium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quere, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-12-15

    In metals, high temperature vacancies can be retained by quenching. Results are given for the quenching of uranium (in liquid helium) and of silver (in liquid nitrogen). In this last case the energy of formation (1.06 eV) and the energy of mobility (0.86 eV) of the vacancies have been measured as well as the energy of mobility of the divacancies (0.58 eV). If the quenching is slow, it is shown that it is possible to trap the vacancies on the impurities of the metal. This leads to increases in the electrical resistivity observed by annealing after quenching, the vacancies being released before disappearing into sinks. The vacancy-impurity binding energy (the impurity being probably oxygen which is present in the silver used at a concentration of 20 ppm. atom.) can thus be estimated to be 0.4 eV. (author) [French] Dans un metal, les lacunes de haute temperature peuvent etre retenues par trempe. On presente des experiences de trempe d'uranium (dans l'helium liquide) et d'argent (dans l'azote liquide). Dans ce dernier cas, on mesure l'energie de formation (1,06 eV) et l'energie de mobilite (0,86 eV) des lacunes ainsi que l'energie de mobilite des bilacunes (0,58 eV). Si la trempe est lente, on montre que l'on peut pieger des lacunes sur les impuretes du metal. On interprete de cette facon des augmentations de resistivite electrique observees par recuit apres trempe, les lacunes se depiegeant avant de disparaitre dans des puits. L'energie de liaison lacune-impurete (l'impurete etant probablement l'oxygene dont l'argent utilise contient 20 ppm. atom.) peut alors etre evalue 0,4 eV. (auteur)

  2. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  3. Les piles à combustible. Bilan des travaux de recherches. Perspectives Fuel Cells. Review of Research. Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breelle Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point, sous forme résumée, des travaux de recherches et de développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP depuis vingt ans dans le domaine des piles à combustible : sélection des filières directes conduisant au choix de la pile hydrogène-air basse température à électrolyte basique, mise au point des générateurs à hydrogène alimentés en méthanol. On présente les résultats obtenus et les conclusions des enquêtes effectués dans le domaine des groupes électrogènes et des applications spéciales, dans celui de la traction automobile et dans celui de la production massive d'électricité. This article reviews and sums up the research and development done by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP in the last 20 years in the field of fuel cells, including the selection of direct methods leading to the choice of low-temperature basic-electrolyte hydrogen/air cells and the development of methanol-powered hydrogen generators. The results obtained are desceibed along with the conclusions of surveys made in the field of electric generators and special applications in the fields of automotive traction and massive electricity production.

  4. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The object of this report is to give technical information about high density concretes which have become very important for radiation biological shielding. The most generally used heavy aggregates (barytes, ilmenite, ferrophosphorus, limonite, magnetite and iron punching) to make these concretes are investigated from the point of view prospecting and physical and chemical characteristics. At first, a general survey of shielding concretes is made involving the study of components, mixing and placing methods, then, a detailed investigation of some high density concretes: barytes concrete, with incorporation of iron punching or iron shot, ferrophosphorus concrete, ilmenite concrete and magnetite concrete, more particularly with regard to grading and mix proportions and testing process. To put this survey in concrete form, two practical designs are described such as they have been carried out at the Saclay Nuclear Station. Specifications are given for diverse concretes and for making the proton-synchrotron 'Saturne' shielding blocks. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour objet de donner des precisions techniques au sujet des betons a haute densite qui ont pris une grande importance pour la protection biologique contre les rayonnements. Les agregats lourds les plus couramment utilises (barytine, ilmenite, ferrophosphore, limonite, magnetite et riblons) pour la fabrication de ces betons, sont examines du point de vue prospection et caracteristiques physiques et chimiques. On procede d'abord a une etude generale des betons de protection comprenant l'etude des constituants, de la confection et de la mise en place, ensuite, a un examen detaille de quelques betons a haute densite: betons a base de barytine, avec incorporation de riblons ou de grenaille de fonte, betons au ferrophosphore, a base d'ilmenite ou de magnetite, notamment en ce qui concerne la granulometrie, la composition, le dosage et les processus d'essais. Pour concretiser ces

  5. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les marchés agroalimentaires connaissent de rapides changements dans les pays en développement et les pays en transition. Sous l'influence de la libéralisation du commerce et des nouvelles technologies de transformation des aliments et de commerce de détail, les marchés agroalimentaires évoluent vers une plus ...

  6. Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - phase II. Au cours de la première phase du projet (projet no 103765), les chercheurs ont effectué une analyse de marché pour le bambou et les produits du bambou, comparé les ...

  7. Survey of employment in the UK wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of employment in the UK wind energy industry has been carried out. It related to the financial years 1993-4 and 1994-5. A questionnaire was sent to all organisations working in wind energy in the UK. Some 249 replies were received. The paper reports on the findings regarding overall employment in the industry, employment in the major sectors of the industry, jobs by type of organisation, the major employers, the location of jobs, and the overall impact on employment in the UK economy. (Author)

  8. Structurations formelle et conceptuelle des articles de dictionnaires : le premier modèle de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Nous nous proposons d’examiner, dans l’histoire des dictionnaires généraux monolingues Larousse des origines à nos jours, une sélection de jalons de l’articulation entre structure conceptuelle et structure formelle des articles. Au regard de l’ampleur des données à couvrir, il ne pourra bien entendu s’agir que d’un survol, mais celui-ci permettra (1 de présenter le premier des trois modèles majeurs de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse, celui qui trouve son origine dans le Nouveau dictionnaire de la langue française de 1856 ou ses éditions révisées, (2 de prendre en compte les dictionnaires proposés par cet éditeur en un siècle et demi qui ont repris le modèle de 1856 ou sa forme révisée, et (3 de présenter contrastivement au premier les deux autres modèles majeurs, qui trouvent leur ancrage chronologique respectivement dans le Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle de 1866-1876 et le Dictionnaire du français contemporain de 1966.

  9. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  10. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age

  11. Some results on the fluorescence of gases excited by high-energy charged particles; Quelques resultats concernant la fluorescence de gaz excites par des particules chargees de grande energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L; Lesureur, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The essential characteristics of rare gases for use as scintillators are as follows: a very brief period of luminescence, generally less than 10{sup -8} s; a linear response as a function of the energy lost by the nuclear particle in the gas, even in the case of strongly ionising particles (fission fragments). In the gaseous or condensed state therefore, they are of great interest in nuclear physics. (author) [French] Les caracteristiques essentielles des gaz rares en tant que scintillateurs sont: une duree de luminescence tres breve, inferieure a 10{sup -8} s en general; une reponse lineaire en fonction de l'energie perdue par la particule nucleaire dans le gaz, meme dans le cas de particules fortement ionisantes (fragments de fission). A l'etat gazeux ou condense, ils presentent donc un grand interet en physique nucleaire. (auteur)

  12. Analysis of energy saving performance for household refrigerator with thermal storage of condenser and evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-long; Ding, Miao; Yuan, Xu-dong; Han, Bing-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel refrigerator with both HSC and CSE is proposed. • The operational characteristics of novel refrigerator is analyzed. • The comparison of CSE, HSC and DES refrigerators is analyzed. • DES refrigerator has a largest off-time to on-time ratio of 4.3. • DES refrigerator has the best electrical energy saving performance (32%). - Abstract: The heat transfer performances of evaporators and condensers significantly affect the efficiency of household refrigerators. For enhancing heat transfer of the condensers and evaporators, a novel dual energy storage (DES) refrigerator with both heat storage condenser (HSC) and cold storage evaporator (CSE) is proposed. The performance comparison of three kinds of energy storage refrigerators: HSC refrigerator, CSE refrigerator and DES refrigerator is analyzed by establishing dynamic simulation models. According to the simulation results, the DES refrigerator combines the advantage of HSC refrigerator and CSE refrigerator, it has more balanced operational cycle and higher evaporation pressure and temperature. The DES refrigerator shows a best energy saving performance among the three energy storage refrigerators with largest off-time to on-time ratio of 4.3 and the electrical consumption saving can reach 32%, which is greater than the sum (28%) of the other two kinds of energy storage refrigerators.

  13. Recovery of uranium in mine waters; Recuperation de l'uranium dans les eaux des mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugier, P [Direction des Productions, CEA, Chatillon-Sur-Bagneux (France)

    1967-06-15

    In a brief introductory survey the author indicates the date on which leaching was first observed in the CEA mines and lists the main factors necessary for, or favourable to, the solubilization of uranium in mines. Information is given on the various sources of this type at present identified in France and the methods used to recover uranium in mines situated near ore-concentration plants. An explanation is given for the use of the calcium precipitation technique in connection with waters produced in mines not situated near ore-concentration plants. Data are given on the results of laboratory tests carried out on waters containing uranium, together with a description of an industrial-scale facility built in consequence of these tests. Details are given of the statistical results obtained. The author concludes by outlining the programme which will be implemented in the near future with a view to increasing the tonnage of uranium produced by in situ leaching and indicates that the CEA engineers are very optimistic about the prospects of this new low-cost method of producing uranium. (author) [French] Apres un bref rappel historique precisant la date de constatation du phenomene de lixiviation dans les mines d'uranium du Commissariat et un rapide inventaire des principales conditions necessaires ou favorisant la solubilisation de l'uranium dans les mines, auteur indique les differentes sources actuellement reconnues en France et les methodes utilisees pour recuperer l'uranium dans les mines situees pres d'une usine de concentration des minerais. Il donne ensuite les raisons motivant le choix du procede de precipitation calcique pour les eaux produites dans des mines eloignees des usines de concentration des minerais. Les resultats d'essais de laboratoire effectues sur des eaux chargees en uranium sont donnes et l'installation industrielle realisee a la suite de ces essais est decrite; les resultats statistiques obtenus sont detailles. En conclusion de son expose, l

  14. Integration of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions into the DES Tool with Lean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nujoom, Reda; Wang, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Products are often made by accomplishing a number of manufacturing processes on a sequential flow line which is also known as manufacturing systems. In a traditional way, design or evaluation of a manufacturing system involves a determination or an analysis of the system performance by adjusting system parameters relating to such as system capacity, material processing time, material-handling and transportation and shop-floor layout. Environment related parameters, however, are not considered or considered as separate issues. In the past decade, there has been a growing concern about the environmental protection and governments almost in all over the world enforced certain rules and regulation to promote energy saving and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in manufacturing industry. To date, development of a sustainable manufacturing system requires designers who need not merely to apply traditional methods of improving system efficiency and productivity but also examine the environmental issues in production of the developed manufacturing system. Most researchers, however, focused on operational systems, which do not incorporate the effect of environmental factors that may also affect the system performance. This paper presents a research work aiming to addresses these issues in design and evaluation of sustainable manufacturing systems incorporating parameters of energy consumption and CO2 emissions into a DES (discrete event simulation) tool.

  15. Des proprietes de l'etat normal du modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Francois

    Depuis leur decouverte, les etudes experimentales ont demontre que les supra-conducteurs a haute temperature ont une phase normale tres etrange. Les proprietes de ces materiaux ne sont pas bien decrites par la theorie du liquide de Fermi. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel, bien qu'il ne soit pas encore resolu, est toujours considere comme un candidat pour expliquer la physique de ces composes. Dans cet ouvrage, nous mettons en evidence plusieurs proprietes electroniques du modele qui sont incompatibles avec l'existence de quasi-particules. Nous montrons notamment que la susceptibilite des electrons libres sur reseau contient des singularites logarithmiques qui influencent de facon determinante les proprietes de la self-energie a basse frequence. Ces singularites sont responsables de la destruction des quasi-particules. En l'absence de fluctuations antiferromagnetiques, elles sont aussi responsables de l'existence d'un petit pseudogap dans le poids spectral au niveau de Fermi. Les proprietes du modele sont egalement etudiees pour une surface de Fermi similaire a celle des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Un parallele est etabli entre certaines caracteristiques du modele et celles de ces materiaux.

  16. Accelerated delivery of hydro electrical projects; Livraison acceleree des projets hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjannet, Hassine; Bechard, Normand

    2010-09-15

    Hydro electrical projects, as other energy projects, must transform in order to adapt to current market demands. This article describes the solutions developed during the construction of the Eastmain-1-A power plant in order to speed up its delivery and to reduce the costs. These solutions include, more comprehensive land investigations, the simplification of excavation contours, the refit or elimination of certain work spaces, the addition of a second access during construction, the simplification of the formworks, the improvement of work zones access and especially the use of prefabricated elements. [French] Les projets hydroelectriques, comme les autres projets energetiques, doivent subir des transformations pour s'adapter aux exigences actuelles du marche. Cet article presente les solutions mises en oeuvre pour la construction de la Centrale de l'Eastmain-1-A en vue d'en accelerer la livraison et d'en reduire le cout. Ces solutions comprennent, entre autres des investigations de terrain plus approfondies, la simplification des contours d'excavations, le reamenagement ou l'elimination de certains locaux, l'addition d'un deuxieme acces pendant la construction, la simplification des coffrages, l'amelioration des acces aux zones de travail et surtout l'utilisation d'elements prefabriques.

  17. Etat des lieux de la gestion des insecticides au Togo, Afrique de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour parvenir à une gestion optimale des maladies à transmission vectorielle ou tout au moins la nuisance culicidienne, une surveillance permanente des facteurs de risque devient nécessaire. Le principal facteur de risque est le vecteur qui transmet la maladie, et le contrôle du vecteur passe par des stratégies de lutte qui ...

  18. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les synergies ont été mises en commun au fur et à mesure des progrès de la recherche. .... Recherche normative (sur le rôle et la performance des institutions .... Système national d'information sur la gestion environnementale connecté à 19 ...... Un fort contrôle centralisé sur l'élaboration des politiques nationales peut ...

  19. FY 2000 report on the survey of policies on cooperation in new energy/energy conservation for developing countries by developed countries/international organizations. Survey of collection/analysis of information on effective energy utilization, etc.; 2000 nendo senshinkoku kokusai kikan no tai tojokoku shin energy sho energy kyoryoku seisaku ni kakawaru chosa hokokusho. Energy yuko riyo nado joho shushu bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NON