WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy storage overview

  1. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  2. Overview of the Energy Storage Systems for the Wind Power Integration Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Teodorescu, Remus; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    intermittency, partly unpredictability and variability, wind power can put the operation of power system into risk. This can lead to problems with grid stability, reliability and the energy quality. One of the possible solutions can be an addition of energy storage into wind power plant. This paper deals......As the installed worldwide wind energy capacity increases about 30% annually and Kyoto protocol that came in force in 2005, wind penetration level in power system is considered to significantly increase in near future. Due to increased penetration and nature of the wind, especially its...... with state of the art of the Energy Storage (ES) technologies and their possibility of accommodation for wind turbines. Overview of ES technologies is done in respect to its suitability for Wind Power Plant (WPP). Services that energy storage can offer both to WPP and power system are discussed. Moreover...

  3. 2014 Overview of NASA GRC Electrochemical Power and Energy Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2014-01-01

    Overview presentation to the IAPG Chemical Working Group meeting, discussing current electrochemical power and energy storage R and D at NASA GRC including missions, demonstrations, and reserch projects. Activities such as ISS Lithium-Ion Battery Replacements, the Advanced Exploration Systems Modular Power Systems project, Enabling Electric Aviation with Ultra-High Energy Litium Metal Batteries, Advanced Space Power Systems project, and SBIR STTR work, will be discussed.

  4. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  5. Large-Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage in High Voltage Grids: Overview of the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a wide overview on the large-scale electrochemical energy projects installed in the high voltage Italian grid. Detailed descriptions of energy (charge/discharge times of about 8 h and power intensive (charge/discharge times ranging from 0.5 h to 4 h installations are presented with some insights into the authorization procedures, safety features, and ancillary services. These different charge/discharge times reflect the different operation uses inside the electric grid. Energy intensive storage aims at decoupling generation and utilization since, in the southern part of Italy, there has been a great growth of wind farms: these areas are characterized by a surplus of generation with respect to load absorption and to the net transport capacity of the 150 kV high voltage backbones. Power intensive storage aims at providing ancillary services inside the electric grid as primary and secondary frequency regulation, synthetic rotational inertia, and further functionalities. The return on experience of Italian installations will be able to play a key role also for other countries and other transmission system operators.

  6. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  7. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  8. Program definition and assessment overview. [for thermal energy storage project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a program level assessment of thermal energy storage technology thrusts for the near and far term to assure overall coherent energy storage program is considered. The identification and definition of potential thermal energy storage applications, definition of technology requirements, and appropriate market sectors are discussed along with the necessary coordination, planning, and preparation associated with program reviews, workshops, multi-year plans and annual operating plans for the major laboratory tasks.

  9. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  10. An overview of potential benefits and limitations of Compressed Air Energy Storage in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutyński, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is one of the methods that can solve the problems with intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy sources. The storage is charged by increasing air pressure with the use of electrically driven compressors, which convert the electric energy into potential energy. The pressurized air is stored in compressed air storage volumes (caverns, voids, porous structures etc.) of any kind and can then be released upon demand to generate electricity again by expansion of the air through an air turbine or gas turbine. Limited availability of salt caverns in Europe creates difficulties in the implementation of this concept on larger scale. This paper deals with underground storage part in CAES concept and lists benefits related to the storage of air in abandoned coal mines. Examples of natural gas storage in abandoned coal mines are given and compared with the compressed air storage. The study shows an example of coal mine volume calculation. The non-exhaustive list of problems and solutions associated with this idea is given in order to develop this concept at larger scale.

  11. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  12. Energy storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulia, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    The book deals with the characteristics and potentialities of energy storage cells of various types. Attention is given to electrical energy storage cells (electrochemical, electrostatic, and electrodynamic cells), mechanical energy storage cells (mechanical flywheel storage cells), and hybrid storage systems.

  13. Clathrate Hydrates for Thermal Energy Storage in Buildings: Overview of Proper Hydrate-Forming Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy costs are at the origin of the great progress in the field of phase change materials (PCMs. The present work aims at studying the application of clathrate hydrates as PCMs in buildings. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline structures in which guest molecules are enclosed in the crystal lattice of water molecules. Clathrate hydrates can form also at ambient pressure and present a high latent heat, and for this reason, they are good candidates for being used as PCMs. The parameter that makes a PCM suitable to be used in buildings is, first of all, a melting temperature at about 25 °C. The paper provides an overview of groups of clathrate hydrates, whose physical and chemical characteristics could meet the requirements needed for their application in buildings. Simulations with a dynamic building simulation tool are carried out to evaluate the performance of clathrate hydrates in enhancing thermal comfort through the moderation of summer temperature swings and, therefore, in reducing energy consumption. Simulations suggest that clathrate hydrates have a potential in terms of improvement of indoor thermal comfort and a reduction of energy consumption for cooling. Cooling effects of 0.5 °C and reduced overheating hours of up to 1.1% are predicted.

  14. An Overview of Power, Energy Storage, and Conversion Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 15 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Power, Energy Storage and Conversion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high-radiation-tolerant ceramic voltage isolators, development of hermetic sealing glasses for solid oxide fuel cells, rechargeable lithium metal cells, high-efficiency direct methane solid oxide fuel cell systems, Li metal protection for high-energy space batteries, isolated bidirectional direct current converters for distributed battery energy applications, and high-efficiency rad-hard ultrathin Si photovoltaic cell technology for space. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  15. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  16. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, such as solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind power, flexibility requirements in the power system are generally increasing. However, what is not so clear yet is what “increasing flexibility...

  17. Superconducting energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  18. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  19. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  20. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  1. FEMP Renewable Energy Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-06-01

    This four-page overview describes how Federal agencies can contact the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to obtain assistance in acquiring renewable energy systems, renewable fuels, and renewable ("green") power for use in their facilities and vehicles. Renewable resources, technologies, and fuels are described, as well as Federal goals for using clean, sustainable renewable energy; the current goal is to supply 2.5% of the Federal Government's energy with renewable sources by 2005. Also included is a description of the resources and technologies themselves and associated benefits.

  2. Thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  3. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  4. Flywheel energy storage; Schwungmassenspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornemann, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Energy storages may be chemical systems such as batteries, thermal systems such as hot-water tanks, electromagnetic systems such as capacitors and coils, or mechanical systems such as pumped storage power systems or flywheel energy storages. In flywheel energy storages the energy is stored in the centrifugal mass in the form of kinetic energy. This energy can be converted to electricity via a motor/generator unit and made available to the consumer. The introduction of magnetic bearings has greatly enhanced the potential of flywheel energy storages. As there is no contact between the moving parts of magnetic bearings, this technology provides a means of circumventing the engineering and operational problems involved in the we of conventional bearings (ball, roller, plain, and gas bearings). The advantages of modern flywheel energy storages over conventional accumulators are an at least thousandfold longer service life, low losses during long-time storage, greater power output in the case of short-time storage, and commendable environmental benignity. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Als Enegiespeicher kommen chemische Systeme, z.B. Batterien, thermische Systeme, z.B. Warmwassertanks, elektromagnetische Systeme, z.B. Kondensatoren und Spulen, sowie mechanische Systeme, z.B. Pumpspeicherwerke und Schwungmassenspeicher in Frage. In einem Schwungmassenspeicher wird Energie in Form von kinetischer Energie in der Schwungmasse gespeichert. Ueber eine Moter/Generator Einheit wird diese Energie in elektrischen Strom umgewandelt und dem Verbraucher zugefuehrt. Mit der Einfuehrung von magnetischen Lagern konnte die Leistungsfaehigkeit von Schwungmassenspeichern erheblich gesteigert werden. Da in einem Magnetlager keine Beruehrung zwischen sich bewegenden Teilen besteht, wird ein Grossteil der mit dem Einsatz konventioneller Lager (Kugel- und Rollenlager, Gleitlager und Gaslager) verbundenen ingenieurtechnischen und betriebstechnischen Probleme vermieden. Die Vorteile von modernen

  5. Energy storage label

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian van Someren; F. Pierie

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the creation and use of a database for energy storage technologies which was developed in conjunction with Netbeheer Nederland and the Hanze University of Applied Sciences. This database can be used to make comparisons between a selection of storage technologies and will

  6. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  7. Valuing Reversible Energy Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John R. Miller

    2012-01-01

    The development of new materials that provide the capability of high-performance energy storage combined with flexibility of fabrication opens up the possibility of a wide range of technological applications...

  8. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  9. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-time varying-daily, weekly, and seasonal-power demands require the electric utility industry to have installed generating capacity in excess of the average load. Energy storage can reduce the requirement for less efficient excess generating capacity used to meet peak load demands. Short-time fluctuations in electric power can occur as negatively damped oscillations in complex power systems with generators connected by long transmission lines. Superconducting inductors with their associated converter systems are under development for both load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is based upon the phenomenon of the nearly lossless behavior of superconductors. Application is, in principal, efficient since the electromagnetic energy can be transferred to and from the storage coils without any intermediate conversion to other energy forms. Results from a reference design for a 10-GWh SMES unit for load leveling are presented. The conceptual engineering design of a 30-MJ, 10-MW energy storage coil is discussed with regard to system stabilization, and tests of a small scale, 100-KJ SMES system are presented. Some results of experiments are provided from a related technology based program which uses superconducting inductive energy storage to drive fusion plasmas.

  10. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  11. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  12. More with thermal energy storage. Report 6. High temperature storage. Overview of knowledge and results of measurements with regard to high temperature storage systems. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 6. Hogetemperatuuropslag. Kennisoverzicht en praktijkmetingen rondom hogetemperatuuropslagsystemen. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drijver, B. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This report includes the results of research in the field of high temperature heat storage. Residual heat, which comes available in the summer can be used for heating purposes in the winter. To realize that heat can be stored temporarily. It appears that the subsurface can be used, which has resulted in a strong growth of heat and cold storage systems [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het

  13. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-05

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  14. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath. General Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 61-68 ...

  15. Integrated Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kopko, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Thermal Energy Storage (ITES) is a novel concept in improving cooling performance of air-conditioning systems at peak-load conditions. In contrast to conventional chilled-water or ice storage, it uses stored chilled water to subcool condenser refrigerant liquid instead of supplying cooling directly to a cooling load. For typical R-134a and R-410A systems, subcooling increases capacity by approximately .5 to .7%/°F (~.9 to 1.3 %/K) without increasing compressor input power. Even l...

  16. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  17. More with thermal energy storage. Report 2. Literature survey. Overview of knowledge and research questions with regard to thermal energy storage. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 2. Literatuuronderzoek. Overzicht van kennis en onderzoeksvragen rondom bodemenergie. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieten, S.; De Vries, E. [Bioclear, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Baaren, E.; Bakr, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Hartog, N.; Meinderstma, W.; Van Nieuwkerk, E.; Van Oostrom, N.; Woning, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands); Drijver, B.; Krajenbrink, H.; Mathijssen, H.; Wennekes, R. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. The aim of this literature survey is to search for knowledge that is available worldwide on the effects of heat and cold storage and the possibilities to combine this technology with controlling contaminants in soil and groundwater [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en collectieve

  18. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  19. An Energy Overview of Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-08-13

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bolivia.

  20. A Numerical and Graphical Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj Sabihuddin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More effective energy production requires a greater penetration of storage technologies. This paper takes a looks at and compares the landscape of energy storage devices. Solutions across four categories of storage, namely: mechanical, chemical, electromagnetic and thermal storage are compared on the basis of energy/power density, specific energy/power, efficiency, lifespan, cycle life, self-discharge rates, capital energy/power costs, scale, application, technical maturity as well as environmental impact. It’s noted that virtually every storage technology is seeing improvements. This paper provides an overview of some of the problems with existing storage systems and identifies some key technologies that hold promise.

  1. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  2. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  3. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  4. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  5. State Energy Overview. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    An overview of selected energy-related data for the United States, for each state, and for the District of Columbia is presented. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related information that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. The State Energy Overview is arranged in five sections. The first section presents United States totals and an overview of state rankings. The second depicts data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The glossary presents definitions germane to this publication and the fourth section describes methodology and includes remarks concerning the information and methods used to estimate 1982 consumption numbers. The fifth section presents sources of data and information for this publication. A summary of each section is included.

  6. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  7. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  8. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  9. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  10. Overview of new energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Developing new energy is one of the main pillars of Japan`s energy policy. NEDO is pressing ahead with the further development of new energy sources and the introduction and diffusion of new energy technologies as a core. NEDO is carrying out the following development. For the utilization of clean and abundant solar energy, the photovoltaic power generation, and the practical application of solar thermal systems are promoted. Japan, located in the Pacific Rim volcanic zone, is blessed with massive reserves of geothermal energy resources, and work is being conducted to develop technologies for promoting geothermal energy utilization. As its resources are widely dispersed and abundant, coal is an attractive energy source. However, coal needs to be made more environmentally friendly. NEDO is conducting the development of coal conversion technologies, i.e., liquefaction and gasification technologies. Fuel cell is one of the energy storage technologies. Hydrogen and alcohol are themes as clean alternative energy sources. Furthermore, biomass and wind energy conversion system are also being investigated. To promote the development of geothermal resources, NEDO is carrying out geothermal development promotion surveys. To secure stable supplies of coal for Japan, NEDO is conducting geological surveys in countries where it is difficult for private companies to conduct business. Promotion of international cooperation is also presented.

  11. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  12. Campus Energy Approach, REopt Overview, and Solar for Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Geet, Otto D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This presentation gives an overview of the climate neutral research campus framework for reducing energy use and meeting net zero electricity on research campuses. It gives an overview of REopt and the REopt Lite web tool, which can be used to evaluate cost optimal sizes of behind the meter PV and storage. It includes solar PV installation trends at universities and case studies for projects implemented on university campuses.

  13. Energy storage for sustainable microgrid

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, David Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Energy Storage for Sustainable Microgrid addresses the issues related to modelling, operation and control, steady-state and dynamic analysis of microgrids with ESS. This book discusses major electricity storage technologies in depth along with their efficiency, lifetime cycles, environmental benefits and capacity, so that readers can envisage which type of storage technology is best for a particular microgrid application. This book offers solutions to numerous difficulties such as choosing the right ESS for the particular microgrid application, proper sizing of ESS for microgrid, as well as

  14. Underground thermal energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun Sang

    2014-01-01

    Summarizing several decades of development in UTES-strategically vital in combating global warming-this book, which includes current statistics and real-world applications, forms an excellent introduction to this widely used method of energy conservation.

  15. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2010-01-01

    ), Battery Energy Storage (BES), Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES), Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), Supercapacitor Energy Storage (SCES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Hydrogen Energy Storage System (HESS), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The objective...... than PHES depending on the availability of suitable sites. FBES could also be utilised in the future for the integration of wind, but it may not have the scale required to exist along with electric vehicles. The remaining technologies will most likely be used for their current applications...

  16. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technological development in this cen tury has been characterized not only by the increasing consumption of energy but also by the emergence of hydrocarbons as the primary source. The process of development is threatened by the limited reserves of coal and oil. In addition, the deleterious effects of excessive ...

  17. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  18. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  19. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  20. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  1. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  2. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  3. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  4. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  5. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  6. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebel Matthias M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the “energy and buildings” topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  7. Oracle Database DBFS Hierarchical Storage Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivenes, A

    2011-07-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory creates large numbers of images during each shot cycle for the analysis of optics, target inspection and target diagnostics. These images must be readily accessible once they are created and available for the 30 year lifetime of the facility. The Livermore Computing Center (LC) runs a High Performance Storage System (HPSS) that is capable of storing NIF's estimated 1 petabyte of diagnostic images at a fraction of what it would cost NIF to operate its own automated tape library. With Oracle 11g Release 2 database, it is now possible to create an application transparent, hierarchical storage system using the LC's HPSS. Using the Oracle DBMS-LOB and DBMS-DBFS-HS packages a SecureFile LOB can now be archived to storage outside of the database and accessed seamlessly through a DBFS 'link'. NIF has chosen to use this technology to implement a hierarchical store for its image based SecureFile LOBs. Using a modified external store and DBFS links, files are written to and read from a disk 'staging area' using Oracle's backup utility. Database external procedure calls invoke OS based scripts to manage a staging area and the transfer of the backup files between the staging area and the Lab's HPSS.

  8. More with thermal energy storage. Report 10. Options for a combination of heat and cold storage with soil sanitation. Overview of techniques and new options. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 10. Mogelijkheden voor combinatie van KWO met bodem-sanering. Overzicht van technieken en nieuwe mogelijkheden. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, E. [Bioclear, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoekstra, N. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. In this report, an overview is given of available methods and systems for soil remediation. Next, potential combinations of thermal energy storage systems and sanitation systems are assessed taking into account the following criteria: energy efficiency, achieving the remediation target, cost efficiency, lifetime [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende

  9. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies operation decisions of energy storage facilities in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets. In a perfectly competitive market, the storage facility is operated to maximize the social welfare. However, in a imperfectly competitive market, the storage facility operates...

  10. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  11. Optimizing Storage and Renewable Energy Systems with REopt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Daniel R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-27

    Under the right conditions, behind the meter (BTM) storage combined with renewable energy (RE) technologies can provide both cost savings and resiliency. Storage economics depend not only on technology costs and avoided utility rates, but also on how the technology is operated. REopt, a model developed at NREL, can be used to determine the optimal size and dispatch strategy for BTM or off-grid applications. This poster gives an overview of three applications of REopt: Optimizing BTM Storage and RE to Extend Probability of Surviving Outage, Optimizing Off-Grid Energy System Operation, and Optimizing Residential BTM Solar 'Plus'.

  12. Flywheel Energy Storage technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Howell, D. [comps.

    1993-12-31

    Advances in recent years of high strength/lightweight materials, high performance magnetic bearings, and power electronics technology has spurred a renewed interest by the transportation, utility, and manufacturing industries in Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) technologies. FES offers several advantages over conventional electro-chemical energy storage, such as high specific energy and specific power, fast charging time, long service life, high turnaround efficiency (energy out/energy in), and no hazardous/toxic materials or chemicals are involved. Potential applications of FES units include power supplies for hybrid and electric vehicles, electric vehicle charging stations, space systems, and pulsed power devices. Also, FES units can be used for utility load leveling, uninterruptable power supplies to protect electronic equipment and electrical machinery, and for intermittent wind or photovoltaic energy sources. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to highlight technologies that offer a high potential to increase the performance of FES systems and to discuss potential solutions to overcome present FES application barriers. This document consists of viewgraphs from 27 presentations.

  13. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

  14. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, D; Tarascon, J-M

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

  15. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  16. Photovoltaic energy program overview: Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This is the 1994 overview for the Photovoltaic Energy Program. The topics of this overview include cooperative research projects to improve PV systems and develop pre-commercial prototypes of new PV products, expanding understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the formation and performance of PV materials, and helping US industry enhance its leadership position in the PV market.

  17. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  18. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder; Giddey, Sarbjit; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand; Hollenkamp, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation and storage; pollution control / monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges.

  19. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P S; Giddey, Sarbjit S; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges.

  20. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  1. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhvinder P.S. BADWAL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation and storage; pollution control / monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges.

  2. Economic Aspects of Innovations in Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Strielkowski, Wadim; Lisin, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is emerging as a potential method for addressing global energy system challenges across many different application areas. However, there are technical and non-technical barriers to the widespread deployment of energy storage devices. With regard to the above, it seems crucial to identify innovation processes, mechanisms and systems (in a broad sense) that can allow energy storage to help meet energy system challenges, and also deliver industrial growth from technology developme...

  3. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  4. Nanocarbons for advanced energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacit

  5. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  6. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  7. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  8. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  9. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  10. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC is a multi-institutional research center, one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of...

  12. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage system (CAES) is a technology which can be used for integrating more fluctuating renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system. On a utility scale, CAES has a high feasibility potential compared to other storage technologies. Here, the technology...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of December 2, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/certified-products/detail/data_center_storage

  14. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  15. A Comprehensive Review of Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage (TES is a technology that stocks thermal energy by heating or cooling a storage medium so that the stored energy can be used at a later time for heating and cooling applications and power generation. TES systems are used particularly in buildings and in industrial processes. This paper is focused on TES technologies that provide a way of valorizing solar heat and reducing the energy demand of buildings. The principles of several energy storage methods and calculation of storage capacities are described. Sensible heat storage technologies, including water tank, underground, and packed-bed storage methods, are briefly reviewed. Additionally, latent-heat storage systems associated with phase-change materials for use in solar heating/cooling of buildings, solar water heating, heat-pump systems, and concentrating solar power plants as well as thermo-chemical storage are discussed. Finally, cool thermal energy storage is also briefly reviewed and outstanding information on the performance and costs of TES systems are included.

  16. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system

  18. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics. PMID:26964693

  19. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-03-11

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics.

  20. The chemistry of energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-05-01

    What's in store: The sustainable development of our society requires the conversion and storage of renewable energy, and these should be scaled up to serve the global primary energy consumption. This special issue on "The Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage", assembled by guest editor Dangsheng Su, contains papers dealing with these aspects, and highlights important developments in the chemistry of energy conversion and storage during the last two years. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Energy research 2002 - Overview; Energie-Forschung 2002 / Recherche energetique 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2002. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, fuel cells and combustion. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and small-scale hydro are presented. Nuclear safety and controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  2. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  4. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard

  5. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that will allow the continued combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for e.g. power generation, transportation and industrial processes for the next decades. It therefore facilitates to bridge to a more renewable energy dominated world, enhances the stability and security of energy systems and at the same time reduces global carbon emissions as manifested by many western countries. Geological media suitable for CO2 storage are mainly saline aquifers due to the large storage volumes associated with them, but also depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep unminable coal beds. Lately, CO2 storage into mafic- to ultramafic rocks, associated with subsequent mineral carbonation are within the R&D scope and first demonstration projects are being executed. For all these storage options various physical and chemical trapping mechanisms must reveal the necessary capacity and injectivity, and must confine the CO2 both, vertically (through an effective seal) or horizontally (through a confining geological structure). Confinement is the prime prerequisite to prevent leakage to other strata, shallow potable groundwater, soils and/or atmosphere. Underground storage of gases (e.g. CO2, H2S, CH4) in these media has been demonstrated on a commercial scale by enhanced oil recovery operations, natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. Some of the risks associated with CO2 capture and geological storage are comparable with any of these industrial activities for which extensive safety and regulatory frameworks are in place. Specific risks associated with CO2 storage relate to the operational (injection) phase and to the post-operational phase. In both phases the risks of most concern are those posed by the potential for acute or chronic CO2 leakage from the storage site. Currently there are only few operations worldwide where CO2 is injected and stored in the subsurface. Some are related to oil production enhancement but the

  7. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  8. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Muralidharan, Krishna [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  9. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  10. Energy and architecture — An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonetti G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a short overview on the complex aspects and growing concern about energy in architecture by gradually zooming into it, starting from a macro-scale analysis of building contribution in the total EU energy consumption, related policies, user behaviour’s impacts and vernacular architecture techniques; then looking at the meso scale of building energy performance during its use, dynamic simulations of heat transfer and insights from a whole life cycle analysis of the energy involved during construction and disposal phases; finally, at the building element micro-scale, describing local heat transfer and human thermal comfort measurements. Conclusions gather recommendations and further scenarios where different stakeholders and techniques can play their part for a wiser and more sustainable energy use, and a better built environment for us and those to come.

  11. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  12. Comparing energy storage options for renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The paper investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity storage......Increasing penetrations of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilizing storage...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This paper takes its point of departure in an all...

  13. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  14. Energy storage by means of exciton droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.A.; Litovchenko, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    Certain characteristics of electron-hole droplets and ball lightning are investigated and compared with a view to evaluating energy storage and transfer processes. Models for plasma processes in the atmosphere and in semiconductors are briefly examined.

  15. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry; Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody M.; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Denholm, Paul; Hummon, Marissa; Jorgenson, Jennie; Palchak, David; Starke, Michael; Alkadi, Nasr; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jaci; Kirby, Brendan; O' Malley, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  16. Solar applications of thermal energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Taylor, L.; DeVries, J.; Heibein, S.

    1979-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on solar energy systems which use thermal energy storage. The study includes characterization of the current state-of-the-art of thermal energy storage, an assessment of the energy storage needs of solar energy systems, and the synthesis of this information into preliminary design criteria which would form the basis for detailed designs of thermal energy storage. (MHR)

  17. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, S.R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2− in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material...... modeling and an overview of factors impacting chemical expansion. We discuss the implications of chemical expansion for mechanical stability and functionality in the energy applications above, as well as in other oxide-based systems. The use of chemical expansion as a new means to probe other materials...

  18. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O' Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  19. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines...... electricity storage is 25-45% and thus has a quite low efficiency, which is close to the efficiency of the simple diabatic CAES-process. Adiabatic CAES would reach significantly higher storage efficiency about 70-80%....... were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency...

  20. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  1. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  2. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V; Gu, Min

    2017-03-31

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  3. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-03-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

  5. Appendix A: Energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial evaluation section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  6. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike (Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, Lihu' e, HI); Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce

  7. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  8. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  9. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  10. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......, including PV and concentrating solar power; wave energy; fuel cells; and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in the final section....

  11. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  12. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period of 1990 to 2010. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system. The second chapter describes the modeling structure. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. Additional background on the development of the system is provided in Appendix A of this report, which describes the EIA modeling systems that preceded NEMS. More detailed model documentation reports for all the NEMS modules are also available from EIA.

  13. Overview of geothermal energy in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, M.P.

    1986-03-01

    The author has attempted in this article to give an overview of the activities of New-Zealand professionals in geothermal development. 6 topics are dealt with: - history and present stage of development of low enthalpy geothermal prospects in New Zealand; - history of development of high enthalpy geothermal prospects in New Zealand to 1980; - history of development of high enthalpy resources since 1980; - the role of New Zealand scientists and engineers and of private New Zealand companies in geothermal development outside New Zealand; - history and objectives of the Geothermal diploma Course at the University of Auckland. - Future of geothermal energy.

  14. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.; Tataria, H.; Duong, T.

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  15. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  16. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  17. Reaction wheels for kinetic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to all existing reaction wheel implementations, an order of magnitude increase in speed can be obtained efficiently if power to the actuators can be recovered. This allows a combined attitude control-energy storage system to be developed with structure mounted reaction wheels. The feasibility of combining reaction wheels with energy storage wwheels is demonstrated. The power required for control torques is a function of wheel speed but this energy is not dissipated; it is stored in the wheel. The I(2)R loss resulting from a given torque is shown to be constant, independent of the design speed of the motor. What remains, in order to efficiently use high speed wheels (essential for energy storage) for control purposes, is to reduce rotational losses to acceptable levels. Progress was made in permanent magnet motor design for high speed operation. Variable field motors offer more control flexibility and efficiency over a broader speed range.

  18. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  19. Chemistry of energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dang Sheng

    2012-03-12

    Energy is a big issue in our society, fueled by growing awareness of the finite resources of liquid fossil fuels and the noticeable changes in our climate resulting from its consumption. The general consensus is that there should be a well-considered roadmap towards a future energy scenario, with the replacement of fossil energy by renewable energies as the final goal. This "Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage" issue contains papers dealing with the chemistry behind renewable energies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Frontiers of Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Inorganics features a Forum for novel materials and approaches for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Diminishing non-renewable fossil fuels and the resulting unattainability of environment have made us search new sustainable energy resources and develop technology for efficient utilization of such resources. Green energy sources, such as solar, hydroelectric, thermal and wind energy are partially replacing fossil fuels as means to generate power. Inorganic (solid state materials are key in the development of advanced devices for the efficient storage and conversion of energy. The grand challenge facing the inorganic chemist is to discover, design rationally and utilize advanced technological materials made from earth-abound elements for these energy storage and conversion processes. Recent spectacular progress in inorganic materials synthesis, characterization, and computational screening has greatly advanced this field, which drove us to edit this issue to provide a window to view the development of this field for the community. This special issue comprises research articles, which highlights some of the most recent advances in new materials for energy storage and conversion. [...

  1. Energy loss minimization through peak shaving using energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiju Kalkhambkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal placement methodology of energy storage to improve energy loss minimization through peak shaving in the presence of renewable distributed generation. Storage sizing is modelled by considering the load profile and desired peak shaving. This storage is suitably divided into multiple storage units and optimally allocated at multiple sites with suitable charge discharge strategy. Thus the peak shaving for maximum loss reduction is explored here. Renewable distributed generation (RDG is modelled based on the seasonal variations of renewable resources e.g., solar or wind and these RDGs are placed at suitable locations. A high-performance Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO algorithm is applied to the proposed methodology. The results are compared with the well-known genetic algorithm. The proposed methodology is illustrated by various case studies on a 34-bus test system. Significant loss minimization is obtained by optimal location of multiple energy storage units through peak shaving.

  2. COSTS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal accumulation facilities allow energy to be available in the absence of sunlight. This fact reduces the difficulty of the intermittence in the incidence of the king star in our planet. Thermal accumulation technology also contributes to smooth the fluctuations in energy demand during different times of the day. This contribution identifies the nations with the most favorable research results in this area; as well as the main research lines that are being developed today. A compendium of various thermal energy storage materials, their current costs per unit mass, and their physical properties are presented. Techniques for implementing thermal accumulation technologies can be classified as areas of high, medium and low temperature. In the high temperature area, inorganic materials such as nitrate salts are the most widely used thermal energy storage materials, while in the medium and lower temperature areas; organic materials such as commercial paraffin are more common. Currently, one of the research trends in this area are the projects aimed at optimizing the chemical and physical characteristics of thermal storage materials, because the success of any thermos-energetic storage technology has a strong dependence on the cost of the materials selected for thermal storage.

  3. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  4. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  5. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet......  The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...

  6. Underground-Energy-Storage Program, 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1983-06-01

    Two principal underground energy storage technologies are discussed--Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). The Underground Energy Storage Program objectives, approach, structure, and milestones are described, and technical activities and progress in the STES and CAES areas are summarized. STES activities include aquifer thermal energy storage technology studies and STES technology assessment and development. CAES activities include reservoir stability studies and second-generation concepts studies. (LEW)

  7. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  8. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Atyah [Computation Science, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS); Hasan, Afif [Mechanical Engineering Department, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS)

    2008-11-15

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse. (author)

  9. Compressed air energy storage in offshore grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.T.; Meibom, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S. (KBB Underground Technologies, Hanover (Germany))

    2011-05-15

    Fluctuating renewable energy sources can be rendered more reliable by massive international grid extensions and by energy storages. The latter ones are partially discussed as offshore grids to combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with international power trading. This paper gives a first assessment of offshore energy storage possibilities. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that has been used successfully onshore for decades and is the most economic large-scale storage option after pumped hydro. More efficient adiabatic CAES is under development. At the same time, the oil and gas offshore industry provides enough experience to state that a CAES power plant could be installed and operated offshore even though at considerable higher costs. Suitable salt formations for the salt caverns exist in and around the North Sea and to a lower extent the Baltic Sea. Offshore energy storage can facilitate several issues in an offshore grid: firstly, it can delay or even replace the necessity for building interconnectors due to additional wind or wave power. Secondly, it can balance generation deviations due to forecast errors. Depending on market design, these have a negative effect on offshore generation or interconnector operation. Balancing forecast errors could allow operating the interconnectors in a more reliable and thus, more profitable way. If the offshore grid is considered a single price zone between countries, a storage has a lowering effect on electricity price volatility. The WILMAR planning tool is used to estimate these effects. Comparing onshore and offshore CAES, it is concluded that an an offshore adiabatic CAES can participate in several markets, but that this advantage is outweighed by an onshore unit's ability to provide spinning reserves. (Author)

  10. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  11. Energy storage deployment and innovation for the clean energy transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittner, Noah; Lill, Felix; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-09-01

    The clean energy transition requires a co-evolution of innovation, investment, and deployment strategies for emerging energy storage technologies. A deeply decarbonized energy system research platform needs materials science advances in battery technology to overcome the intermittency challenges of wind and solar electricity. Simultaneously, policies designed to build market growth and innovation in battery storage may complement cost reductions across a suite of clean energy technologies. Further integration of R&D and deployment of new storage technologies paves a clear route toward cost-effective low-carbon electricity. Here we analyse deployment and innovation using a two-factor model that integrates the value of investment in materials innovation and technology deployment over time from an empirical dataset covering battery storage technology. Complementary advances in battery storage are of utmost importance to decarbonization alongside improvements in renewable electricity sources. We find and chart a viable path to dispatchable US$1 W-1 solar with US$100 kWh-1 battery storage that enables combinations of solar, wind, and storage to compete directly with fossil-based electricity options.

  12. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron

    2010-09-09

    Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.

  13. Innovation on Smart Grids and energy storage. IA Special; Innovation on Smart Grids and energy storage. IA Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    In this special edition of the Innovation Network Attache a large number of short articles on aspects of ICT aspects of intellligent energy networks, the security and integrity of the use and control of those networks, and energy storage. In this special an overview is given of the most important developments in Israel, Russian Federation, Brazil, Netherlands, France, Germany, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, China, South Korea, India, United States and Canada [Dutch] In deze special van het Innovation Attache Netwerk een groot aantal korte artikelen over de ICT aspecten van intellligente energie netten, de veiligheid en integriteit van het gebruik en sturing ervan, en energie opslag. In de special een overzicht van in het oog springende ontwikkelingen in de landen Israel, Rusland, Brazilie, Nederland, Frankrijk, Duitsland, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, China, Zuid-Korea, India, Verenigde Staten en Canada.

  14. Graphene-Based Systems for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Phillips, James, III; Hogue, Michael; Kaner, Richard B.; El-Kady, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Development of graphene-based energy storage devices based on the Laser Scribe system developed by the University of California Los Angeles. These devices These graphene-based devices store charge on graphene sheets and take advantage of the large accessible surface area of graphene (2,600 m2g) to increase the electrical energy that can be stored. The proposed devices should have the electrical storage capacity of thin-film-ion batteries but with much shorter charge discharge cycle times as well as longer lives The proposed devices will be carbon-based and so will not have the same issues with flammability or toxicity as the standard lithium-based storage cells.

  15. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  16. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  17. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume I. Technical report. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Chan, Y.K.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume I gives a brief overview of the SIMWEST program and describes the two NASA defined simulation studies.

  18. Biogeochemical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the process of aquifer thermal energy storage the in situ temperature of the groundwater- sediment system may fluctuate significantly. As a result the groundwater characteristics can be considerably affected by a variety of chemical, biogeochemical and microbiological

  19. Thermal energy storage for smart grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Khateeb, Siddique; Aljehani, Ahmed; Pintar, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Energy consumption for commercial building cooling accounts for 15% of all commercial building's electricity usage [1]. Electric utility companies charge their customers time of use consumption charges (/kWh) and additionally demand usage charges (/kW) to limit peak energy consumption and offset their high operating costs. Thus, there is an economic incentive to reduce both the electricity consumption charges and demand charges by developing new energy efficient technologies. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using a phase change material (PCM) is one such technology that can reduce demand charges and shift the demand from on-peak to off-peak rates. Ice and chilled water have been used in thermal storage systems for many decades, but they have certain limitations, which include a phase change temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and relatively low thermal conductivity in comparison to other materials, which limit their applications as a storage medium. To overcome these limitations, a novel phase change composite (PCC) TES material was developed that has much higher thermal conductivity that significantly improves the charge / discharge rate and a customizable phase change temperature to allow for better integration with HVAC systems. Compared to ice storage, the PCC TES system is capable of very high heat transfer rate and has lower system and operational costs. Economic analysis was performed to compare the PCC TES system with ice system and favorable economics was proven. A 4.5 kWh PCC TES prototype system was also designed for testing and validation purpose.

  20. Start It up: Flywheel Energy Storage Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to construct and test an off-grid photovoltaic (PV) system in which the power from a solar array could be stored in a rechargeable battery and a flywheel motor generator assembly. The mechanical flywheel energy storage system would in turn effectively power a 12-volt DC appliance. The voltage and current of…

  1. Energy Efficient Storage and Transfer of Cryogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenics is globally linked to energy generation, storage, and usage. Thermal insulation systems research and development is an enabling part of NASA's technology goals for Space Launch and Exploration. New thermal testing methodologies and materials are being transferred to industry for a wide range of commercial applications.

  2. Hydrochemistry and energy storage in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, O.; Appelo, C.A.J.; Brons, H.J.; Dufour, F.C.; Griffioen, J.; Jenne, E.A.; Lyklema, J.W.; Mourik, G.J. van; Snijders, A.L.; Willemsen, A.; Zehnder, A.J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This volume of the series Proceedings and Information of the TNO Committee on Hydrological Research (CHO-TNO) contains the contributions as presented on the 48th technical meeting of the CHO-TNO, "Hydrochemistry and energy storage in aquifers". During this symposium recent results have been

  3. Compressed air energy storage with liquid air capacity extension

    OpenAIRE

    Kantharaj, Bharath; Garvey, Seamus D.; Pimm, Andrew James

    2015-01-01

    As renewable electricity generation capacity increases, energy storage will be required at larger scales. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) at large scales, with effective management of heat, is recognised to have potential to provide affordable grid-scale energy storage. Where suitable geologies are unavailable, compressed air could be stored in pressurised steel tanks above ground, but this would incur significant storage costs. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES), on the other hand, does n...

  4. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  5. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  6. An Evaluation of Energy Storage Options for Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dufek, Eric J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Energy supply, distribution, and demand are continuing to evolve as new generation sources come online and new appliances are installed. A larger percentage of the United States (U.S.) energy mix is provided by variable energy sources such as wind and solar each year, and distributed generation is becoming more common. In parallel, an evolution in consumer products such as electrical vehicles, information technology devices for residential and industrial applications, and appliances is changing how energy is consumed. As a result of these trends, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being called upon to operate more flexibly than ever before. Furthermore, advanced nuclear power plants (A-NPPs) might operate as part of an electricity system that looks very different than when the current NPP fleet was constructed. A-NPPs face the possibility that they will need to operate in an environment where flexibility (e.g., fast ramping) is more highly valued than stability (e.g., baseload generation for conventional demand curves). The current fleet of NPPs is struggling to remain economical in competitive markets in an era of historically low natural gas prices and renewable sources with very low marginal costs. These factors, overlaid with an ambiguous national policy related to nuclear energy and a decision-making context that struggles with multi-decade capital investments, raise key questions and present significant challenges to the economics of nuclear power in the evolving grid. Multiple factors could improve the economics of A-NPPs, including: (1) minimizing the need for active safety systems, (2) minimizing adoption of one-off reactor designs, (3) establishing policies that credit low carbon emitting technologies, and (4) integrating energy storage technologies that increase revenue and reduce costs through a combination of ancillary services, market hedging, and reduced costs via stable operation. This report focuses on Item (4), containing an overview, synthesis, and

  7. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  8. Novel materials and devices for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaddanapudi, Haritha Sree

    An increase in the demand for clean and sustainable energy storage with a high power density, along with a long cyclic life time has made supercapacitors an emerging energy storage device. However, one of the main challenges of today's world is to develop energy storage devices which are environmental friendly, cost effective, and which posses an excellent storage capacity. Therefore, this thesis presents the experimental results of utilizing nickel nanoparticle impregnated carbonized wood as a potential electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The electrode was synthesized by carbonizing the nickel nitrate impregnated wood at 900°C for an hour. The concentration of nickel nanoparticles in the carbonized wood was varied by changing the concentration of nickel nitrate solution. The surface morphology and the structure of the electrodes as prepared were studied by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical characterization such as Cyclic Voltammetry showed the presence of peaks indicating a psuedocapacitive behavior of the electrode. The Galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements showed nonlinear charge-discharge curves with changes in the slope. From the electrochemical measurements, it is observed that the electrode material exhibited a specific capacitance of 3616 F/g and a power density of 30 kW/kg along with an excellent capacitance retention of greater than 80% after 6000 charge-discharge cycles. These results indicate that the nickel nanoparticle impregnated carbonized wood could be one of the potential electrode materials for supercapacitor applications.

  9. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  10. One-dimensional nanomaterials for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Fan, Yuqi; Gu, Jianhang; Wu, Liming; Passerini, Stefano; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-01

    The search for higher energy density, safer, and longer cycling-life energy storage systems is progressing quickly. One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have a large length-to-diameter ratio, resulting in their unique electrical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties, and have wide applications as electrode materials in different systems. This article reviews the latest hot topics in applying 1D nanomaterials, covering both their synthesis and their applications. 1D nanomaterials can be grouped into the categories: carbon, silicon, metal oxides, and conducting polymers, and we structure our discussion accordingly. Then, we survey the unique properties and application of 1D nanomaterials in batteries and supercapacitors, and provide comments on the progress and advantages of those systems, paving the way for a better understanding of employing 1D nanomaterials for energy storage.

  11. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting...... the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems...... are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging...

  12. Energy storage for improvement of wind power characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Results from simulation of the influence of energy storage on the variability and availability of wind energy are presented here. Simulations have been done using a mathematical model of energy storage implemented in MATLAB. The obtained results show the quality improvement, of energy delivered...... by a combination of wind and energy storage, in relation to the size of the energy storage. The introduction of storage enables suppression of wind power fluctuations up to a timescale proportional to the storage energy capacity. Energy storage cannot provide availability of wind power at all times, but it can...... guarantee that a certain fraction of average wind power will be available within a given timeframe. The amount of storage energy capacity necessary for significant improvement of wind power availability, within a given period, is found to be approximately 20% of the energy produced in that period...

  13. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  14. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  15. The Role of Energy Storages in Energy Independent Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven

    2009-01-01

    integration technologies and system regulation are required. Additional confirmation of wind power data and hydropower production in Croatia is required to have more accurate results in future analyses. Large-scale integration of wind power in the Croatian energy systems requires new technologies in other......In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting...... electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped Hydro and Heat Pumps in combination with Heat Storages...

  16. Commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. The purpose of the study was to develop and screen a list of potential entry market applications for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Several initial screening criteria were used to identify promising ATES applications. These include the existence of an energy availability/usage mismatch, the existence of many similar applications or commercial sites, the ability to utilize proven technology, the type of location, market characteristics, the size of and access to capital investment, and the number of decision makers involved. The in-depth analysis identified several additional screening criteria to consider in the selection of an entry market application. This analysis revealed that the best initial applications for ATES are those where reliability is acceptable, and relatively high temperatures are allowable. Although chill storage was the primary focus of this study, applications that are good candidates for heat ATES were also of special interest. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  18. Capacity value of energy storage considering control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nian; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In power systems, energy storage effectively improves the reliability of the system and smooths out the fluctuations of intermittent energy. However, the installed capacity value of energy storage cannot effectively measure the contribution of energy storage to the generator adequacy of power systems. To achieve a variety of purposes, several control strategies may be utilized in energy storage systems. The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different energy storage control strategies on the generation adequacy. This paper presents the capacity value of energy storage to quantitatively estimate the contribution of energy storage on the generation adequacy. Four different control strategies are considered in the experimental method to study the capacity value of energy storage. Finally, the analysis of the influence factors on the capacity value under different control strategies is given.

  19. Energy storage improvement through material science approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brandon Joseph

    A need for improved energy storage is apparent for the improvement of our society. Lithium ion batteries are one of the leading energy storage technologies being researched today. These batteries typically utilize coupled reduction/oxidation reactions with intercalation reactions in crystalline metal oxides with lithium ions as charge carriers to produce efficient and high power energy storage options. The cathode material (positive electrode) has been an emphasis in the recent research as it is currently the weakest link of the battery. Several systems of cathode materials have been studied with different structures and chemical makeup, all having advantages and disadvantages. One focus of the research presented below was creating a low cost and high performance cathode material by creating a composite of the low cost spinel structured LiMn2O4 and the higher capacity layered structure materials. Two compositional diagrams were used to map out the composition space between end members which include two dimensional layer structured LiCoO 2, LiNiO2, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and three dimensional spinel structured LiMn2O4. Several compositions in each composition map were electrochemically tested and structurally characterized in an attempt to discover a high performance cathode material with a lower cost precursor. The best performing composition in each system shows the desired mixed phase of the layered and spinel crystal structures, yielding improved performance versus the individual end member components. The surrounding compositions were then tested in order to find the optimum composition and performance. The best performing composition was 0.2LiCoO 2•0.7LiNi0.8Co0.2O2•0.1LiMn 2O4 and yielded a specific capacity of 182mAh/g. Another promising area of chemical energy storage is in the storage of hydrogen gas in chemical hydrides. Hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in a variety of applications as a viable method for storing and transporting energy. Currently, the

  20. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  1. An overview of flywheel energy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsky, A. M.; Energy Systems

    2002-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings incorporating permanent magnets and ReBaCuO, together with carbon fibre, offer the possibility of increasing the stored, volumetric energy density of FES and unprecedentedly low idling loss of FES. Its stored energy need only satisfy customers needs for the time it takes to bring on conventional 'back-up'. The FES itself must come up to power quickly enough to avoid any disruption in the customer's operation (e.g., continuous industrial processes involving fragile materials, for example paper forming). Such customers do not care about the price of electricity nearly as much as they care about not ruining their product, damaging their machines or having 'clean ups' that stop or slow output. Firms that engage in electronic commerce and/or telecommunications also value uninterruptible power. Another set of potential customers (construction, electric railroads) may wish to avoid fluctuations in their electrical supply or they may wish to avoid causing harm to others who may hold them liable for poor power quality. Finally, real time prices (e.g., every 15 s) and real time commands, disseminated via internet, and distributed storage might enable reduced system generation costs. Generators and FES makers would have to cooperate to make this feasible. Now, the central techno-economic challenge is to build a high-power, low-loss motor generator that reaches full power in a very short time.

  2. Multifunctional Energy Storage and Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Huang, Yang; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional energy storage and conversion devices that incorporate novel features and functions in intelligent and interactive modes, represent a radical advance in consumer products, such as wearable electronics, healthcare devices, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, smart household, and space satellites, etc. Here, smart energy devices are defined to be energy devices that are responsive to changes in configurational integrity, voltage, mechanical deformation, light, and temperature, called self-healability, electrochromism, shape memory, photodetection, and thermal responsivity. Advisable materials, device designs, and performances are crucial for the development of energy electronics endowed with these smart functions. Integrating these smart functions in energy storage and conversion devices gives rise to great challenges from the viewpoint of both understanding the fundamental mechanisms and practical implementation. Current state-of-art examples of these smart multifunctional energy devices, pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performances, are highlighted. In addition, current challenges and potential solutions from materials synthesis to device performances are discussed. Finally, some important directions in this fast developing field are considered to further expand their application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Lowering the cost of large-scale energy storage: High temperature adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cárdenas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage is an energy storage technology with strong potential to play a significant role in balancing energy on transmission networks, owing to its use of mature technologies and low cost per unit of storage capacity. Adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES systems typically compress air from ambient temperature in the charge phase and expand the air back to ambient temperature in the discharge phase. This papers explores the use of an innovative operating scheme for an A-CAES system aimed at lowering the total cost of the system for a given exergy storage capacity. The configuration proposed considers preheating of the air before compression which increases the fraction of the total exergy that is stored in the form of high-grade heat in comparison to existing designs in which the main exergy storage medium is the compressed air itself. Storing a high fraction of the total exergy as heat allows reducing the capacity of costly pressure stores in the system and replacing it with cheaper thermal energy stores. Additionally, a configuration that integrates a system based on the aforementioned concept with solar thermal power or low-medium grade waste heat is introduced and thoroughly discussed.

  4. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  5. Reluctance apparatus for flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A motor generator for providing high efficiency, controlled voltage output or storage of energy in a flywheel system. A motor generator includes a stator of a soft ferromagnetic material, a motor coil and a generator coil, and a rotor has at least one embedded soft ferromagnetic piece. Control of voltage output is achieved by use of multiple stator pieces and multiple rotors with controllable gaps between the stator pieces and the soft ferromagnetic piece.

  6. Electrochemical supercapacitors: Energy storage beyond batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Sampath, S; Vijayamohanan, K

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a new class of reversible electrochemical energy storage systems have been developed that use: (a) the capacitance associated with charging and discharging of the electrical doublelayer at the electrode–electrolyte interface and are hence called electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and (b) the pseudocapacitance with electrosorption or surface redox reactions which are referred as pseudocapacitors. While EDLCs with capacities of many tens of farads per gram of the electrode ma...

  7. Thermal management of Li-ion cells from the view of the development of energy storages for electric-powered vehicles in an overview; Thermomanagement von Li-Ionen-Zellen aus Sicht der Energiespeicher-Entwicklung fuer Elektrofahrzeuge im Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Matthias [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    As the operation of a Li-ion energy storage system in automotive applications has to be efficient, safe and reliable, the thermal management of the battery cells becomes one of the main factors influencing the success of electrified powertrains. Therefore, one of the most important system variables is the cell internal temperature, as it influences efficiency, aging and power capability of the energy storage in a major way. The challenges and potentials of thermal management for Li-ion cells are illustrated in this article. It consists on one hand of the exact thermal and electric cell state determination. On the other hand it includes the control of battery temperature during operation by active cooling and heating and its operation strategy. Therefore the active cooling system can be implemented as air-, liquid or refrigerant fluid coolant cycles. An essential tools of thermal battery-management is the modeling of cell behavior. This article gives a survey on the simulation landscape of thermal-electric co-simulation of Li-ion cells mentioned in literature. Thermal cell models spread from lumped 0D-modes to complex 3D finite element models comprising different detailing degree and computation effort. Electric battery models range from simple cell models of an ideal voltage source up to complex microscopic spatialized electrochemical models. Focus is also set on the parameterization of the different cell models. The article mentions the established approaches to achieve electrical and thermal characteristics. Subsequently, two different variations of thermal-electric simulation models comprising different simulation aims are introduced. (orig.)

  8. Energy storage and grid for electricity, gas, fuel and heat. A system-wide approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, Wolfgang A. [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kakaras, Emmanouil [Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Renewable energies are asked for more and more worldwide. Even though they cannot generate electricity 8760 h/a year. This can be accomplished by flexible conventional power stations as well as storage systems. Especially the storage systems have to be developed technical wise and especially economic wise. An example of an integrated approach is the methanol production with a coal fired power plant. An overview showing the technical features as well as the strategic opportunities of such kind of approach is given.

  9. Lipid droplet functions beyond energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Michael A; Gould, Alex P

    2017-10-01

    Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids and are critically important for energy metabolism. Their function in energy storage is firmly established and increasingly well characterized. However, emerging evidence indicates that lipid droplets also play important and diverse roles in the cellular handling of lipids and proteins that may not be directly related to energy homeostasis. Lipid handling roles of droplets include the storage of hydrophobic vitamin and signaling precursors, and the management of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress. Roles of lipid droplets in protein handling encompass functions in the maturation, storage, and turnover of cellular and viral polypeptides. Other potential roles of lipid droplets may be connected with their intracellular motility and, in some cases, their nuclear localization. This diversity highlights that lipid droplets are very adaptable organelles, performing different functions in different biological contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent Advances in Lipid Droplet Biology edited by Rosalind Coleman and Matthijs Hesselink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hierarchical architecture for flexible energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H; Ma, J; Tao, J; Zhu, S

    2017-05-25

    The introduction of hierarchy and chirality into structure is of great interest, and can result in new optical and electronic properties due to the synergistic effect of helical and anisotropic structures. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and straightforward route toward the fabrication of hierarchical chiral materials based on the assembly of two-dimensional graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) and one-dimensional cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The unique layered structure of CNC/GO could be preserved in the solid state, allowing electrode active SnO 2 to be loaded for potential applications in energy storage. The resultant SnO 2 /CNC/reduced GO (SnO 2 /CNC/rGO) composite could be processed into film, fiber, and textile with an extremely high tensile strength of 100 MPa. The free-standing SnO 2 /CNC/rGO electrodes exhibit highly improved energy storage performance, with a reversible capacity of ∼500 mA h g -1 maintained for 1500 cycles in the film and ∼800 mA h g -1 maintained for 150 cycles in the textile at a current density of 500 mA g -1 . This is attributed to the prepared hierarchical chiral structures. The presented technique provides an effective approach to producing hierarchical functional materials from nanoparticles as building blocks, which might open an avenue for the creation of new flexible energy storage devices.

  11. Short Term Energy Storage for Grid Support in Wind Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina; Diosi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to increase the power system stability and the energy quality, is to integrate energy storage devices into wind power plants. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art short-term energy storage devices and presents several applications which can be provided by the energy storage device - wind power......The penetration of wind power into the power system has been increasing in the recent years. Therefore, a lot of concerns related to the reliable operation of the power system have been addressed. An attractive solution to minimize the limitations faced by the wind power grid integration, and thus...... plant combined system. Moreover, two methods for estimating the remaining useful lifetime of the energy storage devices are presented....

  12. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiebing, K. E.; Alexandrov, V.; Dörner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Böcking, H.; Völp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-02-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut für Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  13. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  14. Application of energy storage devices in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The paper concentrates on performance benefits of adding energy storage to power electronic compensators for utility applications. The paper concerns on analysis of various energy storage devices on the basis of different parameters out of which. Superconducting magnetic energy storage technology and Super capacitor ...

  15. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  16. Nanomaterials for energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Uchaker, Evan; Candelaria, Stephanie L; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-04-07

    Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport properties, altered physical properties, and confinement effects resulting from the nanoscale dimensions, and have been extensively studied for energy-related applications such as solar cells, catalysts, thermoelectrics, lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and hydrogen storage systems. This review focuses on a few select aspects regarding these topics, demonstrating that nanostructured materials benefit these applications by (1) providing a large surface area to boost the electrochemical reaction or molecular adsorption occurring at the solid-liquid or solid-gas interface, (2) generating optical effects to improve optical absorption in solar cells, and (3) giving rise to high crystallinity and/or porous structure to facilitate the electron or ion transport and electrolyte diffusion, so as to ensure the electrochemical process occurs with high efficiency. It is emphasized that, to further enhance the capability of nanostructured materials for energy conversion and storage, new mechanisms and structures are anticipated. In addition to highlighting the obvious advantages of nanostructured materials, the limitations and challenges of nanostructured materials while being used for solar cells, lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and hydrogen storage systems have also been addressed in this review.

  17. Energy research 2004 - Overview; Recherche energetique / Energie-Forschung 2004. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme / Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2004. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning solar heating and cooling, energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  18. Centrifugal Spinning and Its Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors are important electrochemical energy storage systems. LIBs have high specific energy density, long cycle life, good thermal stability, low self-discharge, and no memory effect. However, the low abundance of Li in the Earth's crust and the rising cost of LIBs urge the attempts to develop alternative energy storage systems. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have become an attractive alternative to LIBs due to the high abundance and low cost of Na. Although the specific capacity and energy density of SIBs are not as high as LIBs, SIBs can still be promising power sources for certain applications such as large-scale, stationary grids. Supercapacitors are another important class of energy storage devices. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are one important type of supercapacitors and they exhibit high power density, long cycle life, excellent rate capability and environmental friendliness. The potential applications of supercapacitors include memory protection in electronic circuitry, consumer portable electronic devices, and electrical hybrid vehicles. The electrochemical performance of SIBs and EDLCs is largely dependent on the electrode materials. Therefore, development of superior electrodes is the key to achieve highperformance alternative energy storage systems. Recently, one-dimensional nano-/micro-fiber based electrodes have become promising candidates in energy storage because they possess a variety of desirable properties including large specific surface area, well-guided ionic/electronic transport, and good electrode-electrolyte contact, which contribute to enhanced electrochemical performance. Currently, most nano-/micro-fiber based electrodes are prepared via electrospinning method. However, the low production rate of this approach hinders its practical application in the production of fibrous electrodes. Thus, it is significantly important to employ a rapid, low-cost and scalable nano

  19. Energy Storage Systems as a Compliment to Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieling, Jared D.; Niederriter, C. F.; Berg, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    As Gustavus Adolphus College prepares to install two wind turbines on campus, we are faced with the question of what to do with the excess electricity that is generated. Since the College pays a substantial demand charge, it would seem fiscally responsible to store the energy and use it for peak shaving, instead of selling it to the power company at their avoided cost. We analyzed six currently available systems: hydrogen energy storage, flywheels, pumped hydroelectric storage, battery storage, compressed air storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, for energy and financial suitability. Potential wind turbine production is compared to consumption to determine the energy deficit or excess, which is fed into a model for each of the storage systems. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the storage systems and their suitability for energy storage and peak shaving in this situation.

  20. Pristine Metal-Organic Frameworks and their Composites for Energy Storage and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zibin; Qu, Chong; Guo, Wenhan; Zou, Ruqiang; Xu, Qiang

    2017-11-22

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a new class of crystalline porous organic-inorganic hybrid materials, have recently attracted increasing interest in the field of energy storage and conversion. Herein, recent progress of MOFs and MOF composites for energy storage and conversion applications, including photochemical and electrochemical fuel production (hydrogen production and CO 2 reduction), water oxidation, supercapacitors, and Li-based batteries (Li-ion, Li-S, and Li-O 2 batteries), is summarized. Typical development strategies (e.g., incorporation of active components, design of smart morphologies, and judicious selection of organic linkers and metal nodes) of MOFs and MOF composites for particular energy storage and conversion applications are highlighted. A broad overview of recent progress is provided, which will hopefully promote the future development of MOFs and MOF composites for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  2. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage for Seasonal Thermal Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Vahab; Bloemendal, Martin; Keviczky, Tamas

    2017-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems allow storing large quantities of thermal energy in subsurface aquifers enabling significant energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions. This is achieved by injection and extraction of water into and from saturated underground aquifers, simultaneously. An ATES system consists of two wells and operates in a seasonal mode. One well is used for the storage of cold water, the other one for the storage of heat. In warm seasons, cold water is extracted from the cold well to provide cooling to a building. The temperature of the extracted cold water increases as it passes through the building climate control systems and then gets simultaneously, injected back into the warm well. This procedure is reversed during cold seasons where the flow direction is reversed such that the warmer water is extracted from the warm well to provide heating to a building. From the perspective of building climate comfort systems, an ATES system is considered as a seasonal storage system that can be a heat source or sink, or as a storage for thermal energy. This leads to an interesting and challenging optimal control problem of the building climate comfort system that can be used to develop a seasonal-based energy management strategy. In [1] we develop a control-oriented model to predict thermal energy balance in a building climate control system integrated with ATES. Such a model however cannot cope with off-nominal but realistic situations such as when the wells are completely depleted, or the start-up phase of newly installed wells, etc., leading to direct usage of aquifer ambient temperature. Building upon our previous work in [1], we here extend the mathematical model for ATES system to handle the above mentioned more realistic situations. Using our improved models, one can more precisely predict system behavior and apply optimal control strategies to manage the building climate comfort along with energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions

  3. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  4. Low temperature thermal-energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.S.; Christian, J.E.

    1979-03-01

    This report evaluates currently available techniques and estimated costs of low temperature thermal energy storage (TES) devices applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) installations serving communities ranging in size from approximately 3000 (characterized by an electrical load requirement of 2 MWe) to about 100,000 population (characterized by an electrical load requirement of 100 MWe). Thermal energy in the form of either hotness or coldness can be stored in a variety of media as sensible heat by virtue of a change in temperature of the material, or as latent heat of fusion in which the material changes from the liquid phase to the solid phase at essentially a constant temperature. Both types of material are considered for TES in ICES applications.

  5. Thermal energy storage in granular deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratuszny, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    Energy storage technology is crucial for the development of the use of renewable energy sources. This is a substantial constraint, however it can, to some extent, be solved by storing energy in its various forms: electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal. This article presents the results of research in thermal properties of granular deposits. Correlation between temperature changes in the stores over a period of time and their physical properties has been studied. The results of the research have practical application in designing thermal stores based on bulk materials and ground deposits. Furthermore, the research results are significant for regeneration of the lower ground sources for heat pumps and provide data for designing ground heat exchangers for ventilation systems.

  6. Development of molecular electrocatalysts for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Daniel L

    2014-04-21

    Molecular electrocatalysts can play an important role in energy storage and utilization reactions needed for intermittent renewable energy sources. This manuscript describes three general themes that our laboratories have found useful in the development of molecular electrocatalysts for reduction of CO2 to CO and for H2 oxidation and production. The first theme involves a conceptual partitioning of catalysts into first, second, and outer coordination spheres. This is illustrated with the design of electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction to CO using first and second coordination spheres and for H2 production catalysts using all three coordination spheres. The second theme focuses on the development of thermodynamic models that can be used to design catalysts to avoid high- and low-energy intermediates. In this research, new approaches to the measurement of thermodynamic hydride donor and acceptor abilities of transition-metal complexes were developed. Combining this information with other thermodynamic information such as pKa values and redox potentials led to more complete thermodynamic descriptions of transition-metal hydride, dihydride, and related species. Relationships extracted from this information were then used to develop models that are powerful tools for predicting and understanding the relative free energies of intermediates in catalytic reactions. The third theme is control of proton movement during electrochemical fuel generation and utilization reactions. This research involves the incorporation of pendant amines in the second coordination sphere that can facilitate H-H bond heterolysis and heteroformation, intra- and intermolecular proton-transfer steps, and coupling of proton- and electron-transfer steps. Studies also indicate an important role for the outer coordination sphere in the delivery of protons to the second coordination sphere. Understanding these proton-transfer reactions and their associated energy barriers is key to the design of faster and

  7. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  8. Thermal energy storage technologies for sustainability systems design, assessment and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaiselvam, S

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage Technologies for Sustainability is a broad-based overview describing the state-of-the-art in latent, sensible, and thermo-chemical energy storage systems and their applications across industries. Beginning with a discussion of the efficiency and conservation advantages of balancing energy demand with production, the book goes on to describe current state-of-the art technologies. Not stopping with description, the authors also discuss design, modeling, and simulation of representative systems, and end with several case studies of systems in use.Describes how thermal energ

  9. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  10. Flywheel Energy Storage for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of flywheel energy storage technology was made, with a special focus on the progress in automotive applications. We found that there are at least 26 university research groups and 27 companies contributing to flywheel technology development. Flywheels are seen to excel in high-power applications, placing them closer in functionality to supercapacitors than to batteries. Examples of flywheels optimized for vehicular applications were found with a specific power of 5.5 kW/kg and a specific energy of 3.5 Wh/kg. Another flywheel system had 3.15 kW/kg and 6.4 Wh/kg, which can be compared to a state-of-the-art supercapacitor vehicular system with 1.7 kW/kg and 2.3 Wh/kg, respectively. Flywheel energy storage is reaching maturity, with 500 flywheel power buffer systems being deployed for London buses (resulting in fuel savings of over 20%, 400 flywheels in operation for grid frequency regulation and many hundreds more installed for uninterruptible power supply (UPS applications. The industry estimates the mass-production cost of a specific consumer-car flywheel system to be 2000 USD. For regular cars, this system has been shown to save 35% fuel in the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP drive cycle.

  11. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  12. Research on the Orientation and Application of Distributed Energy Storage in Energy Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Ran; Zhou, Jingjing; Chen, Tao; Li, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage is indispensable resources to achieve a high proportion of new energy power consumption in electric power system. As an important support to energy Internet, energy storage system can achieve a variety of energy integration operation to ensure maximum energy efficiency. In this paper, firstly, the SWOT analysis method is used to express the internal and external advantages and disadvantages of distributed energy storage participating in the energy Internet. Secondly, the function orientation of distributed energy storage in energy Internet is studied, based on which the application modes of distributed energy storage in virtual power plant, community energy storage and auxiliary services are deeply studied. Finally, this paper puts forward the development strategy of distributed energy storage which is suitable for the development of China’s energy Internet, and summarizes and prospects the application of distributed energy storage system.

  13. Exergy efficient production, storage and distribution of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandnes, Bjoernar

    2003-07-01

    method of energy monitoring of such systems based on a limited number of measured parameters, where the heat store is seen as a calorimeter, and where recognizable temperature patters forms the basis of the analysis. A multi-apartment building in Oslo that amongst a large number of other ecological features, has a heating system based on a solar combisystem and a low temperature heat distribution system has been used for an analysis of the energy system based on the first nine months of operation. A chapter introduces thermal energy storage in supercooled liquids, and aims to identify and give an overview over the most important issues since this concept is relatively unexplored. Possible methods of triggering crystallization in controlled manner are reviewed. For sodium acetate and probably most salt hydrates, the only option seems to be by seeding; either from an external source or by a trigger mechanism that retains seed crystals at high pressure during the charging process. The storage of heat as a function of the level of supercooling is investigated in detail for three salt hydrates. A method for inducing crystallization that actually works is demonstrated by the widely available heat packs where the crystallization of a supercooled sodium acetate solution is triggered by flexing a metallic disc and the working mechanism is studied. Some possible directions for future work are discussed.

  14. Investigation of a working fluid for cryogenic energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszak, P.; Poliński, J.; Chorowski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cryogenic energy storage (CES) systems are promising alternatives to existing electrical energy storage technologies such as a pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). In CES systems, excess electrical energy is used to liquefy a cryogenic fluid. The liquid can be stored in large cryogenic tanks for a long time. When a demand for the electricity is high, the liquid cryogen is pumped to high pressure and then warmed in a heat exchanger using ambient temperature or an available waste heat source. The vaporized cryogen is then used to drive a turbine and generate the electricity. Most research on cryogenic energy storage focuses on liquid air energy storage, as atmospheric air is widely available and therefore it does not limit a location of the energy storage plant. Nevertheless, CES with other gases as the working fluids can exhibit a higher efficiency. In this research a performance analysis of simple CES systems with several working fluids was performed.

  15. bank as an energy storage device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES are not the backbone of the Polish electricity generation sector. Even though the use of such resources is beneficial in terms of, e.g., CO2 emissions, current policy seems to create more and more obstacles hindering their further development on an industrial scale. The present paper proposes a simulation model of a hybrid micro power source coupled with a battery bank supplying a small group of households with an annual energy demand of 30 MWh. Results indicate that, for the selected site, a power source consisting of a wind turbine – 8kW, photovoltaic array – 9kW, water turbine – 2kW and 256 kWh energy storage capacity of a battery bank can be a reliable energy source. However, due to the intermittent nature of the selected energy sources there is still a need to remain on-grid in order to avoid excessive energy surpluses (in the case of an oversized system and deficits. This work opens several interesting directions for future studies, which will be discussed in later sections.

  16. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2004-06-21

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy had maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Azerbaijan.

  17. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  18. An Overview of the Progress in Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Bruce

    1983-01-01

    Provides an overview of advances made in the field of photoelectrochemistry. Includes a short historical account of the development of the field, a review of the state-of-the-art of photoelectrochemical energy conversion and future prospects. (JN)

  19. Concrete thermal energy storage for steam generation: A numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Establishing enhancement methods to develop cost-effective thermal energy storage technology requires a detailed analysis. In this paper, a numerical investigation of the concrete based thermal energy storage system is carried out. The storage system consists of a heat transfer fluid flowing insi...

  20. Development of fuel and energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development of fuel cell power plants is intended of high-efficiency power generation using such fuels with less air pollution as natural gas, methanol and coal gas. The closest to commercialization is phosphoric acid fuel cells, and the high in efficiency and rich in fuel diversity is molten carbonate fuel cells. The development is intended to cover a wide scope from solid electrolyte fuel cells to solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. For new battery power storage systems, development is focused on discrete battery energy storage technologies of fixed type and mobile type (such as electric vehicles). The ceramic gas turbine technology development is purposed for improving thermal efficiency and reducing pollutants. Small-scale gas turbines for cogeneration will also be developed. Development of superconduction power application technologies is intended to serve for efficient and stable power supply by dealing with capacity increase and increase in power distribution distance due to increase in power demand. In the operations to improve the spread and general promotion systems for electric vehicles, load leveling is expected by utilizing and storing nighttime electric power. Descriptions are given also on economical city systems which utilize wide-area energy. 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. An Educator's Introduction to Energy Concepts: Overview Packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This publication provides a broad overview of energy and related issues for teachers and others who want to improve their understanding of these issues. Included in this publication are discussions of: (1) elementary physics related to energy; (2) energy sources, including topics such as renewable and non-renewable resources and fossil fuels; (3)…

  2. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  3. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  4. Hot Thermal Storage in a Variable Power, Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    commercially proven and available energy collection, conversion , and storage systems and equipment. Chapter IV presents a method for innovative integration of...molten salt. On a grid scale, off-peak electricity, converted by ohmic heating, and thermal energy from a concentrated solar power ( CSP ) plant...renewable generation system with heat storage. It reviews the available energy sources as well as methods for energy conversion and storage. A

  5. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  6. Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  7. Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittingham, M. Stanley [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The chemical reactions that occur in batteries are complex, spanning a wide range of time and length scales from atomic jumps to the entire battery structure. The NECCES team of experimentalists and theorists made use of, and developed new methodologies to determine how model compound electrodes function in real time, as batteries are cycled. The team determined that kinetic control of intercalation reactions (reactions in which the crystalline structure is maintained) can be achieved by control of the materials morphology and explains and allows for the high rates of many intercalation reactions where the fundamental properties might indicate poor behavior in a battery application. The small overvoltage required for kinetic control is technically effective and economically feasible. A wide range of state-of-the-art operando techniques was developed to study materials under realistic battery conditions, which are now available to the scientific community. The team also investigated the key reaction steps in conversion electrodes, where the crystal structure is destroyed on reaction with lithium and rebuilt on lithium removal. These so-called conversion reactions have in principle much higher capacities, but were found to form very reactive discharge products that reduce the overall energy efficiency on cycling. It was found that by mixing either the anion, as in FeOF, or the cation, as in Cu1-yFeyF2, the capacity on cycling could be improved. The fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring in electrode materials gained in this study will allow for the development of much improved battery systems for energy storage. This will benefit the public in longer lived electronics, higher electric vehicle ranges at lower costs, and improved grid storage that also enables renewable energy supplies such as wind and solar.

  8. Distributed coordination of energy storage with distributed generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    With a growing emphasis on energy efficiency and system flexibility, a great effort has been made recently in developing distributed energy resources (DER), including distributed generators and energy storage systems. This paper first formulates an optimal DER coordination problem considering

  9. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  10. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  11. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.; Shinton, Yvonne D.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  12. Clean energy storage technology in the making: An innovation systems perspective on flywheel energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, Samuel; Hansen, Erik G

    2017-09-20

    The emergence and diffusion of green and sustainable technologies is full of obstacles and has therefore become an important area of research. We are interested in further understanding the dynamics between entrepreneurial experimentation, market formation, and institutional contexts, together playing a decisive role for successful diffusion of such technologies. Accordingly, we study these processes by adopting a technological innovation system perspective focusing on actors, networks, and institutions as well as the functions provided by them. Using a qualitative case study research design, we focus on the high-speed flywheel energy storage technology. As flywheels are based on a rotating mass allowing short-term storage of energy in kinetic form, they represent an environmentally-friendly alternative to electrochemical batteries and therefore can play an important role in sustainable energy transitions. Our contribution is threefold: First, regarding the flywheel energy storage technology, our findings reveal two subsystems and related markets in which development took different courses. In the automotive sector, flywheels are developing well as a braking energy recovery technology under the influence of two motors of innovation. In the electricity sector, they are stagnating at the stage of demonstration projects because of two important system weaknesses that counteract demand for storage. Second, we contribute to the theory of technological innovation systems by better understanding the internal dynamics between different functions of an innovation system as well as between the innovation system and its (external) contextual structures. Our third contribution is methodological. According to our best knowledge, we are the first to use system dynamics to (qualitatively) analyze and visualize dynamics between the diverse functions of innovation systems with the aim of enabling a better understanding of complex and iterative system processes. The paper also

  13. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  14. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage...... was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage......-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two...

  15. NASICON-Structured Materials for Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zelang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Ji, Xiulei; Chen, Wen

    2017-05-01

    The demand for electrical energy storage (EES) is ever increasing, which calls for better batteries. NASICON-structured materials represent a family of important electrodes due to its superior ionic conductivity and stable structures. A wide range of materials have been considered, where both vanadium-based and titanium-based materials are recommended as being of great interest. NASICON-structured materials are suitable for both the cathode and the anode, where the operation potential can be easily tuned by the choice of transition metal and/or polyanion group in the structure. NASICON-structured materials also represent a class of solid electrolytes, which are widely employed in all-solid-state ion batteries, all-solid-state air batteries, and hybrid batteries. NASICON-structured materials are reviewed with a focus on both electrode materials and solid-state electrolytes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  17. Thermal performance and heat transport in aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.; Doornenbal, P.J.; Drijver, B.C.; Gaans, van P.F.M.; Leusbrock, I.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is used for seasonal storage of large quantities of thermal energy. Due to the increasing demand for sustainable energy, the number of ATES systems has increased rapidly, which has raised questions on the effect of ATES systems on their surroundings as well as

  18. Energy Balance: An Overview With Emphasis on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Charmaine S; Ravussin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem, affecting one in five children in the United States. At the crux of this issue is a dysregulation of energy intake and energy expenditure. This review will provide an overview on energy and nutrient balance. We discuss energy balance studies in children using indirect and direct measures, and focus particularly on obesity as a deleterious consequence in childhood survivors of cancer. Obesity affects 11–57% of children with acute lympho...

  19. A New Modular Multilevel Converter with Integrated Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new modular converter with integrated energy storage based on the cascaded half-bridge modular multilevel converter with common DC bus. It represents a complete modular solution with power electronics and energy storage building blocks, for medium and high voltage...... in the future HVDC meshed grids. Its functionality and flexibility makes the converter independent on the energy storage unit characteristic. The converter concept with its basic functions and control schemes are described and evaluated in this paper....

  20. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  1. Renewable Energy and Storage Implementation in Naval Station Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    like zinc -bromine. NaS provides an appropriate baseline to compare chemical batteries against non-chemical storage systems. 19 b. Liquid Air Energy...maximum 200 words) The purpose of this project is to examine the feasibility and cost effectiveness of liquid air energy storage and microgrid...The purpose of this project is to examine the feasibility and cost effectiveness of liquid air energy storage and microgrid options to meet power

  2. Stationary battery storage of energy transition a central component; Stationaere Batteriespeicher der Energiewende eine zentrale Komponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Matthias; Lux, Stephan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    In a regenerative energy system with strong fluctuations in electricity production, the importance of short-term storage is increasing - on the one hand, in order to optimal need-oriented use of the energy supply, on the other hand, at any time to ensure a high network quality. The present overview of stationary battery storage shows how important it will be especially in the area of larger storage facilities with direct link to regenerative power plants, as a district storage or in the industry. [German] In einem regenerativen Energiesystem mit starken Fluktuationen der Stromproduktion nimmt die Bedeutung der Kurzzeitspeicherung zu - einerseits, um das Energieangebot bedarfsgerecht optimal zu nutzen, andererseits, um zu jedem Zeitpunkt eine hohe Netzqualitaet zu gewaehrleisten. Der vorliegende Ueberblick ueber stationaere Batteriespeicher zeigt, wie wichtig vor allem der Bereich groesserer Speicher in direkter Koppelung mit regenerativen Kraftwerken, als Quartiersspeicher oder im Gewerbe sein wird.

  3. A brief overview of our energy challenge(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    I provide an overview of the current world-wide energy generation and use, and discuss the challenge of meeting the expectations of rising standards of living in the developing world, as well as the challenge posed by ongoing climate change. I focus in particular on the possible evolution of energy systems in response to these challenges.

  4. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  5. Financial overview of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hurter, A. P.; Lerner, E.; Breen, W.; Baum, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A case analysis of alternative ICES concepts applied to a major metropolitan development complex is documented. The intent of this study is twofold: (1) to develop a framework for comparing ICES technologies to conventional energy supply systems and (2) to identify potential problems in the commercialization of new systems approaches to energy conservation. In brief, the ICES Program of the ERDA Office of Energy Conservation is intended to identify the opportunities for energy conservation in the community context through analysis, development, and/or demonstration of: location and design of buildings, building complexes, and infrastructure links; engineering and systems design of existing, emerging, and advanced energy production and delivery technologies and systems; regulatory designs for public planning, administration, and regulation of energy-conserving community development and energy services; and financial planning for energy-conserving community development and energy supply systems.

  6. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  7. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  8. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  9. Energy overview of Botswana: generation and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ofetotse, E. L.; Essah, Emmanuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has a basic need to explore its energy concept, this being its energy sources, generation and percentage of the population with access to electricity. At present, Botswana generates electricity from coal, which supplies about 29% (on average) of the country’s demand. The other 71% is imported mainly from South Africa (Eskom). Consequently, the dependence of Botswana on imports posses threats to the security of its energy supply. As a result, there is the need to understand the bases ...

  10. Energy Storage System Scheduling in Wind-Diesel Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    This thesis proposes a knowledge based expert system tool that can be used as an online controller for the charging/discharging of an energy storage system in a wind-diesel microgrid. The wind-diesel microgrid is modelled, and a typical energy storage system is implemented to test the functionality of the controller using hourly-discrete power values. The results are compared against an offline optimization that was provided 24-hour lookahead wind values, as well as a controller that was implemented using artificial neural networks. The knowledge based expert system is then used to analyze the cost of energy, by means of a parametric analysis, consisting of varying the wind penetration, energy storage system power rating and energy rating to determine for which wind penetration values a storage system implementation would be technically and economically viable. Different storage technologies are tested in a one-year time frame to determine which would be best suited for this particular application. The energy storage systems are implemented as single-layer and dual-layer, in which the knowledge based expert system is modified for the latter analysis, in order to determine whether or not there are advantages to having a dual-layer storage system. Throughout these analyses, the flexibility of the knowledge based expert system controller to various energy storage systems and microgrid models is verified. It also demonstrates that, in a context of high base generation costs, energy storage can be a viable solution to managing wind power variations.

  11. Overview of the IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO{sub 2} monitoring and storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourits, Frank [Natural Resources Canada (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation it is explained what the Weyburn-Midale project consists of; it is also spoken on the operation for the enhanced oil recovery of Encana Weyburn and Apache Midale Commercial; an overview and results are given of phase I (2000-2004) of the Weyburn project of monitoring and CO{sub 2} storage of greenhouse effect gases of the International Energy Agency; Characteristics and statistics of operation of the oil fields Weyburn and Midale, and how is it that with CO{sub 2} and recycled water the oil is recovered?. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se explica en que consiste el proyecto Weyburn-Midale; se habla tambien sobre la operacion para la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo de Encana Weyburn y Apache Midale Commercial; se da una vision general y resultados de la fase I (2000-2004) del proyecto Weyburn de monitoreo y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} gases de efecto invernadero de la Agencia Internacional de Energia; Caracteristicas y estadisticas de operacion de los yacimientos petroliferos Weyburn y Midale, y como es que con el CO{sub 2} y agua reciclada se recupera el petroleo?.

  12. Nuclear symmetry energy: An experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The nuclear symmetry energy is a fundamental quantity important for study- ing the structure of systems as diverse as the atomic nucleus and the neutron star. Con- siderable efforts are being made to experimentally extract the symmetry energy and its dependence on nuclear density and temperature. In this article ...

  13. Nuclear symmetry energy: An experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nuclear symmetry energy is a fundamental quantity important for studying the structure of systems as diverse as the atomic nucleus and the neutron star. Considerable efforts are being made to experimentally extract the symmetry energy and its dependence on nuclear density and temperature. In this article, the ...

  14. Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

  15. Residential energy usage comparison project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides an overveiw of the residential energy usage comparison project, an integrated load and market research project sponsored by EPRI and the Southern California Edison Company. Traditional studies of the relative energy consumption of electric and gas household appliances have relied on laboratory analyses and computer simulations. This project was designed to study the appliance energy consumption patterns of actual households. Ninety-two households in Orange County, California, southeast of Los Angeles, served as the study sample. Half of the households received new electric space-conditioning, water-heating, cooking, and clothes-drying equipment; the other half received gas equipment. The electric space-conditioning and water-heating appliances were heat pump technologies. All of the appliances were metered to collect load-shape and energy consumption data. The households were also surveyed periodically to obtain information on their energy needs and their acceptance of the appliances. The metered energy consumption data provide an important benchmark for comparing the energy consumption and costs of alternative end-use technologies. The customer research results provide new insights into customer preferences for fuel and appliance types. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. MRI device – alternative for electrical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molokáč, Š.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically difficult process. Such a process is marked by the energy losses, as the conversion of electrical energy into another form, is most frequently for example mechanical, and then back to the primary electrical form. Though, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the application of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, there is possibility of using such devices for energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological.

  17. Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    , these works assume flat, highly simplified network models, which overlook the physical connectivity. This work proposes an optimal power flow solution that considers the entire system: the storage device limits, voltages limits, currents limits, and power limits. The power network may be arbitrarily complex......Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However...

  18. Metal sulfide electrodes and energy storage devices thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Woodford, William Henry; Li, Zheng; Carter, W. Craig

    2017-02-28

    The present invention generally relates to energy storage devices, and to metal sulfide energy storage devices in particular. Some aspects of the invention relate to energy storage devices comprising at least one flowable electrode, wherein the flowable electrode comprises an electroactive metal sulfide material suspended and/or dissolved in a carrier fluid. In some embodiments, the flowable electrode further comprises a plurality of electronically conductive particles suspended and/or dissolved in the carrier fluid, wherein the electronically conductive particles form a percolating conductive network. An energy storage device comprising a flowable electrode comprising a metal sulfide electroactive material and a percolating conductive network may advantageously exhibit, upon reversible cycling, higher energy densities and specific capacities than conventional energy storage devices.

  19. Overview of Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    An important opportunity exists for the energy future of Wyoming that will • Maintain its coal industry • Add substantive value to its indigenous coal and natural gas resources • Improve dramatically the environmental impact of its energy production capability • Increase its Gross Domestic Product These can be achieved through development of a carbon conversion industry that transforms coal and natural gas to synthetic transportation fuels, chemical feedstocks, and chemicals that are the building blocks for the chemical industry. Over the longer term, environmentally clean nuclear energy can provide the substantial energy needs of a carbon conversion industry and be part of the mix of replacement technologies for the current fleet of aging coal-fired electric power generating stations.

  20. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  1. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen, E-mail: hamzaoui-ihssen2000@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria); Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Khemis Miliana, Ain Defla (Algeria); Bouchafaa, Farid, E-mail: fbouchafa@gmail.com [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  2. AOARD Overview Power and Energy Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Innovative energy transfer processes such as - energy harvesting from waste heat, - thermoelectric co- generation and - bio-inspired concepts  Modeling...Applications PROBLEM: SOA thermoelectric materials used for refrigeration and power generation has limitations, • ZT < 1; Useful temp range: • Bi2Te3 T...Sciences and Modeling  Dr Dave Atkinson Mathematics & Information Sciences  Dr Tom Erstfeld Taiwan Nanoscience, Chemistry & Munitions  Dr Hiroshi Motoda

  3. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of

  4. Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

  5. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. The Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Optoelectric Conversion and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies on carbon nanotube (CNT fibers for weavable device of optoelectric conversion and energy storage. The intrinsic properties of individual CNTs make the CNT fibers ideal candidates for optoelectric conversion and energy storage. Many potential applications such as solar cell, supercapacitor, and lithium ion battery have been envisaged. The recent advancement in CNT fibers for optoelectric conversion and energy storage and the current challenge including low energy conversion efficiency and low stability and future direction of the energy fiber have been finally summarized in this paper.

  7. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Advanced Energy Storage Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of high specific energy devices will enable NASA’s future robotic and human-exploration missions.  The need for advances in energy storage...

  8. Electrical Energy Storage for the Grid: A Battery of Choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce Dunn; Haresh Kamath; Jean-Marie Tarascon

    2011-01-01

    ..., and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained...

  9. Operation of NRL Homopolar Generator into Parallel Energy Storage Inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    brushes on each flywheel are connected to separate collectors which are in turn attached to the busbars leading to the energy storage coil. 1.4mH...exciter coil into two coils which can be parted to connect the energy storage coil busbars to the HPG and extension of the center conductor to connect

  10. Application of energy storage units in an interconnected hydro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the application of energy storage units in an interconnected two area hydropower system. The proposed work consist of two area interconnected hydro power system with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage units has been designed to improve the dynamic performance of the system and also ...

  11. Thermal Energy Storage technical progress report, April 1984-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the development of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) technology under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Thermal Energy Storage Program for the period April 1984-March 1985 is reported. The program goals and project structure are presented. Each of the areas of TES research active in the program is discussed, and a discussion of technology efforts is included.

  12. Summary of selected compressed air energy storage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive summarily of research and development in compressed air energy storage technology is presented. Research funded primarily by the Department of Energy is described. Results of studies by other groups and experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany are included. Feasibility studies performed by General Electric are summarized. The feasibility of air storage in dissolved salt cavities is also demonstrated. (BCS)

  13. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2015-01-27

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  14. 4th international renewable energy storage conference (IRES 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 4th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference of The European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and The World Council for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 24th and 25 November, 2009, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The World Wind Energy Association (A. Kane); (2) The contribution of wind power to the energy supply of tomorrow (H. Albers); (3) Intelligent energy systems for the integration of renewable energies (A.-C. Agricola); (4) 100% Renewable energies: From fossil baseload plants to renewable plants for basic supply (M. Willenbacher); (5) High-performance Li-ion technology for stationary and mobile applications (A. Gutsch); (6) Energy storage in geological underground - Competition of use at storage formations (L. Dietrich); (7) E-mobility concepts for model region ''Rhein-Ruhr'' in North Rhine Westphalia (G.-U. Funk); (8) Photovoltaic energy storage for a better energy management in residential buildings (S. Pincemin); (9) Self-consuming photovoltaic energy in Germany - Impact on energy flows, business cases, and the distribution grid (M. Braun); (10) Local energy systems -optimized for local consumption of self-produced electricity (B. Wille-Haussmann); (11) Assessing the economics of distributed storage systems at the end consumer level (K.-H. Ahlert); (12) A new transportation system for heat on a wide temperature range (S. Gschwander); (13) Latent heat storage media for cooling applications (C. Doetsch); (14) Numerical and experimental analysis of latent heat storage systems for mobile application (F. Roesler); (15) CO{sub 2}-free heat supply from waste heat (H.-W. Etzkorn); (16) Stationary Li-Ion-technology applications for dispatchable power (C. Kolligs); (17) Redox-flow batteries - Electric storage systems for renewable energy (T. Smolinka); (18) Energy storage by means of flywheels (H. Kielsein); (19

  15. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  16. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; King, Daniel J [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  17. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  18. Porous One-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Design, Fabrication and Applications in Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiulong; Xiong, Fangyu; Tan, Shuangshuang; Huang, Lei; Lan, Esther H; Dunn, Bruce; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage technology is of critical importance for portable electronics, transportation and large-scale energy storage systems. There is a growing demand for energy storage devices with high energy and high power densities, long-term stability, safety and low cost. To achieve these requirements, novel design structures and high performance electrode materials are needed. Porous 1D nanomaterials which combine the advantages of 1D nanoarchitectures and porous structures have had a significant impact in the field of electrochemical energy storage. This review presents an overview of porous 1D nanostructure research, from the synthesis by bottom-up and top-down approaches with rational and controllable structures, to several important electrochemical energy storage applications including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-oxygen batteries and supercapacitors. Highlights of porous 1D nanostructures are described throughout the review and directions for future research in the field are discussed at the end. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Overview of literature on nuclear energy; Literaturuebersicht Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P.; Schmid, M. [B.S.S. Volkswirtschaftliche Beratung AG, Basel (Switzerland); Marti, M. [Risicare GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) attempts to deliver an objective review of various topics connected with nuclear energy. These include the risks posed by the use of nuclear energy, its relevance to the environment, social acceptance, ethical aspects and effects on health. Ten controversial topics are discussed concerning the use of nuclear energy and its acceptance or non-acceptance. The study concentrates on safety, accident and risk analysis, environmental relevance with respect to climate protection and nuclear wastes. Comparisons are made with other forms of energy generation. The methods used to compile the overview are discussed

  20. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview, Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, P.

    2001-03-02

    This ''annual report'' details the FY 2000 achievements of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Program in the categories of Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. Highlights include development of a record-breaking concentrator solar cell that is 32.4% efficient; fabrication of a record CIGS (copper indium gallium diselenide) cell at 18.8% efficiency; sharing an R and D 100 award with Siemens Solar Industries and the California Energy Commission for development and deployment of commercial CIS thin-film modules; and support for the efforts of the PV Industry Roadmap Workshop.

  1. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang was filled with a hot and dense phase of matter. We believe that quarks and gluons at those temperatures, above. 1012 K, were deconfined and existed as a quark gluon plasma (QGP). These ideas can be tested in collisions of nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies.

  2. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  3. 78 FR 9687 - Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Prineville Energy Storage, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Matthew Shapiro, Chief Executive Officer, Prineville Energy Storage, LLC...

  4. Wind Energy Program overview, Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    Wind energy research has two goals: (1) to gain a fundamental understanding of the interactions between wind and wind turbines; and (2) to develop the basic design tools required to develop advanced technologies. A primary objective of applied research activities is to develop sophisticated computer codes and integrate them into the design, testing, and evaluation of advanced components and systems, Computer models have become a necessary and integral part of developing new high-tech wind energy systems. A computer-based design strategy allows designers to model different configurations and explore new designs before building expensive hardware. DOE works closely with utilities and the wind industry in setting its applied research agenda. As soon as research findings become available, the national laboratories transfer the information to industry through workshops, conferences, and publications.

  5. Energy, Power and Thermal Research Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Watt power generation • Magnetic materials • Thermoelectric power generation • Mega-Watt power generation ‒ Superconducting and conventional...FeCo) • Multilayered structures for thermoelectric power generation ‒ Oxide materials ‒ Promote phonon scattering to inhibit thermal flow and increase...and space force. 4 AFRL’s Core Areas of Expertise Space Vehicles Materials Directed Energy Munitions Propulsion Human Effectiveness Information

  6. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  7. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  8. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  9. Second law optimization of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system with a distributed storage element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.J.

    1986-07-01

    This numerical study defined the behavior of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system whose physical design and operation had been optimized to minimize the production of thermodynamic irreversibilities. It included the effects of transient conduction within the storage material. A dimensionless set of governing equations was defined for a complete storage-removal cycle that included the effects of entropy generation due to convection and viscous effects in the flowing fluid, two-dimensional transient conduction within the storage material, and to convection due to the discharged hot fluid coming to equilibrium with the environment during the storage period. A computer program was written to solve this equation set and this program was in turn controlled by a sophisticated optimization routine to determine a dimensionless storage time, flow channel half-height, and heat transfer coefficient that resulted in a minimum amount of availability destruction. The results of this analysis showed that entropy generation within the storage material due to transient conduction was a major contributor to the total thermal irreversibilities associated with the operation of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system. For the counterflow configuration and over the range of design variables examined, material entropy generation accounted for between 26% and 60% of the total thermal availability destruction that occurred during a complete storage-removal cycle. It was also shown that the storage material aspect ratio had a significant impact on the optimum design of a storage system. Its influence was second only to the fluid mass velocity.

  10. Hydrogen as energy-storage-medium and fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Töpler Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This contribution addresses the future energy situation with the expected reduction of fossil primary energy supply and increasing market segments by renewable energies within the next decades. The potential of renewable energies to cover the energy demand is described as well as the necessity of energy storage systems (especially hydrogen) to compensate the fluctuations of primary energy sources. Furthermore the increasing use of renewable vehicle fuels is investigated with special focus on ...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  12. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  13. Overview of Nuclear Energy: Present and Projected Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Stanculescu

    2011-09-01

    Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.

  14. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  15. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A.F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  16. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  17. Study of Photovoltaic Energy Storage by Supercapacitors through Both Experimental and Modelling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Olivier Logerais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of photovoltaic energy by supercapacitors is studied by using two approaches. An overview on the integration of supercapacitors in solar energy conversion systems is previously provided. First, a realized experimental setup of charge/discharge of supercapacitors fed by a photovoltaic array has been operated with fine data acquisition. The second approach consists in simulating photovoltaic energy storage by supercapacitors with a faithful and accessible model composed of solar irradiance evaluation, equivalent electrical circuit for photovoltaic conversion, and a multibranch circuit for supercapacitor. Both the experimental and calculated results are confronted, and an error of 1% on the stored energy is found with a correction largely within ±10% of the transmission line capacitance according to temperature.

  18. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  19. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  20. Energy Storage System with Voltage Equalization Strategy for Wind Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an energy storage system with voltage equalization strategy for wind energy conversion is presented. The proposed energy storage system provides a voltage equalization strategy for series-connected lead-acid batteries to increase their total storage capacity and lifecycle. In order to draw the maximum power from the wind energy, a perturbation-and-observation method and digital signal processor (DSP are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In the proposed energy storage system, all power switches have zero-voltage-switching (ZVS feature at turn-on transition. Therefore, the conversion efficiency can be increased. Finally, a prototype energy storage system for wind energy conversion is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed energy storage system for wind energy conversion.

  1. Characterization of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihuan

    Solar energy is receiving a lot of attentions at present since it is a kind of clean, renewable and sustainable energy. A major limitation however is that it is available for only about 2,000 hours a year in many places. One way to improve this situation is to use thermal energy storage (TES) system for the off hours. A novel method to store solar energy for large scale energy usage is using high melting temperature encapsulated phase change materials (EPCMs). The present work is a study of thermal energy storage systems with phase change materials (PCMs). It is hoped that this work is to help understand the storage capability and heat transfer processes in the EPCM capsules in order to help design large EPCM based thermoclines. A calorimeter system was built to test the energy stored in EPCM capsules and examine the storage capabilities and potential for storage deterioration in EPCM capsules to determine the types of EPCMs suitable for TES. To accomplish this, the heat transfer performances of the EPCMs are studied in detail. Factors which could affect the heat transfer performance including the properties of materials, the sizes of capsules, the types of heat transfer fluids, the gravity effect of solid PCM, the buoyancy-driven convection in the molten PCM, void space inside the capsule are given attention. Understanding these characteristics for heat transfer process could help build the EPCM based thermoclines to make energy storage economical for solar energy and other applications.

  2. Economic Operation of Supercritical CO2 Refrigeration Energy Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ryan

    With increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy resources, improved methods of energy storage are becoming a crucial stepping stone in the path toward a smarter, greener grid. SuperCritical Technologies is a company based in Bremerton, WA that is developing a storage technology that can operate entirely on waste heat, a resource that is otherwise dispelled into the environment. The following research models this storage technology in several electricity spot markets around the US to determine if it is economically viable. A modification to the storage dispatch scheme is then presented which allows the storage unit to increase its profit in real-time markets by taking advantage of extreme price fluctuations. Next, the technology is modeled in combination with an industrial load profile on two different utility rate schedules to determine potential cost savings. The forecast of facility load has a significant impact on savings from the storage dispatch, so an exploration into this relationship is then presented.

  3. Utility-controlled customer-side thermal-energy-storage tests: heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizy, D.T.

    1982-02-01

    Customer-side thermal energy storage has been identified as a load-management option available to the electric utility industry. The tests described here are part of the US DOE national program for the research, development, and demonstration of electric load management using utility-controlled customer-side thermal energy storage for residential load management. Five heat storage tests are described in order to: collect reliable load-research data; delineate and solve installation problems; establish maintainability; determine customer and utility acceptance; and generate cost data to determine the potential of utility-controlled customer-side storage as a load-management option. The results are expected to assist the utility industry in making local load-management decisions and to assist DOE in establishing research and development priorities in load management. The utilities tested four types of heat storage systems: central ceramic brick; concrete slab; heat pump with storage; and pressurized hot water storage. Results of installing and operating the storage systems indicate that these residential heat storage systems are not fully commercial in their present state for use as a load-management option and the technology requires further development. Also, the numerous operational problems experienced by the utilities and high costs of installing and maintaining the storage equipment resulted in poor acceptance of the technology by the utilities and customers.

  4. Separation of Power and Capacity In latent Heat Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pointner, H.; Steinmann, W.D.; van Eck, M.; Bachelier, C.

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art latent heat energy storage system is equipped with aluminum fins at the heat exchanger pipes in order to compensate the low thermal conductivity of the phase change material (PCM). The necessary amount of fins is directly coupled to the capacity of the storage system, what makes larger systems expensive. The PCMflux concept is developed in order to realize both a controllable and a possibly more cost effectivelatent heat storage system. These aims are addressed by separat...

  5. Hybrid energy storage: the merging of battery and supercapacitor chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, D P; Ayyad, O; Ruiz, V; Gómez-Romero, P

    2015-04-07

    The hybrid approach allows for a reinforcing combination of properties of dissimilar components in synergic combinations. From hybrid materials to hybrid devices the approach offers opportunities to tackle much needed improvements in the performance of energy storage devices. This paper reviews the different approaches and scales of hybrids, materials, electrodes and devices striving to advance along the diagonal of Ragone plots, providing enhanced energy and power densities by combining battery and supercapacitor materials and storage mechanisms. Furthermore, some theoretical aspects are considered regarding the possible hybrid combinations and tactics for the fabrication of optimized final devices. All of it aiming at enhancing the electrochemical performance of energy storage systems.

  6. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials. These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples.

  7. Thermal Energy Storage for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R

    2000-12-31

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

  8. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  9. Paper‐Based Electrodes for Flexible Energy Storage Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Kou, Tianyi; Song, Yu; Liu, Tianyu

    2017-01-01

    Paper‐based materials are emerging as a new category of advanced electrodes for flexible energy storage devices, including supercapacitors, Li‐ion batteries, Li‐S batteries, Li‐oxygen batteries. This review summarizes recent advances in the synthesis of paper‐based electrodes, including paper‐supported electrodes and paper‐like electrodes. Their structural features, electrochemical performances and implementation as electrodes for flexible energy storage devices including supercapacitors and batteries are highlighted and compared. Finally, we also discuss the challenges and opportunity of paper‐based electrodes and energy storage devices. PMID:28725532

  10. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented......, and the comparison of the system efficiencies highlights the improvement of the proposed control method....

  11. Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce; Kamath, Haresh; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-18

    The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

  12. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period through 2020. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavior and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system, followed by a chapter on the overall modeling structure and solution algorithm. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. 21 figs.

  13. Energy storage label : A method for comparing storage systems over all ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian van Someren; F. Pierie

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the creation and use of a database for energy storage technologies which was developed in conjunction with Netbeheer Nederland and the Hanze University of Applied Sciences. This database can be used to make comparisons between a selection of storage technologies and will

  14. Symmetric Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy-Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Shi Xue; Liu, Hua Kun; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2016-12-01

    Increasing environmental problems and energy challenges have so far attracted urgent demand for developing green and efficient energy-storage systems. Among various energy-storage technologies, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and especially the already commercialized lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are playing very important roles in the portable electronic devices or the next-generation electric vehicles. Therefore, the research for finding new electrode materials with reduced cost, improved safety, and high-energy density in these energy storage systems has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands. Symmetric electrodes have recently become a research focus because they employ the same active materials as both the cathode and anode in the same energy-storage system, leading to the reduced manufacturing cost and simplified fabrication process. Most importantly, this feature also endows the symmetric energy-storage system with improved safety, longer lifetime, and ability of charging in both directions. In this Progress Report, we provide the comprehensive summary and comment on different symmetric electrodes and focus on the research about the applications of symmetric electrodes in different energy-storage systems, such as the above mentioned SIBs, ECs and LIBs. Further considerations on the possibility of mass production have also been presented.

  15. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  16. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  17. Recent Progress on Integrated Energy Conversion and Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ye, Delai; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the design and construction of integrated energy conversion and storage systems (IECSSs) that can simultaneously capture and store various forms of energies from nature. A large number of IECSSs have been developed with different combination of energy conversion technologies such as solar cells, mechanical generators and thermoelectric generators and energy storage devices such as rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. This review summarizes the recent advancements to date of IECSSs based on different energy sources including solar, mechanical, thermal as well as multiple types of energies, with a special focus on the system configuration and working mechanism. With the rapid development of new energy conversion and storage technologies, innovative high performance IECSSs are of high expectation to be realised for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  18. Historical Overview of Directed-Energy Work at Dahlgren

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    discharge of electrical energy at the gun breech to generate a plasma jet. This plasma jet heated a low- molecular-weight working fluid, such as water, to...cept augmented the electrical energy generating the plasma jet with a chemical reaction. A 127mm ETC gun was investigated, and a 60mm ETC gun was...ANSI Std Z39-18 13 Historical Overview of Directed-Energy Work at Dahlgren coaxial pipe, which was switched at one end, to create the oscillating

  19. Modeling Pumped Thermal Energy Storage with Waste Heat Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarr, Miles L. Lindsey

    This work introduces a new concept for a utility scale combined energy storage and generation system. The proposed design utilizes a pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) system, which also utilizes waste heat leaving a natural gas peaker plant. This system creates a low cost utility-scale energy storage system by leveraging this dual-functionality. This dissertation first presents a review of previous work in PTES as well as the details of the proposed integrated bottoming and energy storage system. A time-domain system model was developed in Mathworks R2016a Simscape and Simulink software to analyze this system. Validation of both the fluid state model and the thermal energy storage model are provided. The experimental results showed the average error in cumulative fluid energy between simulation and measurement was +/- 0.3% per hour. Comparison to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model showed PTES) that uses ammonia as the working fluid. This analysis focused on the effects of hot thermal storage utilization, system pressure, and evaporator/condenser size on the system performance. This work presents the estimated performance for a proposed baseline Bot-PTES. Results of this analysis showed that all selected parameters had significant effects on efficiency, with the evaporator/condenser size having the largest effect over the selected ranges. Results for the baseline case showed stand-alone energy storage efficiencies between 51 and 66% for varying power levels and charge states, and a stand-alone bottoming efficiency of 24%. The resulting efficiencies for this case were low compared to competing technologies; however, the dual-functionality of the Bot-PTES enables it to have higher capacity factor, leading to 91-197/MWh levelized cost of energy compared to 262-284/MWh for batteries and $172-254/MWh for Compressed Air Energy Storage.

  20. Overview of the Sustainable Energy Research at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Danish expertise in sustainable energy is found at the Technical University of Denmark, where approximately 1,000 staff members are carrying out research into sustainable energy. The research activities cover a broad area of scientific fields, from production, conversion, systems...... and transport to storage and end-use consumption. DTU places great emphasis on this research taking place in close cooperation with internationally leading institutions and experts....

  1. Mutlifunctional Fibers for Energy Storage in Advanced EVA Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate prototype multifunctional EVA system power patches that integrate energy storage into advanced space...

  2. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  3. Solar Power Augmented Electrolysis Module for Energy Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Regenerative fuel cell systems often include a dedicated electrolysis module with solar photovoltaic (PV) panels packaged as a subsystem of the larger energy storage...

  4. Inspecting Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    these grant guidelines implement the inspection provisions in Sections 9005(c)(1) and 9005(c)(2) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  5. Public Record About Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    These grant guidelines implement the public record provision in Section 9002(d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  6. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  7. Recent advances in energy storage materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles nine comprehensive contributions from the principle of Li-ion batteries, cathode and anode electrode materials to future energy storage systems such as solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries and high capacity redox flow battery.

  8. Crosstalk compensation in analysis of energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P; Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Motloch, Chester G; Rose, David M

    2014-06-24

    Estimating impedance of energy storage devices includes generating input signals at various frequencies with a frequency step factor therebetween. An excitation time record (ETR) is generated to include a summation of the input signals and a deviation matrix of coefficients is generated relative to the excitation time record to determine crosstalk between the input signals. An energy storage device is stimulated with the ETR and simultaneously a response time record (RTR) is captured that is indicative of a response of the energy storage device to the ETR. The deviation matrix is applied to the RTR to determine an in-phase component and a quadrature component of an impedance of the energy storage device at each of the different frequencies with the crosstalk between the input signals substantially removed. This approach enables rapid impedance spectra measurements that can be completed within one period of the lowest frequency or less.

  9. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  10. Steric effect studies on solar energy storage of norbornadiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the possible solar energy storage in the norbornadiene (1) / quadricyclane (2) system, through involving steric effects on various position of carbon C1, C2 or C7 for 1 and 2; calculating the corresponding energies at B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. The extent of the solar energy ...

  11. Geothermal energy and heat storage in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewalts, W.P.G.; Geluk, M.C.; Heederik, J.P.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Mourik, G.J. van; Postma, A.D.; Snijders, A.L.; Walter, F.; Willemsen, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the first energy crisis in 1973 various research programmes to do with energy conservation and diversification of energy resources were set up in the Netherlands. A number of these were directed to the rest of the subsoil for the following purposes: - the extraction of geothermal energy from

  12. Electrochemical supercapacitors for energy storage and delivery fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Although recognized as an important component of all energy storage and conversion technologies, electrochemical supercapacitators (ES) still face development challenges in order to reach their full potential. A thorough examination of development in the technology during the past decade, Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to the ES from technical and practical aspects and crystallization of the technology, detailing the basics of ES as well as its components and characterization techniques. The b

  13. Investigation of high capacity heat energy storage for building applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yate

    2014-01-01

    The problems of excessive consumption of fossil resources, oil shortages and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming increasingly severe. Research and development work on new methods of thermal energy storage are imminently required. To effectively store seasonal renewable energy, a novel high capacity heat storage system has been designed and evaluated/validated through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations in this research. The system is driven by direct flow evacuated tube solar c...

  14. Chemical energy storage: Part of a systemic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a primer into concepts and opportunities of chemical energy storage. Starting from the quest for decarbonisation we reveal the possibilities of chemical energy storage. We briefly discuss the critical role of catalysis as enabling technology. We concentrate on options of large-scale production of chemicals from CO2 and green hydrogen. We discuss one potential application of fueling future combustion engines that could run with minimal regulated emissions without exhaust purifications and legal tricks.

  15. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  16. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rodrigues; Denise Machado; Tomaz Dentinho

    2017-01-01

    The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective e...

  17. Magnesium Hydride for Load Levelling Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.

    Some of the magnesium properties essential to the applicability of the reaction Mg+H2⇆MgH2 as a hydrogen storage system have been investigated. Three magnesium powders with particle size smaller than 50 μm average diameter were cycled, over 31, 71 and 151 cycles respectively, at 675K (400°C...

  18. Thermal Energy Storage in Phase Change Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    model mathematically the performance of the heat storage unit. Second, there is the need to devise low-cost encansulation methods. Finally there is the...8217ekTI microroce ssr to the Pet romodore comuter . There a softwar- prrr’i’ in 1, iin, thl ca!flration curv- for th! thermocot’Ir es m ahes thp final

  19. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O' Malley, M.

    2013-06-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  20. An interdisciplinary review of energy storage for communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, David; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing penetration of renewable energy technologies as distributed generation embedded in the consumption centres, there is growing interest in energy storage systems located very close to consumers. These systems allow to increase the amount of renewable energy generation consumed...... benefits over energy storage in single dwellings are driven by enhanced performance due to less spiky community demand profile and economies of scale respectively. In addition, CES brings new opportunities for citizen participation within communities and helps to increase awareness of energy consumption...... locally, they provide opportunities for demand-side management and help to decarbonise the electricity, heating and transport sectors. In this paper, the authors present an interdisciplinary review of community energy storage (CES) with a focus on its potential role and challenges as a key element within...

  1. Flexible operation of thermal plants with integrated energy storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytsoumpa, Efthymia Ioanna; Bergins, Christian; Kakaras, Emmanouil

    2017-08-01

    The energy system in the EU requires today as well as towards 2030 to 2050 significant amounts of thermal power plants in combination with the continuously increasing share of Renewables Energy Sources (RES) to assure the grid stability and to secure electricity supply as well as to provide heat. The operation of the conventional fleet should be harmonised with the fluctuating renewable energy sources and their intermittent electricity production. Flexible thermal plants should be able to reach their lowest minimum load capabilities while keeping the efficiency drop moderate as well as to increase their ramp up and down rates. A novel approach for integrating energy storage as an evolutionary measure to overcome many of the challenges, which arise from increasing RES and balancing with thermal power is presented. Energy storage technologies such as Power to Fuel, Liquid Air Energy Storage and Batteries are investigated in conjunction with flexible power plants.

  2. Design and management of energy-efficient hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    This book covers system-level design optimization and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems. The author introduces various techniques to improve the performance of hybrid energy storage systems, in the context of design optimization and automation. Various energy storage techniques are discussed, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, offering viable, hybrid approaches to building a high performance, low cost energy storage system. Novel design optimization techniques and energy-efficient operation schemes are introduced. The author also describes the technical details of an act

  3. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  4. Evaluating Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihang; Udmark, Jonas; Börjesson, Karl; Rodrigues, Rita; Roffey, Anna; Abrahamsson, Maria; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2017-08-10

    Efficient solar energy storage is a key challenge in striving toward a sustainable future. For this reason, molecules capable of solar energy storage and release through valence isomerization, for so-called molecular solar thermal energy storage (MOST), have been investigated. Energy storage by photoconversion of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photothermal couple has been evaluated. The robust nature of this system is determined through multiple energy storage and release cycles at elevated temperatures in three different solvents. In a nonpolar solvent such as toluene, the DHA/VHF system can be cycled more than 70 times with less than 0.01 % degradation per cycle. Moreover, the [Cu(CH3 CN)4 ]PF6 -catalyzed conversion of VHF into DHA was demonstrated in a flow reactor. The performance of the DHA/VHF couple was also evaluated in prototype photoconversion devices, both in the laboratory by using a flow chip under simulated sunlight and under outdoor conditions by using a parabolic mirror. Device experiments demonstrated a solar energy storage efficiency of up to 0.13 % in the chip device and up to 0.02 % in the parabolic collector. Avenues for future improvements and optimization of the system are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Diurnal cool thermal energy storage: Research programs, technological developments, and commercial status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M A

    1992-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the major federal and private research and development efforts in diurnal cool thermal energy storage for electric load management in buildings. Included are brief technical descriptions and research histories of the technologies and applications of cool thermal storage. The goals, accomplishments, and funding levels of major thermal storage research programs also are summarized. The report concludes with the results of recent field performance evaluations of cool thermal storage installations and a discussion of the current commercial status of thermal storage equipment, including utility participation programs. This report was sponsored by the Technology and Consumer Products (TCP) Division within the Office of Conservation of the US Department of Energy. This report is part of TCP's ongoing effort to examine and evaluate technology developments and research efforts in the areas of lighting, space heating and cooling, water heating, refrigeration, and other building energy conversion equipment. Information obtained through this effort is used as an input in developing the US research agenda in these areas.

  6. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  7. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  8. Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

    Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

  9. Aquifer thermal energy storage reference manual: seasonal thermal energy storage program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This is the reference manual of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program, and is the primary document for the transfer of technical information of the STES Program. It has been issued in preliminary form and will be updated periodically to include more technical data and results of research. As the program progresses and new technical data become available, sections of the manual will be revised to incorporate these data. This primary document contains summaries of: the TRW, incorporated demonstration project at Behtel, Alaska, Dames and Moore demonstration project at Stony Brook, New York, and the University of Minnesota demonstration project at Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; the technical support programs including legal/institutional assessment; economic assessment; environmental assessment; field test facilities; a compendia of existing information; numerical simulation; and non-aquifer STES concepts. (LCL)

  10. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, M.Y.; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Andersen, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification...... efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage...... directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices....

  11. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  12. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...... storage systems (BESS) which can interface mediumvoltage batteries to the grid. Converter topologies comparison is performed in terms of efficiency, common mode voltage and redundancy for a 6kV series connected medium voltage batteries with a nominal power of 5MVA to act as a battery charger/discharger....

  13. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  14. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    -carbon sources, namely 'clean' coal, 'clean' gas and nuclear power. If solar is to play a large role in the future energy system, then we need new methods for energy storage; very-large-scale solar either would need to be combined with electricity stores or it would need to serve a large flexible demand for energy that effectively stores useful energy in the form of chemicals, heat, or cold.

  15. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  16. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  17. Thermal energy storage in phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P.; Buchlin, J. M.

    1982-03-01

    The present study deals with an experimental investigation of low temperature thermal storage based on macroencapsulation of Phase Change Material (PCM). The storage performance capabilities of capsule bed, tube bank and tubular single-pass heat exchanger are compared. The tests are conducted on the VKI Solar Utility Network (SUN) which is a closed loop facility designed to study air heating systems. An original data acquisition chain based on two conversing microprocessors is developed to carry out mass flow, pressure drop and temperature measurements. The experimental results are interpreted on the basis of comparison with numerical predictions and they allow to draw the following conclusions. Each type of matrix has its own range of operation for practical application but from a heat transfer standpoint, the PCM capsule packing unit is strongly recommended. It is suggested to extend this investigation to the effect of Reynolds number to find optimum range for thermomechanical efficiency.

  18. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  19. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Leif; Nyström, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Strømme, Maria

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  1. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  2. FY2014 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-03-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Energy Storage subprogram in 2014. You can download individual sections at the following website, http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/vehicle-technologies-office-2014-energy-storage-rd-annual-report.

  3. From Molecular Electronics to Solar Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    The Sun's signicant resource potential provides a solution for the world's increasing energy demand in a sustainable and responsible manner. However, the intrinsic property of the on-o cycles of the solar irradiation, i.e. daynight, sunny-cloudy, and summer-winter, constitutes a signicant challenge...... for the utilization of solar energy. An eective technology for storing the solar energy is required. This thesis focuses on solar thermal energy storage in molecules, since it oers a very compact and eective storage method. The rst chapter after the introduction of the thesis, chapter two, introduces the fundamental...... properties of the molecule, i.e. the electronic behaviour of the molecule in dierent environments, which is a key property for investigations of solar energy storage. The main focus of the research is on the electron transport in the Coulomb blockade regime. The third chapter goes into the challenge...

  4. Energy storage in drive systems of servo presses for reduction of peak power and energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Putz, Matthias; Blau, Peter; Kolesnikov, Artem; Richter, Mark; Pierer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The development approach for energy storage systems focuses on optimally sized capacitor modules to reduce peak power and to avoid energy recovery of production machines. Using servo presses as an example, the application of two different energy storage systems in the DC link is practically examined. A simulation model in Matlab/Simulink and a test stand of a servo press are proposed for representing the power flows between the mains supply, the electric drives and the storage systems. The de...

  5. Peak reduction for commercial buildings using energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K. H.; Lim, Y. S.; Morris, S.

    2017-11-01

    Battery-based energy storage has emerged as a cost-effective solution for peak reduction due to the decrement of battery’s price. In this study, a battery-based energy storage system is developed and implemented to achieve an optimal peak reduction for commercial customers with the limited energy capacity of the energy storage. The energy storage system is formed by three bi-directional power converter rated at 5 kVA and a battery bank with capacity of 64 kWh. Three control algorithms, namely fixed-threshold, adaptive-threshold, and fuzzy-based control algorithms have been developed and implemented into the energy storage system in a campus building. The control algorithms are evaluated and compared under different load conditions. The overall experimental results show that the fuzzy-based controller is the most effective algorithm among the three controllers in peak reduction. The fuzzy-based control algorithm is capable of incorporating a priori qualitative knowledge and expertise about the load characteristic of the buildings as well as the useable energy without over-discharging the batteries.

  6. Study on storage energy devices: supercapacitors, a green alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Rancaño Fernandez, Ariadna

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is increasingly common to hear about environmental issues. This fact keep us to continually try to improve energy optimization, either through new storage devices that pollute less or improvements in the environmental energy generation systems. Recent new types of devices under study are those called supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electronic devices able to store charge in form of electrical energy. This energy is stored as an electric field, so supercapacitors are less pol...

  7. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  8. Energy research 2003 - Overview; Energie-Forschung 2003 / Recherche energetique 2003. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2003. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  9. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  10. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  11. Storage exploratory project. Energy program. Final report; Projet exploratoire Stockage. Programme Energie. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble, UMR 5529 INPG/UJF - CNRS, ENSIEG, 38 - Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Ozil, P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), ENSEEG, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Cheron, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Multon, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Information et des Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), 94 - Cachan (France); Carillo, S. [Centre Interuniversitaire de recherche et d' Ingenierie sur les Materiaux (CIRIMAT), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory project was the analysis of the most efficient possibilities of electric power storage. It was limited to the electrochemical storage, the lead batteries which behavior is not completely characterized, the flywheel energy storage and the development of simulation. This report presents the results of the works. (A.L.B.)

  12. Using MRI devices for the energy storage purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Molokáč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically a difficult process. Such a process is connected with energy losses, as most frequently it is the conversion of electrical energy into another form, for example mechanical, and then back to the primal electrical form. Though, the SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the basis of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, (basically caused only by its „software fustiness“ and not by functional faults, there is a possibility of using such devices for the energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological. A research project is running at the Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnologies (F BERG, the Department of Business and Management, in the field of using rejected MRI for energy storage purposes.

  13. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  14. Self-powered energy fiber: energy conversion in the sheath and storage in the core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibin; Deng, Jue; Sun, Hao; Ren, Jing; Pan, Shaowu; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-11-05

    A high-performance, self-powered, elastic energy fiber is developed that consists of an energy conversion sheath and an energy storage core. The coaxial structure and the aligned nanostructures at the electrode interface enable a high total energy-conversion and energy-storage performance that is maintained under bending and after stretching. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  16. Hydrogen as energy-storage-medium and fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Töpler Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the future energy situation with the expected reduction of fossil primary energy supply and increasing market segments by renewable energies within the next decades. The potential of renewable energies to cover the energy demand is described as well as the necessity of energy storage systems (especially hydrogen to compensate the fluctuations of primary energy sources. Furthermore the increasing use of renewable vehicle fuels is investigated with special focus on hydrogen in short and long-term considerations. As a result the paper will show an energy supply gap between decreasing fossil energies and increasing renewable energies which can only be bridged by a more efficient general use of energy. Hydrogen will be proven as best synthetic fuel by “well-to-wheel analysis” both with respect to energy efficiency, to environmental analysis as well as to customer satisfaction.

  17. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Offshore Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...

  18. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R. L.; Nield, K. J.; Rohde, R. R.; Wolosewicz, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems is discussed. Both air based and liquid based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single-, and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air and liquid based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Also examined are common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass reinforced plastic tanks.

  19. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  20. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  1. Combination of aquifer thermal energy storage and enhanced bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Zhuobiao; Gaans, van Pauline; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Interest in the combination concept of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and enhanced bioremediation has recently risen due to the demand for both renewable energy technology and sustainable groundwater management in urban areas. However, the impact of enhanced bioremediation on ATES is not

  2. Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pietrosanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The results of the model show increased energy savings and reduced peak power demand with respect to existing control strategies, indicating considerable potential savings for port operators in terms of energy and maintenance costs.

  3. Life cycle analysis of underground thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasetta, Camilla; van Ree, Derk; Griffioen, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems are used to buffer the seasonal difference between heat and cold supply and demand and, therefore, represent an interesting option to conserve energy. Even though UTES are considered environmental friendly solutions they are not completely free of

  4. Performance analysis of liquid air energy storage utilizing LNG cold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyao, Li; Sixian, Wang; Zhang, Deng; Luwei, Yang; Yuan, Zhou; Junjie, Wang

    2017-02-01

    As the high energy density and can be stored in a long period, the liquid air is regarded as the potential energy storage medium. In the liquid air energy storage (LAES) system, liquid air is produced in the liquefaction processes by using the renewable energy or off-peak energy. The compressor is used to supply and recycle the air in liquefaction processes. In this paper, a LAES model is established, and the impact of compressor on LAES system is analysed theoretically. Liquid air energy storage (LAES) system utilizing LNG cold energy is also described. The results show that the round trip energy efficiency is enhanced and the utilizing has promising application prospect for large scale energy storage.

  5. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  6. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, W.V.

    1980-06-01

    The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)

  7. Operational Benefits of Meeting California’s Energy Storage Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh Eichman, Paul Denholm, Jennie Jorgenson, Udi Helman

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued rules for its jurisdictional utilities to procure a minimum of 1,325 megawatts (MW) of energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to examine the operational value of this storage portfolio in California and the rest of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region. Modeled results show that the storage portfolio, when providing energy and operating reserves, reduces the total WECC-wide production costs by $78 million per year in the 33% scenario. This value increases to $144 million per year in the 40% scenario, primarily because of the increase in off-peak and peak price differences that are due to additional solar generation. These values are equivalent to $59/kW-year for the storage portfolio for the 33% scenario and $109/kW-year for the 40% scenario.

  8. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  9. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  10. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  11. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  12. Strategies for commercializing customer thermal-energy storage. [64 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report presents strategies for commercializing customer thermal storage. Four storage techniques are evaluated: space heating, air conditioning, hot-water heating, and interruptible hot-water heating. The storage systems involved store off-peak electric energy for thermal applications during peak load hours. Analyses of both storage techniques and principal parties affected by storage indicate four barriers: the absence of (1) commercially available air conditioning storage devices, (2) appropriate rates, (3) information on both rates and devices, and (4) widespread utility support. Development of appropriate rates is the key to commercialization. The criteria used to evaluate rate types are: maximum combined utility and customer benefits, ease of commercialization, and practical feasibility. Four rate types--demand charges, time-of-use rates, and two forms of load management rates (a monthly credit and an off-peak discount)--plus the possibility of utility ownership are considered. The best rate types for each storage option are: for hot-water heating, a monthly credit for allowing utility interruptions or an off-peak price discount for storage; for space heating, an off-peak discount contingent upon meeting utility requirements; and for air conditioning, an off-peak discount plus monthly credit.

  13. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Energy Storage Annual Progress Report for FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Lei [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Gi-Heon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shi, Ying [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tenent, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in support of the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge. PEVs could have a significant impact on the nation's goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. The Energy Storage program targets overcoming technical barriers to enable market success, including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost; (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability); (3) reducing battery weight and volume; and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports the VTO's Energy Storage program by evaluating the thermal performance of cells and packs, developing electrochemical-thermal models to accelerate the design cycle for developing batteries, investigating the behavior of lithium-ion batteries under abuse conditions such as crush, enhancing the durability of electrodes by coatings such as atomic layer deposition, synthesis of materials for higher energy density batteries, and conducting techno-economic analysis of batteries in various electric-drive vehicles. This report describes the progress made by NREL on the research and development projects funded by the DOE VTO Energy Storage subprogram in FY15.

  15. CNAAA spent fuel complementary storage building (UFC) construction and licensing: an overview of current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Neto, Bertino do Carmo; Pacifi, Cicero Durval, E-mail: bertino@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: cicero@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The reprocessing of nuclear fuel assemblies could be a valuable solution in order to make available additional energy resources and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. After the burning of nuclear fuel assemblies to produce electrical energy, these components have to be stored in the spent fuel pools of each unit, for at least 10 years, in order to decrease their residual heat. Even after this initial 10 year-period, these spent fuel assemblies still have a great amount of energy, which can be reused. Nowadays, the spent fuel materials can be reprocessed in order to produce electrical energy, or be stored to provide, in the future, an opportunity to decide how these materials will be treated. At the present moment, Brazil does not plan to reprocess these spent fuels assemblies, as performed by some other countries. Thus, Brazil intends to build a spent fuel long term intermediate storage facility to allow the chance to make a decision in the future, taking into account the available technology at that time. Considering the three CNAAA units (Angra 1, 2 and 3 of Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, the Brazilian nuclear power plant, located at Angra dos Reis county, Rio de Janeiro state) have a life time estimated in 60 years, and the intrinsical spent fuel pools storage capacity of these units, a Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building - UFC has to be foreseen in order to increase the storage capacity of CNAAA. Therefore, the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building shall be in operation in 2018, capable to receive the first spent fuel assemblies from Angra 2 and, in the next year, from Angra 1. The same procedure will be applied for the spent fuel assemblies of Angra 3, currently in construction. The Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building will be constructed and operated by Eletrobras Eletronuclear - the CNAAA owner - and will be located at the same site of the plant. Conceptually, the UFC will be built as a wet storage modality

  16. Integrated building energy systems design considering storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)). e-mail: MStadler@lbl.gov; Siddiqui, Afzal (Dept. of Statistical Science at Univ. College London (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g. PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO{sub 2} emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g. nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Dept. of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO{sub 2} minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  17. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  18. Energy Balance: An Overview With Emphasis on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Charmaine S.; Ravussin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem, affecting one in five children in the United States. At the crux of this issue is a dysregulation of energy intake and energy expenditure. This review will provide an overview on energy and nutrient balance. We discuss energy balance studies in children using indirect and direct measures, and focus particularly on obesity as a deleterious consequence in childhood survivors of cancer. Obesity affects 11–57% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, probably due to increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure secondary to reduced habitual activity caused by fatigue. However, most of the studies in children with leukemia are retrospective, use BMI as a measure of obesity, and are inconclusive about the impact of the type of treatment on the development of obesity later in life. To better understand the etiology of obesity in both healthy and sick children, we need to undertake nutrient balance studies with appropriate measures of fat mass and fat distribution while keeping in mind the influence of normal tissue growth and puberty on energy balance. PMID:22021150

  19. Energy balance: an overview with emphasis on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Charmaine S; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem, affecting one in five children in the United States. At the crux of this issue is a dysregulation of energy intake and energy expenditure. This review will provide an overview on energy and nutrient balance. We discuss energy balance studies in children using indirect and direct measures, and focus particularly on obesity as a deleterious consequence in childhood survivors of cancer. Obesity affects 11-57% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, probably due to increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure secondary to reduced habitual activity caused by fatigue. However, most of the studies in children with leukemia are retrospective, use BMI as a measure of obesity, and are inconclusive about the impact of the type of treatment on the development of obesity later in life. To better understand the etiology of obesity in both healthy and sick children, we need to undertake nutrient balance studies with appropriate measures of fat mass and fat distribution while keeping in mind the influence of normal tissue growth and puberty on energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Low-energy house in Sisimiut - Data overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidthoeft Delff Andersen, P.; Rode, C.; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-08-15

    Experiments with persistently exciting heat inputs are a fundamental tool in identification of heat dynamics in buildings. The Low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland, provides an advanced experimental setup with frequent measurements of temperatures, heat inputs, and much more. This paper presents an overview of data collected since the installation of the new measurement and control system. Focus is on heat dynamics so only data related to that will be shown. 5 experiments have been conducted. They are described, and resulting data is shown. (Author)

  1. Enhanced energy storage in chaotic optical resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Changxu

    2013-05-05

    Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab initio simulations and experiments in photonic-crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase by considering the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator (that is, the cavity modes) and discover a convergence of their lifetimes towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  3. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  4. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  5. Simulation of tendon energy storage in pedaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, John; Damsgaard, Michael; Christensen, Søren Tørholm

    2001-01-01

    system is based on inverse dynamics, where the redundancy problem is solved by a minimum fatigue criterion guaranteeing maximuminter-muscular collaboration. The tendons are assumed to be linearly elastic. It is concluded that tendon elasticity is responsible for metabolic power loss......The role of elastic energy stored in tendons during pedaling is investigated by means of numerical simulation using the AnyBody body modeling system. The loss of metabolic energy due to tendon elasticity is computed and compared to the mechanical work involved in the process. The AnyBody simulation...

  6. Functionalization of graphene for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming

    2013-01-15

    As global energy consumption accelerates at an alarming rate, the development of clean and renewable energy conversion and storage systems has become more important than ever. Although the efficiency of energy conversion and storage devices depends on a variety of factors, their overall performance strongly relies on the structure and properties of the component materials. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. As a building block for carbon materials of all other dimensionalities (such as 0D buckyball, 1D nanotube, 3D graphite), the two-dimensional (2D) single atomic carbon sheet of graphene has emerged as an attractive candidate for energy applications due to its unique structure and properties. Like other materials, however, a graphene-based material that possesses desirable bulk properties rarely features the surface characteristics required for certain specific applications. Therefore, surface functionalization is essential, and researchers have devised various covalent and noncovalent chemistries for making graphene materials with the bulk and surface properties needed for efficient energy conversion and storage. In this Account, I summarize some of our new ideas and strategies for the controlled functionalization of graphene for the development of efficient energy conversion and storage devices, such as solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. The dangling bonds at the edge of graphene can be used for the covalent attachment of various chemical moieties while the graphene basal plane can be modified via either covalent or noncovalent functionalization. The asymmetric functionalization of the two opposite surfaces of individual graphene sheets with different moieties can lead to the self-assembly of graphene sheets into hierarchically structured materials. Judicious

  7. FY2011 Annual Report for NREL Energy Storage Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Ban, C.; Dillon, A.; Gonder, J.; Ireland, J.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Long, D.; Neubauer, J.; Santhangopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the work of NREL's Energy Storage group for FY2011. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports energy storage R&D under the Vehicle Technologies Program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE Energy Storage program's charter is to develop battery technologies that will enable large market penetration of electric drive vehicles. These vehicles could have a significant impact on the nation's goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. DOE has established several program activities to address and overcome the barriers limiting the penetration of electric drive battery technologies: cost, performance, safety, and life. These programs are: (1) Advanced Battery Development [through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)]; (2) Testing, Design and Analysis (TDA); (3) Applied Battery Research (ABR); and (4) Focused Fundamental Research, or Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT). In FY11, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to all of these R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL's R&D projects in FY11 in support of the USABC, TDA, ABR, and BATT program elements. In addition, we continued the enhancement of NREL's battery testing facilities funded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009. The FY11 projects under NREL's Energy Storage R&D program are briefly described below. Each of these is discussed in depth in the main sections of this report.

  8. Mechanically stable ternary heterogeneous electrodes for energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libo; Zhang, Hongti; Surjadi, James Utama; Li, Peifeng; Han, Ying; Sun, Dong; Lu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, solid asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been deemed as an emerging portable power storage or backup device for harvesting natural resources. Here we rationally engineered a hierarchical, mechanically stable heterostructured FeCo@NiCo layered double hydroxide (LDH) with superior capacitive performance by a simple two-step electrodeposition route for energy storage and conversion. In situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) nanoindentation and electrochemical tests demonstrated the mechanical robustness and good conductivity of FeCo-LDH. This serves as a reliable backbone for supporting the NiCo-LDH nanosheets. When employed as the positive electrode in the solid ASC, the assembly presents high energy density of 36.6 W h kg -1 at a corresponding power density of 783 W kg -1 and durable cycling stability (87.3% after 5000 cycles) as well as robust mechanical stability without obvious capacitance fading when subjected to bending deformation. To demonstrate its promising capability for practical energy storage applications, the ASC has been employed as a portable energy source to power a commercially available digital watch, mini motor car, or household lamp bulb as well as an energy storage reservoir, coupled with a wind energy harvester to power patterned light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  9. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  10. Phase change thermal energy storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal energy storge composition is disclosed. The composition comprises a non-chloride hydrate having a phase change transition temperature in the range of 70.degree.-95.degree. F. and a latent heat of transformation of at least about 35 calories/gram.

  11. Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxiang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermittent power of wave energy converters. Hardware systems have been constructed to control the linear wave energy converter and the composite energy storage system. The performance of the composite energy storage system has been verified in experiments by using electronics-based wave energy emulators.

  12. Fiber-shaped energy harvesting and storage devices

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Huisheng

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book covers flexible fiber-shaped devices in the area of energy conversion and storage. The first part of the book introduces recently developed materials, particularly, various nanomaterials and composite materials based on nanostructured carbon such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, metals and polymers for the construction of fiber electrodes. The second part of the book focuses on two typical twisted and coaxial architectures of fiber-shaped devices for energy conversion and storage. The emphasis is placed on dye-sensitized solar cells, polymer solar cells, lithium-ion b

  13. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  14. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  15. Lead-acid battery model for hybrid energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    BUTTERBACH, S; Vulturescu, Bogdan; FORGEZ, C; Coquery, Gérard; Friedrich, G

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of hybrid energy storage for an electric waste collection vehicle. The hybrid storage is made of lead-acid batteries and supercapacitors. A detailed lead-acid model is proposed in order to take into account the charge of the battery during regenerative braking. The vehicle was simulated on an urban driving cycle for a full working day. The reduction of the consumed energy due to an increased recovery capacity is outlined in this paper as a main benefit of the ...

  16. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  17. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  18. Underground storage with floating cover. An overview; Erdbeckenspeicher mit schwimmender Abdeckung. Eine Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.; Maureschat, G.; Duer, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Buildings and Energy

    1998-12-31

    A number of underground stores have been developed in recent years in Denmark. The development has been subsidised with funds of `Development program renewable energy` launched by the Danish Ministry for Environment and Energy. First experience reports on underground storage show that more emphasis must be put on the development of storage sealing and cover construction. Hence research works currently focuses on the investigation of liner material and further development of floating cover constructions. The target is the development of underground storage using solar energy for heating that can compete with conventional heating systems technically and economically. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Daenemark hat man in den letzten Jahren eine Reihe von Erdbeckenspeichern entwickelt. Die Entwicklung wird mit Mitteln aus dem `Entwicklungsprogramm Erneuerbare Energie` vom daenischen Umwelt- und Energieministerium finanziell gefoerdert. Die ersten Erfahrungen mit Erdbeckenspeichern haben gezeigt, dass ein verstaerkter Einsatz bei der Entwicklung von Abdichtungen des Speichers und von Deckelkonstruktionen gefordert ist. Deshalb wird in Daenemark aktuell mit der Untersuchung von Linermaterialien und der Weiterentwicklung von schwimmenden Deckelkonstruktionen gearbeitet. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Erdbeckenspeicher zu entwickeln, die die Ausnutzung von Sonnenenergie zur Waermeversorgung im Vergleich mit herkoemmlicher Waermeversorgung sowohl technisch als auch oekonomisch konkurrenzfaehig macht. (orig.)

  19. Mesoporous materials for energy conversion and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-06-01

    To meet the growing energy demands in a low-carbon economy, the development of new materials that improve the efficiency of energy conversion and storage systems is essential. Mesoporous materials offer opportunities in energy conversion and storage applications owing to their extraordinarily high surface areas and large pore volumes. These properties may improve the performance of materials in terms of energy and power density, lifetime and stability. In this Review, we summarize the primary methods for preparing mesoporous materials and discuss their applications as electrodes and/or catalysts in solar cells, solar fuel production, rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Finally, we outline the research and development challenges of mesoporous materials that need to be overcome to increase their contribution in renewable energy applications.

  20. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram C. Patil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal utilization of renewable energy resources needs energy storage capability in integration with the electric grid. Ocean compressed air energy storage (OCAES can provide promising large-scale energy storage. In OCAES, energy is stored in the form of compressed air under the ocean. Underwater energy storage results in a constant-pressure storage system which has potential to show high efficiency compared to constant-volume energy storage. Various OCAES concepts, namely, diabatic, adiabatic, and isothermal OCAES, are possible based on the handling of heat in the system. These OCAES concepts are assessed using energy and exergy analysis in this paper. Roundtrip efficiency of liquid piston based OCAES is also investigated using an experimental liquid piston compressor. Further, the potential of improved efficiency of liquid piston based OCAES with use of various heat transfer enhancement techniques is investigated. Results show that adiabatic OCAES shows improved efficiency over diabatic OCAES by storing thermal exergy in thermal energy storage and isothermal OCAES shows significantly higher efficiency over adiabatic and diabatic OCAES. Liquid piston based OCAES is estimated to show roundtrip efficiency of about 45% and use of heat transfer enhancement in liquid piston has potential to improve roundtrip efficiency of liquid piston based OCAES up to 62%.

  1. Evaluating the Competitive Use of the Subsurface: The Influence of Energy Storage and Production in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, R.; Becker, B.; Flemisch, B.

    2015-12-01

    The natural subsurface is gaining in importance for a variety of engineering applications related to energy supply. At the same time it is already utilized in many ways. On the one hand, the subsurface with its groundwater system represents the most important source of drinking water; on the other hand, it contains natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas and coal. In recent years, the subsurface has been gaining importance as a resource of energy and as an energy and waste repository. It can serve as a short-, medium- or long-term storage medium for energy in various forms, e.g. in the form of methane (CH4), hydrogen (H2) or compressed air. The subsurface is also attracting increasing interest as a natural source of energy, regarding, for instance, the extraction of fossil methane by hydraulic fracturing or the utilization of geothermal energy as a renewable energy source. As a result, with increasing exploitation, resource conflicts are becoming more and more common and complex. Modeling concepts for simulating multiphase flow that can reproduce the high complexity of the underlying processes in an efficient way need to be developed. The application of these model concepts is of great importance with respect to feasibility, risk analysis, storage capacity and sensitivity issues. This talk will give an overview on possible utilization conflicts in subsurface systems and how the groundwater is affected. It will focus on presenting fundamental properties and functions of a compositional multiphase system in a porous medium and introduce basic multiscale and multiphysics concepts as well as formulate conser­vation laws for simulating energy storage in the subsurface. Large-scale simulations that show the general applicability of the modeling concepts of such complicated natural systems, especially the impact on the groundwater of simultaneously using geothermal energy and storing chemical and thermal energy, and how such real large-scale systems provide a

  2. Energy and Molecules from Photochemical/Photocatalytic Reactions. An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ravelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic reactions have been defined as those processes that require both a (not consumed catalyst and light. A previous definition was whether such reactions brought a system towards or away from the (thermal equilibrium. This consideration brings in the question whether a part of the photon energy is incorporated into the photochemical reaction products. Data are provided for representative organic reactions involving or not molecular catalysts and show that energy storage occurs only when a heavily strained structure is generated, and in that case only a minor part of photon energy is actually stored (ΔG up to 25 kcal·mol−1. The green role of photochemistry/photocatalysis is rather that of forming highly reactive intermediates under mild conditions.

  3. Investigation of lithium sulphate for high temperature thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Alicia; Liu, Ming; Bruno, Frank; Hinkley, Jim

    2017-06-01

    Lithium sulphate (Li2SO4) was evaluated as a solid-solid PCM material to be coupled with concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. The energy is stored in a cubic crystalline phase that is formed at temperatures above 576°C and can potentially be discharged at temperatures as low as 150°C, providing both sensible and latent thermal energy storage in a hybrid sensible-latent system. These operational conditions are appropriate for current CSP technologies based on subcritical steam Rankine power cycles. Results from thermal cycling experiments in air showed no change in energy storage capacity after 15 cycles. There was up to a 5% reduction in latent thermal capacity and 0.95% in total thermal capacity after 150 cycles in air. In our paper, we evaluate a hybrid sensible-latent thermal energy storage system based on lithium sulphate from an economic and technical performance point of view, demonstrating its potential as a high temperature thermal energy storage material.

  4. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  5. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  6. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  7. Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2011-11-09

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  9. High energy storage capacitor by embedding tunneling nano-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P; Prinz, Friedrich B; Van Stockum, Philip B

    2014-11-04

    In an All-Electron Battery (AEB), inclusions embedded in an active region between two electrodes of a capacitor provide enhanced energy storage. Electrons can tunnel to/from and/or between the inclusions, thereby increasing the charge storage density relative to a conventional capacitor. One or more barrier layers is present in an AEB to block DC current flow through the device. The AEB effect can be enhanced by using multi-layer active regions having inclusion layers with the inclusions separated by spacer layers that don't have the inclusions. The use of cylindrical geometry or wrap around electrodes and/or barrier layers in a planar geometry can enhance the basic AEB effect. Other physical effects that can be employed in connection with the AEB effect are excited state energy storage, and formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  10. Metal hydrides for concentrating solar thermal power energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Paskevicius, M.; Humphries, T. D.; Felderhoff, M.; Capurso, G.; Bellosta von Colbe, J.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Ward, P. A.; Teprovich, J. A.; Corgnale, C.; Zidan, R.; Grant, D. M.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of alternative methods for thermal energy storage is important for improving the efficiency and decreasing the cost of concentrating solar thermal power. We focus on the underlying technology that allows metal hydrides to function as thermal energy storage (TES) systems and highlight the current state-of-the-art materials that can operate at temperatures as low as room temperature and as high as 1100 °C. The potential of metal hydrides for thermal storage is explored, while current knowledge gaps about hydride properties, such as hydride thermodynamics, intrinsic kinetics and cyclic stability, are identified. The engineering challenges associated with utilising metal hydrides for high-temperature TES are also addressed.

  11. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  12. Graphitic design: prospects of graphene-based nanocomposites for solar energy conversion, storage, and sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightcap, Ian V; Kamat, Prashant V

    2013-10-15

    Graphene not only possesses interesting electrochemical behavior but also has a remarkable surface area and mechanical strength and is naturally abundant, all advantageous properties for the design of tailored composite materials. Graphene-semiconductor or -metal nanoparticle composites have the potential to function as efficient, multifunctional materials for energy conversion and storage. These next-generation composite systems could possess the capability to integrate conversion and storage of solar energy, detection, and selective destruction of trace environmental contaminants or achieve single-substrate, multistep heterogeneous catalysis. These advanced materials may soon become a reality, based on encouraging results in the key areas of energy conversion and sensing using graphene oxide as a support structure. Through recent advances, chemists can now integrate such processes on a single substrate while using synthetic designs that combine simplicity with a high degree of structural and composition selectivity. This progress represents the beginning of a transformative movement leveraging the advancements of single-purpose chemistry toward the creation of composites designed to address whole-process applications. The promising field of graphene nanocomposites for sensing and energy applications is based on fundamental studies that explain the electronic interactions between semiconductor or metal nanoparticles and graphene. In particular, reduced graphene oxide is a suitable composite substrate because of its two-dimensional structure, outstanding surface area, and electrical conductivity. In this Account, we describe common assembly methods for graphene composite materials and examine key studies that characterize its excited state interactions. We also discuss strategies to develop graphene composites and control electron capture and transport through the 2D carbon network. In addition, we provide a brief overview of advances in sensing, energy conversion

  13. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000 pound class are described. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  14. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  15. Development of Structural Energy Storage for Aeronautics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Dejesus, Diana; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Demattia, Brianne; Bednarcyk, Brett; Olson, Erik; Smith, Russell; Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified Multifunctional Structures for High Efficiency Lightweight Load-bearing Storage (M-SHELLS) as critical to development of hybrid gas-electric propulsion for commercial aeronautical transport in the N+3 timeframe. The established goals include reducing emissions by 80 and fuel consumption by 60 from todays state of the art. The advancement will enable technology for NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorates (ARMD) Strategic Thrust 3 to pioneer big leaps in efficiency and environmental performance for ultra-efficient commercial transports, as well as Strategic Thrust 4 to pioneer low-carbon propulsion technology in the transition to that scheme. The M-SHELLS concept addresses the hybrid gas-electric highest risk with its primary objective: to save structures energy storage system weight for future commercial hybrid electric propulsion aircraft by melding the load-carrying structure with energy storage in a single material. NASA's multifunctional approach also combines supercapacitor and battery chemistries in a synergistic energy storage arrangement in tandem with supporting good mechanical properties. The arrangement provides an advantageous combination of specific power, energy, and strength.

  16. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal insulation is one of the most important components of a thermal energy storage system. In this paper the thermal properties of selected potential local materials which can be used for high temperature insulation are presented. Thermal properties of seven different samples were measured. Samples consisted of: ...

  17. The case for coordinated energy storage in future distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of distributed renewable energy resources in urban power systems requires locally tailored approaches. This study analyses the impact of storage penetration and its coordination in three representative urban areas in Amsterdam: a residential, a business and a mixed area. Results show

  18. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) - possibilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Szameitat, Nicklas; Brix, Wiebke

    2005-01-01

    Through a systematic development of the Danish electrical supply system with wind power and CHP, problems with stability and electricity surplus have appeared. Therefore, the possibilities for profitably implementing a CAES plant for energy storage, peak shaving and electricity surplus reduction ...

  19. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown User

    1. Introduction. It is necessary to use thermal insulating materials around thermal energy storage systems to minimize heat losses from the systems [1]. There are varieties of insulating materials which come in various forms like loose fill, rigid boards, pipe and foam. The thermal insulation is provided by embedding insulation ...

  20. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This...

  1. FY2015 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-04-30

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  2. FY2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    The FY 2013 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  3. Performance maps for the control of thermal energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finck, Christian; Li, Rongling; Zeiler, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Predictive control in building energy systems requires the integration of the building, building system, and component dynamics. The prediction accuracy of these dynamics is crucial for practical applications. This paper introduces performance maps for the control of water tanks, phase change...... material tanks, and thermochemical material tanks. The results show that these performance maps can fully account for the dynamics of thermal energy storage tanks....

  4. Review of Energy Storage System for Wind Power Integration Support

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Hu, Shuju; Xu, Honghua; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of wind energy development and increasing wind power penetration level, it will be a big challenge to operate the power system with high wind power penetration securely and reliably due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of wind power. With the flexible charging-discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. T...

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  6. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  7. Multifunctional structural energy storage composite supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshova, Natasha; Qian, Hui; Houllé, Matthieu; Steinke, Joachim H G; Kucernak, Anthony R J; Fontana, Quentin P V; Greenhalgh, Emile S; Bismarck, Alexander; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of producing multifunctional composites that can simultaneously carry mechanical loads whilst storing (and delivering) electrical energy. The embodiment is a structural supercapacitor built around laminated structural carbon fibre (CF) fabrics. Each cell consists of two modified structural CF fabric electrodes, separated by a structural glass fibre fabric or polymer membrane, infused with a multifunctional polymeric electrolyte. Rather than using conventional activated carbon fibres, structural carbon fibres were treated to produce a mechanically robust, high surface area material, using a variety of methods, including direct etching, carbon nanotube sizing, and carbon nanotube in situ growth. One of the most promising approaches is to integrate a porous bicontinuous monolithic carbon aerogel (CAG) throughout the matrix. This nanostructured matrix both provides a dramatic increase in active surface area of the electrodes, and has the potential to address mechanical issues associated with matrix-dominated failures. The effect of the initial reaction mixture composition is assessed for both the CAG modified carbon fibre electrodes and resulting devices. A low temperature CAG modification of carbon fibres was evaluated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to enhance the electrochemical performance. For the multifunctional structural electrolyte, simple crosslinked gels have been replaced with bicontinuous structural epoxy-ionic liquid hybrids that offer a much better balance between the conflicting demands of rigidity and molecular motion. The formation of both aerogel precursors and the multifunctional electrolyte are described, including the influence of key components, and the defining characteristics of the products. Working structural supercapacitor composite prototypes have been produced and characterised electrochemically. The effect of introducing the necessary multifunctional resin on the mechanical properties has

  8. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  9. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  10. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  11. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  12. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  13. Energy storage crystalline gel materials for 3D printing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuchen; Miyazaki, Takuya; Gong, Jin; Zhu, Meifang

    2017-04-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are considered one of the most reliable latent heat storage and thermoregulation materials. In this paper, a vinyl monomer is used to provide energy storage capacity and synthesize gel with phase change property. The side chain of copolymer form crystal microcell to storage/release energy through phase change. The crosslinking structure of the copolymer can protect the crystalline micro-area maintaining the phase change stable in service and improving the mechanical strength. By selecting different monomers and adjusting their ratios, we design the chemical structure and the crystallinity of gels, which in further affect their properties, such as strength, flexibility, thermal absorb/release transition temperature, transparency and the water content. Using the light-induced polymerization 3D printing techniques, we synthesize the energy storage gel and shape it on a 3D printer at the same time. By optimizing the 3D printing conditions, including layer thickness, curing time and light source, etc., the 3D printing objects are obtained.

  14. Capacitive energy storage and recovery for synchrotron magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, K.

    2014-06-01

    Feasibility studies on capacitive energy storage and recovery in the main-ring synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex were conducted by circuit simulation. The estimated load fluctuation was 96 MVA in total for dipole magnets, which is likely to induce a serious disturbance in the main grid. It was found that the energy stored in the magnets after the excitation period can be recovered to the storage capacitor by controlling the voltage across the energy-storage capacitor using a pulse-width-modulation converter and reused in the next operational cycle. It was also found that the power fluctuation in the main grid can be reduced to 12 MVA. An experimental evaluation of an aluminum metalized film capacitor revealed that capacitance loss was induced by a fluctuating voltage applied to the storage capacitor when applying the proposed method. The capacitance loss was induced by corona discharge around the edges of segmented electrodes of a self-healing capacitor. The use of aluminum-zinc alloy was evaluated as a countermeasure to mitigate the effect induced by the corona discharge. For a zinc content of 8%, which was optimized experimentally, a capacitor with a sufficient life time expectancy of 20 years and a working potential gradient of 250 V/μm was developed.

  15. Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

  16. Carbon dioxide: A new material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Amouroux

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Though carbon dioxide is the main green house gas due to burning of fossil resource or miscellaneous chemical processes, we propose here that carbon dioxide be a new material for energy storage. Since it can be the key to find the solution for three critical issues facing the world: food ecosystems, the greenhouse issue and energy storage. We propose to identify the carbon recovery through a circular industrial revolution in the first part, and in the second part we present the starting way of three business plants to do that from industrial examples. By pointing out all the economic constraints and the hidden competitions between energy, water and food, we try to qualify the phrase “sustainable development” and open the way of a huge circular economy.

  17. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  18. Engineering radical polymer electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Douglas R.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Wheeler, Dean R.

    2017-06-01

    In principle a wide range of organic materials can store energy in the form of reversible redox conversions of stable radicals. Such chemistry holds great promise for energy storage applications due to high theoretical capacities, high rate capabilities, intrinsic structural tunability, and the possibility of low-cost "green" syntheses from renewable sources. There have been steady improvements in the design of organic radical polymers, in which radicals are incorporated into the backbone and/or as pendant groups. This review highlights opportunities for improved redox molecule and polymer design along with the key challenges (e.g., transport phenomena, solubility, and reaction mechanisms) to transitioning known organic radicals into high-performance electrodes. Ultimately, organic-based batteries are still a nascent field with many open questions. Further advances in molecular design, electrode engineering, and device architecture will be required for these systems to reach their full potential and meet the diverse and increasing demands for energy storage.

  19. NREL Energy Storage Projects. FY2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grad, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jun, Myungsoo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matt [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Gi-Heon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shi, Ying [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tenent, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors, Detroit, MI (United States); Hartridge, Steve [CD-adapco, Detroit, MI (United States); Shaffer, Christian E. [EC Power, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports energy storage R&D under the Office of Vehicle Technologies at the U.S. Department of Energy. The DOE Energy Storage Program’s charter is to develop battery technologies that will enable large market penetration of electric drive vehicles. These vehicles could have a significant impact on the nation’s goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. DOE has established several program activities to address and overcome the barriers limiting the penetration of electric drive battery technologies: cost, performance, safety, and life. These programs are; Advanced Battery Development through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC); Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; Applied Battery Research (ABR); and Focused Fundamental Research, or Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) In FY14, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to all of these R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL’s R&D projects in FY14 in support of the USABC; Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; ABR; and BATT program elements. The FY14 projects under NREL’s Energy Storage R&D program are briefly described below. Each of these is discussed in depth in this report.

  20. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  1. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  2. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  3. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  4. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  5. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  6. Molecular basis for elastic energy storage in mineralized tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, F H; Freeman, J W; Horvath, I; Landis, W J

    2001-01-01

    Animals store elastic energy in leg and foot tendons during locomotion. In the turkey, much of the locomotive force generated by the gastrocnemius muscle is stored as elastic energy during tendon deformation. Little energy storage occurs within the muscle. During growth of some avians, including the turkey, leg tendons mineralize in the portions distal to the attached muscle and show increased tensile strength and modulus as a result. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the degree of elastic energy storage in mineralizing turkey tendon is directly related to the tendon mineral content. To test this hypothesis, the stress-strain behavior of tendons was separated into elastic and viscous components. Both the elastic spring constant and the elastic energy stored, calculated up to a strain of 20%, were found to be proportional to tendon mineral content. It is concluded that mineralization is an efficient means for increasing the amount of elastic energy storage that is required for increased load-bearing ability needed for locomotion of adult birds. Examination of molecular models of the hole region, where mineralization is initiated within the collagen fibril, leads to the hypothesis that elastic energy is stored in the tendon by direct stretching of the flexible regions. Flexible regions within the collagen molecule fall within the positively stained bands of the collagen D period. It is proposed that mineralization increases the stored elastic energy by preventing flexible regions within the positively stained bands from stretching. These observations suggest that mineralization begins in the hole region due to the large number of charged amino acid residues found in the d and e bands.

  7. Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Morello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storage systems into the smart grids, their accurate modeling becomes a necessity, in order to gain robust real-time control on the network, in terms of stability and energy supply forecasting. In this framework, this paper proposes a procedure to identify the values of the battery model parameters in order to best fit experimental data and integrate it, along with models of energy sources and electrical loads, in a complete framework which represents a real time smart grid management system. The proposed method is based on a hybrid optimisation technique, which makes combined use of a stochastic and a deterministic algorithm, with low computational burden and can therefore be repeated over time in order to account for parameter variations due to the battery’s age and usage.

  8. Thermal reservoir sizing for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kere, Amelie; Goetz, Vincent; Py, Xavier; Olives, Regis; Sadiki, Najim [Perpignan Univ. (France). PROMES CNRS UPR 8521; Mercier-Allart, Eric [EDF R et D, Chatou (France)

    2012-07-01

    Despite the operation of the two existing industrial facilities to McIntosh (Alabama), and for more than thirty years, Huntorf (Germany), electricity storage in the form of compressed air in underground cavern (CAES) has not seen the development that was expected in the 80s. The efficiency of this form of storage was with the first generation CAES, less than 50%. The evolving context technique can significantly alter this situation. The new generation so-called Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) is to retrieve the heat produced by the compression via thermal storage, thus eliminating the necessity of gas to burn and would allow consideration efficiency overall energy of the order of 70%. To date, there is no existing installation of A-CAES. Many studies describe the principal and the general working mode of storage systems by adiabatic compression of air. So, efficiencies of different configurations of adiabatic compression process were analyzed. The aim of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performances of a thermal storage reservoir integrated in the system and adapted to the working conditions of a CAES.

  9. Energy storage inherent in large tidal turbine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennell, Ross; Adcock, Thomas A A

    2014-06-08

    While wind farms have no inherent storage to supply power in calm conditions, this paper demonstrates that large tidal turbine farms in channels have short-term energy storage. This storage lies in the inertia of the oscillating flow and can be used to exceed the previously published upper limit for power production by currents in a tidal channel, while simultaneously maintaining stronger currents. Inertial storage exploits the ability of large farms to manipulate the phase of the oscillating currents by varying the farm's drag coefficient. This work shows that by optimizing how a large farm's drag coefficient varies during the tidal cycle it is possible to have some flexibility about when power is produced. This flexibility can be used in many ways, e.g. producing more power, or to better meet short predictable peaks in demand. This flexibility also allows trading total power production off against meeting peak demand, or mitigating the flow speed reduction owing to power extraction. The effectiveness of inertial storage is governed by the frictional time scale relative to either the duration of a half tidal cycle or the duration of a peak in power demand, thus has greater benefits in larger channels.

  10. Feasible utility scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, R. J.; Schoenung, S. M.; Nakamura, T.; Lieurance, D. W.; Hilal, M. A.; Rogers, J. D.; Purcell, J. R.; Hassenzahl, W. V.

    This paper presents the latest design features and estimated costs of a 5000 MWh/1000 MW Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) plant. SMES is proposed as a commercially viable technology for electric utility load leveling. The primary advantage of SMES over other electrical energy storage technologies is its high net roundtrip efficiency. Other features include rapid availability and low maintenance and operating costs. Economic comparisons are made with other energy storage options and with gas turbines. In a diurnal load leveling application, a superconducting coil can be charged from the utility grid during off-peak hours. The ac grid is connected to the dc magnetic coil through a power conversion system that includes an inverter/rectifier. Once charged, the superconducting coil conducts current, which supports an electromagnetic field, with virtually no losses. During hours of peak load, the stored energy is discharged to the grid by reversing the charging process. The principle of operation of a SMES unit is shown. For operation in the superconducting mode, the coil is maintained at extremely low temperature by immersion in a bath of liquid helium.

  11. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  12. Synthesis and Thermodynamic Studies of Physisorptive Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadie, Nicholas

    Physical adsorption of hydrogen or other chemical fuels on the surface of carbonaceous materials offers a promising avenue for energy storage applications. The addition of a well-chosen sorbent material to a compressed gas tank increases the volumetric energy density of the system while still permitting fast refueling, simplicity of design, complete reversibility, high cyclability, and low overall cost of materials. While physical adsorption is most effective at temperatures below ambient, effective storage technologies are possible at room temperature and modestly high pressure. A volumetric Sieverts apparatus was designed, constructed, and commissioned to accurately measure adsorption uptake at high pressures and an appropriate thermodynamic treatment of the experimental data is presented. In Chapter 1, the problem of energy storage is introduced in the context of hydrogen as an ideal alternative fuel for future mobile vehicle applications, and with methane in mind as a near-term solution. The theory of physical adsorption that is relevant to this work is covered in Chapter 2. In-depth studies of two classes of materials are presented in the final chapters. Chapter 3 presents a study of the dissociative "hydrogen spillover" effect in the context of its viability as a practical hydrogen storage solution at room temperature. Chapters 4-5 deal with zeolite-templated carbon, an extremely high surface-area material which shows promise for hydrogen and methane storage applications. Studies of hydrogen adsorption at high pressure (Chapter 4) and anomalous thermodynamic properties of methane adsorption (Chapter 5) on ZTCs are presented. The concluding chapter discusses the impact of and possible future directions for this work.

  13. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M [eds.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating system, and stand-alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  14. Study on Tetradecane Nanoemulsion for Thermal Energy Transportation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a novel fluid used for heat storage and transfer. It has the following characteristics: higher apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer ability in the phase-change temperature range as compared to the conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids. In particular, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are latent heat storage materials that have low melting points, thus offering attractive opportunities for heat transfer enhancement and thermal energy transportation and storage. In this paper, milky white oil-in-water emulsions have been formed using water, Tween 80, Span 80, and tetradecane by low-energy emulsification methods (e.g., the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method). The relations between the component ratios of the emulsions and both the particle diameters and the stability of the resulting emulsions have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibration viscometry. The results show that the apparent viscosity of the nanoemulsion is lower than that of an emulsion, which was prepared with the same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. Moreover, the surfactant concentration is found to contribute to the stability of the phase change nanoemulsion. Results indicate that the phase change nanoemulsion is a promising material for thermal storage applications.

  15. Economics of internal and external energy storage in solar power plant operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1977-01-01

    A simple approach is formulated to investigate the effect of energy storage on the bus-bar electrical energy cost of solar thermal power plants. Economic analysis based on this approach does not require detailed definition of a specific storage system. A wide spectrum of storage system candidates ranging from hot water to superconducting magnets can be studied based on total investment and a rough knowledge of energy in and out efficiencies. Preliminary analysis indicates that internal energy storage (thermal) schemes offer better opportunities for energy cost reduction than external energy storage (nonthermal) schemes for solar applications. Based on data and assumptions used in JPL evaluation studies, differential energy costs due to storage are presented for a 100 MWe solar power plant by varying the energy capacity. The simple approach presented in this paper provides useful insight regarding the operation of energy storage in solar power plant applications, while also indicating a range of design parameters where storage can be cost effective.

  16. Ring wall storages. An essential contribution of the geotechnics to te energy storage; Ringwallspeicher. Ein essentieller Beitrag der Geotechnik zur Energiespeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Matthias [Matthias Popp Ingenieurbuero Erneuerbare Energien, Energiespeicherung, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on ring wall storages as an essential contribution to the geotechnical engineering for energy storage. At first, renewable energies as well as the storage requirements for the compensation of the volatility of electricity from wind power and solar energy are described. Subsequently, the storage technologies for energy management requirements as well as the need for water and land area of pumped storage systems are presented with special emphasis of ring wall storages.

  17. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Fioravanti, Richard (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Gordon, Paul (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Markel, Larry (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Agrawal, Poonum (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Nourai, Ali (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  18. Materials Challenges and Opportunities of Lithium-ion Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-03-01

    Electrical energy storage has emerged as a topic of national and global importance with respect to establishing a cleaner environment and reducing the dependence on foreign oil. Batteries are the prime candidates for electrical energy storage. They are the most viable near-term option for vehicle applications and the efficient utilization of intermittent energy sources like solar and wind. Lithium-ion batteries are attractive for these applications as they offer much higher energy density than other rechargeable battery systems. However, the adoption of lithium-ion battery technology for vehicle and stationary storage applications is hampered by high cost, safety concerns, and limitations in energy, power, and cycle life, which are in turn linked to severe materials challenges. This presentation, after providing an overview of the current status, will focus on the physics and chemistry of new materials that can address these challenges. Specifically, it will focus on the design and development of (i) high-capacity, high-voltage layered oxide cathodes, (ii) high-voltage, high-power spinel oxide cathodes, (iii) high-capacity silicate cathodes, and (iv) nano-engineered, high-capacity alloy anodes. With high-voltage cathodes, a critical issue is the instability of the electrolyte in contact with the highly oxidized cathode surface and the formation of solid-electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layers that degrade the performance. Accordingly, surface modification of cathodes with nanostructured materials and self-surface segregation during the synthesis process to suppress SEI layer formation and enhance the energy, power, and cycle life will be emphasized. With the high-capacity alloy anodes, a critical issue is the huge volume change occurring during the charge-discharge process and the consequent poor cycle life. Dispersion of the active alloy nanoparticles in an inactive metal oxide-carbon matrix to mitigate this problem and realize long cycle life will be presented.

  19. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform "smart" charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR.

  20. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Erik [Center For Transportation And The Environment, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries

  1. Wing/kite-based wind energy generation: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, M.

    2013-06-01

    Several technologies, aimed at converting high-altitude wind into electricity, are actually being investigated by companies, research centers and universities worldwide, and the community of people working in this field has coined the term airborne wind energy (AWE) as a common umbrella for these concepts. Indeed, many basic ideas that are now being developed in the context of AWE were already present in patents and publications since the '70s. Then, these ideas remained somehow silent, until more recent years, when several research groups and companies started to carry out theoretical, numerical and experimental analyses, made possible by important advances in diverse fields like materials, aerodynamics, sensors, computation and control. In this lecture, the basic AWE concepts and results that have been up to date accomplished are overviewed, with a focus on a particular class of AWE generators, namely with flexible wings and ground level generators, and emphasis on optimization and control aspects. Finally, we delineate what challenges are still to be faced, in order to fully demonstrate the viability of airborne wind energy.

  2. Wing/kite-based wind energy generation: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanese M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies, aimed at converting high-altitude wind into electricity, are actually being investigated by companies, research centers and universities worldwide, and the community of people working in this field has coined the term airborne wind energy (AWE as a common umbrella for these concepts. Indeed, many basic ideas that are now being developed in the context of AWE were already present in patents and publications since the ’70s. Then, these ideas remained somehow silent, until more recent years, when several research groups and companies started to carry out theoretical, numerical and experimental analyses, made possible by important advances in diverse fields like materials, aerodynamics, sensors, computation and control. In this lecture, the basic AWE concepts and results that have been up to date accomplished are overviewed, with a focus on a particular class of AWE generators, namely with flexible wings and ground level generators, and emphasis on optimization and control aspects. Finally, we delineate what challenges are still to be faced, in order to fully demonstrate the viability of airborne wind energy.

  3. Performance Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghedamsi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs are suitable for improving the quality of the electric power delivered by the wind generators and to help these generators to contribute to the ancillary services. In this paper, a flywheel energy storage system associated to a grid connected variable speed wind generation (VSWG scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is investigated. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of a wind generator, including models of the wind turbine (aerodynamic, DFIG, matrix converter, converter control (algorithm of VENTURINI and power control is studied. This paper investigates also, the control method of the FESS with a classical squirrel-cage induction machine associated to a VSWG using back-to-back AC/AC converter. Simulation results of the dynamic models of the wind generator are presented, for different operating points, to show the good performance of the proposed system.

  4. Status of the Frankfurt low energy electrostatic storage ring (FLSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, F.; Kruppi, T.; Müller, J.; Dörner, R.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    Frankfurt low-energy storage ring (FLSR) is an electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions up to q · 80 keV (q being the ion charge state) at Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has especially been designed to provide a basis for experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions in complete kinematics, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. The ring has ‘racetrack’ geometry with a circumference of 14.23 m. It comprises four experimental/diagnostic sections with regions of enhanced ion density (interaction regions). First beam has successfully been stored in FLSR in summer 2013. Since then the performance of the ring has continuously been improved and an electron target for experiments on dissociative recombination has been installed in one of the experimental sections.

  5. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  6. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2016-07-02

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  8. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  9. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  10. Nanostructured porous graphene and its composites for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ferrer, Pablo; Mace, Annsley; Thomas, Samantha N.; Jeon, Ju-Won

    2017-10-01

    Graphene, 2D atomic-layer of sp2 carbon, has attracted a great deal of interest for use in solar cells, LEDs, electronic skin, touchscreens, energy storage devices, and microelectronics. This is due to excellent properties of graphene, such as a high theoretical surface area, electrical conductivity, and mechanical strength. The fundamental structure of graphene is also manipulatable, allowing for the formation of an even more extraordinary material, porous graphene. Porous graphene structures can be categorized as microporous, mesoporous, or macroporous depending on the pore size, all with their own unique advantages. These characteristics of graphene, which are further explained in this paper, may be the key to greatly improving a wide range of applications in energy storage systems.

  11. Ionization cooling in a low-energy proton storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David V.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    At the FFAG05 meeting, Mori and Okabe presented a scenario in which the lifetime of protons in a low-energy storage ring ({approx}10 MeV) is extended by energy-loss in a wedge foil, and this enables greater neutron production from the foil. The lifetime extension is due to the cooling effect of this energy loss. We have previously analyzed ionization cooling for muons at optimal cooling energies. The same equations, with appropriate adaptations, can be used to analyze the dynamic situation for proton-material interactions at low energies. In this note we discuss this extension and calculate cooling and heating effects at these very different parameters. The ring could provide a practical application of ionization cooling methods.

  12. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-05

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints.

  13. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  15. NREL Energy Storage Projects: FY2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Ban, C.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Ireland, J.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Long, D.; Neubauer, J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Tenent, R.; Wood, E.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C. E.

    2014-07-01

    In FY13, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to various R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL's R&D projects in FY13 in support of the USABC; Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; ABR; and BATT program elements. The FY13 projects under NREL's Energy Storage R&D program are discussed in depth in this report.

  16. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    United States (US). It also created the US’s only known active “full” ( warm and cold) Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system. This...systems in the U.S. are not designed to achieve. Deliberately engineered UTES systems not only allow for the waste heat of cooling systems and the...Ingenieure (Largest Engineering Association in Western Europe) VAV Variable Air Volume vii Page Intentionally Left

  17. Technology Performance Report: Duke Energy Notrees Wind Storage Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, Jeff [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Mohler, David [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Gibson, Stuart [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Clanin, Jason [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Faris, Don [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hooker, Kevin [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Rowand, Michael [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Duke Energy Renewables owns and operates the Notrees Wind Farm in west Texas’s Ector and Winkler counties. The wind farm, which was commissioned in April 2009, has a total capacity of 152.6 MW generated by 55 Vestas V82 turbines, one Vestas 1-V90 experimental turbine, and 40 GE 1.5-MW turbines. The Vestas V82 turbines have a generating capacity of 1.65 MW each, the Vestas V90 turbine has a generating capacity of 1.86 MW, and the GE turbines have a generating capacity of 1.5 MW each. The objective of the Notrees Wind Storage Demonstration Project is to validate that energy storage increases the value and practical application of intermittent wind generation and is commercially viable at utility scale. The project incorporates both new and existing technologies and techniques to evaluate the performance and potential of wind energy storage. In addition, it could serve as a model for others to adopt and replicate. Wind power resources are expected to play a significant part in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electric power generation by 2030. However, the large variability and intermittent nature of wind presents a barrier to integrating it within electric markets, particularly when competing against conventional generation that is more reliable. In addition, wind power production often peaks at night or other times when demand and electricity prices are lowest. Energy storage systems can overcome those barriers and enable wind to become a valuable asset and equal competitor to conventional fossil fuel generation.

  18. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  19. Optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1979-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) power systems are currently being considered by various electric utilities for load-leveling applications. Models of CAES systems which employ natural underground aquifer formations, and present an optimal design methodology which demonstrates their economic viability are developed. This approach is based upon a decomposition of the CAES plant and utility grid system into three partially-decoupled subsystems. Numerical results are given for a plant employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer formation.

  20. Towards textile energy storage from cotton T-shirts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lihong; Li, Xiaodong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-06-26

    A simple chemical activation route is developed to convert insulating cotton T-shirt textiles into highly conductive and flexible activated carbon textiles (ACTs) for energy-storage applications. Such conversion gives these ACTs an ideal electrical double-layer capacitive behavior. The constructed asymmetric supercapacitors based on the ACTs and MnO{sub 2}/ACT composite show superior electrochemical performances. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)